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1.
Harefuah ; 160(9): 559-564, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy prior radical cystectomy is the standard of care in patients with a muscle invasive bladder cancer. It is intended to treat micro-metastases. However, most patients do not develop metastases even without chemotherapy and are receiving this treatment in vain. In this study, we looked for pre-operative risk factors for developing metastases that can triage the patients that really need neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: From 1998 to 2018, 285 patients underwent radical cystectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. During a median follow-up of 42.5 months, 99 patients (34%) developed recurrent disease after a median duration of 12 months. The study compared 10 different preoperative parameters of patients who developed or did not develop recurrence. RESULTS: An increased risk of metastases was found in older patients (39.8% in older than 69 years vs. 33.3% in younger patients, p=0.045), in patients with a high Charlson Comorbidity index (46.2% in 5 and above vs. 28.2% when lower than 4, p=0.003), and in patients with large tumor diameter (p=0.01). No difference was found in the other variables examined including: gender, primary versus secondary tumor, tumor stage, presence of histological variant, hydronephrosis, carcinoma in situ (CIS) or sarcomatoid differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, comorbidity, and large tumor diameter predict the risk of recurrence after radical cystectomy. However, overlap between the groups precludes the use of these parameters for clinical decisions. Therefore, neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment should currently be offered to all candidates for radical cystectomy. Hopefully, future molecular markers will be able to predict the risk of metastases.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cistectomia , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4603-4607, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Niraparib is effective against epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but with adverse effects. In this study, we retrospectively investigated niraparib maintenance treatment feasibility in Korean patients newly diagnosed with EOC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 35 patients were reviewed. Data on the baseline clinical characteristics were collected, and adverse effects were described. RESULTS: Sixteen patients underwent treatment suspension or dose reduction. There was no significant difference in adverse effects (A/E) due to the interval between adjuvant chemotherapy conclusion and niraparib initiation. The two groups had similar International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages. The number of patients with a history of bevacizumab use was higher in the dose modification group than in the standard dose group. CONCLUSION: Niraparib use must be considered in those previously treated with bevacizumab. There is a need for prospective research on lower dose (<200 mg) treatments in patients with risk factors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Redução da Medicação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4645-4650, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous reports have indicated that increased expression of Jagged-1 (JAG1) may predict chemotherapy response and poor prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the clinical impact of JAG1 expression level in patients with CRC, including recurrence, especially in those diagnosed with lymph node-positive stage III CRC who underwent complete resection and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients were enrolled through a retrospective chart review, and only those for whom the clinical course and all clinical information were adequately determined according to the inclusion criteria were selected for retrospective review through medical records. Immunohistochemical staining of JAG1 was performed using paraffin-embedded tissue. JAG1 expression was determined by scoring for staining intensity and percentage of positively stained cells; the final JAG1 score was determined as the sum of both scores. RESULTS: Sixteen patients who experienced relapse and 15 without (for over 3 years) were selected. The protein expression level of JAG1 showed a tendency for being lower in the group without recurrence, although not statistically significantly (p=0.083); however, the mean JAG1 expression score was significantly lower in the group without recurrence (1.53 vs. 3.19; p=0.004). The patients were divided into two groups with low and high JAG1 expression. The results showed that high JAG1 expression was significantly associated with recurrence of stage III CRC (p=0.029). CONCLUSION: The expression of JAG1 may be a potential novel biomarker for predicting CRC recurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 741-748, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530553

RESUMO

In recent years, the treatment strategy of locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) has changed from surgery alone to multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment (MDT) based on surgery. Many evidences have shown that perioperative therapy can improve the survival of most patients with late-stage LAGC compared to surgery combined with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is still a lack of standards and guidelines for precise preoperative staging, indications of perioperative neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, and regimen selection. Based on relevant literature and clinical practice, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery combined with Gastric Cancer Association, China Anti-Cancer Association took the lead and organized multidisciplinary experts to discuss, and finally formulate this expert consensus. This consensus aims to improve surgeons' and physicians' cognition on the MDT of LAGC, especially for doctors in primary hospitals; to clarify the preoperative staging, the indication and regimen selection of perioperative neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy; so as to improve the diagnosis and treatment level of gastric cancer and the prognosis of LAGC in China. The level of evidence and recommendation of this consensus is determined by the criteria of Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , China , Consenso , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
5.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 775-782, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530558

