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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10673, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724676

RESUMO

U.S. immigration discourse has spurred interest in characterizing who illegalized immigrants are or perceived to be. What are the associated visual representations of migrant illegality? Across two studies with undergraduate and online samples (N = 686), we used face-based reverse correlation and similarity sorting to capture and compare mental representations of illegalized immigrants, native-born U.S. citizens, and documented immigrants. Documentation statuses evoked racialized imagery. Immigrant representations were dark-skinned and perceived as non-white, while citizen representations were light-skinned, evaluated positively, and perceived as white. Legality further differentiated immigrant representations: documentation conjured trustworthy representations, illegality conjured threatening representations. Participants spontaneously sorted unlabeled faces by documentation status in a spatial arrangement task. Faces' spatial similarity correlated with their similarity in pixel luminance and "American" ratings, confirming racialized distinctions. Representations of illegalized immigrants were uniquely racialized as dark-skinned un-American threats, reflecting how U.S. imperialism and colorism set conditions of possibility for existing representations of migrant illegalization.


Assuntos
Racismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração , Adolescente , Documentação , Face
2.
Med Educ Online ; 29(1): 2350251, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indigenous Peoples in Canada bear a disproportionate burden of disease and experience poorer health outcomes as compared to non-Indigenous populations within Canada; these conditions are said to be mediated and exacerbated by pervasive and uninterrupted anti-Indigenous racism. Third and fourth-year medical students at a Canadian medical school were asked to reflect on their experiences working with Indigenous patients in clinical settings, and how their preclinical Indigenous health curriculum impacted these experiences. METHOD: Phenomenology was used, guided by Goffman's theory of social stigma. Eleven undergraduate medical students were recruited using purposeful sampling. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of the participants' experiences. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using the four main processes for phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged from students' descriptions of clinical experiences involving Indigenous patients: 1) students describe how their Indigenous patients encounter the health care system and their own lack of cultural sensitivity in this context; 2) racism was evident in students' clinical interactions with Indigenous patients, but students do not always perceive these biases nor the impact of this on patient care; 3) identifying the impact of racism on care is complicated by situational clinical encounters; and 4) practicality of preclinical Indigenous health education is desired by students to prepare them for working with Indigenous patients in the clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS: In their clinical experiences, students witness racism against Indigenous peoples yet are unprepared to stand up against it. Findings highlight the importance of enhancing undergraduate medical training to allow students to better understand the unique experiences and perspectives of Indigenous patients. The results support the need for ongoing Indigenous health education, to foster culturally sensitive experiences while learning about Indigenous patients.


Assuntos
Racismo , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Canadá , Racismo/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Competência Cultural , Entrevistas como Assunto , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 89, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racism in the healthcare system has become a burgeoning focus in health policy-making and research. Existing research has shown both interpersonal and structural forms of racism limiting access to quality healthcare for racialised healthcare users. Nevertheless, little is known about the specifics of racism in the inpatient sector, specifically hospitals and rehabilitation facilities. The aim of this scoping review is therefore to map the evidence on racial discrimination experienced by people receiving treatment in inpatient settings (hospitals and rehabilitation facilities) or their caregivers in high-income countries, focusing specifically on whether intersectional axes of discrimination have been taken into account when describing these experiences. METHODS: Based on the conceptual framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley, this scoping review surveyed existing research on racism and racial discrimination in inpatient care in high-income countries published between 2013 and 2023. The software Rayyan was used to support the screening process while MAXQDA was used for thematic coding. RESULTS: Forty-seven articles were included in this review. Specifics of the inpatient sector included different hospitalisation, admission and referral rates within and across hospitals; the threat of racial discrimination from other healthcare users; and the spatial segregation of healthcare users according to ethnic, religious or racialised criteria. While most articles described some interactions between race and other social categories in the sample composition, the framework of intersectionality was rarely considered explicitly during analysis. DISCUSSION: While the USA continue to predominate in discussions, other high-income countries including Canada, Australia and the UK also examine racism in their own healthcare systems. Absent from the literature are studies from a wider range of European countries as well as of racialised and disadvantaged groups other than refugees or recent immigrants. Research in this area would also benefit from an engagement with approaches to intersectionality in public health to produce a more nuanced understanding of the interactions of racism with other axes of discrimination. As inpatient care exhibits a range of specific structures, future research and policy-making ought to consider these specifics to develop targeted interventions, including training for non-clinical staff and robust, transparent and accessible complaint procedures.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pacientes Internados , Racismo , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia
4.
Cancer Control ; 31: 10732748241248363, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although racial disparities in lung cancer incidence and mortality have diminished in recent years, lung cancer remains the second most diagnosed cancer among US Black populations. Many factors contributing to disparities in lung cancer are rooted in structural racism. To quantify this relationship, we examined associations between a multidimensional measure of county-level structural racism and county lung cancer incidence and mortality rates among Black populations, while accounting for county levels of environmental quality. METHODS: We merged 2016-2020 data from the United States Cancer Statistics Data Visualization Tool, a pre-existing county-level structural racism index, the Environmental Protection Agency's 2006-2010 Environmental Quality Index (EQI), 2023 County Health Rankings, and the 2021 United States Census American Community Survey. We conducted multivariable linear regressions to examine associations between county-level structural racism and county-level lung cancer incidence and mortality rates. RESULTS: Among Black males and females, each standard deviation increase in county-level structural racism score was associated with an increase in county-level lung cancer incidence of 6.4 (95% CI: 4.4, 8.5) cases per 100,000 and an increase of 3.3 (95% CI: 2.0, 4.6) lung cancer deaths per 100,000. When examining these associations stratified by sex, larger associations between structural racism and lung cancer rates were observed among Black male populations than among Black females. CONCLUSION: Structural racism contributes to both the number of new lung cancer cases and the number of deaths caused by lung cancer among Black populations. Those aiming to reduce lung cancer cases and deaths should consider addressing racism as a root-cause.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Racismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Feminino , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adulto
5.
WMJ ; 123(2): 106-112, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718238

