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1.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 15(1): 97, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by chemotherapy are important factors in the onset of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Studies have shown that mitochondria derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Mito) are beneficial for age-related diseases, but their efficacy alone is limited. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a potent antioxidant with significant antiaging and fertility enhancement effects. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of MSC-Mito in combination with PQQ on POI and the underlying mechanisms involved. METHODS: A POI animal model was established in C57BL/6J mice by cyclophosphamide and busulfan. The effects of MSC-Mito and PQQ administration on the estrous cycle, ovarian pathological damage, sex hormone secretion, and oxidative stress in mice were evaluated using methods such as vaginal smears and ELISAs. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of SIRT1, PGC-1α, and ATM/p53 pathway proteins in ovarian tissues. A cell model was constructed using KGN cells treated with phosphoramide mustard to investigate DNA damage and apoptosis through comet assays and flow cytometry. SIRT1 siRNA was transfected into KGN cells to further explore the role of the SIRT1/ATM/p53 pathway in combination therapy with MSC-Mito and PQQ for POI. RESULTS: The combined treatment of MSC-Mito and PQQ significantly restored ovarian function and antioxidant capacity in mice with POI. This treatment also reduced the loss of follicles at various stages, improving the disrupted estrous cycle. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PQQ facilitated the proliferation of MitoTracker-labelled MSC-Mito, synergistically restoring mitochondrial function and inhibiting oxidative stress in combination with MSC-Mito. Both in vivo and in vitro, the combination of MSC-Mito and PQQ increased mitochondrial biogenesis mediated by SIRT1 and PGC-1α while inhibiting the activation of ATM and p53, consequently reducing DNA damage-mediated cell apoptosis. Furthermore, pretreatment of KGN cells with SIRT1 siRNA reversed nearly all the aforementioned changes induced by the combined treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our research findings indicate that PQQ facilitates MSC-Mito proliferation and, in combination with MSC-Mito, ameliorates chemotherapy-induced POI through the SIRT1/ATM/p53 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Feminino , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Cofator PQQ/metabolismo , Cofator PQQ/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo
2.
Arch Esp Urol ; 77(2): 193-201, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is associated with various malignant tumors. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) play a significant part in the event and development of prostate cancer. Dishevelled segment polarity protein 3 (DVL3) is a shared component of the Wnt/ß-catenin and Notch signaling pathways, which are involved in tumor progression, chemoresistance, and maintenance of stem cell-like properties. According to reports, prostatic cancer cell invasion and proliferation are mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the role and regulation of DVL3 in prostate cancer and its relationship with TLR4 remain unclear. METHODS: Survival curves were plotted to evaluate the relationship between DVL3 expression and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer. DVL3 was silenced in PC3 and DU145 cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Subsequently, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay, transwell migration assay, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to investigate the role of DVL3 in cell proliferation and migration in vitro. The protein markers of potential pathways were analyzed via western blotting. RESULTS: DVL3 expression was linked to prognosis in patients with prostate cancer; In particular, patients with high DVL3 expression had a poor prognosis. LPS stimulation increased (p < 0.01) the expression of DVL3 in PC3 cells. DVL3 regulated tumor cell proliferation and migration by mediating the increase (p < 0.01) in TLR4 expression. Knockout of TLR4 validated that TLR4 played a crucial role in LPS-induced DVL3 expression. Silencing of DVL3 decreased (p < 0.01) the LPS-induced proliferation and migration of PC3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial LPS-induced DVL3 promoted the multiplication and migration of prostate cancer cells through the TLR4 pathway. This study offers a valuable reference for the development and clinical application of targeted drugs for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Próstata/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/metabolismo
3.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(1): 30-35, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the mechanism of SETDB1 inhibiting epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT),migration and invasion in oral cancer via SOX 7 methylation. METHODS: SETDB1 and SOX7 mRNA and protein expression levels in KB cells of oral cancer and oral mucosal epithelial ATCC cells were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot (WB). SETDB1 si-RNA was structured, then transfect into KB cells of oral cancer by liposome-mediated method. siRNA-SETDB1 was the experimental group (si-S), siRNA empty vector was the negative control group (si-N), and untransfected KB cells were the blank control group(NC). SETDB1 mRNA and protein expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot(WB), to verify the transfection effect. The methylation levels of SOX7 were determined by pyrosequencing. The expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, ß-catenin, and Slug proteins was detected by WB. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, migration ability was tested by scratch healing assay, and invasion ability was tested by Transwell chamber assay. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 21.0 software package. RESULTS: The results of Rt-qPCR and WB showed that the SETDB1 mRNA and protein expression decreased significantly in si-S group(P<0.05). Pyrosequencing test results showed that the regulation of SETDB1 could significantly reduce the SOX7 methylation rate and increased the SOX7 protein expression. WB results showed that knockdown of SETDB1 significantly inhibited the expression of EMT-related proteins N-cadherin, Vimentin, ß-catenin and Slug in oral cancer KB cells (P<0.05). The results of cell functology experiments showed that knockdown of SETDB1 could significantly inhibit survival, migration and invasion of KB cells. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of SETDB1 could suppress EMT, migration and invasion of oral cancer cells by regulating SOX7 methylation level, providing new ideas and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF , beta Catenina , Humanos , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Metilação , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo
4.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564479

