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2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(5): e13834, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771175

RESUMO

Pioglitazone is class of thiazolidinediones that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in adipocytes to improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and has been used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms of associated pioglitazone-induced effects remain unclear. Our study aimed to investigate endogenous metabolite alterations associated with pioglitazone administration in healthy male subjects using an untargeted metabolomics approach. All subjects received 30 mg of pioglitazone once daily in the assigned sequence and period. Urine samples were collected before pioglitazone administration and for 24 h after 7 days of administration. A total of 1465 compounds were detected and filtered using a coefficient of variance below 30% and 108 metabolites were significantly altered upon pioglitazone administration via multivariate statistical analysis. Fourteen significant metabolites were identified using authentic standards and public libraries. Additionally, pathway analysis revealed that metabolites from purine and beta-alanine metabolisms were significantly altered after pioglitazone administration. Further analysis of quantification of metabolites from purine metabolism, revealed that the xanthine/hypoxanthine and uric acid/xanthine ratios were significantly decreased at post-dose. Pioglitazone-dependent endogenous metabolites and metabolic ratio indicated the potential effect of pioglitazone on the activation of PPAR and fatty acid synthesis. Additional studies involving patients are required to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Voluntários Saudáveis , Pioglitazona , Purinas , Tiazolidinedionas , Humanos , Masculino , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Purinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/efeitos adversos , Metabolômica/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem
3.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 26(1): 98, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted small-molecule drugs in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have attracted increasing attention from clinical investigators. However, there is still a lack of evidence on the difference in the efficacy and safety of different targeted small-molecule drugs. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of different targeted small-molecule drugs for SLE. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on targeted small-molecule drugs in the treatment of SLE in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched as of April 25, 2023. Risk of bias assessment was performed for included studies using the Cochrane's tool for evaluating the risk of bias. The primary outcome indicators were SRI-4 response, BICLA response, and adverse reaction. Because different doses and courses of treatment were used in the included studies, Bayesian network meta-regression was used to investigate the effect of different doses and courses of treatment on efficacy and safety. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies were included, involving 3,622 patients and 9 targeted small-molecule drugs. The results of network meta-analysis showed that, in terms of improving SRI-4, Deucravacitinib was significantly superior to that of Baricitinib (RR = 1.32, 95% CI (1.04, 1.68), P < 0.05). Deucravacitinib significantly outperformed the placebo in improving BICLA response (RR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.20, 2.02), P < 0.05). In terms of adverse reactions, targeted small-molecule drugs did not significantly increase the risk of adverse events as compared to placebo (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the evidence obtained in this study, the differences in the efficacy of targeted small-molecule drugs were statistically significant as compared to placebo, but the difference in the safety was not statistically significant. The dose and the course of treatment had little impact on the effect of targeted small-molecule drugs. Deucravacitinib could significantly improve BICLA response and SRI-4 response without significantly increasing the risk of AEs. Therefore, Deucravacitinib is very likely to be the best intervention measure. Due to the small number of included studies, more high-quality clinical evidence is needed to further verify the efficacy and safety of targeted small-molecule drugs for SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis
4.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 27(5): e15165, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of febuxostat combined with a low-purine diet versus allopurinol combined with a low-purine diet in the treatment of gout. METHODS: In this prospective controlled trial, 98 gout patients admitted to our hospital from February 2021 to December 2022 were enrolled as study subjects. Patients were randomly assigned to the study group (febuxostat combined with a low-purine diet) and the control group (allopurinol combined with a low-purine diet), with 49 patients in each group. The therapeutic effect was evaluated based on joint function and serum uric acid levels after treatment, and classified into three levels: markedly effective, effective, and ineffective. The levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), and interleukin (IL)-18 (IL-18), were collected. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to assess the degree of pain in patients. Clinical indicators before and 6 months after treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in age and gender between the two groups. After 6 months of treatment, the effective rate in the study group (48 cases, 97.96%) was higher than that in the control group (42 cases, 85.71%), with a statistically significant difference (p = .027). At the same time, the study group had significantly lower levels of serum uric acid (162.39 µmol/L ± 17.23 µmol/L vs. S198.32 µmol/L ± 18.34 µmol/L, p < .001), creatinine (87.39 mmol/L ± 9.76 mmol/L vs. 92.18 mmol/L ± 9.27 mmol/L, p = .014), total cholesterol (3.65 mmol/L ± 0.65 mmol/L vs. 4.76 mmol/L ± 0.73 mmol/L, p < .001), and triglycerides (1.76 mmol/L ± 0.32 mmol/L vs. 2.28 mmol/L ± 0.41 mmol/L, p < .001) compared to the control group, with statistically significant differences (p < .05). After treatment, the levels of inflammatory factors and degree of pain in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group (all p < .05). During the treatment process, the incidence of adverse reactions in the study group (2 cases, 4.08%) was lower than that in the control group (9 cases, 18.37%), with a statistically significant difference (p = .025). CONCLUSION: Febuxostat combined with a low-purine diet can reduce inflammatory factors and alleviate the degree of pain in gout patients, significantly improving their clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Alopurinol , Febuxostat , Supressores da Gota , Gota , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Febuxostat/uso terapêutico , Febuxostat/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/sangue , Gota/diagnóstico , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Supressores da Gota/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Idoso , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Terapia Combinada , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11167, 2024 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750091