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implicit racial bias, defined as unreasoned judgement based solely on an individual's skin color, is a persistent barrier to quality medical care for people of color in the United States. Early, learner-centered intervention is crucial to establish cultural competence within health professional training programs. METHODS: Over 3 academic years, preclinical, second-year medical students were asked to submit an anonymous critical reflection regarding skin tone in medicine (n=794). Critical reflection is an instructional approach that encourages students to investigate their own thoughts and actions. Course credit was given based on the honor system. Reflection submission content and student feedback were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using constructivist thematic analysis. RESULTS: Most students completed the assignment (93.0%) and reported feeling comfortable expressing themselves honestly in the anonymous format (84.6%). Students' comfort level with honesty declined if they would have had to identify themselves (50.8%). Student comments indicated relief to have a place to process experiences and emphasized the importance of anonymity for value of this assignment. Thematic analysis identified 2 themes and 13 subthemes among student submissions. Submissions varied in format and typically contained multiple codes (4.08 ± 1.77 subthemes), indicating that students participated meaningfully in the assignment. CONCLUSIONS: Although some educators may hesitate to address these topics, students at our institution appreciated having a space to process their thoughts. This assignment structure is an effective way for educators to address a difficult, sensitive, and important topic in a meaningful way with students.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pigmentação da Pele , Racismo , Adulto , Wisconsin , Competência Cultural , Estados Unidos
6.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2346207, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718288

RESUMO

Substantial evidence indicates that medical mistrust, resulting from experiences with discrimination and marginalisation, is a determinant of health disparities in minority populations. However, this research is largely limited to the US and other industrialised countries. To broaden our understanding of the role of medical mistrust on health-care decision making, we conducted a study on healthcare experiences and perceptions in a rural, underserved indigenous community in northwest Namibia (n = 86). Mixing semi-structured interview questions with the medical mistrust index (MMI), we aim to determine the relevance of the MMI in a non-industrialised population and compare index scores with reports of healthcare experiences. We find that medical mistrust is a salient concept in this community, mapping onto negative healthcare experiences and perceptions of discrimination. Reported healthcare experiences indicate that perceived incompetence, maltreatment and discrimination drive mistrust of medical personnel. However, reporting of recent healthcare experiences are generally positive. Our results indicate that the concept of medical mistrust can be usefully applied to communities in the Global South. These populations, like minority communities in the US, translate experiences of discrimination and marginalisation into medical mistrust. Understanding these processes can help address health disparities and aid in effective public health outreach in underserved populations.