RESUMO

Circulating lactate is a fuel source for liver metabolism but may exacerbate metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Indeed, haploinsufficiency of lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice reportedly promotes resistance to hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Here, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to deliver thyroxin binding globulin (TBG)-Cre or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (Lrat)-Cre to MCT1fl/fl mice on a choline-deficient, high-fat NASH diet to deplete hepatocyte or stellate cell MCT1, respectively. Stellate cell MCT1KO (AAV-Lrat-Cre) attenuated liver type 1 collagen protein expression and caused a downward trend in trichrome staining. MCT1 depletion in cultured human LX2 stellate cells also diminished collagen 1 protein expression. Tetra-ethylenglycol-cholesterol (Chol)-conjugated siRNAs, which enter all hepatic cell types, and hepatocyte-selective tri-N-acetyl galactosamine (GN)-conjugated siRNAs were then used to evaluate MCT1 function in a genetically obese NASH mouse model. MCT1 silencing by Chol-siRNA decreased liver collagen 1 levels, while hepatocyte-selective MCT1 depletion by AAV-TBG-Cre or by GN-siRNA unexpectedly increased collagen 1 and total fibrosis without effect on triglyceride accumulation. These findings demonstrate that stellate cell lactate transporter MCT1 significantly contributes to liver fibrosis through increased collagen 1 protein expression in vitro and in vivo, while hepatocyte MCT1 appears not to be an attractive therapeutic target for NASH.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8128, 2024 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584196