RESUMO

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) contributes to reactive oxygen species production. We investigated the cytoprotective mechanisms of XOR inhibition against high glucose (HG)-induced glomerular endothelial injury, which involves activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Human glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) exposed to HG were subjected to febuxostat treatment for 48 h and the expressions of AMPK and its associated signaling pathways were evaluated. HG-treated GECs were increased xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase levels and decreased intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, and these effects were reversed by febuxostat treatment. Febuxostat enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α and PPAR-α and suppressed the phosphorylation of forkhead box O (FoxO)3a in HG-treated GECs. Febuxostat also decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)1, Nox2, and Nox4 expressions; enhanced superoxide dismutase activity; and decreased malondialdehyde levels in HG-treated GECs. The knockdown of AMPK inhibited PGC-1α-FoxO3a signaling and negated the antioxidant effects of febuxostat in HG-treated GECs. Despite febuxostat administration, the knockdown of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1) also inhibited AMPK-PGC-1α-FoxO3a in HG-treated GECs. XOR inhibition alleviates oxidative stress by activating AMPK-PGC-1α-FoxO3a signaling through the HPRT1-dependent purine salvage pathway in GECs exposed to HG conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Células Endoteliais , Glucose , Xantina Desidrogenase , Humanos , Glucose/metabolismo , Xantina Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Purinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Febuxostat/farmacologia , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Cytokine ; 179: 156620, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701735

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized cancer treatment, but these drugs can also cause severe immune-related adverse effects (irAEs), including myocarditis. Researchers have become interested in exploring ways to mitigate this side effect, and one promising avenue is the use of baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor known to have anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to examine the potential mechanism by which baricitinib in ICIs-related myocarditis. METHODS: To establish an ICIs-related myocarditis model, BALB/c mice were administered murine cardiac troponin I (cTnI) peptide and anti-mouse programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibodies. Subsequently, baricitinib was administered to the mice via intragastric administration. Echocardiography, HE staining, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate myocardial functions, inflammation, and fibrosis. Immunofluorescence was used to detect macrophages in the cardiac tissue of the mice.In vitro experiments utilized raw264.7 cells to induce macrophage polarization using anti-PD-1 antibodies. Different concentrations of baricitinib were applied to assess cell viability, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured. The activation of the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway was evaluated through western blot analysis. RESULTS: Baricitinib demonstrated its ability to improve cardiac function and reduce cardiac inflammation, as well as fibrosis induced by ICIs. Mechanistically, baricitinib treatment promoted the polarization of macrophages towards the M2 phenotype. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that anti-PD-1 promoted the release of inflammatory factors. However, treatment with baricitinib significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT3. Additionally, the use of RO8191 reversed the effects of baricitinib, further confirming our findings. CONCLUSION: Baricitinib demonstrated its potential as a protective agent against ICIs-related myocarditis by modulating macrophage polarization. These findings provide a solid theoretical foundation for the development of future treatments for ICIs-related myocarditis.


