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1.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 344-350, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556817

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype and molecular genetic characteristics of congenital spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. Methods: Sixteen cases (including 10 consultation cases) of congenital spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma diagnosed at the Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing China, from April 2017 to January 2022 were collected. These cases were evaluated for clinical profiles, histomorphological features, immunophenotype and molecular characteristics. Results: Among the 16 patients, 9 were male and 7 were female. Five cases were present during maternal pregnancy and 11 cases were found immediately after birth. The tumors were located in the chest wall, low back, retroperitoneum, extremities or perineum. The tumors consisted of fasciculated spindle-shaped cells with localized mesenchymal sclerosis and vitreous metaplasia. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells expressed Desmin, Myogenin, MyoD1, SMA, CD56 and ALK to varying degrees, but not other markers such as CD34, CD99, pan-TRK, S-100 and BCOR. FISH analyses with NCOA2 (8q13) and VGLL2 (6q22) gene breakage probes revealed a breakage translocation in chromosome NCOA2 (8q13) in 4 cases (4/11). In the 6 cases subject to sequencing, a mutation at the p.L122R locus of MYOD1 gene was detected in 1 case (1/6). Two cases were examined by electron microscopy, which showed bundle-arranged myofilaments with some primitive myofilament formation. Five cases were resected with simple surgery, 2 cases were biopsied and followed up with observation only, and 9 cases were treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was available in 12 cases. At the end of the follow-up, 2 of the 12 patients developed local recurrences and 2 patients survived with disease. Conclusions: Congenital spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare subtype of congenital rhabdomyosarcoma. It more commonly occurs in the chest, back and lower limbs of infants than other sites. NCOA2/VGLL2 gene fusion seems to be the most common genetic change. Its prognosis is better than other subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma and those in adolescents and adults with the same subtype. Analysis and summary of its clinicopathological features can help differentiate it from other soft tissue tumors in infants and children and provide the information for appropriate treatments.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Adulto , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Mutação , Prognóstico
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 178, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary brain rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy with few case reports. The vast majority of cases of primary brain rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, and immunohistochemistry can distinguish it from embryonal subtypes; however, few cases of primary brain rhabdomyosarcoma in adults have been reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 26-year-old White male patient who was found to have primary brain alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma after developing headaches for several months. A brain MRI revealed a mixed cystic and solid tumor along the vermis of the cerebellum. The patient underwent a gross total surgical resection, which confirmed the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Further staging workup for another primary focus or disseminated disease yielded negative results, confirming the diagnosis of primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the brain. CONCLUSION: The standard of care for managing this rare type of brain tumor involves surgery with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Further studies should be conducted for a better diagnostic and therapeutic understanding.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário , Rabdomiossarcoma , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/terapia , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/diagnóstico
5.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 238-242, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small round cell tumors (SRCTs) are a group of malignant neoplasms with minimal or no differentiation, characterized by the presence of round cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. Although SRCTs can occur in any part of the body, involvement of central nervous system (CNS) is uncommon. AIM: We aimed to study the clinicopathological spectrum of cranial SRCT diagnosed in our institute over a period of four years (2016-2019). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records (2016-2019) with a morphological diagnosis of cranial SRCT was made. Both intra-axial and extra-axial tumors were included. A total of 60 cases were retrieved, and the clinical and histopathological features were studied. Special cytochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were performed, where needed. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 18.4 years (range, 1-60 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 2.5:1. The most common site was posterior fossa of brain (n = 28, 47%), followed by dorso-lumbar spine (n = 9, 15%). The most common type of tumor was medulloblastoma (n = 29, 48.3%), followed by Ewing sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) (n = 11, 18.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (n = 9, 15%), neuroblastoma (n = 3, 5%), and CNS embryonal tumor, NOS (n = 2, 3.3%). One case each of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), rhabdomyosarcoma, pineoblastoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma was also documented. CONCLUSIONS: SRCTs have a variable age of presentation. Their incidence in CNS is low as compared to other organ systems. On light microscopy, the histopathology of these lesions is overlapping, posing a great diagnostic dilemma for the pathologist. The use of ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry helps in arriving at the correct diagnosis. Treatment strategy and tumor prognosis also vary along the entire spectrum of SRCT, thus making exact characterization essential for proper management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Neoplasias Cerebelares , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos , Rabdomiossarcoma , Sarcoma , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Sarcoma/patologia , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 340, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma (HNRMS) is an exceptionally rare malignancy, and there is a paucity of data and research dedicated to understanding its characteristics and management in adult populations. This study aimed to assess the outcomes and identify survival predictors in adult HNRMS. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 42 adult patients (> 16 years) with HNRMS who received radiotherapy (RT)-based treatment at our institute between 2008 and 2022. We analysed the clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients, including the locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), using the Kaplan-Meier method. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to analyse differences between groups for dichotomous and categorical variables, respectively. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic variables were assessed through univariate Cox analyses. RESULTS: The median patient age was 28 years (range, 16-82 years). Alveolar RMS was the most common histological type, observed in 21 patients (50.0%), followed by embryonal in 16 patients (38.1%). The anatomic sites of origin were orbital in one (2.4%), parameningeal in 26 (61.9%), and non-orbital/non-parameningeal in 15 (35.7%) patients. Nineteen patients (45.2%) had regional lymph node metastasis, and five patients (11.9%) presented with distant metastatic disease. Distant metastasis (n = 17) was the primary cause of treatment failure. At a median follow-up of 47.0 months, the 5-year LRFS, PFS, and OS rates were 69.0%, 39.7%, and 41.0%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that tumour size, lymph node involvement, and the local treatment pattern (surgery and RT vs. RT alone) were significant predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: The main failure pattern in patients with HNRMS receiving RT-based treatment was distant metastasis. Tumour size > 5 cm and lymph node involvement were predictors of worse LRFS. Multimodality local treatment, combining surgery and RT, is effective and provides survival benefits.


