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1.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 34-43, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190653

RESUMO

Gall formation is associated with multiple changes in plant cells, which still requires a better understanding. In this study, galls caused by sexual generation (♀♂) of Neuroterus quercusbaccarum (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pedunculate oak trees (Quercus robur L.) were used as a model. Cytoplasmic membrane condition, concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the activity of antioxidant enzymes and amino acid decarboxylase as well as chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined. Changes in physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed in foliar tissues with galls and gall tissues themselves and compared to control. The presence of galls on oak leaves caused an increase of lipid peroxidation level. A significant decline in H2O2 and TBARS content with the reduction of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed in gall tissues. The activity amino acid decarboxylase, i.e., LDC, ODC and TyDC varied between samples, which may affect the content of amino acids. The presence of N. quercusbaccarum galls caused an insignificant increase of the chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanin contents, while the content of pigments and their ratios in gall tissues was extremely low. Moreover, photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fm, Fv/Fm, Y, qP) were significantly decreased. Data generated in this study indicate that the development of N. quercusbaccarum galls on pedunculate oak leaves has a negative effect on host plant related to the disruption of cell membrane integrity, disturbance of photosynthesis and reduction of the antioxidant potential of the host plant.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Tumores de Planta , Quercus/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Quercus/fisiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134129, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499344

RESUMO

Forest health status is negatively influenced by climate change, air pollution and other disturbances. Extreme droughts reduce stand productivity, increase vulnerability to pests, and can even provoke mortality. Growth dynamics at tree and forest stand levels are considered the main indicators of stability and productivity in forest ecosystem structures. The main climate drivers for tree growth were identified using basal area increment (BAI) as a synthetic indicator. BAI chronologies were obtained from increment cores for 1960-2012 period. Six species were analysed in an attempt to identify their growth limiting factors. For the most important oak species in Romania, resilience components were computed in order to analyse their response to drought events. Moreover, growth dynamics were analysed for two species in mixed and monoculture forests. The results suggest that - in comparison to Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica, the sensitivity of Quercus spp. is much higher (0.3-0.47). Oakspecies situated in the most drought-affected areas are sensitive to rainfall values from the previous autumn, current spring, and early summer, with April monthly values having the most significant effect on BAI increment (r = 0.47*) The most sensitive species to drought is Q. cerris and Q. frainetto. Their BAI reduction during drought is >50% compared with the BAI values before the drought period. The recovery capacity of tree growth following drought events is lower for Q. robur and Q. petraea and higher for Q. cerris and Q. frainetto. The mixed forest stands have not showed a constant higher resistance to drought.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Árvores , Secas , Ecossistema , Fagus , Quercus , Romênia , Estações do Ano
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134285, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520941

RESUMO

In the Mediterranean basin, diffuse-porous, semi-ring-porous and ring-porous tree species coexist in the same regions. Climate change might differently affect these types, but a mechanistic understanding of drought effects on their xylem structure is lacking. We investigated tree-ring width and xylem functional traits in ring-porous Quercus boissieri, semi-ring-porous Q. ithaburensis and diffuse-porous Q. calliprinos, at xeric (Galilee) and mesic (Golan) sites in the South-Eastern Mediterranean basin. We quantitatively assessed how dry and wet years affect growth and xylem traits in different porosity type oaks, and evaluated whether porosity type is preserved or altered during these years. We measured, counted or computed tree-ring width, vessel number, maximum lumen area, frequency, tree-ring and xylem theoretical hydraulic conductivity along 40-year ring series of 50 trees in total. We also quantified ring porosity in each year using two indices, the Gini coefficient and the porosity ratio of vessel area, and described vessel area intra-ring variations by distribution profiles. We then compared these parameters in the five driest and five wettest years of the 40-year period. Radial growth and functional trait variations were more similar between species in the same site (strong drought effects in Q. ithaburensis and Q. calliprinos in Galilee, moderate effects in Q. boissieri and Q. calliprinos in Golan) than between sites for the same species (Q. calliprinos was more affected in Galilee than in Golan). Ring porosity indices and distribution profiles showed that diffuse-porous xylem structure of Q. calliprinos was maintained even under dry conditions at both sites. However, Q. boissieri xylem shifted from ring-porous in wet and normal years to semi-ring-porous in dry years, i.e. the porous ring cannot be completely built under water constraint. This suggests that ring porous strategy, typical of temperate regions with strong seasonality, might not be realized under future drier conditions in the Mediterranean basin.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chuva , Mudança Climática , Secas , Porosidade , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xilema
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134332, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629315