Assuntos
Azetidinas , Janus Quinase 1 , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miocardite , Purinas , Pirazóis , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Sulfonamidas , Animais , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Miocardite/patologia , Miocardite/metabolismo , Camundongos , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Troponina I/metabolismo
7.
Plant Sci ; 344: 112108, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705480

RESUMO

Ureides, the degraded products of purine catabolism in Arabidopsis, have been shown to act as antioxidant and nitrogen sources. Herein we elucidate purine degraded metabolites as a carbon source using the Arabidopsis Atxdh1, Ataln, and Ataah knockout (KO) mutants vis-à-vis wild-type (WT) plants. Plants were grown under short-day conditions on agar plates containing half-strength MS medium with or without 1% sucrose. Notably, the absence of sucrose led to diminished biomass accumulation in both shoot and root tissues of the Atxdh1, Ataln, and Ataah mutants, while no such effect was observed in WT plants. Moreover, the application of sucrose resulted in a reduction of purine degradation metabolite levels, specifically xanthine and allantoin, predominantly within the roots of WT plants. Remarkably, an increase in proteins associated with the purine degradation pathway was observed in WT plants in the presence of sucrose. Lower glyoxylate levels in the roots but not in the shoot of the Atxdh1 mutant in comparison to WT, were observed under sucrose limitation, and improved by sucrose application in root, indicating that purine degradation provided glyoxylate in the root. Furthermore, the deficit of purine-degraded metabolites in the roots of mutants subjected to carbon starvation was partially mitigated through allantoin application. Collectively, these findings signify that under conditions of sucrose limitation and short-day growth, purines are primarily remobilized within the root system to augment the availability of ureides, serving as an additional carbon (as well as nitrogen) source to support plant growth.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Carbono , Raízes de Plantas , Sacarose , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alantoína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Purinas/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glioxilatos/metabolismo
8.
Elife ; 122024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700995

RESUMO

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) are two structurally related enzymes involved in purine recycling in humans. Inherited mutations that suppress HGPRT activity are associated with Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), a rare X-linked metabolic and neurological disorder in children, characterized by hyperuricemia, dystonia, and compulsive self-injury. To date, no treatment is available for these neurological defects and no animal model recapitulates all symptoms of LND patients. Here, we studied LND-related mechanisms in the fruit fly. By combining enzymatic assays and phylogenetic analysis, we confirm that no HGPRT activity is expressed in Drosophila melanogaster, making the APRT homolog (Aprt) the only purine-recycling enzyme in this organism. Whereas APRT deficiency does not trigger neurological defects in humans, we observed that Drosophila Aprt mutants show both metabolic and neurobehavioral disturbances, including increased uric acid levels, locomotor impairments, sleep alterations, seizure-like behavior, reduced lifespan, and reduction of adenosine signaling and content. Locomotor defects could be rescued by Aprt re-expression in neurons and reproduced by knocking down Aprt selectively in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) dopaminergic neurons, the mushroom bodies, or glia subsets. Ingestion of allopurinol rescued uric acid levels in Aprt-deficient mutants but not neurological defects, as is the case in LND patients, while feeding adenosine or N6-methyladenosine (m6A) during development fully rescued the epileptic behavior. Intriguingly, pan-neuronal expression of an LND-associated mutant form of human HGPRT (I42T), but not the wild-type enzyme, resulted in early locomotor defects and seizure in flies, similar to Aprt deficiency. Overall, our results suggest that Drosophila could be used in different ways to better understand LND and seek a cure for this dramatic disease.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/genética , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/metabolismo , Purinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Animal , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Locomoção
9.
Cell Chem Biol ; 31(5): 932-943.e8, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759619

RESUMO

Nucleotides perform important metabolic functions, carrying energy and feeding nucleic acid synthesis. Here, we use isotope tracing-mass spectrometry to quantitate contributions to purine nucleotides from salvage versus de novo synthesis. We further explore the impact of augmenting a key precursor for purine synthesis, one-carbon (1C) units. We show that tumors and tumor-infiltrating T cells (relative to splenic or lymph node T cells) synthesize purines de novo. Shortage of 1C units for T cell purine synthesis is accordingly a potential bottleneck for anti-tumor immunity. Supplementing 1C units by infusing formate drives formate assimilation into purines in tumor-infiltrating T cells. Orally administered methanol functions as a formate pro-drug, with deuteration enabling kinetic control of formate production. Safe doses of methanol raise formate levels and augment anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade in MC38 tumors, tripling durable regressions. Thus, 1C deficiency can gate antitumor immunity and this metabolic checkpoint can be overcome with pharmacological 1C supplementation.