Assuntos
Cabeça , Rabdomiossarcoma , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pescoço , Rabdomiossarcoma/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada
7.
Cancer Control ; 31: 10732748241240655, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment for parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS) has been a challenge since local control is difficult. The goal of this study was to analyse the impact of different local treatment approaches on childhood PM-RMS patients and help dispel the doubt that whether secondary radical surgery (SRS) should be encouraged in the management of PM-RMS. METHODS: A total of 17 children with PM-RMS who received unified systemic chemotherapy and individualized local therapy such as radiotherapy (RT) and/or SRS were included in this retrospective study. The overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) were compared between groups adopting different local strategies. RESULTS: The 3-year OS and EFS of our PM-RMS patients was 75.5% and 56.5% respectively. The OS and EFS of patients who received SRS were both significantly lower than that of the non-SRS group (3-year OS: 50.0% vs 90.0%, P = .031; 3-year EFS: 33.3% vs 60.6%, P = .020). The OS and EFS of the patients who received RT was higher than that of the patients of the non-RT group (3-year OS: 85.6% vs 0%, P = .001; 3-year EFS: 64.0% vs 0%, P = .011). CONCLUSION: This study illustrates that SRS was associated with poor prognosis of PM-RMS and should not be routinely performed. Optimized RT strategies along with more intensive chemotherapy may be alternative options to improve the survival of patients with PM-RMS. Multi-center, large sample and prospective studies are needed to further validate these findings.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiossarcoma/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 196, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ifosfamide is a major anti-cancer drug in children with well-known renal toxicity. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this toxicity could help identify children at increased risk of toxicity. METHODS: The IFOS01 study included children undergoing ifosfamide-based chemotherapy for Ewing sarcoma or rhabdomyosarcoma. A fully evaluation of renal function was performed during and after chemotherapy. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and conventional biochemistry were used to detect early signs of ifosfamide-induced tubulopathy. The enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was measured in the peripheral blood lymphocytes as a marker of ifosfamide-derived chloroacetaldehyde detoxification capacity. Plasma and urine concentrations of ifosfamide and dechloroethylated metabolites were quantified. RESULTS: The 15 participants received a median total ifosfamide dose of 59 g/m2 (range: 24-102), given over a median of 7 cycles (range: 4-14). All children had acute proximal tubular toxicity during chemotherapy that was reversible post-cycle, seen with both conventional assays and NMR. After a median follow-up of 31 months, 8/13 children presented overall chronic toxicity among which 7 had decreased glomerular filtration rate. ALDH enzymatic activity showed high inter- and intra-individual variations across cycles, though overall activity looked lower in children who subsequently developed chronic nephrotoxicity. Concentrations of ifosfamide and metabolites were similar in all children. CONCLUSIONS: Acute renal toxicity was frequent during chemotherapy and did not allow identification of children at risk for long-term toxicity. A role of ALDH in late renal dysfunction is possible so further exploration of its enzymatic activity and polymorphism should be encouraged to improve the understanding of ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Rabdomiossarcoma , Sistema Urinário , Criança , Humanos , Ifosfamida/efeitos adversos , Aldeído Desidrogenase/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2779: 273-286, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526790