RESUMO

Karst environments are unusual because their dry, stony and shallow soils seem to be unfavorable to vegetation, and yet they are often covered with forests. How can trees survive in these environments? Where do they find the water that allows them to survive? This study uses midday and predawn water potentials and xylem water isotopes of branches to assess tree water status and the origin of transpired water. Monitoring was conducted during the summers of 2014 and 2015 in two dissimilar plots of Mediterranean forest located in karst environments. The results show that the three monitored tree species (Abies alba Mill, Fagus sylvatica L, and Quercus ilex L.) use deep water resources present in the karst vadose zone (unsaturated zone) more intensively during drier years. Quercus ilex, a species well- adapted to water stress, which grows at the drier site, uses the deep water resource very early in the summer season. Conversely, the two other species exploit the deep water resource only during severe drought. These results open up new perspectives to a better understanding of ecohydrological equilibrium and to improved water balance modeling in karst forest settings.


Assuntos
Fagus/fisiologia , Quercus/fisiologia , Secas , Florestas , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano , Solo , Água , Xilema
5.
Food Chem ; 305: 125457, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505414

RESUMO

Taking into account a growing market and small number of articles related to honeydew honey, a metabolomic approach associated with multivariate analysis and modelling was proposed to discriminate five varieties of honey. Advanced analytical techniques were used for determination of 20 elements, 14 carbohydrates and stable carbon isotope ratio. No chemical marker has been found within sugar compounds, but several elements (Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Al, Co, Ni, Se) were marked as characteristic of honey type and allow classification of three botanical origins (Abies alba, Quercus frainetto, Quercus ilex). Sugars turanose, trehalose, arabinose and raffinose, elements Ba, Sr, P, Cd and Se, and δ13C values of honey, have different concentrations in honeys of the same botanical origin but harvested in different season. In addition to a confirmation of authenticity in terms of production, the values of δ13C of protein could be a good indicator of botanical origin.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Quercus/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Álcoois Açúcares/análise , Açúcares/análise
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4091-4098, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840453

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth response and vegetation restoration prospect of seedlings of five oak species for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of Quercus imbricaria, Q. coccinea, Q. pagoda, Q. shumardii, Q. fabri were transplanted into pots containing Pb/Zn mine tailings to comparatively examine their biomass, root morphology, absorption and transfer characteristics of nutrient elements and heavy metals 30 months later. The results showed that all the seedlings could survive in the Pb/Zn tailings after 30 months. The biomass of Q. coccinea and Q. fabri decreased in Pb/Zn tailings compared with the control, while no significant difference were found for other three species. Compared with the control, root biomass was increased to some extent in Pb/Zn tailings except Q. coccinea. The lateral root morphological parameters were reduced only for Q. coccinea . Under heavy metal stress, nutrient concentrations of root and stem of oak seedlings did not change compared with the control. Generally, the concentrations of heavy metals in plant tissues were low, and the values of bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were less than 1. Q. pagoda could accumulate more Cd, with concentrations of 22.4 and 15.1 mg·kg-1 in leaf and stem, respectively, and could translocate more Cd from root to shoot with TF of 2.3. Our results suggested that the seedlings of tested oak species could be used as the potential species for contaminated soil. Q. shumardii had the highest tole-rance with a low BCF and TF, implying that they were better potential candidates for afforestation and ecological restoration of mine tailings.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Quercus , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Chumbo , Plântula , Zinco
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13694-13705, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756091