Assuntos
Entrevistas como Assunto , População Rural , Confiança , Humanos , Namíbia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adolescente , Idoso , Racismo
8.
Clin Perinatol ; 51(2): 331-343, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705644

RESUMO

Social determinants of health have received increasing attention in public health, leading to increased understanding of how social factors-individual and contextual-shape the health of the mother and infant. However, racial differences in birth outcomes persist, with incomplete explanation for the widening disparity. Here, we highlight the social determinants of preterm birth, with special attention to the social experiences among African American women, which are likely attributed to structural racism and discrimination throughout life.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Nascimento Prematuro , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Racismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e52691, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural racism produces mental health disparities. While studies have examined the impact of individual factors such as poverty and education, the collective contribution of these elements, as manifestations of structural racism, has been less explored. Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, with its racial and socioeconomic diversity, provides a unique context for this multifactorial investigation. OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to delineate the association between structural racism and mental health disparities in Milwaukee County, using a combination of geospatial and deep learning techniques. We used secondary data sets where all data were aggregated and anonymized before being released by federal agencies. METHODS: We compiled 217 georeferenced explanatory variables across domains, initially deliberately excluding race-based factors to focus on nonracial determinants. This approach was designed to reveal the underlying patterns of risk factors contributing to poor mental health, subsequently reintegrating race to assess the effects of racism quantitatively. The variable selection combined tree-based methods (random forest) and conventional techniques, supported by variance inflation factor and Pearson correlation analysis for multicollinearity mitigation. The geographically weighted random forest model was used to investigate spatial heterogeneity and dependence. Self-organizing maps, combined with K-means clustering, were used to analyze data from Milwaukee communities, focusing on quantifying the impact of structural racism on the prevalence of poor mental health. RESULTS: While 12 influential factors collectively accounted for 95.11% of the variability in mental health across communities, the top 6 factors-smoking, poverty, insufficient sleep, lack of health insurance, employment, and age-were particularly impactful. Predominantly, African American neighborhoods were disproportionately affected, which is 2.23 times more likely to encounter high-risk clusters for poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that structural racism shapes mental health disparities, with Black community members disproportionately impacted. The multifaceted methodological approach underscores the value of integrating geospatial analysis and deep learning to understand complex social determinants of mental health. These insights highlight the need for targeted interventions, addressing both individual and systemic factors to mitigate mental health disparities rooted in structural racism.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Análise Espacial , Adulto , Racismo Sistêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo Sistêmico/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e85, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738362

RESUMO

One example of proxy failure is current antisexist and antiracist policies. One of the most popular proxy in them is the number of representatives of marginalized groups - women and nonwhite people - in power structures. Here I show that such measures do not lead to combating sexism and racism, which flourish despite their application.


Assuntos
Política Pública , Racismo , Sexismo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino
11.
Clin Imaging ; 110: 110164, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691911

RESUMO

Natural Language Processing (NLP), a form of Artificial Intelligence, allows free-text based clinical documentation to be integrated in ways that facilitate data analysis, data interpretation and formation of individualized medical and obstetrical care. In this cross-sectional study, we identified all births during the study period carrying the radiology-confirmed diagnosis of fibroid uterus in pregnancy (defined as size of largest diameter of >5 cm) by using an NLP platform and compared it to non-NLP derived data using ICD10 codes of the same diagnosis. We then compared the two sets of data and stratified documentation gaps by race. Using fibroid uterus in pregnancy as a marker, we found that Black patients were more likely to have the diagnosis entered late into the patient's chart or had missing documentation of the diagnosis. With appropriate algorithm definitions, cross referencing and thorough validation steps, NLP can contribute to identifying areas of documentation gaps and improve quality of care.


Assuntos
Documentação , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Neoplasias Uterinas , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Documentação/normas , Documentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Racismo , Leiomioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Obstetrícia , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 19(3): 590-601, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652780