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the current adherence to imatinib in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in China and its influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Study period: from October 1, 2020 to November 31, 2020. Study subjects: GIST patients taking imatinib who were diagnosed and treated in public tertiary level A general hospitals or oncology hospitals; those who had not been pathologically diagnosed, those who never received imatinib, or those who had taken imatinib in the past but stopped afterwards were excluded. The Questionnaire Star online surgery platform was used to design a questionnaire about the adherence to adjuvant imatinib therapy of Chinese GIST patients. The link of questionnaire was sent through WeChat. The questionnaire contained basic information of patients, medication status and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results: A total of 2162 questionnaires from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities were collected, of which 2005 were valid questionnaires, with an effective rate of 92.7%. The survey subjects included 1104 males and 901 females, with a median age of 56 (22-91) years old. Working status: 609 cases (30.4%) in the work unit, 729 cases (36.4%) of retirement, 667 cases of flexible employment or unemployment (33.3%). Education level: 477 cases (23.8%) with bachelor degree or above, 658 cases (32.8%) of high school, 782 cases (39.0%) of elementary or junior high school, 88 cases (4.4%) without education. Marital status: 1789 cases (89.2%) were married, 179 cases (8.9%) divorced or widowed, 37 cases (1.8%) unmarried. Two hundred and ninety-four patients (14.7%) had metastasis when they were first diagnosed, including 203 liver metastases, 52 peritoneal metastases, and 39 other metastases. One thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine patients underwent surgical treatment, of whom 1642 (81.9%) achieved complete resection. The median time of taking imatinib was 25 (1-200) months. Common adverse reactions of imatinib included 1701 cases (84.8%) of periorbital edema, 1031 cases (51.4%) of leukopenia, 948 cases (47.3%) of fatigue, 781 cases (39.0%) of nausea and vomiting, 709 cases (35.4%) of rash, and 670 cases (33.4%) of lower extremity edema. The score of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale showed that 392 cases (19.6%) had poor adherence, 1023 cases (51.0%) had moderate adherence, and 590 cases (29.4%) had good adherence. Univariate analysis showed that gender, age, work status, economic income, residence, education level, marriage, the duration of taking medication and adverse reactions were associated with adherence to adjuvant imatinib therapy (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that female (OR=1.264, P=0.009), non-retirement (OR=1.454, P=0.001), monthly income ≤4000 yuan (OR=1.280, P=0.036), township residents (OR=1.332, P=0.005), unmarried or divorced or widowed (OR=1.362, P=0.026), the duration of imatinib medication >36 months (OR=1.478, P<0.001) and adverse reactions (OR=1.719, P=0.048) were independent risk factors for poor adherence to adjuvant imatinib. Among patients undergoing complete resection, 324 (19.7%) had poor adherence, 836 (50.9%) had moderate adherence, and 482 (29.4%) had good adherence. Meanwhile, 55 patients with good adherence (11.4%) developed recurrence after surgery, 121 patients with moderate adherence (14.5%) developed recurrence, 61 patients with poor adherence (18.8%) developed recurrence, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.017). Conclusions: The adherence to adjuvant therapy with imatinib in Chinese GIST patients is relatively poor. Females, non-retirement, monthly income ≤4000 yuan, township residents, unmarried or divorced or widowed, the duration of imatinib medication >36 months, and adverse reactions are independently associated with poor adherence of GIST patients. Those with poor adherence have a higher risk of recurrence after surgery. Positive interventions based on the above risk factors are advocated to improve the prognosis of patients with GIST.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico
6.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 272, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether the addition of taxanes to platinum and fluoropyrimidines in adjuvant chemotherapy would result in longer survival than platinum plus fluoropyrimidines in gastric cancer patients who received D2 gastrectomy. METHODS: Data of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who received D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with platinum plus fluoropyrimidines or taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines was retrospectively collected and analyzed. 1:1 Propensity score matching analysis was used to balance baseline characteristics between two groups. Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-five patients in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group and 177 patients in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group were included into analysis. No statistical differences in disease-free survival and overall survival were observed between two groups. After propensity score matching, 172 couples of patients were matched, the baseline characteristics were balanced. The median disease-free survival were 15.8 months (95% CI, 9.3~22.4) in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group and 22.6 months (95% CI, 15.9~29.4) in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (HR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48~0.85; P = 0.002). The median overall survival was 25.4 months for patients in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (95% CI, 19.4~31.3) and 33.8 months (95% CI, 23.5~44.2) for those in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.87; log-rank test, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: For gastric adenocarcinoma patients, the adjuvant triplet combination of taxanes, platinum, and fluoropyrimidines regimen after D2 gastrectomy was superior to platinum plus fluoropyrimidines regimen in disease-free survival as well as overall survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This project has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR1800019978 ).