RESUMO

Over wood aging, matured spirits developed a complex aromatic bouquet where roasted-like notes were often perceived. Since many nitrogen heterocycles were related to these olfactory nuances, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and validated to quantify them in both spirit and wood matrices. The various parameters affecting the extraction of the analytes from both spirit and wood samples were first investigated (i.e., fiber coating phase, dilution, pH and volume sample, adding salt, extraction time and temperature, and incubation time) to determine the best compromise for a single-run analysis of the whole set of studied compounds. Good linearity (R2 > 0.99), repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy and low detection, and quantification limits were obtained, making this analytical method a suitable tool for routine analysis of the selected nitrogen compounds. Fifteen pyrazines, three pyrroles, and three quinolines were quantified in a series of oak wood and commercial spirit samples where some of them were identified for the first time. The significant impact of some barrel features and the spirit in-wood maturation step on the N-heterocycle profile in both matrices were finally discussed.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Vinho/análise , Madeira/química , Odorantes/análise , Quercus/química
8.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 202, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the origin of genetic variation is the key to predict how species will respond to future climate change. The genus Quercus is a species-rich and ecologically diverse woody genus that dominates a wide range of forests and woodland communities of the Northern Hemisphere. Quercus thus offers a unique opportunity to investigate how adaptation to environmental changes has shaped the spatial genetic structure of closely related lineages. Furthermore, Quercus provides a deep insight into how tree species will respond to future climate change. This study investigated whether closely related Quercus lineages have similar spatial genetic structures and moreover, what roles have their geographic distribution, ecological tolerance, and historical environmental changes played in the similar or distinct genetic structures. RESULTS: Despite their close relationships, the three main oak lineages (Quercus sections Cyclobalanopsis, Ilex, and Quercus) have different spatial genetic patterns and occupy different climatic niches. The lowest level and most homogeneous pattern of genetic diversity was found in section Cyclobalanopsis, which is restricted to warm and humid climates. The highest genetic diversity and strongest geographic genetic structure were found in section Ilex, which is due to their long-term isolation and strong local adaptation. The widespread section Quercus is distributed across the most heterogeneous range of environments; however, it exhibited moderate haplotype diversity. This is likely due to regional extinction during Quaternary climatic fluctuation in Europe and North America. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations of sections Ilex and Quercus were significantly predicted by geographic and climate variations, while those of section Cyclobalanopsis were poorly predictable by geographic or climatic diversity. Apart from the different historical environmental changes experienced by different sections, variation of their ecological or climatic tolerances and physiological traits induced varying responses to similar environment changes, resulting in distinct spatial genetic patterns.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Ilex/genética , Quercus/genética , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Europa (Continente) , Florestas , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Ilex/citologia , Ilex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , América do Norte , Filogenia , Quercus/citologia , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Zootaxa ; 4688(4): zootaxa.4688.4.4, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719427

RESUMO

The tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 has received considerable attention in recent years but the group's diversity remains poorly understood in Mexico, particularly in the pine-oak woodlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and associated Madrean "Sky Islands". A pair of tarantulas discovered from an unsampled region in the Sierra de Bacadéhuachi (the westernmost range of the Sierra Madre Occidental) in northeastern Sonora was found to be closely related to four species from the Madrean "Sky Islands" in Arizona and New Mexico. An integrative approach for delimiting species (incorporating data from molecular phylogenetics, morphology, distributions, and breeding periods) suggests that the specimens from Sierra de Bacadéhuachi belong to an undescribed species that is herein named Aphonopelma bacadehuachi sp. nov. This new species adds to our knowledge of an increasingly diverse assemblage of Aphonopelma from the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Hotspot. Collaborations between Mexican and American researchers are needed to accelerate discovery and description of the group's remaining diversity, particularly in light of the many threats facing the ecoregion including habitat degradation and climate change.


Assuntos
Quercus , Aranhas , Animais , Arizona , Florestas , Ilhas , México , New Mexico
10.
Zootaxa ; 4577(3): zootaxa.4577.3.12, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715718

RESUMO

A new species of Andricus Hartig 1840 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) is described from Panama: Andricus barriosi sp. nov. The new species induces galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. and Q. insignis M. Martens Galeotti (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus) and is the first species of the genus Andricus 'sensu lato' recorded from Panama. Andricus barriosi is part of a species complex that includes A. nievesaldreyi Pujade-Villar, A. georgei Pujade-Villar and A. maesi Pujade-Villar, which differ from the other species of the genus Andricus by having a characteristic striate-reticulate sculpture on the second metasomal tergum that is typically smooth in the other Andricus species. The diagnostic characters, gall description, distribution and biological data of the new species are given, and a key for the differentiation of the new species from related species is also provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Mustelidae , Quercus , Vespas , Animais , Panamá
11.
Science ; 366(6467)2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727801

RESUMO

Wilf et al (Research Articles, 7 June 2019, eaaw5139) claim that Castanopsis evolved in the Southern Hemisphere from where it spread to its modern distribution in Southeast Asia. However, extensive paleobotanical records of Antarctica and Australia lack evidence of any Fagaceae, and molecular patterns indicate shared biogeographic histories of Castanopsis, Castanea, Lithocarpus, and Quercus subgenus Cerris, making the southern route unlikely.