Assuntos
Carbono , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Purinas , Animais , Camundongos , Purinas/química , Purinas/farmacologia , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Formiatos/química , Formiatos/metabolismo , Formiatos/farmacologia , Metanol/química , Metanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 147: 107413, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696844

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a vital protein for controlling cell cycle progression that is critically associated with various malignancies and its inhibition could offer a convenient therapeutic approach in designing anticancer remedies. Consequently, this study aimed to design and synthesize new CDK2 inhibitors featuring roscovitine as a template model. The purine ring of roscovitine was bioisosterically replaced with the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine scaffold, in addition to some modifications in the side chains. A preliminary molecular docking study for the target chemotypes in the CDK2 binding domain revealed their ability to accomplish similar binding patterns and interactions to that of the lead compound roscovitine. Afterwards, synthesis of the new derivatives was accomplished. Then, the initial anticancer screening at a single dose by the NCI revealed that compounds 7a, 9c, 11c, 17a and 17b achieved the highest GI% values reaching up to 150 % indicating their remarkable activity. These derivatives were subsequently selected to undertake five-dose testing, where compounds 7a, 9c, 11c and 17a unveiled the most pronounced activity against almost the full panel with GI50 ranges; 1.41-28.2, 0.116-2.39, 0.578-60.6 and 1.75-42.4 µM, respectively and full panel GI50 (MG-MID); 8.24, 0.6, 2.46 and 6.84 µM, respectively. CDK2 inhibition assay presented compounds 7a and 9c as the most potent inhibitors with IC50 values of 0.262 and 0.281 µM, respectively which are nearly 2.4 folds higher than the reference ligand roscovitine (IC50 = 0.641 µM). Besides, flow cytometric analysis on the most susceptible and safe cell lines depicted that 7a caused cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase in renal cancer cell line (RXF393) while 9c led to cell growth arrest at S phase in breast cancer cell line (T-47D) along with pronounced apoptotic induction in the mentioned cell lines. These findings afforded new anticancer pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, roscovitine analogs, acting via CDK2 inhibition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Proliferação de Células , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Pirazóis , Pirimidinas , Roscovitina , Humanos , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Roscovitina/farmacologia , Roscovitina/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/síntese química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Estrutura Molecular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/química , Purinas/síntese química
12.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 104: adv39950, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751178

RESUMO

Pruritus in the elderly, particularly those cases without skin dryness or other identifiable causes, makes treatment challenging due to the lack of evidence regarding the therapeutic effects of antipruritics. This study proposes an age-related alloknesis mouse model for an evaluation system for such cases, and aimed to investigate the effectiveness and mechanisms of action of several drugs commonly used as antipruritics in Japan, utilizing this model. Mice 69-80 weeks old were used as aged mice, and the level of mechanical alloknesis was counted as the number of scratching behaviours in response to innocuous stimuli. Bepotastine, neurotropin, pregabalin, baricitinib, and abrocitinib were used as antipruritics, and yohimbine and methysergide as inhibitors of the descending inhibitory pathway. The findings suggest that mechanical alloknesis in aged mice is a suitable animal model for assessing pruritus in the elderly without xerosis, and pregabalin, neurotropin, baricitinib, and abrocitinib may be effective antipruritics in the elderly through activating both the noradrenergic and serotonergic descending inhibitory pathways. These findings may be useful for the selection of antipruritics for pruritus in the elderly without skin lesions or dryness.


Assuntos
Antipruriginosos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Prurido , Animais , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fatores Etários , Masculino , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Pregabalina/farmacologia , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7659, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561511

