Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.165
Filtrar
1.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 312, 2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral ecosystem conditions dental health, and is known to be positively modified by oral hygiene which cannot always be performed between meals, especially outside home. It is therefore important to identify the practices to be adopted to influence the oral environment in an anticariogenic direction. Milk and cheese are considered functional foods and have a role on oral health. There are several mechanisms by which cheese exerts its beneficial effects on teeth. The aim of the present study was to examine whether short term consumption of hard cheese would affect the oral pH and microbial flora of healthy adults modifying ecological oral environment. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to study the effect of Italian Grana Padano (GP), as a prototype of typical hard cheese, on the oral microbiota composition. Finally, we explored Streptococcus mutans/sanguinis ratio as a marker of protective biofilm composition. METHODS: Nine oral-healthy adults were instructed to eat 25 gr of GP cheese for 5 consecutive days. Three time points were chosen for supragingival samples collection and pH measurement. 16S rRNA-gene sequences were obtained both from oral samples and GP cheese using the MiSeq platform and analyzed against the expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD). ProgPerm was used to perform statistical analyses to investigate strain differential representation after cheese consumption. RESULTS: Taxonomic analyses of the oral microbiota revealed that Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. GP cheese significantly modifies oral pH, causing a shift toward basic conditions which are kept for a few hours. The Streptococcus mutans/Streptococcus sanguinis ratio lowers in the last observed timepoint. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that a portion of GP cheese eaten after dinner provides important micronutrients (i.e. calcium, vitamins and some aminoacids such as arginine) and changes oral pH toward basic conditions, resulting in a light modification of the oral microbiome towards the reduction of the overall amount of acidophilic bacteria. Furthermore, the S. mutans/S. sanguinis ratio is reduced, contributing to obtain a more protecting environment towards caries establishment and evolution.


Assuntos
Queijo , Cárie Dentária , Microbiota , Adulto , Queijo/microbiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiota/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus mutans/genética
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 213: 651-662, 2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667456

RESUMO

The bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are attracting attention due to their promising applications in food and pharmaceuticals fields. Hence, a LAB strain, GCNRC_GA15, was isolated from Egyptian goat cheese, and molecularly identified as Lactiplantibacillus plantarum. This strain showed a wide antimicrobial spectrum, which was found to be of proteineous nature, suggesting that L. plantarum GCNRC_GA15 is a bacteriocin-producer. This bacteriocin (bacteriocin GA15) was partially purified using cation exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Tricine SDS-PAGE analysis for the fraction showing bacteriocin activity has estimated the molecular mass to be 4369 Da. Furthermore, amino acid sequencing of this peptide has detected 34 amino acids, and comparing its amino acid sequence with those of some pediocin-like bacteriocins revealed that bacteriocin GA15 has the conserved sequence (YYGNGV/L) in its N-terminal region which identified bacteriocin GA15 as a pediocin-like bacteriocin. Bacteriocin GA15 showed good heat and pH stabilities, and its activity was enhanced after treatment with Tween 80 or Triton X-100. Bacteriocin production medium was statistically optimized using the Plackett-Burman and Central Composite designs. As a result, bacteriocin production increased from 800 to 12,800 AU/ml using the optimized medium in comparison with result recorded for the un-optimized medium.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Queijo , Lactobacillus plantarum , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Pediocinas
4.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111481, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761707

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities naturally occurring in Queijo da Beira Baixa PDO cheese samples produced in Castelo Branco district (Beira Baixa Region, Portugal) through viable counts and metataxonomic analyses. Physico-chemical and morpho-textural analyses were also carried out, together with the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the analyzed samples, pH values ranged between 4.72 ± 0.15 and 5.85 ± 0.02, with values of lactic acid content comprised between 0.64 ± 0.00 and 1.95 ± 0.16 g 100 g-1. Specific volume of cheese ranged from 1.09 ± 0.08 to 1.32 ± 0.02 g mL-1. Texture profile analysis showed hardness ranging between 38.3 ± 9.6 N and 68.55 ± 7.5 N. As for lactic acid bacteria, presumptive lactococci, thermophilic cocci, and lactobacilli counts up to 9 Log cfu g-1. Coagulase-negative cocci showed counts up to 7 Log cfu g-1. Enterococci counts were up to 6 Log cfu g-1. Finally, counts of eumycetes showed values up to 4 Log cfu g-1. The results of metataxonomic analysis of bacteria showed the dominance of Lactococcus lactis in all the samples. Moreover, other taxa were detected, including Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Loigolactobacillus coryniformis, Lactococcus piscium, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lacticaseibacillus zeae. Mycobiota was characterized by the presence of Candida sake, Ustilago, Cladosporium variabile, Starmerella, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Pichia kluyveri. In the analyzed Queijo da Beira Baixa PDO cheese samples, carboxylic acids represented the most detected VOCs, followed by esters, carbonyl compounds, and alcohols.