Assuntos
Platina , Neoplasias Gástricas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico
7.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 651-658, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503725

RESUMO

Adjuvant therapy plays an integral role in the treatment algorithm for stage III and stage IV cutaneous melanoma. Current ongoing clinical trials are exploring the effects of neoadjuvant therapeutics, specifically for the presurgical treatment of high-risk, borderline resectable disease. In both the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings, the early chemotherapeutic and biochemical antitumor agents are making way to newer immune therapies, mutation-specific targeted therapies, and oncolytic vaccines that are transforming the treatment of malignant melanoma. The use of these systemic therapies in addition to surgical resection has been shown to increase both overall and progression-free survival.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 282, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348686

RESUMO

AIM: We aim to evaluate the reproductive outcome of fertility-sparing surgery and chemotherapy among young women diagnosed with MOGCT of any stage. METHODS: In the current retrospective study we evaluated 79 patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT) who visited at Imam Center, Vali-e-asr Hospital, Gynecologic Oncology department during 2001-2016. Reproductive outcomes (menstruation status and childbearing) followed fertility-preserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy by filling questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software, Chi-Square Tests were done, and significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. Results among 79 young women who underwent fertility-sparing treatment, 72 patients followed up for reproductive outcome, and 7 patients excluded because of death (3 cases), XY genotyping (3 cases), and bilateral ovarian involvement (1 case). The mean age at presentation was 23 years. (Range: 19-33 years). The 5 and 10-year disease-free survival rate was 87% and 94.4%, respectively. The overall survival rate (OSR) was 94.4% at 5 and 10 years. Regular menstruation recovered in 60 of 72 patients after treatment (83%). All patients without adjuvant chemotherapy experienced regular menstruation, while normal menstruation was retrieved in 78% in the adjuvant chemotherapy group at the end of treatment. This retrieval of regular menstruation was not dependent on the age or number of chemotherapy cycles. 19 of 26 patients who attempted pregnancy were led to delivery (73%). No one required infertility treatments. The mean of chemotherapy cycles is related to a successful pregnancy. CONCLUSION: We showed patients with MOGCT could become pregnant and give birth if they desire. The advanced tumor stage wasn't the convincing factor for avoiding fertility preservation. Fertility sparing surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy is a safe treatment and results in a high fertility rate.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(10): 5730-5741, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is considered more effective in downstaging hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer than neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET), particularly in node-positive disease. This study compared breast and axillary response and survival after NCT and NET in HR+ breast cancer. METHODS: Based on American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1031 criteria, women age 50 years or older with cT2-4 HR+ breast cancer who underwent NET or NCT and surgery were identified in the National Cancer Database 2010-2016. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis determined differences between the NCT and NET groups and therapy response, including downstaging and pathologic complete response (pCR, ypT0/is and ypN0). RESULTS: Of 19,829 patients, 14,025 (70.7%) received NCT and 5804 (29.3%) received NET. The NET patients were older (mean age, 68.9 vs. 60.3; P < 0.001) and had greater comorbidity (1+ Charlson-Deyo score, 21% vs. 16%; P < 0.001). Therapy achieved T downstaging (any) for 58% of the patients with NCT versus 40.5% of the patients with NET, and in-breast pCR was achieved for 9.3% of the NCT versus 1.3% of the NET patients (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the mastectomy procedures could have been potentially avoided for the patients with in-breast pCR (53.6% of the NCT and 43.8% of the NET patients). For the cN+ patients, N downstaging (any) was 29% for the NCT patients versus 18.3% for the NET patients (P < 0.001), and nodal pCR was achieved for 20.3% of the NCT versus 13.5% of the NET patients (P < 0.001). Among those with nodal pCR, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) still was performed for 56% of the patients after NCT and 45% of the patients after NET. CONCLUSIONS: Although the response rates after NCT were higher, NET achieved both T and N downstaging and pCR. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy can be used to de-escalate surgery for patients who cannot tolerate NCT or when chemotherapy may not be effective based on genomic testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26949, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian function suppressor (OFS) plus either tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitor (AI) could improve the survival outcome for premenopausal hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer. However, the optimal OFS-based regimen and medication duration remain uncertain. This article aims to systematically evaluate the OFS-based adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal breast cancer. METHODS: We searched several public databases from January 1980 to November 2020. A random model was adopted in this meta-analysis. We used the hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the statistical analysis of efficacy. The primary outcome measures included overall survival and disease-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 32 articles with 37,224 cases were included in this network meta-analysis. OFS+TAM improved 5-year disease-free survival (HR -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.01) and 5-year overall survival (HR -0.18, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.03) compared with TAM monotherapy. For OFS+AI, although the 5-year disease-free survival was improved (HR -0.18, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.08), the 5-year overall survival was not improved (HR -0.13, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.18). In subgroup analysis, both OFS+AI and OFS+TAM showed a protective effect in stage I-III patients compared with stage I-II patients. For the course of therapy, OFS+TAM for 2-years could achieve clinical benefit and the best course of therapy of OFS+AI still waits for further study. CONCLUSIONS: OFS+TAM might be a better option than OFS+AI for premenopausal intensive adjuvant endocrine therapy. Stage III patients are more suitable for the OFS-based therapy. For the medication duration, the 2-years course of OFS+TAM could be effective. This analysis provides helpful information for selecting therapeutic regimen in intensive adjuvant endocrine therapy and identifying the target population.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Metanálise em Rede , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1125): 20210520, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Axillary lymph node status assessment has always been an important issue in clinical treatment of breast cancer. However, there has been no effective method to accurately predict the pathological complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The objective of our study was to investigate whether conventional ultrasonography combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) can be used to evaluate axillary lymph node status of breast cancer patients after NAC. METHODS: A total of 74 patients who underwent NAC were recruited for the present study. Prior to and after NAC, examinations of conventional ultrasonography and CEUS were performed. After evaluating the images of conventional ultrasonography, four characteristics were recorded: lymph node medulla boundary, cortex of lymph node, lymph node hilus, and lymph node aspect ratio. Two additional imaging characteristics of CEUS were analyzed: CEUS way and CEUS pattern. Receiver operating characteristiccurve analysis was applied to evaluate their diagnostic performance. RESULTS: After 6~8 cycles of NAC, 46 (71.9%) patients had negative axillary lymph node, and 18 (28.1%) patients turned out non-pCR. According to statistical analysis, lymph node medulla, lymph node aspect ratio and CEUS way were independently associated with pCR of axillary lymph node after NAC. The area under the curve of the prediction model with three imaging characteristics was 0.882 (95% confidence interval: 0.608-0.958), and the accuracy to predict the patients' lymph node status was 78.1% (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Conventional ultrasonography combined with CEUS technology can accurately predict axillary lymph nodes status of breast cancer patients after NAC. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The usefulness of CEUS technology in predicting pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is highlighted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Axila , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404642

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the urinary tract are rare, and the urinary bladder is the the most common primary site. Primary ureteric NET is rarer with under 80 cases reported in the literature thus far. Most of these tumours are of the high-grade small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma subtype, which has a worse prognosis. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has a proven role in the management of NET of the bladder as it downstages the tumour, which may add to significant recurrence-free survival and overall survival. We report the successful management of a patient with locally advanced small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ureter, who had a pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin. He subsequently received adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation and is recurrence-free at a follow-up of 1 year.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino , Ureter , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/radioterapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27031, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449480