RESUMO

Analyze the adverse event (AE) signals of istradefylline based on the FAERS database. By extracting large-scale data from the FAERS database, this study used various signal quantification techniques such as ROR, PRR, BCPNN, and MGPS to calculate and evaluate the ratio and association between istradefylline and specific AEs. In the FAERS database, this study extracted data from the third quarter of 2019 to the first quarter of 2023, totaling 6,749,750 AE reports. After data cleansing and drug screening, a total of 3633 AE reports related to istradefylline were included for analysis. Based on four calculation methods, this study unearthed 25 System Organ Class (SOC) AE signals and 82 potential preferred terms (PTs) related to istradefylline. The analysis revealed new AEs during istradefylline treatment, including reports of Parkinsonism hyperpyrexia syndrome (n = 3, ROR 178.70, PRR 178.63, IC 1.97, EBGM 165.63), Compulsions (n = 5, ROR 130.12, PRR 130.04, IC 2.53, EBGM 123.02), Deep brain stimulation (n = 10, ROR 114.42, PRR 114.27, IC 3.33, EBGM 108.83), and Freezing phenomenon (n = 60, ROR 97.52, PRR 96.76, IC 5.21, EBGM 92.83). This study provides new risk signals and important insights into the use of istradefylline, but further research and validation are needed, especially for those AE that may occur in actual usage scenarios but are not yet explicitly described in the instructions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo , Purinas , Estados Unidos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Purinas/efeitos adversos , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 38(11): e9745, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591150

RESUMO

RATIONALE: As per International Council for Harmonization (ICH) drug stability test guideline Q1A(R2), inherent stability characteristics of a drug should be studied. This work was designed to investigate inherent degradation characteristics of the drug idelalisib under ICH prescribed stress conditions, identify its degradation products, and postulate their corresponding degradation pathways. METHODS: Idelalisib was subjected to the ICH prescribed conditions of hydrolytic (neutral, acidic, and alkaline), photolytic, oxidative, and thermal stress according to ICH guideline Q1A(R2). An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA) method was developed to adequately resolve the drug from its degradation products, validated as per the ICH guidelines, and subsequently extended to UHPLC with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOFMS) studies to identify the degradation products. RESULTS: Significant degradation was noted under conditions of acidic/alkaline hydrolysis, acid photolysis, and oxidative stress. The UHPLC/ESI-QTOFMS studies revealed the generation of four degradation products (I-IV), which were satisfactorily resolved from the drug by UHPLC on a Kinetex® C18 (100 × 4.6 mm; 2.6 µm) column by the developed isocratic elution method. Detection wavelength was selected as 270 nm. All the degradation products (I-IV) could be identified and characterized from their mass spectral data. The degradation pathways for the generation of various products from the drug were postulated. CONCLUSIONS: A UHPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for idelalisib. Four degradation products of idelalisib were revealed through UHPLC/ESI-QTOFMS studies, and corresponding degradation pathways were postulated for the same.


Assuntos
Purinas , Quinazolinonas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Hidrólise , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Oxirredução , Fotólise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(12): 1751-1763, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiopurine-induced leucopenia significantly hinders the wide application of thiopurines. Dose optimization guided by nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15) has significantly reduced the early leucopenia rate, but there are no definitive biomarkers for late risk leucopenia prediction. AIM: To determine the predictive value of early monitoring of DNA-thioguanine (DNATG) or 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6TGN) for late leucopenia under a NUDT15-guided thiopurine dosing strategy in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Blood samples were collected within two months after thiopurine initiation for detection of metabolite concentrations. Late leucopenia was defined as a leukocyte count < 3.5 × 109/L over two months. RESULTS: Of 148 patients studied, late leucopenia was observed in 15.6% (17/109) of NUDT15/thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) normal and 64.1% (25/39) of intermediate metabolizers. In patients suffering late leucopenia, early DNATG levels were significantly higher than in those who did not develop late leucopenia (P = 4.9 × 10-13). The DNATG threshold of 319.43 fmol/µg DNA could predict late leucopenia in the entire sample with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.855 (sensitivity 83%, specificity 81%), and in NUDT15/TPMT normal metabolizers, the predictive performance of a threshold of 315.72 fmol/µg DNA was much more remarkable with an AUC of 0.902 (sensitivity 88%, specificity 85%). 6TGN had a relatively poor correlation with late leucopenia whether in the entire sample (P = 0.021) or NUDT15/TPMT normal or intermediate metabolizers (P = 0.018, P = 0.55, respectively). CONCLUSION: Proactive therapeutic drug monitoring of DNATG could be an effective strategy to prevent late leucopenia in both NUDT15/TPMT normal and intermediate metabolizers with CD, especially the former.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Leucopenia , Metiltransferases , Purinas , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Humanos , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , DNA , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Leucopenia/diagnóstico , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/efeitos adversos , Tioguanina/análise
16.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1318316, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605967