RESUMO

In the spirit of America's Shakespeare, August Wilson (1997), I have written this article as a testimony to the conditions under which I, and too many others, engage in scholarly discourse. I hope to make clear from the beginning that although the ideas presented here are not entirely my own-as they have been inherited from the minority of scholars who dared and managed to bring the most necessary, unpalatable, and unsettling truths about our discipline to the broader scientific community-I do not write for anyone but myself and those scholars who have felt similarly marginalized, oppressed, and silenced. And I write as a race scholar, meaning simply that I believe that race-and racism-affects the sociopolitical conditions in which humans, and scholars, develop their thoughts, feelings, and actions. I believe that it is important for all scholars to have a basic understanding of these conditions, as well as the landmines and pitfalls that define them, as they shape how research is conducted, reviewed, and disseminated. I also believe that to evolve one's discipline into one that is truly robust and objective, it must first become diverse and self-aware. Any effort to suggest otherwise, no matter how scholarly it might present itself, is intellectually unsound.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Psicologia , Humanos , Racismo , Política
14.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 45, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite decades of anti-racism and equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) interventions in academic medicine, medical racism continues to harm patients and healthcare providers. We sought to deeply explore experiences and beliefs about medical racism among academic clinicians to understand the drivers of persistent medical racism and to inform intervention design. METHODS: We interviewed academically-affiliated clinicians with any racial identity from the Departments of Family Medicine, Cardiac Sciences, Emergency Medicine, and Medicine to understand their experiences and perceptions of medical racism. We performed thematic content analysis of semi-structured interview data to understand the barriers and facilitators of ongoing medical racism. Based on participant narratives, we developed a logic framework that demonstrates the necessary steps in the process of addressing racism using if/then logic. This framework was then applied to all narratives and the barriers to addressing medical racism were aligned with each step in the logic framework. Proposed interventions, as suggested by participants or study team members and/or identified in the literature, were matched to these identified barriers to addressing racism. RESULTS: Participant narratives of their experiences of medical racism demonstrated multiple barriers to addressing racism, such as a perceived lack of empathy from white colleagues. Few potential facilitators to addressing racism were also identified, including shared language to understand racism. The logic framework suggested that addressing racism requires individuals to understand, recognize, name, and confront medical racism. CONCLUSIONS: Organizations can use this logic framework to understand their local context and select targeted anti-racism or EDI interventions. Theory-informed approaches to medical racism may be more effective than interventions that do not address local barriers or facilitators for persistent medical racism.


Assuntos
Racismo , Humanos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Empatia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Pessoal de Saúde
15.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 19(3): 576-579, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652782

RESUMO

Roberts and colleagues focus on two aspects of racial inequality in psychological research, namely an alleged underrepresentation of racial minorities and the effects attributed to this state of affairs. My comment focuses only on one aspect, namely the assumed consequences of the lack of diversity in subject populations. Representativeness of samples is essential in survey research or applied research that examines whether a particular intervention will work for a particular population. Representativeness or diversity is not necessary in theory-testing research, where we attempt to establish laws of causality. Because theories typically apply to all of humanity, all members of humanity (even American undergraduates) are suitable for assessing the validity of theoretical hypotheses. Admittedly, the assumption that a theory applies to all of humanity is also a hypothesis that can be tested. However, to test it, we need theoretical hypotheses about specific moderating variables. Supporting a theory with a racially diverse sample does not make conclusions more valid than support from a nondiverse sample. In fact, cause-effect conclusions based on a diverse sample might not be valid for any member of that sample.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Racismo , Psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 82, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Korea, Korean Chinese workers experience ethnic discrimination although they share physical similarities and ethnic heritage with native-born Koreans. This study aimed to examine whether perceived ethnic discrimination is associated with poor self-rated health and whether the association differs by gender among Korean Chinese waged workers in South Korea. METHODS: We conducted a pooled cross-sectional analysis using data of 13,443 Korean Chinese waged workers from the Survey on Immigrants' Living Conditions and Labor Force conducted in 2018, 2020, and 2022. Based on perceived ethnic discrimination, asking for fair treatment, and subsequent situational improvement, respondents were classified into the following four groups: "Not experienced," "Experienced, not asked for fair treatment," "Experienced, asked for fair treatment, not improved," and "Experienced, asked for fair treatment, improved." Poor self-rated health was assessed using a single question "How is your current overall health?" We applied logistic regression to examine the association between perceived ethnic discrimination and poor self-rated health, with gender-stratified analyses. RESULTS: We found an association between ethnic discrimination and poor self-rated health among Korean Chinese waged workers. In the gender-stratified analysis, the "Experienced, not asked for fair treatment" group was more likely to report poor self-rated health compared to the "Not experienced" group, regardless of gender. However, gender differences were observed in the group stratified by situational improvements. For male workers, no statistically significant association was found in the "Experienced, asked for fair treatment, improved" group with poor self-rated health (odd ratios: 0.87, 95% confidence intervals: 0.30-2.53). Conversely, among female workers, a statistically significant association was observed (odd ratios: 2.63, 95% confidence intervals: 1.29-5.38). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to find an association between perceived ethnic discrimination and poor self-rated health, along with gender differences in the association between situational improvements after asking for fair treatment and poor self-rated health among Korean Chinese waged workers in South Korea.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Nível de Saúde , Discriminação Percebida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , População do Leste Asiático , Racismo , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Alzheimers Dement ; 20(5): 3485-3494, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that exposure to the stress of racism may increase the risk of dementia for Black Americans. METHODS: The present study used 17 years of data from a sample of 255 Black Americans to investigate the extent to which exposure to racial discrimination predicts subsequent changes in serum Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) biomarkers: serum phosphorylated tau181(p-tau181), neurofilament light (NfL), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). We hypothesized that racial discrimination assessed during middle age would predict increases in these serum biomarkers as the participants aged into their 60s. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that exposure to various forms of racial discrimination during a person's 40s and early 50s predicts an 11-year increase in both serum p-tau181 and NfL. Racial discrimination was not associated with subsequent levels of GFAP. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that racial discrimination in midlife may contribute to increased AD pathology and neurodegeneration later in life. HIGHLIGHTS: A 17-year longitudinal study of Black Americans. Assessments of change in serum p-tau181, neurofilament light, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Exposure to racial discrimination during middle age predicted increases in p-tau181 and neurofilament light. Education was positively related to both p-tau181 and exposure to racial discrimination.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos , Racismo , Proteínas tau , Humanos , Proteínas tau/sangue , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fosforilação , Estudos Longitudinais , Envelhecimento/sangue , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/sangue , Idoso
19.
Cult. cuid ; 28(68): 179-188, Abr 10, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232321