Assuntos
Queijo , Lactococcus lactis , Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Portugal , Streptococcus thermophilus
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 373: 109703, 2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561525

RESUMO

The present work was performed to study the enterobacteria involved in the ripening of the artisanal raw ewe's milk PDO cheeses 'Torta del Casar' and 'Queso de la Serena' produced in Extremadura (Spain). These isolates were strain-typed, safety tested and characterized for some important technological properties. A total of 485 enterobacterial isolates were clustered by RAPD-PCR and subsequently identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Among the 17 different species identified, Hafnia paralvei was the predominant species; H. alvei and Lelliottia amnigena were present to a lesser extent. Therefore, 55 Hafnia spp. strains, selected according to their genetic profile and dairy origin, were tested for the safe application. Overall, they were able to produce the biogenic amines putrescine and cadaverine under favourable conditions, presented α-haemolytic activity and did not produce cytolytic toxin active against HeLa cells or contain virulence genes. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility profiles showed that 17 Hafnia spp. strains were less resistant to the 33 antibiotics tested; subsequently, they were further technologically characterized. Although they showed differences, in general, they were well adapted to the stress conditions of cheese ripening. Among them, two strains, H. alvei 544 and 1142, are highlighted mainly due to their proteolytic activity at refrigeration temperatures and their low or null gas production. Although further studies are necessary before industrial application, these two strains are proposed for potential use as adjunct cultures to favour the homogeneity of these PDO cheeses, preserving their unique sensory characteristics.


Assuntos
Queijo , Hafnia , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Feminino , Hafnia/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Leite/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Ovinos/genética
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt B): 2042-2049, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504417

RESUMO

The effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-natamycin (N; 0.05 and 0.5%) coating on the quality of high-moisture mozzarella cheese (HMMC) were examined. The cheeses were immersed in the coating solutions and then kept at 7 °C for 8 days and microbial specifications (i.e., total mesophilic count, total psychrophilic count, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast-mold), pH, weight loss, and sensory properties were examined. The results of the agar spot diffusion assay represented inhibitory effects of CMC-N coating solution on Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Penicillium citrinum, and Candida albicans. In HMMC, the natamycin-free CMC coating caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in all microbial groups, while the addition of natamycin to the coating only reduced the count of mold and yeast. As a result, the coating with natamycin at 0.05 and 0.5% represented a 0.6 and 0.9 log cycle reduction in yeast-mold populations, respectively. Based on the total mesophilic count, the control samples reached the 7 log CFU/g on day 4, indicating a 4-day shelf life of HMMC, while in HMMC coated with and without natamycin this limit was achieved on the 8th day of storage, which indicates that the coatings have doubled the HMMC shelf life.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Queijo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/farmacologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Fungos , Natamicina/farmacologia , Leveduras
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(7): 5685-5699, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636996

RESUMO

More than 30 types of artisanal cheeses are known in Brazil; however, microorganisms, such as Staphylococcus spp., can contaminate raw milk cheeses through different sources, from milking to processing. Staphylococcal food poisoning results from the consumption of food in which coagulase-positive staphylococci, mostly Staphylococcus aureus, have developed and produced enterotoxins. In addition, an emerging public health concern is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of some Staphylococcus strains. Furthermore, the ability of Staphylococcus spp. in sharing antibiotic resistance-related genes with other bacteria increases this problem. In light of these observations, this review aims to discuss the presence of, enterotoxins of, and antibiotic-resistant of Staphylococcus spp. in Brazilian artisanal cheese produced with raw milk.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Queijo/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Leite/química , Staphylococcus , Estudantes
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0270821, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638825