RESUMO

Background: Nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI) represents a perplexing and persistent proliferative inflammatory disorder of idiopathic nature, characterized by a heterogeneous lymphoid infiltration within the orbital region. This condition, marked by the aberrant metabolic activities of its cellular constituents, starkly contrasts with the metabolic equilibrium found in healthy cells. Among the myriad pathways integral to cellular metabolism, purine metabolism emerges as a critical player, providing the building blocks for nucleic acid synthesis, such as DNA and RNA. Despite its significance, the contribution of Purine Metabolism Genes (PMGs) to the pathophysiological landscape of NSOI remains a mystery, highlighting a critical gap in our understanding of the disease's molecular underpinnings. Methods: To bridge this knowledge gap, our study embarked on an exploratory journey to identify and validate PMGs implicated in NSOI, employing a comprehensive bioinformatics strategy. By intersecting differential gene expression analyses with a curated list of 92 known PMGs, we aimed to pinpoint those with potential roles in NSOI. Advanced methodologies, including Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Gene Set Variation Analysis (GSVA), facilitated a deep dive into the biological functions and pathways associated with these PMGs. Further refinement through Lasso regression and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) enabled the identification of key hub genes and the evaluation of their diagnostic prowess for NSOI. Additionally, the relationship between these hub PMGs and relevant clinical parameters was thoroughly investigated. To corroborate our findings, we analyzed expression data from datasets GSE58331 and GSE105149, focusing on the seven PMGs identified as potentially crucial to NSOI pathology. Results: Our investigation unveiled seven PMGs (ENTPD1, POLR2K, NPR2, PDE6D, PDE6H, PDE4B, and ALLC) as intimately connected to NSOI. Functional analyses shed light on their involvement in processes such as peroxisome targeting sequence binding, seminiferous tubule development, and ciliary transition zone organization. Importantly, the diagnostic capabilities of these PMGs demonstrated promising efficacy in distinguishing NSOI from non-affected states. Conclusions: Through rigorous bioinformatics analyses, this study unveils seven PMGs as novel biomarker candidates for NSOI, elucidating their potential roles in the disease's pathogenesis. These discoveries not only enhance our understanding of NSOI at the molecular level but also pave the way for innovative approaches to monitor and study its progression, offering a beacon of hope for individuals afflicted by this enigmatic condition.


Assuntos
Cílios , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Homeostase , Imunoterapia , Purinas
17.
Food Microbiol ; 121: 104522, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637084

RESUMO

Purine is mainly culprit of hyperuricemia (HUA) and gout, which is widely present in Huangjiu in the form of free bases. Bacterial succession plays an important role in quality control in Huangjiu. The correlation between the purine compound content and the bacterial communities during the fermentation process has not yet been evaluated. In this study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology was used to monitor the bacterial community composition of Huangjiu at different fermentation stages. The correlation between the bacterial community and the contents of physicochemical properties and purine compounds were evaluated using the Spearman analysis method. The key enzymes of purine metabolism pathway in the microbial community were analyzed by bioinformatics using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt). The results showed that the purine content in Huangjiu increased gradually in 0∼9d of fermentation (21.05-65.71 mg/L), and stabilized gradually in 12∼18d (65.63-69.55 mg/L), while the abundance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of bacterial microbial flora were increased (0∼9d) and then stabilized (12∼18d). Moreover, Lactobacillus acetotolerans and Lactobacillus helveticus were highly correlated positively with purine contents, while Limosilactobacillus fermentum and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum were correlated negatively. In addition, the dominant strains of bacteria were involved in the metabolism of purine, and the key enzymes for purine compound synthesis were more abundant than that for purine degradation. This study is helpful to scientifically understand the formation mechanism of purines, providing a basis for screening functional strains of purine degrading to accurately regulate purine level in Huangjiu.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Purinas , Fermentação , Filogenia , Purinas/metabolismo
18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(8): e18284, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597415