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To determine whether exposure to antidepressants (ATDs) results in improved overall survival (OS) of patients with gastric cancer (GC) after surgery, we conducted a large cohort study and considered confounding factors that might affect the research outcomes.Patients who received a new diagnosis of GC and received surgery and chemotherapy between 1999 and 2008 were recruited and were classified into different groups based on the ATD level used. The association between the OS of patients with GC after surgery with different levels of ATD use, and the hazard ratio with comorbidities at different ATD use levels were compared.According to Kaplan-Meier method, the more of an ATD was taken, the longer the OS and a dose-dependent relationship was discovered in the OS curve; the adjusted HRs were 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68-0.84) and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.41-0.57) for ATD users taking a cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD) of 28-167 and ≧168, respectively. Sensitivity analyzes were performed to investigate the effect of various comorbidities on OS with different degrees of ATD use and the results remained consistent among the varying models. Additionally, the effect of ATD use still exhibited a dose-dependent relationship in distinct stratifications for sex and age.The OS for patients with GC after surgery and chemotherapy improved with ATD use, and a dose-dependent relationship was discovered in this study. Further studies on the association between OS of GC and ATD use are required.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Comorbidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e27023, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414997

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Induction chemotherapy (IC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) are used to enhance tumor locoregional control and support early treatment for distant metastases. However, optimum combinatorial treatment of these chemoradiotherapy regimens with radiotherapy in curing locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and therapeutic outcome of a combinatorial treatment strategy involving IC, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and AC, by retrospectively analyzing 243 NPC patients who were treated by IC followed by IMRT and AC. The rates of 3-/5-year local-regional control rate, distant failure-free rate (DFFR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 93.3%/90.3%, 84.2%/79.4%, 79.6%/74.4%, and 84.0%/72.6%, respectively. The 3-/5-year OS rates of patients in stage III or IVA were 91.5%/75.1% and 86.5%/56.5%, respectively. Combination cisplatin with paclitaxel showed no significance in OS as compared to cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (P-value = .17). Total four-cycle IC and AC was significantly beneficious versus three-cycle in DFFR (P-value = .04), as well as total 6 chemotherapy cycles compared to 4 in DFFR and PFS (P-value = .03 and P-value = .01, respectively). All survival indicators were adversely affected by T-category, while N-category could only predict DFFR and PFS. Radiation dosage represented as a second prognostic factor for local control. We propose that IC combined with IMRT and AC for locoregionally advanced NPC shows effective treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Quimioterapia de Indução/normas , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/normas , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Quimioterapia de Indução/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over half of the 1.5 million individuals globally who are diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with stage II-III disease. Understanding clinician attitudes towards treatment for this group is paramount to contextualise real-world outcomes and plan future trials. The aim of this study was to assess clinician awareness of trials assessing the optimal duration of CRC adjuvant therapy, their attitudes towards shorter treatment and their self-reported practice. METHODS: A survey was developed using OnlineSurveys® and distributed to clinicians in April 2019, with a follow-up survey disseminated to a subset of respondents in August 2020. Microsoft Excel® and Stata® were used for analysis. RESULTS: 265 clinicians replied to the first survey, with the majority aware of findings from the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy collaboration and contributory trials. Practice change was greatest for patients under 70 with low-risk stage III CRC, with most uncertainty around using 3-months of doublet chemotherapy for high-risk stage II disease. In August 2020, clinicians (n = 106) were more likely to use 3-months of FOLFOX for low-risk stage III disease and 3-months of CAPOX for stage II disease compared to April 2019. There was no indication that the COVID-19 pandemic had enduring changes on treatment decisions beyond those made in response to trial evidence. DISCUSSION: Clinicians use a risk-stratified approach to treat CRC the adjuvant setting. Lower utilisation of doublet chemotherapy for older and stage II patients has affected the extent of trial implementation. Active dialogue regarding how trial results apply to these groups may improve consensus.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Oncologistas , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
18.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21834, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403553