RESUMO

Fat loss predicts adverse outcomes in advanced heart failure (HF). Disrupted circadian clocks are a primary cause of lipid metabolic issues, but it's unclear if this disruption affects fat expenditure in HF. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of disruption of the BMAL1/REV-ERBα circadian rhythmic loop on adipose tissue metabolism in HF.50 Wistar rats were initially divided into control (n = 10) and model (n = 40) groups. The model rats were induced with HF via monocrotaline (MCT) injections, while the control group received equivalent solvent injections. After establishing the HF model, the model group was further subdivided into four groups: normal rhythm (LD), inverted rhythm (DL), lentivirus vector carrying Bmal1 short hairpin RNA (LV-Bmal1 shRNA), and empty lentivirus vector control (LV-Control shRNA) groups, each with 10 rats. The DL subgroup was exposed to a reversed light-dark cycle of 8 h: 16 h (dark: light), while the rest adhered to normal light-dark conditions (light: dark 12 h: 12 h). Histological analyses were conducted using H&E, Oil Red O, and Picrosirius red stains to examine adipose and liver tissues. Immunohistochemical staining, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting were performed to detect markers of lipolysis, lipogenesis, and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT), while thermogenesis indicators were detected in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The LD group rats exhibited decreased levels of BMAL1 protein, increased levels of REV-ERBα protein, and disrupted circadian circuits in adipose tissue compared to controls. Additionally, HF rats showed reduced adipose mass and increased ectopic lipid deposition, along with smaller adipocytes containing lower lipid content and fibrotic adipose tissue. In the LD group WAT, expression of ATGL, HSL, PKA, and p-PKA proteins increased, alongside elevated mRNA levels of lipase genes (Hsl, Atgl, Peripilin) and FFA ß-oxidation genes (Cpt1, acyl-CoA). Conversely, lipogenic gene expression (Scd1, Fas, Mgat, Dgat2) decreased, while beige adipocyte markers (Cd137, Tbx-1, Ucp-1, Zic-1) and UCP-1 protein expression increased. In BAT, HF rats exhibited elevated levels of PKA, p-PKA, and UCP-1 proteins, along with increased expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp-1, Pparγ, Pgc-1α) and lipid transportation genes (Cd36, Fatp-1, Cpt-1). Plasma NT-proBNP levels were higher in LD rats, accompanied by elevated NE and IL-6 levels in adipose tissue. Remarkably, morphologically, the adipocytes in the DL and LV-Bmal1 shRNA groups showed reduced size and lower lipid content, while lipid deposition in the liver was more pronounced in these groups compared to the LD group. At the gene/protein level, the BMAL1/REV-ERBα circadian loop exhibited severe disruption in LV-Bmal1 shRNA rats compared to LD rats. Additionally, there was increased expression of lipase genes, FFA ß oxidation genes, and beige adipocyte markers in WAT, as well as higher expression of thermogenic genes and lipid transportation genes in BAT. Furthermore, plasma NT-proBNP levels and adipose tissue levels of NE and IL-6 were elevated in LV-Bmal1 shRNA rats compared with LD rats. The present study demonstrates that disruption of the BMAL1/REV-ERBα circadian rhythmic loop is associated with fat expenditure in HF. This result suggests that restoring circadian rhythms in adipose tissue may help counteract disorders of adipose metabolism and reduce fat loss in HF.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Ratos , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Monocrotalina , Gastos em Saúde , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Lipídeos
6.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(4): e22107, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591567

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing is a feasible and sustainable technology for the management of hemipteran pests by double-stranded RNA involvement, including small-interfering RNA, microRNA, and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathways, that may help to decrease the usage of chemical insecticides. However, only a few data are available on the somatic piRNAs and their biogenesis genes in Riptortus pedestris, which serves as a significant pest of soybean (Glycine max). In this study, two family members of the PIWI gene were identified and characterized in R. pedestris, containing Argonaute3 (RpAgo3) and Aubergine (RpAub) genes with conserved protein domains, and their clusters were validated by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, they were widely expressed in all developmental stages of the whole body of R. pedestris and had lower expression levels in R. pedestris guts under different rearing conditions based on previous transcriptome sequencing. Furthermore, abundant clean reads were filtered to a total number of 45,998 piRNAs with uridine bias at the first nucleotide (nt) position and 26-32 nt in length by mapping onto the reference genome of R. pedestris according to our previous whole-transcriptome sequencing. Finally, our data revealed that gut bacterial changes were significantly positively or negatively associated with differentially expressed piRNAs among the five comparison groups with Pearson correlation analysis. In conclusion, these findings paved new avenues for the application of RNAi-based biopesticides for broad-spectrum hemipteran pest control.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , RNA de Interação com Piwi , Animais , Filogenia , Heterópteros/genética , Heterópteros/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 41(4): 500-505, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565519