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is supplemented in microbial media with varying benefits across species and growth conditions. We found that growth of Lactococcus cremoris was unaffected by manganese omission from the growth medium. The main proteome adaptation to manganese omission involved increased manganese transporter production (up to 2,000-fold), while the remaining 10 significant proteome changes were between 1.4- and 4-fold. Further investigation in translationally blocked (TB), nongrowing cells showed that Mn supplementation (20 µM) led to approximately 1.5 X faster acidification compared with Mn-free conditions. However, this faster acidification stagnated within 24 h, likely due to draining of intracellular NADH that coincides with substantial loss of culturability. Conversely, without manganese, nongrowing cells persisted to acidify for weeks, albeit at a reduced rate, but maintaining redox balance and culturability. Strikingly, despite being unculturable, α-keto acid-derived aldehydes continued to accumulate in cells incubated in the presence of manganese, whereas without manganese cells predominantly formed the corresponding alcohols. This is most likely reflecting NADH availability for the alcohol dehydrogenase-catalyzed conversion. Overall, manganese influences the lactococcal acidification rate, and flavor formation capacity in a redox dependent manner. These are important industrial traits especially during cheese ripening, where cells are in a non-growing, often unculturable state. IMPORTANCE In nature as well as in various biotechnology applications, microorganisms are often in a nongrowing state and their metabolic persistence determines cell survival and functionality. Industrial examples are dairy fermentations where bacteria remain active during the ripening phases that can take up to months and even years. Here we investigated environmental factors that can influence lactococcal metabolic persistence throughout such prolonged periods. We found that in the absence of manganese, acidification of nongrowing cells remained active for weeks while in the presence of manganese it stopped within 1 day. The latter coincided with the accumulation of amino acid derived volatile metabolites. Based on metabolic conversions, proteome analysis, and a reporter assay, we demonstrated that the manganese elicited effects were NADH dependent. Overall the results show the effect of environmental modulation on prolonged cell-based catalysis, which is highly relevant to non-growing cells in nature and biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Queijo , Lactococcus lactis , Queijo/microbiologia , Fermentação , Homeostase , Lactococcus , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Manganês/farmacologia , NAD/metabolismo , NAD/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteoma/farmacologia
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(21): 709-712, 2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617142

RESUMO

Listeriosis is a serious infection usually caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. An estimated 1,600 persons become ill with listeriosis each year, among whom approximately 260 die. Persons at higher risk for listeriosis include pregnant persons and their newborns, adults aged ≥65 years, and persons with weakened immune systems. Persons with invasive listeriosis usually report symptoms starting 1-4 weeks after eating food contaminated with L. monocytogenes; however, some persons who become infected have reported symptoms starting as late as 70 days after exposure or as early as the same day of exposure (1). On January 29, 2021, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping surveillance network coordinated by CDC, identified a multistate cluster of three L. monocytogenes infections: two from Maryland and one from Connecticut (2). CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners began an investigation on February 1, 2021. A total of 13 outbreak-related cases were eventually identified from four states. All patients reported Hispanic ethnicity; 12 patients were hospitalized, and one died. Rapid food testing and record collection by regulatory agencies enabled investigators to identify a brand of queso fresco made with pasteurized milk as the likely source of the outbreak, leading to an initial product recall on February 19, 2021. Fresh, soft Hispanic-style cheeses made with pasteurized milk are a well-documented source of listeriosis outbreaks. These cheeses can be contaminated with L. monocytogenes unless stringent hygienic controls are implemented, and the processing environment is monitored for contamination (3). U.S. public health agencies should establish or improve communications, including new methods of disseminating information that also effectively reach Hispanic populations, to emphasize the risk from eating fresh, soft Hispanic-style cheeses, even those made with pasteurized milk.


Assuntos
Queijo , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose , Adulto , Queijo/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622553

RESUMO

A survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and sterigmatocystin (STC) in grated cheese products obtained from hard grana-type cheeses was carried out, where 107 grated products were collected in retail outlets and analysed. OTA and STC were found in 48.6% and 94.4% of the samples, in a range from <LOD to 25.05 µg kg-1 and from <LOD to 6.87 µg kg-1, respectively. STC was detected in all the OTA-contaminated samples. The OTA and STC occurrence in cheese is due to environmental contamination during ripening, leading to fungal growth and mycotoxin production on the cheese surface. This statement was confirmed by analysing the surface of 16 hard grana cheese rinds, which resulted contaminated by both OTA and STC, with concentration ranging from 3 to 370 µg kg-1. This finding demonstrates that rind inclusion increases the mycotoxin concentration in grated cheeses. The mycotoxin level significantly decreased from the surface (0-1.5 mm) to inner parts of cheese rinds (1.5-4.5 mm). Industrial wheel-cleaning techniques can represent a useful treatment to reduce both toxins in grated cheese products.