RESUMO

Two distinct genetic mutational pathways characterized by either chromosomal instability or high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) are recognized in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently, it has been shown that patients with primary CRC that displays MSI-H have a significant, stage-independent, multivariate survival advantage. Biological properties of CMS1 (MSI-H type) can affect therapeutic efficiencies of agents used in the treatment of CRC, and therefore become a new predictive factor of the treatment. But, the predictive impact of MSI-H status for adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial. This study will assess whether there is any unnecessary or inappropriate use of treatment agents recommended for adjuvant therapy of stage 2 and 3 of disease and for palliative or curative treatment of liver metastatic disease in microsatellite instability high group, a molecular subtype of colon cancer. Within this scope, the efficiencies of fluorouracil- and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic agents will be shown on stage 3 microsatellite instability high colon tumor cell lines first, and then a microfluidic model will be created, imitating the metastasis of colon cancer to the liver. In the microfluidic chip model, we will create in liver tissue, where the metastasis of microsatellite instability high colon cancer will be simulated; the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, immunotherapy agents, and targeted agents on tumor cells as well as drug response will be assessed according to cell viability through released biomarkers from the cells. The proposed hypothesis study includes the modeling and treatment of patient-derived post-metastatic liver cancer in microfluidics which has priority at the global and our region and consequently develop personal medication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Modelos Biológicos , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico
19.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 375-382, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402250

RESUMO

To investigate whether chemotherapy could prolong the postoperative survival time in patients with early stages pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A total of 5280 stage ⅠA -ⅡB PDAC patients diagnosed from 2010 to 2015 were selected from surveillance,epidemiology,and end results (SEER) database. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was adopted to reduce the baseline differences between the groups. Univariate survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate survival analysis was performed with the Cox proportional hazards model. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses showed that age, differentiation, stage, chemotherapy were independent risk factors for the survival of PDAC patients. After PSM, it is found that adjuvant chemotherapy could prolong the median overall survival time (mOS) for stage ⅠB, ⅡA and ⅡB patients. However, for stage ⅠA patients, there were no significant differences in 3-year survival rate and mOS between patients with chemotherapy (=283) and without chemotherapy (=229) (57.4% vs 55.6%, vs all >0.05). Further analyses show that among 101 patients with well differentiated PDAC and 294 patients with moderately differentiated PDAC, there were no significant differences in survival rate and mOS between patients with and without chemotherapy (all >0.05). Among 117 patients with low-differentiated + undifferentiated PDAC, 3-year survival rate and mOS in patients with chemotherapy were significantly better than those without chemotherapy (48.5% vs 34.1%, vs all <0.05). Chemotherapy regimen used currently is not beneficial for patients with moderately and well differentiated stage ⅠA PDAC, but it is an independent prognostic factor for low-differentiated + undifferentiated PDAC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão
20.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 238, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only 50-70% of elderly colon cancer patients could complete the recommended 6 months of postoperative chemotherapy. It is unknown whether a shorter duration of postoperative capecitabine-alone chemotherapy would compromise survival. We thus conducted this study to analyze the association between postoperative chemotherapy duration of a capecitabine-alone regimen and cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of surgery-treated elderly colon cancer patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of surgically treated stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer patients aged ≥ 70 treated at two medical centers. Cox proportional hazard regression models were utilized to calculate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). The nonlinear relationship between postoperative chemotherapy duration and survival was analyzed through restricted cubic spline regression analysis, and the threshold effect was calculated by the two-piecewise Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: A total of 1217 surgery-treated colon cancer patients between August 1, 2013, and September 1, 2019, were reviewed, and 257 stage III and high-risk stage II patients aged ≥ 70 were enrolled. Postoperative chemotherapy with capecitabine was administered to 114 patients, and 143 patients only received surgery. As the duration of chemotherapy increased by 1 week, the risk of cancer-specific death was reduced by 11% (HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.96), and the risk of recurrence was reduced by 10% (HR = 0.90, 0.82-0.96). Nonlinearity exploration suggested a threshold effect of capecitabine duration on CSS in stage III disease. The HR for death was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92) with duration ≤ 16 weeks and 1.34 (95% CI, 0.91-1.97) with duration > 16 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative capecitabine duration was significantly associated with a decrease in death risk and recurrence risk in elderly colon cancer patients. However, the threshold effect of capecitabine duration on survival suggests that short-term chemotherapy may improve survival in elderly stage III colon cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Fluoruracila , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Capecitabina , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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