Assuntos
Quercus , Floresta Úmida , Regiões Antárticas , Austrália
12.
Oecologia ; 191(4): 971-981, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617000

RESUMO

Nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US changed N availability in the latter part of the twentieth century, with potential legacy effects. However, long-term N cycle measurements are scarce. N isotopes in tree rings have been used as an indicator of N availability through time, but there is little verification of whether species differ in the strength of this signal. Using long-term records at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, we examined the relationship between soil conditions, including net nitrification rates, and wood δ15N in 2014, and tested the strength of correlation between tree ring δ15N of four species and stream water NO3- loss from 1971 to 2000. Higher soil NO3- was weakly associated with higher wood δ15N across species, and higher soil net nitrification rates were associated with higher δ15N for Quercus rubra only. The δ15N of Liriodendron tulipifera and Q. rubra, but neither Fagus grandifolia nor Prunus serotina, was correlated with stream water NO3-. L. tulipifera tree ring δ15N had a stronger association with stream water NO3- than Q. rubra. Overall, we found only limited evidence of a relationship between soil N cycling and tree ring δ15N, with a strong correlation between the wood δ15N and NO3- leaching loss through time for one of four species. Tree species differ in their ability to preserve legacies of N cycling in tree ring δ15N, and given the weak relationships between contemporary wood δ15N and soil N cycle measurements, caution is warranted when using wood δ15N to infer changes in the N cycle.


Assuntos
Florestas , Quercus , Nitrogênio , Solo , West Virginia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13617-13623, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661270

RESUMO

A new tetrasubstituted octanoic acid, named hyfraxinic acid (1), was isolated together with known 1-deoxyviridiol (2), viridiol (3), nodulisporiviridin M (4), and demethoxyviridiol (5) from the organic extract of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus responsible for ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) dieback in Europe. Hyfraxinic acid (1) was characterized, using spectroscopic methods, as 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methyl-6-methyleneoctanoic acid. Furthermore, the advanced Mosher method was used to determine the absolute configuration (3R) of 1-deoxyviridiol. Nodulisporiviridin M (4) was isolated for the first time from H. fraxineus. The phytotoxicity of each compound was tested by a leaf puncture assay on Celtis australis L., Quercus suber L., Hedera elix L., Juglans regia L., and Fraxinus angustifolia L. leaves. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited remarkable phytotoxicity on all plants tested, inducing necrotic lesions at concentrations of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/mL, while compounds 2 and 4 were found to be inactive in this bioassay. These results could contribute to a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity of H. fraxineus.


Assuntos
Androstenodióis/química , Androstenodióis/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Caprilatos/química , Caprilatos/metabolismo , Fraxinus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Androstenodióis/toxicidade , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Juglans/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Quercus/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 271, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites and phytochemicals that exhibit strong bioactivities have potential to be developed as safe and efficient natural antimicrobials against food contamination and addressing antimicrobial resistance caused by the overuse of chemical synthetic preservative. In this study, the chemical composition, antibacterial activities and related mechanism of the extracts of the valonia and the shell of Quercus variabilis Blume were studied to determine its potential as a safe and efficient natural antimicrobial. METHODS: The phenolic compositions of valonia and shell extracts were determined by folin-ciocalteau colourimetric method, sodium borohydride/chloranil-based assay and the aluminium chloride method and then further identified by the reverse-phase HPLC analysis. The antibacterial activities of valonia and shell extracts were evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method and agar dilution method. The related antibacterial mechanism was explored successively by the membrane of pathogens effect, phosphorous metabolism, whole-cell proteins and the microbial morphology under scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The n-butanol fraction and water fraction of valonia along with n-butanol fraction of the shell contains enrich phenolics including ellagic acid, theophylline, caffeic acid and tannin acid. The n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia exhibited strong antibacterial activities against Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with the DIZ values ranged from 10.89 ± 0.12 to 15.92 ± 0.44, which were greater than that of the Punica granatum (DIZ: 10.22 ± 0.18 and 10.30 ± 0.21). The MIC values of the n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia against S. paratyphi A and S. aureus were 1.25 mg/ml and 0.625 mg/ml. The related antibacterial mechanism of n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia may be attributed to their strong impact on membrane permeability and cellular metabolism. Those extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity according to inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins and seriously change morphological structure of bacterial cells. CONCLUSIONS: The n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia had reasonably good antibacterial activities against S. paratyphi A and S. aureus. This study suggests possible application of valonia and shell as natural antimicrobials or preservatives for food and medical application.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercus/química , Salmonella paratyphi A/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella paratyphi A/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Environ Entomol ; 48(6): 1277-1285, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603500