RESUMO

Oncogenic fusion genes are attractive therapeutic targets because of their tumor-specific expression and central "driver" roles in various human cancers. However, oncogenic fusions involving transcription factors such as PAX3-FOXO1 in alveolar fusion gene-positive rhabdomyosarcoma (FP-RMS) have been difficult to inhibit due to the apparent lack of tractable drug-like binding sites comparable to that recognized by Gleevec (imatinib mesylate) on the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase fusion protein. Toward the identification of novel small molecules that selectively target PAX3-FOXO1, we used CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knock-in to append the pro-luminescent HiBiT tag onto the carboxy terminus of the endogenous PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein in two human FP-RMS cell lines (RH4 and SCMC). HiBiT is an 11-amino acid peptide derived from the NanoLuc luciferase that produces a luminescence signal which is ~100-fold brighter than firefly or Renilla luciferases through high-affinity binding to a complementary NanoLuc peptide fragment called LgBiT. To facilitate single-cell clonal isolation of knock-ins, the homology-directed repair template encoding HiBiT was followed by a P2A self-cleaving peptide for coexpression of an mCherry fluorescent protein as a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)-selectable marker. HiBiT tagging thus allows highly sensitive luminescence detection of endogenous PAX3-FOXO1 levels permitting quantitative high-throughput screening of large compound libraries for the discovery of PAX3-FOXO1 inhibitors and degraders.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados , Rabdomiossarcoma , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474036

RESUMO

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), an invasive subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), is associated with chromosomal translocation events resulting in one of two oncogenic fusion genes, PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1. ARMS patients exhibit an overexpression of the pleiotropic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß). This overexpression of TGF-ß1 causes an increased expression of a downstream transcription factor called SNAIL, which promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression of TGF-ß also inhibits myogenic differentiation, making ARMS patients highly resistant to chemotherapy. In this review, we first describe different types of RMS and then focus on ARMS and the impact of TGF-ß in this tumor type. We next highlight current chemotherapy strategies, including a combination of the FDA-approved drugs vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC); cabozantinib; bortezomib; vinorelbine; AZD 1775; and cisplatin. Lastly, we discuss chemotherapy agents that target the differentiation of tumor cells in ARMS, which include all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 5-Azacytidine. Improving our understanding of the role of signaling pathways, such as TGF-ß1, in the development of ARMS tumor cells differentiation will help inform more tailored drug administration in the future.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar , Rabdomiossarcoma , Humanos , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e244170, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546643

RESUMO

Importance: Determining the impact of germline cancer-predisposition variants (CPVs) on outcomes could inform novel approaches to testing and treating children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Objective: To assess whether CPVs are associated with outcome among children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, data were obtained for individuals, aged 0.01-23.23 years, newly diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma who were treated across 171 Children's Oncology Group sites from March 15, 1999, to December 8, 2017. Data analysis was performed from June 16, 2021, to May 15, 2023. Exposure: The presence of a CPV in 24 rhabdomyosarcoma-associated cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) or an expanded set of 63 autosomal-dominant CPGs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were the main outcomes, using the Kaplan-Meier estimator to assess survival probabilities and the Cox proportional hazards regression model to adjust for clinical covariates. Analyses were stratified by tumor histology and the fusion status of PAX3 or PAX7 to the FOXO1 gene. Results: In this study of 580 individuals with rhabdomyosarcoma, the median patient age was 5.9 years (range, 0.01-23.23 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 1.5 to 1 (351 [60.5%] male). For patients with CPVs in rhabdomyosarcoma-associated CPGs, EFS was 48.4% compared with 57.8% for patients without a CPV (P = .10), and OS was 53.7% compared with 65.3% for patients without a CPV (P = .06). After adjustment, patients with CPVs had significantly worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.49 [95% CI, 1.39-4.45]; P = .002), and the outcomes were not better among patients with embryonal histology (EFS: AHR, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.25-4.06]; P = .007]; OS: AHR, 2.83 [95% CI, 1.47-5.43]; P = .002]). These associations were not due to the development of a second malignant neoplasm, and importantly, patients with fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma who harbored a CPV had similarly inferior outcomes as patients with fusion-positive rhabdomyosarcoma without CPVs (EFS: AHR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.71-2.59]; P = .37; OS: AHR, 1.71 [95% CI, 0.84-3.47]; P = .14). There were no significant differences in outcome by CPV status of the 63 CPG set. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study identified a group of patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma who had a particularly poor outcome. Other important clinical findings included that individuals with TP53 had poor outcomes independent of second malignant neoplasms and that patients with fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma who harbored a CPV had outcomes comparable to patients with fusion-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. These findings suggest that germline CPV testing may aid in clinical prognosis and should be considered in prospective risk-based clinical trials.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Rabdomiossarcoma , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/terapia , Testes Genéticos , Células Germinativas
12.
J Int Med Res ; 52(3): 3000605241234755, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501994