RESUMO

piRNA is a class of small non-coding RNA which specifically binds with PIWI protein. It is mainly expressed in germ cells and involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis. The role of piRNA pathway in the regulation of spermatogenesis mainly includes inhibition of transposons, induction of mRNA translation or degradation, and mediation of degradation of Miwi ubiquitination in late-stage sperm cells. With the detection of piRNA in seminal plasma, more attention has been attracted to whether piRNA can be used as a non-invasive molecular biomarker for the evaluation of spermatogenesis. This paper has reviewed recent studies on the mechanism of piRNA pathways mediating spermatogenesis and potential roles of piRNA disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , RNA de Interação com Piwi , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Biomarcadores
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(3): 428-436, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of metformin for regulating tumor-stromal cell cross-talk in breast cancer. METHODS: Tumor associated fibroblasts (CAFs) co-cultured with breast cancer cells were treated with metformin, and the changes in expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), p-AMPK, stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the CAFs were detected using ELISA, RT-qPCR or Western blotting; Transwell assay was used to evaluate the invasiveness of the tumor cells and its changes following treatment with exogenous SDF-1, IL-8 and TGF-ß1. The effects of HIF-1α shRNA or overexpression plasmid, AMPK shRNA, and treatment with OG (a proline hydroxylase inhibitor) or 2-OXO (a proline hydroxylase activator) were examined on p-AMPK, HIF-1α, SDF-1 and IL-8 expressions and invasiveness of the CAFs. RESULTS: Metformin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of p-AMPK, SDF-1 and IL-8 (P<0.05) and decreased HIF-1α expression (P<0.05) without affecting AMPK expression level (P>0.05) in the CAFs. The invasion ability of metformintreated breast cancer cells was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Exogenous SDF-1 and IL-8, HIF-1α overexpression, and OGinduced upregulation of HIF-1α all significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of metformin on breast cancer cell invasion (P<0.05) and HIF-1α, SDF-1 and IL-8 expressions in CAFs (P<0.05). Transfection with HIF-1α shRNA or treatment with 2-OXO significantly decreased the invasiveness of breast cancer cells (P<0.05). P-AMPK knockdown significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of metformin on HIF-1α expression in CAFs and on invasion of breast cancer cells (P<0.05). Treatment with TGF-ß1 partially decreased the inhibitory effect of metformin on HIF-1α expression in CAFs and invasiveness of the breast cancer cells (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Metformin suppresses HIF-1α expression in CAFs to block tumor-stromal cross talk in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Metformina , Humanos , Feminino , Metformina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 708: 149769, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518723

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) holds immense potential for sequence-specific downregulation of disease-related genes. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapy has made remarkable strides, with FDA approval for treating specific human diseases, showcasing its promising future in disease treatment. Designing highly efficient siRNAs is a critical step in this process. Previous studies have introduced various algorithms and parameters for siRNA design and scoring. However, these attempts have often fallen short of meeting all essential criteria or required modifications, resulting in variable and unclear effectiveness of screened siRNAs, particularly against viral mutants with non-conserved short sequences. In this study, we present a fully optimized siRNA screening system considering all necessary parameters. Notably, we highlight the critical role of molecular docking simulations between siRNA and two functional domains of the Argonaute protein (PAZ and PIWI) in identifying the most efficient siRNAs, since the appropriate interaction between the guide siRNA strand and the RISC complex is crucial. Through our stringent method, we designed approximately 50 potential siRNAs targeting the HIV-1 vpr gene. Evaluation through XTT, qRT-PCR, and flow cytometry analysis on RAW 264.7 macrophage stable cells revealed negligible cytotoxicity and exceptional gene-silencing efficiency at both the transcriptional and translational levels for the top-ranked screened siRNAs. Given the growing interest in siRNA-based therapeutics, we anticipate that the insights from this study will contribute to improving treatment strategies against mutant viruses, particularly HIV-1.