Assuntos
Queijo , Ocratoxinas , Queijo/microbiologia , Ocratoxinas/análise , Esterigmatocistina/análise , Tilacoides/química
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 371: 109670, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427955

RESUMO

High throughput sequencing has recently revealed the presence of Tetragenococcus-related DNA sequences in dairy environments such as brine and cheeses. In the present work, a selective medium was developed to isolate Tetragenococcus spp. from two ripened, traditional, Spanish, blue-veined cheese varieties made from raw milk. The strains recovered belonged to either Tetragenococcus koreensis or Tetragenococcus halophilus species. Twenty of these isolates (15 of T. koreensis and 5 of T. halophilus) were then subjected to a battery of phenotypic and genetic tests, and six strains (4 T. koreensis and 2 T. halophilus) to genome sequencing. Wide genetic and phenotypic diversity was noted. All strains grew poorly in milk, producing small quantities of lactic and acetic acids. Most strains used lactose as a carbon source and ferment milk citrate. In agreement, genome analysis detected in the genome of the six strains analyzed gene clusters harboring several lactose/galactose-related genes and genes encoding citrate metabolic enzymes (permease, citrate lyase, and oxaloacetate decarboxylase). Most of the tested strains were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, and a few to other antimicrobial agents, but neither known mutations nor acquired genes conferring resistance to antibiotics were identified in their genomes. Neither were genes coding for pathogenicity or virulence factors detected. Decarboxylase-encoding genes involved in biogenic amine production were not identified, in keeping with the strains' negative biogenic amine-producer phenotype. Genome comparison revealed vast arrays of genes (similar in number to those described in other lactic acid bacteria) coding for components of proteolytic and lipolytic systems. Tetragenococcus strains showing desirable traits plus the absence of detrimental features might be exploitable in the form of secondary, adjunct or ripening cultures to ensure the typical bouquet of traditional blue-veined cheeses is obtained, or to diversify the final flavor in other varieties.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Citratos/metabolismo , Enterococcaceae , Genômica , Lactose/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Fenótipo
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 371: 109667, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447560

RESUMO

A novel antimicrobial chitosan-gelatin based edible coating fortified with papaya leaves and thyme extract was prepared for improving the quality and shelf-life of chicken breast fillet and Kareish cheese during chilled storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The samples were dipped for 10 min in distilled water (control), chitosan-gelatin (CG), chitosan-gelatin +2% papaya leaves extract (CG + P) and chitosan-gelatin +2% thyme extract (CG + Th). The coated and uncoated samples were examined periodically for sensory attributes, pH, TBARs, total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), total Enterobacteriaceae (TE), and total yeasts and molds counts (TYM). Sensory evaluation revealed that chicken breast fillet and Kareish cheese samples coated with CG + P were the best in terms of tenderness, juiciness, body & texture and flavor. CG + Th exhibited the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant effect, followed by CG + P. The results of microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analysis of this study demonstrated that the application of CG + P or CG + Th could be a promising method for increasing the shelf life and improving the quality of chicken breast fillet and Kareish cheese.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Carica , Queijo , Quitosana , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Galinhas , Quitosana/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Gelatina , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Thymus (Planta) , Verduras
13.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(5): 1404-1421, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393728

RESUMO

Ethical, environmental and health concerns around dairy products are driving a fast-growing industry for plant-based dairy alternatives, but undesirable flavours and textures in available products are limiting their uptake into the mainstream. The molecular processes initiated during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria in dairy products is well understood, such as proteolysis of caseins into peptides and amino acids, and the utilisation of carbohydrates to form lactic acid and exopolysaccharides. These processes are fundamental to developing the flavour and texture of fermented dairy products like cheese and yoghurt, yet how these processes work in plant-based alternatives is poorly understood. With this knowledge, bespoke fermentative processes could be engineered for specific food qualities in plant-based foods. This review will provide an overview of recent research that reveals how fermentation occurs in plant-based milk, with a focus on how differences in plant proteins and carbohydrate structure affect how they undergo the fermentation process. The practical aspects of how this knowledge has been used to develop plant-based cheeses and yoghurts is also discussed.