RESUMO

Rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate is a rare mesenchymal tumor that originates from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma is a variant of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. The vast majority of these two pathological types occur in children, with only a few adult cases reported to date, and both are associated with poor clinical outcomes. We herein report a case involving a man in his early 40s with spindle cell embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate. His chief complaint was difficult urination. The diagnosis was confirmed by puncture biopsy of the prostate, and pelvic lymph node metastasis was already present at the time of diagnosis. The patient underwent three courses of chemotherapy. However, his response to the treatment was very poor, and he died of the disease 4 months after diagnosis.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário , Rabdomiossarcoma , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Embrião de Mamíferos , Pelve , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/diagnóstico
13.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 21(2): 178-185, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chemoresistance in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is associated with poor survival, necessitating the development of novel anticancer drugs. Auranofin (AUR), an anti-rheumatic drug, is a thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) inhibitor with anticancer properties. Although patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are essential for studying cancer biology, reports on sarcomas using the PDX model are scarce because of their rarity. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of AUR treatment in RMS using a PDX model to evaluate its impact on local progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-year-old woman who was diagnosed with alveolar RMS was used to generate the PDX model. RMS PDX tumors were implanted in nude mice and divided into non-treated (vehicle) and treated (AUR) groups. Tumor volume and weight were evaluated, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate local progression of the sarcoma. The relationship between the TXNRD-1 expression and survival probability of patients with RMS was evaluated using publicly available expression cohorts. RESULTS: AUR significantly suppressed RMS tumor progression over time. It also significantly suppressed the tumor size and weight at the time of excision. Histological evaluation showed that AUR induced oxidative stress in the PDX mouse models and inhibited the local progression of RMS by inducing apoptosis. High TXNRD-1 expression was found to be a negative prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with RMS. CONCLUSION: AUR-induced inhibition of TXNRDs can significantly impede the local progression of RMS through the oxidative stress-apoptosis pathway as demonstrated in PDX models. Thus, targeting TXNRD inhibition may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RMS.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma , Sarcoma , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase , Camundongos Nus , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Auranofina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
14.
J Comp Pathol ; 209: 36-39, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350271

RESUMO

A newborn male Holstein calf developed a nodular enlargement at the tip of the tongue. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed predominant proliferating small, round, spindloid or polygonal neoplastic cells with scattered myoblast- and myotube-like cells and multinuclear giant cells. Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin staining revealed cytoplasmic cross-striations in a few neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells were immunopositive for vimentin, desmin, myoD1, myogenin, myoglobin and α-smooth muscle actin. The mass was diagnosed as embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bovine congenital lingual rhabdomyosarcoma, which is rare in animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Rabdomiossarcoma , Masculino , Animais , Bovinos , Rabdomiossarcoma/veterinária , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Língua
15.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1703, 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402212