Assuntos
HIV-1 , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Inativação Gênica
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2727, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548791

RESUMO

Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are genomically encoded small RNAs that engage Piwi Argonaute proteins to direct mRNA surveillance and transposon silencing. Despite advances in understanding piRNA pathways and functions, how the production of piRNA is regulated remains elusive. Here, using a genetic screen, we identify casein kinase II (CK2) as a factor required for piRNA pathway function. We show that CK2 is required for the localization of PRG-1 and for the proper localization of several factors that comprise the 'upstream sequence transcription complex' (USTC), which is required for piRNA transcription. Loss of CK2 impairs piRNA levels suggesting that CK2 promotes USTC function. We identify the USTC component twenty-one-U fouled-up 4 (TOFU-4) as a direct substrate for CK2. Our findings suggest that phosphorylation of TOFU-4 by CK2 promotes the assembly of USTC and piRNA transcription. Notably, during the aging process, CK2 activity declines, resulting in the disassembly of USTC, decreased piRNA production, and defects in piRNA-mediated gene silencing, including transposons silencing. These findings highlight the significance of posttranslational modification in regulating piRNA biogenesis and its implications for the aging process. Overall, our study provides compelling evidence for the involvement of a posttranslational modification mechanism in the regulation of piRNA biogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , RNA de Interação com Piwi , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Caseína Quinase II/genética , Caseína Quinase II/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Argonautas/genética , Proteínas Argonautas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética
11.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 126-132, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ccr4-Not complex (CNOT complex in mammals) is a unique and highly conserved complex with numerous cellular functions. Until now, there has been relatively little known about the importance of the CNOT complex subunits in the DNA damage response (DDR) in mammalian cells. CNOT4 is a subunit of the complex with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that interacts transiently with the CNOT1 subunit. Here, we attempt to investigate the role of human CNOT4 subunit in the DDR in human cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, cell viability in the absence of CNOT4 was assessed using a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescence assay up to 4 days post siRNA transfection. In a further experiment, CNOT4-depleted HeLa cells were exposed to 3Gy ionizing radiation (IR). Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM Rad3-related (ATR) signaling pathways were then investigated by western blotting for phosphorylated substrates. In addition, foci formation of histone 2A family member X (γH2AX), replication protein A (RPA), TP53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), and DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 1 was also determined by immunofluorescence microscopy comparing control and CNOT4-depleted HeLa cells 0, 8, and 24 h post IR treatment. RESULTS: Our results from cell viability assays showed a significant reduction of cell growth activity at 24 (P value 0.02) and 48 h (P value 0.002) post siRNA. Western blot analysis showed slightly reduced or slightly delayed DDR signaling in CNOT4-depleted HeLa cells after IR. More significantly, we observed increased formation of γH2AX, RPA, 53BP1, and RAD51 foci after IR in CNOT4-depleted cells compared with the control cells. CONCLUSION: We conclude that depletion of CNOT4 affects various aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Humanos , Células HeLa , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2317095121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502704

RESUMO

To maintain fertility, male mice re-repress transposable elements (TEs) that were de-silenced in the early gonocytes before their differentiation into spermatogonia. However, the mechanism of TE silencing re-establishment remains unknown. Here, we found that the DNA-binding protein Morc1, in cooperation with the methyltransferase SetDB1, deposits the repressive histone mark H3K9me3 on a large fraction of activated TEs, leading to heterochromatin. Morc1 also triggers DNA methylation, but TEs targeted by Morc1-driven DNA methylation only slightly overlapped with those repressed by Morc1/SetDB1-dependent heterochromatin formation, suggesting that Morc1 silences TEs in two different manners. In contrast, TEs regulated by Morc1 and Miwi2, the nuclear PIWI-family protein, almost overlapped. Miwi2 binds to PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that base-pair with TE mRNAs via sequence complementarity, while Morc1 DNA binding is not sequence specific, suggesting that Miwi2 selects its targets, and then, Morc1 acts to repress them with cofactors. A high-ordered mechanism of TE repression in gonocytes has been identified.