RESUMO

The recently described oak gall wasp Zapatella davisae Buffington & Melika (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) has caused extensive damage and mortality to black oak trees, Quercus velutina L. (Fagales: Fagaceae), in coastal parts of New England, United States. Like many newly described and/or newly introduced species, it is unclear how long populations of Z. davisae have existed in this region. However, as this species forms galls on the woody-tissue of its host, it may be possible to obtain historical information about changes in its population size by examining the presence of galls in relation to annual growth nodes. Here, we explore the utility of this approach to determine population size changes in Z. davisae densities on Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and Cape Cod, Massachusetts, through dissection of black oak branches. In addition, we calculated parasitism rates during the years of study and obtained morphological and molecular identifications for the parasitoids associated with Z. davisae. Our results show significant changes in population sizes, with higher levels of parasitism at sites on Martha's Vineyard and Cape Cod compared to sites on Nantucket. In addition, morphological examinations, in combination with DNA sequencing, identified the associated parasitoids as five species in the genus Sycophila Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). We comment that considerable morphological variation within several of these recovered species was observed, present the first record of males for a species from which only females have been described, and suggest that future work is required to clarify the species boundaries for this important parasitoid group.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Quercus , Vespas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Massachusetts
16.
Comput Biol Chem ; 83: 107117, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581032

RESUMO

Previous studies of the Internal Transcribed Spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) in sections Quercus (white oaks), Protobalanus (intermediate or golden cup oaks), Cerris (Cerris oaks), and Ilex (Ilex oaks) suggest that ITS regions undergo full concerted evolution in oaks; however, ITS evolution patterns in red oaks (section Lobatae) are unknown due to scant representation in published work. To determine whether full concerted evolution occurs in red oaks, the purpose of this study was to examine ITS sequences from 40 red oak species. The results show incomplete concerted evolution and the presence of three ITS ribotypes of lengths 505, 609, 601 bp, hereafter referred to as ITS-S (small), I ITS-M (medium), and ITS-L (large), respectively. Thirty species had only one ribotype (ITS-M), nine species had two ribotypes (different combinations of ITS-L, ITS-M, and ITS-S), and only one species had all three ribotypes. Furthermore, examination of these three ribotypes showed that only ITS-M is putatively functional and ITS-L and ITS-S are pseudogenes. Bayesian analysis strongly supported (100%) two pseudogenes clades but provided weak support for the monophyly of a putative functional clade (ITS-M); moreover, within the "functional" clade, species relationships were uncertain and, in most cases, sequences from the same species failed to group together. The results of the current study suggest that ITS may not be appropriate for phylogeny reconstruction of red oaks due to low levels of interspecific variation and incomplete concerted evolution.


Assuntos
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Quercus/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Clonagem Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3154-3160, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560616

RESUMO

Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death (SOD), kills tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) trees in southwestern Oregon and California. Two lineages of P. ramorum are now found in wildland forests of Oregon (NA1 and EU1). In addition to the management of SOD in forest ecosystems, disease resistance could be used as a way to mitigate the impact of P. ramorum. The objectives of this study were to (i) characterize the variability in resistance of N. densiflorus among families using lesion length; (ii) determine whether lineage, isolate, family, or their interactions significantly affect variation in lesion length; and (iii) determine whether there are differences among isolates and among families in terms of lesion length. The parameters isolate nested within lineage (isolate[lineage]) and family × isolate(lineage) interaction explained the majority of the variation in lesion length. There was no significant difference between the NA1 and EU1 lineages in terms of mean lesion length; however, there were differences among the six isolates. Lesions on seedlings collected from surviving trees at infested sites were smaller, on average, than lesions of seedlings collected from trees at noninfested sites (P = 0.0064). The results indicate that there is potential to establish a breeding program for tanoak resistance to SOD and that several isolates of P. ramorum should be used in an artificial inoculation assay.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Quercus , California , Resistência à Doença , Oregon , Phytophthora/classificação , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Quercus/parasitologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4105, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511523