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a prevalent subtype of lung cancer, yet the contribution of purine metabolism (PM) to its pathogenesis remains poorly elucidated. PM, a critical component of intracellular nucleotide synthesis and energy metabolism, is hypothesized to exert a significant influence on LUAD development. Herein, we employed single-cell analysis to investigate the role of PM within the tumour microenvironment (TME) of LUAD. PM scoring (PMS) across distinct cell types was determined using AUCell, UCell, singscore and AddModuleScore algorithms. Subsequently, we explored communication networks among cells within high- and low-PMS groups, establishing a robust PM-associated signature (PAS) utilizing a comprehensive dataset comprising LUAD samples from TCGA and five GEO datasets. Our findings revealed that the high-PMS group exhibited intensified cell interactions, while the PAS, constructed using PM-related genes, demonstrated precise prognostic predictive capability. Notably, analysis across the TCGA dataset and five GEO datasets indicated that low-PAS patients exhibited a superior prognosis. Furthermore, the low-PAS group displayed increased immune cell infiltration and elevated CD8A expression, coupled with reduced PD-L1 expression. Moreover, data from eight publicly available immunotherapy cohorts suggested enhanced immunotherapy outcomes in the low-PAS group. These results underscore a close association between PAS and tumour immunity, offering predictive insights into genomic alterations, chemotherapy drug sensitivity and immunotherapy responses in LUAD. The newly established PAS holds promise as a valuable tool for selecting LUAD populations likely to benefit from future clinical stratification efforts.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Prognóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Análise de Célula Única , Imunoterapia , Purinas , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
19.
Cancer Res Commun ; 4(5): 1174-1188, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626341

RESUMO

p16 is a tumor suppressor encoded by the CDKN2A gene whose expression is lost in approximately 50% of all human cancers. In its canonical role, p16 inhibits the G1-S-phase cell cycle progression through suppression of cyclin-dependent kinases. Interestingly, p16 also has roles in metabolic reprogramming, and we previously published that loss of p16 promotes nucleotide synthesis via the pentose phosphate pathway. However, the broader impact of p16/CDKN2A loss on other nucleotide metabolic pathways and potential therapeutic targets remains unexplored. Using CRISPR knockout libraries in isogenic human and mouse melanoma cell lines, we determined several nucleotide metabolism genes essential for the survival of cells with loss of p16/CDKN2A. Consistently, many of these genes are upregulated in melanoma cells with p16 knockdown or endogenously low CDKN2A expression. We determined that cells with low p16/CDKN2A expression are sensitive to multiple inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis, including antifolates. Finally, tumors with p16 knockdown were more sensitive to the antifolate methotrexate in vivo than control tumors. Together, our data provide evidence to reevaluate the utility of these drugs in patients with p16/CDKN2Alow tumors as loss of p16/CDKN2A may provide a therapeutic window for these agents. SIGNIFICANCE: Antimetabolites were the first chemotherapies, yet many have failed in the clinic due to toxicity and poor patient selection. Our data suggest that p16 loss provides a therapeutic window to kill cancer cells with widely-used antifolates with relatively little toxicity.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Purinas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Purinas/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico
20.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 106: 129775, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688437

RESUMO

A series of novel 6-(substituted phenyl piperazine)-8-(4-substituted phenyl)-9-cyclopentyl purines, 10-51, were synthesized by a four-step synthesis, achieving an overall yield of about 43 %. The reaction conditions were effectively optimized, and the final products were obtained with high purity and yield in all synthesis steps. The synthesized nucleobases were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities on selected human cancer cell lines (HUH7 (liver), HCT116 (colon), and MCF7 (breast)) using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Among these analogs, compounds bearing 4-trifluoromethyl phenyl (19, 20 and 21), 4-methoxy phenyl (27) and 4-fluoro phenyl (34) substitutions at C-8 of purine were the most potent, and they were also analyzed in drug-resistance and drug-sensitive hepatocellular cancer cell (HCC) panels. Compound 19 displayed remarkable anticancer activities (IC50 = 2.9-9.3 µM) against Huh7, FOCUS, SNU475, SNU182, HepG2, and Hep3B cells compared to the positive control, Fludarabine. Additionally, the pharmacological properties and toxicity profiles of the molecules were investigated computationally by the Swiss-ADME and Pro-Tox II online tools, respectively. Results showed that our compounds have favorable physicochemical characteristics for oral bioavailability and do not reveal any toxicity endpoints such as carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, mutagenicity, or cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Purinas , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/síntese química , Purinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estrutura Molecular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
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