RESUMO

Fusion-positive rhabdomyosarcoma (FP-RMS) is an aggressive pediatric sarcoma driven primarily by the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion oncogene, for which therapies targeting PAX3-FOXO1 are lacking. Here, we screen 62,643 compounds using an engineered cell line that monitors PAX3-FOXO1 transcriptional activity identifying a hitherto uncharacterized compound, P3FI-63. RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and docking analyses implicate histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) as its targets. Enzymatic assays confirm the inhibition of multiple KDMs with the highest selectivity for KDM3B. Structural similarity search of P3FI-63 identifies P3FI-90 with improved solubility and potency. Biophysical binding of P3FI-90 to KDM3B is demonstrated using NMR and SPR. P3FI-90 suppresses the growth of FP-RMS in vitro and in vivo through downregulating PAX3-FOXO1 activity, and combined knockdown of KDM3B and KDM1A phenocopies P3FI-90 effects. Thus, we report KDM inhibitors P3FI-63 and P3FI-90 with the highest specificity for KDM3B. Their potent suppression of PAX3-FOXO1 activity indicates a possible therapeutic approach for FP-RMS and other transcriptionally addicted cancers.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar , Rabdomiossarcoma , Criança , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fator de Transcrição PAX3/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX3/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 71(4): e30905, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311774
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369791

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the treatment outcomes and prognoses of children with head and neck non-parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (HNnPM RMS). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of children with HNnPM RMS admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital from September 2012 to September 2022. The clinical features, comprehensive treatment modes and prognoses of the patients were analyzed. The overall survival rate (OS) and event free survival rate (EFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate analysis was performed using the Log-rank test. Results: A total of 70 children were included in this study, 38 males and 32 females, with a median age of 47 months (2-210 months). Pathological subtypes including the embryonal in 27 cases, the alveolar in 36 cases and the spindle cell and sclerosing in 7 cases. Thirty children (83.3%) with alveolar type were positive for FOXO1 gene fusion. All 70 children underwent chemotherapy, including 38 with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 32 with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixty of 70 children underwent surgery, of whom, 10 underwent two or more surgeries. There were 63 children underwent radiotherapy, including 54 with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, 4 with particle implantation and 5 with proton therapy. The median follow-up was 45 (5-113) months, the 5-year OS was 73.2%, and the 5-year EFS was 57.7%. Univariate analysis showed lymph node metastasis (χ2=5.022, P=0.025), distant metastasis (χ2=8.258, P=0.004), and high Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) group (χ2=9.859, P=0.029) as risk factors for poor prognosis. Before June 2016, the 5-year OS based on BCH-RMS-2006 scheme was 63.6%, and after 2016, the 5-year OS based on CCCG-RMS-2016 scheme was 79.6%. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary combined standardized treatment can offer good treatment outcome and prognosis for children with HNnPM RMS. Local control is a key to the efficacy of comprehensive treatment.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Prognóstico , Terapia Combinada , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico
20.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 124: 102694, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-risk or metastatic Ewing sarcoma (ES) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have a guarded prognosis. High-dose chemotherapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has been evaluated as a treatment option to improve outcomes. However, survival benefits remain unclear, and treatment is associated with severe toxicities. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted, using the population, intervention, comparison outcome (PICO) model, to evaluate whether utilization of HDT/ASCT impacts the outcome of patients with ES and RMS compared to standard chemotherapy alone, as part of first line treatment or in the relapse setting. Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central were queried for publications from 1990 to October 2022 that evaluated event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicities. Each study was screened by two independent reviewers for suitability. A qualitative synthesis of the results was performed. RESULTS: Of 1,172 unique studies screened, 41 studies were eligible for inclusion with 29 studies considering ES, 10 studies considering RMS and 2 studies considering both. In ES patients with high-risk localised disease who received HDT/ASCT after VIDE chemotherapy, consolidation with melphalan-based HDT/ASCT as first line therapy conveyed an EFS and OS benefit over standard chemotherapy consolidation. Efficacy of HDT/ASCT using a VDC/IE backbone, which is now standard care, has not been established. Survival benefits are not confirmed for ES patients with metastatic disease at initial diagnosis. For relapsed/refractory ES, four retrospective studies report improvement in outcomes with HDT/ASCT with the greatest evidence in patients who demonstrate a treatment response before HDT, and in patients under the age of 14. In RMS, there is no proven survival benefit of HDT/ASCT in primary localised, metastatic or relapsed disease. CONCLUSION: Prospective randomised trials are required to determine the utility of HDT/ASCT in ES and RMS. Selected patients with relapsed ES could be considered for HDT/ASCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Rabdomiossarcoma , Sarcoma de Ewing , Humanos , Sarcoma de Ewing/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma de Ewing/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Nova Zelândia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos
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