Assuntos
Queijo , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Lactobacillales , Queijo/microbiologia , Laticínios , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Iogurte/microbiologia
14.
Food Microbiol ; 105: 104023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473976

RESUMO

Canastra Cheese is one of the most commercialized artisanal cheeses in Brazil and intrinsic characteristics of its production, such as the use of raw milk and natural whey starter cultures as well short ripening time on wooden shelves, offer risk of contamination by a plethora of microorganisms. Here, we used 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial communities from Canastra cheese processing environments and final products, accessing cheesemaking facilities with distinct profiles of Food Safety Management Systems (FSMS), in order to estimate whether differences in microbial composition and diversity could also be observed between the two sampled groups of facilities. Our results revealed that the diversity of bacterial communities in the processing environments was much higher than that observed for cheeses, with greater discrepancy for facilities with inadequate FSMS. Additionally, in facilities with inadequate FSMS the bacterial communities from environments, especially hand surfaces and ripening wooden shelves, were similar to those during processing and finished cheese. These evidences highlight the importance of implementing and maintaining FSMS in the facilities, in order to assure quality and safety of Canastra cheese, but also the stability and economic viability of the Canastra cheese production chain.


Assuntos
Queijo , Bactérias/genética , Queijo/microbiologia , Laticínios , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Gestão da Segurança
15.
Food Microbiol ; 104: 103979, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287808

RESUMO

The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in soft pasteurized milk cheese elaborated with different salt concentrations (1.17 and 0.30% w/w) and in cured raw sheep milk cheese over storage up to 189 days at different isothermal conditions. Commercial 25-g cheese samples were inoculated with a 4-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serovars 4b, 1/2a, 1/2b and 1/2c) at approximately 104 CFU/g. The inoculated samples were stored at 4 and 22 °C and withdrawn at proper intervals for L. monocytogenes enumeration. The prevalence of the different serovar strains of L. monocytogenes was characterized on soft cheese samples over storage at 4 °C using multiplex PCR. Salt reduction did not affect the survival of L. monocytogenes in soft cheeses and a maximum of 1-log reduction was observed in both regular and low-salt cheeses after 189 days of storage at 4 °C. The pathogen showed greater survival capacity in both soft and cured cheeses during storage at 4 °C compared to the storage at 22 °C, where more than 2.5 log reductions were computed. The fate of L. monocytogenes was described through a Weibull model fitted to survival data. The time required for a first tenfold reduction of the L. monocytogenes population (δ) at 4 °C is around 150 days in soft and 72 days in cured cheeses. At 22 °C, the estimated δ values are at least 60% lower in both cheese types. Among the four L. monocytogenes serovars present in the inoculated cocktail, the serovar 4b strain was the most sensitive to refrigerated storage, while the prevalence of serovar 1/2c strain increased over time in soft cheeses. Overall, the data obtained in this study help to deepen knowledge into factors affecting L. monocytogenes behaviour on cheeses and evidenced the variability between serovars in terms of survival capacity, which may be considered when performing microbial risk assessments.


Assuntos
Queijo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Queijo/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Ovinos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 19(5): 316-323, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263183

RESUMO

Bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics naturally, but the inappropriate and widespread use of antibiotics in humans and animals has made antimicrobial resistance one of the biggest threats to modern medicine. Raw milk cheese can represent an important source of antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from artisanal cheese made from raw milk produced in Minas Gerais, Brazil. E. coli counts were determined using the most probable number method. An antibiogram was performed using the disk diffusion method, following the protocol described by the Brazilian Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (BrCAST) for 14 antibiotics of nine classes. E. coli was detected in 35 (71.4%) of the samples, with populations between 0.56 to 4.87 log (NMP/g) of cheese. The presence of E. coli resistant to multiple antimicrobials was more frequent in cheeses, with an E. coli population below the levels established by regulatory limits. Only four samples (11.4%) had all E. coli isolates susceptible to the 14 antimicrobials evaluated. The results showed the heterogeneity of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli between the producing regions of Minas artisanal cheese. Multidrug resistance was detected in 29% of the E. coli isolates and in almost 40% (38.8%) of the cheese samples. The frequency of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates was different between the production regions (p < 0.05). The presence of MDR E. coli in cheese from region D was 14, 4, and 20 times more likely than in cheese from regions A, B, and C, respectively. A multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.200 predicted the presence of MDR E. coli in raw milk artisanal cheese with 99% probability. In conclusion, artisanal cheese can act as sources of MDR E. coli to colonize the human gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite/microbiologia
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 133(1): 212-229, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238463