RESUMO

Prehistoric human activities were likely influenced by cyclic monsoon climate changes in East Asia. Here we report a decadal-resolution Holocene pollen record from an annually-laminated Maar Lake in Northeast China, a proxy of monsoon climate, together with a compilation of 627 radiocarbon dates from archeological sites in Northeast China which is a proxy of human activity. The results reveal synchronous ~500-year quasi-periodic changes over the last 8000 years. The warm-humid/cold-dry phases of monsoon cycles correspond closely to the intensification/weakening of human activity and the flourishing/decline of prehistoric cultures. Six prosperous phases of prehistoric cultures, with one exception, correspond approximately to warm-humid phases caused by a strengthened monsoon. This ~500-year cyclicity in the monsoon and thus environmental change triggered the development of prehistoric cultures in Northeast China. The cyclicity is apparently linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, against the background of long-term Holocene climatic evolution. These findings reveal a pronounced relationship between prehistoric human activity and cyclical climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Atividades Humanas , Estações do Ano , Radioisótopos de Carbono , China , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Lagos , Pólen/fisiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Quercus/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Biol Lett ; 15(9): 20190428, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551066

RESUMO

Parasites of animals and plants can encounter trade-offs between their specificity to any single host and their fitness on alternative hosts. For parasites that manipulate their host's behaviour, the added complexity of that manipulation may further limit the parasite's host range. However, this is rarely tested. The recently described crypt-keeper wasp, Euderus set, changes the behaviour of the gall wasp Bassettia pallida such that B. pallida chews a significantly smaller exit hole in the side of its larval chamber and 'plugs' that hole with its head before dying. Euderus set benefits from this head plug, as it facilitates the escape of the parasitoid from the crypt after it completes development. Here, we find direct and indirect evidence that E. set attacks and manipulates the behaviour of at least six additional gall wasp species, and that these hosts are taxonomically diverse. Interestingly, each of E. set's hosts has converged upon similarities in their extended phenotypes: the galls they induce on oaks share characters that may make them vulnerable to attack by E. set. The specialization required to behaviourally manipulate hosts may be less important in determining the range of hosts in this parasitoid system than other dimensions of the host-parasitoid interaction, like the host's physical defences.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Quercus , Vespas , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva
20.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109509, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509789

RESUMO

We studied competitive adsorption for the tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) on three bio-adsorbents (mussel shell, oak wood ash, and pine bark). The results were compared for individual systems (with antibiotics added separately) and ternary systems (with all three antibiotics added simultaneously). In all cases batch-type experiments were carried out, with 24 h of contact time. In the individual systems, concentrations of 200 µmol L-1 were used for each of the three antibiotics, separately. In the ternary system, all three TCs were added simultaneously, using the following total concentrations: 50, 100, 200, 400, 600 µmol L-1, each antibiotic being 1/3 of the total. Taking into account that ionic strength of a solution is related to a measure of the concentration of ions in that solution, the use of individual and ternary systems allows to compare, for each antibiotic, systems having equal concentrations and similar ionic strength (concentrations of 200 µmol L-1), and systems having different concentrations and ionic strength (200 µmol L-1 in the individual systems, and 600 µmol L-1 in the ternary systems, resulting from the sum of 200 µmol L-1 corresponding to each of the three antibiotics). Adsorption/desorption results indicated that these processes were in all cases closely related to pH values, and to carbon and non-crystalline minerals contents in the bio-adsorbents. Both oak ash and pine bark adsorbed close to 100% of TCs in individual and ternary systems, with desorption <4% for oak ash, and <12% for pine bark. However, mussel shell gave clearly poorer results, only relatively acceptable for CTC, with adsorption <56% and desorption even >30% for TC and OTC. In view of the results, oak ash and pine bark can be recommended as effective bio-adsorbents for the three TCs studied, and could be useful to retain/inactive them in wastes, and soil or liquid media receiving these emerging pollutants, thus reducing risks of damage for public health and the environment.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Clortetraciclina , Oxitetraciclina , Quercus , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos , Casca de Planta , Tetraciclina
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