Assuntos
Heterocromatina , RNA de Interação com Piwi , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Argonautas/genética , Proteínas Argonautas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
13.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 83: 127420, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) poisoning posing a crucial health risk, especially among children, causing devastating damage not only to brain development, but also to kidney function. Thus, an urgent need persists to identify highly effective, safe, and low-toxicity drugs for the treatment of Pb poisoning. The present study focused on exploring the protective effects of Se on Pb-induced nephrotoxicity in weaning rats and human renal tubular epithelial cells, and investigated the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Forty weaning rats were randomly divided into four groups in vivo: control, Pb-exposed, Pb+Se and Se. Serum creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (BUN) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed to evaluate renal function. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in the kidney tissue were determined. In vitro experiments were performed using human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). The cytotoxicity of Pb and Se was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inverted fluorescence microscope was used to investigate cell morphological changes and the fluorescence intensity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The oxidative stress parameters were measured by a multi-detection reader. Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor (NRF2) signaling pathways were measured by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in HK-2 cells. RESULTS: We found that Se alleviated Pb-induced kidney injury by relieving oxidative stress and reducing the inflammatory index. Se significantly increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), whereas it decreased the excessive release of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys of weaning rats and HK-2 cells. Additionally, Se enhanced the antioxidant defense systems via activating the NRF2 transcription factor, thereby promoting the to downstream expression of heme oxygenase 1. Furthermore, genes encoding glutamate-cysteine ligase synthetase catalytic (GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase synthetase modifier (GCLM) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), downstream targets of NRF2, formed a positive feedback loop with NRF2 during oxidative stress responses. The MTT assay results revealed a significant decrease in cell viability with Se treatment, and the cytoprotective role of Se was blocked upon knockdown of NRF2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA). MDA activity results also showed that NRF2 knockdown inhibited the NRF2-dependent transcriptional activity of Se. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that Se ameliorated Pb-induced nephrotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress both in vivo and in vitro. The molecular mechanism underlying Se's action in Pb-induced kidney injury is related to the activation of the NRF2 transcription factor and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, ultimately suppressing ROS accumulation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Selênio , Criança , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/farmacologia , Desmame , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais , Rim/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
14.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 204: 1-43, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458734

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis represents a pathological state that affects the arterial system of the organism. This chronic, progressive condition is typified by the accumulation of atheroma within arterial walls. Modulation of RNA molecules through RNA-based therapies has expanded the range of therapeutic options available for neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, cancer, and, more recently, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Presently, microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the most widely employed therapeutic strategies for targeting RNA molecules, and for regulating gene expression and protein production. Nevertheless, for these agents to be developed into effective medications, various obstacles must be overcome, including inadequate binding affinity, instability, challenges of delivering to the tissues, immunogenicity, and off-target toxicity. In this comprehensive review, we discuss in detail the current state of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapies.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias , Humanos , Interferência de RNA , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Aterosclerose/terapia , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Life Sci ; 344: 122579, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518842

RESUMO

AIMS: Generation of mature ß-cells from MSCs has been a challenge in the field of stem cell therapy of diabetes. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) have made their mark in regenerative medicine, and provide several advantages compared to other MSCs sources. Forkhead box protein O-1 (FOXO-1) is an important transcription factor for normal development of ß-cells, yet its over expression in ß-cells may cause glucose intolerance. In this study, we isolated, characterized Ad-MSCs from rat epididymal fat pads, differentiated these MSCs into insulin producing cells (IPCs) and studied the role of FOXO-1 in such differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression of FOXO-1 and its nuclear cytoplasmic localization in the generated IPCs. Afterwards we knocked down FOXO-1 using siRNA targeting FOXO-1 (siFOXO-1). The differentiated siFOXO-1 IPCs were compared to non-targeting siRNA (siNT) IPCs regarding expression of ß-cell markers by qRT-PCR and western blotting, dithizone (DTZ) staining and glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). KEY FINDINGS: Isolated Ad-MSCs exhibited all characteristics of MSCs and can generate IPCs. FOXO-1 was initially elevated during differentiation followed by a decline towards end of differentiation. FOXO-1 was dephosphorylated and localized to the nucleus upon differentiation into IPCs. Knock down of FOXO-1 improved the expression of ß-cell markers in final differentiated IPCs, improved DTZ uptake and showed increased insulin secretion upon challenging with increased glucose concentration. SIGNIFICANCE: These results portray FOXO-1 as a hindering factor of generation of IPCs whose down-regulation can generate more mature IPCs for MSCs therapy of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Proteína Forkhead Box O1 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Ratos , Diferenciação Celular , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo
16.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 19(10): 895-914, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530906