RESUMO

Traditionally, fermentation was used to preserve the shelf life of food. Currently, in addition to favouring food preservation, well standardized and controlled industrial processes are also aimed at improving the functional characteristics of the final product. In this regard, starter cultures have become an essential cornerstone of food production. The selection of robust microorganisms, well adapted to the food environment, has been followed by the development of microbial consortia that provide some functional characteristics, beyond their acidifying capacity, achieving safer, high-quality foods with improved nutritional and health-promoting properties. In addition to starters, adjunct cultures and probiotics, which normally do not have a relevant role in fermentation, are added to the food in order to provide some beneficial characteristics. This review focuses on highlighting the functional characteristics of food starters, as well as adjunct and probiotic cultures (mainly lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria), with a specific focus on the synthesis of metabolites for preservation and safety aspects (e.g. bacteriocins), organoleptic properties (e.g. exopolysaccharides), nutritional (e.g. vitamins) and health improvement (e.g. neuroactive molecules). Literature reporting the application of these functional cultures in the manufacture of foods, mainly those related to dairy production, such as cheeses and fermented milks, has also been updated.


Assuntos
Queijo , Probióticos , Queijo/microbiologia , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Probióticos/análise
18.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(2): 969-976, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277850

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing has provided a way to monitor the large diversity of microorganisms in fermented foods that have complex microbiota. Up to date, many kinds of cheese have been characterized with the metataxonomic approach, but the safety of unpacked Turkish white cheeses, which are widely consumed in Turkey, has not been assessed. In this study, fifteen unpacked white cheeses sold in public bazaars in Ankara province have been collected and subjected to microbial enumeration as well as physicochemical analysis. Five white cheeses, which have relatively the highest foodborne pathogens, out of fifteen white cheeses, have been analyzed by next-generation sequencing and metataxonomic analysis. According to the results, abundant families were Lactobacillaceae, Oceanospirillaceae, Enterococcaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae. Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella, which are indicators of bad hygiene and sanitation conditions, were found in cheeses. In conclusion, culture-independent methods such as metataxonomic can be important to evaluate the safety of foods.


Assuntos
Queijo , Microbiota , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Escherichia coli , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Leite/microbiologia , Turquia
19.
Food Microbiol ; 104: 104006, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287824

RESUMO

Pink discoloration defect can cause economic losses for cheese producers due to the impossibility to sell the defected cheese, but few knowledge is currently available on the causes of this defect. To gain more insight on the causes that lead to the formation of pink discoloration in Pecorino Toscano cheese with the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status, the bacterial community in defected and not defected cheese was characterized by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The bacterial community in the defected cheese significantly differed compared to the control. The relative abundance of the genera Acidipropionibacterium, Enterococcus, Escherichia/Shigella, Lactobacillus, Lentilactobacillus and Propionibacterium was higher in the cheese with pink discoloration defect. The concentration of short chain fatty acids and of lactic acid in cheese was measured and a shift towards the production of propionate in the cheese with pink discoloration defect was observed. Furthermore, the possible involvement of microbially produced vitamin B12 in the formation of pink discoloration was not supported by the data, since a tendency to a lower concentration of vitamin B12 was measured in the defected cheese compared to the control.


Assuntos
Queijo , Microbiota , Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Lactobacillus/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 368: 109618, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279452

RESUMO

Interactions among microorganisms deeply affect the dynamics of cheese microbial communities and, as a consequence, multiple aspects of cheese quality, from the production of metabolites affecting the taste, aroma and flavour, to body, texture and colour. Understanding and exploiting interactions among beneficial or detrimental microorganisms is therefore key to managing cheese quality. This is true for the simplest systems (fresh cheeses produced from pasteurized milk using defined starters) and the more so for complex, dynamic systems, like surface ripened cheese produced from raw milk, in which a dynamic succession of diverse microorganisms is essential for obtained the desired combination of sensory properties while guaranteeing safety. Positive (commensalism, protocooperation) and negative (competition, amensalism, predation and parasitism) interactions among members of the cheese biota have been reviewed multiple times. However, even if the complex, multidimensional datasets generated by multi-omic approaches to cheese microbiology and biochemistry are ideally suited for the representation of biotic and metabolic interactions as networks, network science concepts and approaches are rarely applied to cheese microbiology. In this review we illustrate concepts relevant to the description of microbial interactions using a network science framework. Then, we briefly review methods used for the inference and analysis of microbial association networks (MAN) and their potential use in the interpretation of the cheese interactome. Finally, since these methods can only be used for mining microbial associations, we review the experimental methods used to confirm the nature of microbial interactions among cheese microbes.


Assuntos
Queijo , Microbiota , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Leite/microbiologia , Paladar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...