RESUMO

Aim: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced osteoblast differentiation, predominantly by overexpression of the Sost gene. A layer-by-layer approach enabled encapsulation of Sost siRNA to enhance the short half-life and poor transfection capacity of siRNA. Materials & methods: Polyethyleneimine and siRNA on chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles (PEI/siRNA/Cs-AuNPs) were engineered using chitosan-reduced gold nanoparticles. They were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and gel-mobility assays. Detailed in vitro experiments, gene silencing and western blots were performed. Results: A total of 80% knockdown of the target sclerostin protein was observed by PEI/siRNA/Cs-AuNPs, q-PCR showed threefold downregulation of the Sost gene. Osteogenic markers RunX2 and Alp were significantly upregulated. Conclusion: We report a safe, biocompatible nanotherapeutic strategy to enhance siRNA protection and subsequent silencing to augment bone formation.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Quitosana/química , Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoimina/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Camundongos
17.
J Mater Chem B ; 12(12): 3115-3128, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451094

RESUMO

The development of safe and effective delivery systems is critical for the clinical applications of siRNA-based therapeutics. Polymer-based vectors have garnered significant attention owing to their structural flexibility and functional tunability. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery; nevertheless, its high cytotoxicity has posed challenges for clinical applications. In this study, we have reported poly(glycidyl amine) (PGAm), a linear PEI analogue, demonstrating remarkable siRNA delivery efficacy and improved biocompatibility. By introducing three aromatic moieties (tyrosine, p-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid, and phenylalanine) at varying ratios to further modify PGAms, we successfully constructed a library comprising 36 PGAm-based carriers. In vitro evaluations revealed that PGAm-based carriers exhibited significantly enhanced biocompatibility and reduced non-specific protein absorption in comparison to PEI25k. Among them, 10 modified PGAms achieved a knockdown of target gene expressions exceeding 80%, and 26 modified PGAms maintained over 70% cell viability when utilized for the in vitro delivery of siRNA to HeLa cells. Explorations into the structure-activity relationship of PGAm-based polyplex nanoparticles (NPs) indicated that the siRNA delivery efficacy of NPs depended on factors such as the molecular weight of PGAm precursors, the type of modifying moieties, and the modification ratio. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that two top-performing NPs, namely 2T100/siLuc and 2A50/siLuc, exhibited potent silencing of target genes in tumors following i.v. injection into mice bearing HeLa-Luc xenografts. The in vivo efficacy of the selected NPs was further validated by a remarkable anti-cancer effect when employed for the delivery of siRNA targeting polo-like kinase 1 (siPLK1) to mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors. The intravenous administration of NPs resulted in a substantial inhibition of tumor growth without significant toxicity. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of employing PGAm in siRNA delivery and provide valuable insights for the development of efficient siRNA carriers based on PGAm.


Assuntos
Aminas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Células HeLa , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Polímeros
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130729, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460643

RESUMO

Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) oncogene is a notorious and evolving target in a variety of human malignancies including osteosarcoma. The RNA interference (RNAi) has been clinically proven to effectively knock down specific genes. To successfully implement RNAi in vivo, protective vectors are required not only to protect unstable siRNAs from degradation, but also to deliver siRNAs to target cells with controlled release. Here, we synthesized a Zein-poly(l-lysine) dendrons non-viral modular system that enables efficient siRNA-targeted AEG-1 gene silencing in osteosarcoma and encapsulation of antitumor drugs for controlled release. The rational design of the ZDP integrates the non-ionic and low immunogenicity of Zein and the positive charge of the poly(l-lysine) dendrons (DPLL) to encapsulate siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX) payloads via electrostatic complexes and achieve pH-controlled release in a lysosomal acidic microenvironment. Nanocomplexes-directed delivery greatly improves siRNA stability, uptake, and AEG-1 sequence-specific knockdown in 143B cells, with transfection efficiencies comparable to those of commercial lipofectamine but with lower cytotoxicity. This AEG-1-focused RNAi therapy supplemented with chemotherapy inhibited, and was effective in inhibiting the growth in of osteosarcoma xenografts mouse models. The combination therapy is an alternative or combinatorial strategy that can produce durable inhibitory responses in osteosarcoma patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Dendrímeros , Nanopartículas , Osteossarcoma , Zeína , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Polilisina , Azidas , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Alcinos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 26(1): 71, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) plays important roles in controlling cellular iron levels, but its role in OA pathology is unknown. Herein we aim to investigate the role of TfR1 in OA progression and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: TfR1 expression in cartilage during OA development were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Then IL-1ß was used to induce chondrocytes degeneration in vitro and TfR1 siRNA was used for observing the effect of TfR1 in modulating iron homeostasis, mitochondrial function and degrading enzymes expression. Also the inhibitor of TfR1 was exploited to analyze the protective effect of TfR1 inhibition in vivo. RESULTS: TfR1 is elevated in OA cartilage and contributes to OA inflammation condition. Excess iron not only results in oxidative stress damage and sensitizes chondrocytes to ferroptosis, but also triggers c-GAS/STING-mediated inflammation by promoting mitochondrial destruction and the release of mtDNA. Silencing TfR1 using TfR1 siRNA not only reduced iron content in chondrocytes and inhibited oxidative stress, but also facilitated the mitophagy process and suppressed mtDNA/cGAS/STING-mediated inflammation. Importantly, we also found that Ferstatin II, a novel and selective TfR1 inhibitor, could substantially suppress TfR1 activity both in vivo and in vitro and ameliorated cartilage degeneration. CONCLUSION: Our work demonstrates that TfR1 mediated iron influx plays important roles in chondrocytes degeneration and OA pathogenesis, suggesting that maintaining iron homeostasis through the targeting of TfR1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Humanos , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
20.
Cells ; 13(5)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474340

RESUMO

The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is pivotal in reproductive processes, particularly in placental and vascular development. This study investigated the role of HO-1 and its byproduct, carbon monoxide (CO), in trophoblastic spheroid implantation. In order to deepen our understanding of the role of HO-1 during implantation, we conducted in vivo experiments on virgin and pregnant mice, aiming to unravel the cellular and molecular mechanisms. Using siRNA, HO-1 was knocked down in JEG-3 and BeWo cells and trophoblastic spheroids were generated with or without CO treatment. Adhesion assays were performed after transferring the spheroids to RL-95 endometrial epithelial cell layers. Additionally, angiogenesis, stress, and toxicity RT2-Profiler™ PCR SuperArray and PCR analyses were performed in uterine murine samples. HO-1 knockdown by siRNA impeded implantation in the 3D culture model, but this effect could be reversed by CO. Uteruses from virgin Hmox1-/- females exhibited altered expression of angiogenesis and stress markers. Furthermore, there was a distinct expression pattern of cytokines and chemokines in uteruses from gestation day 14 in Hmox1-/- females compared to Hmox1+/+ females. This study strongly supports the essential role of HO-1 during implantation. Moreover, CO appears to have the potential to compensate for the lack of HO-1 during the spheroid attachment process. The absence of HO-1 results in dysregulation of angiogenesis and stress-related genes in the uterus, possibly contributing to implantation failure.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1 , Placenta , Gravidez , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Útero/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
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