RESUMO

Introducción: Maria José Bezerra, Maria Soldado, mujernegra nacida en la ciudad de Limeira, São Paulo, heroína ysímbolo de la Revolución Constitucionalista de 1932, fueuna enfermera de guerra reconocida por su fuerza, valor,patriotismo y abnegación.Objetivo: historiar la trayectoria vital personal y profesionalde Maria José Bezerra. Metodología: Investigación biográficarealizada a partir de registros bibliográficos y documentales.Resultados: Maria José Bezerra sirvió como enfermeramiembro de la Legión Negra en la Guerra Civil de la RevoluciónConstitucionalista de 1932, destacando por sus logros, con unacontribución activa a la construcción de la historia del país.Conclusión: La invisibilidad negra traduce la injusticia, laincoherencia de los derechos y también los actos que tratande deshonrar al individuo en sus aspectos individuales ycolectivos. El estudio de la trayectoria de esta mujer luchadorase constituye como una estrategia para dar voz, fuerza ysentido a hacer pública la historia de una representantede la población negra, y también debería incluirse en loscurrículos académicos.(AU)


Introduction: Maria José Bezerra, a black woman born inthe city of Limeira, São Paulo, hero and symbol of the 1932Constitutionalist Revolution, was a war nurse recognized forher strength, courage, patriotism and abnegation.Objective: To historicize Maria José Bezerra's personal andprofessional life trajectory. Methodology: Biographical research based on bibliographicand documentary records.Results: Maria José Bezerra acted as a nurse member ofthe Black Legion in the Civil War of the ConstitutionalistRevolution of 1932, stood out for her achievements, withactive contribution in the construction of the country's history.Conclusion: Black invisibility translates as injustice, inconsistencyof rights, and even acts that try to discredit the individualin their individual and collective aspects. The study of thetrajectory of this woman fighter constitutes a strategy togive voice, strength and meaning to make public the historyof a representative of the black population, and the themeshould also be included in academic curricula.(AU)


Introdução: Maria José Bezerra, a Maria Soldado, uma mulhernegra nascida na cidade de Limeira, São Paulo, heroína esímbolo da Revolução Constitucionalista de 1932, foi umaenfermeira de guerra reconhecida pela força, coragem,patriotismo e abnegação.Objetivo: Historicizar a trajetória de vida pessoal e profissionalde Maria José Bezerra.Metodologia: Pesquisa biográfica realizada a partir de registrosbibliográficos e documentais.Resultados: Maria José Bezerra atuou como enfermeiramembro da Legião Negra na Guerra Civil da RevoluçãoConstitucionalista de 1932, destacou-se pelos seus feitos,com contribuição ativa na construção da história do país.Conclusão: A invisibilidade negra traduz a injustiça, incoerênciade direitos e, ainda, atos que tentam desabonar o indivíduoem seus aspectos individuais e coletivos. O estudo da trajetóriadessa mulher lutadora constitui-se como estratégia de darvoz, força e sentido de tornar público a história de umarepresentante da população negra, devendo ainda ser inclusaa temática nos currículos acadêmicos.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , História da Enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Militares , Racismo , Brasil , Enfermagem
20.
JAAPA ; 37(5): 35-41, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This mixed-methods study explored whether physician associates/assistants (PAs) who are Black women (for brevity, called Black women PAs throughout this article) experience gendered racial microaggressions and whether these experiences correlated with psychologic distress. The phrase Black women encompasses those who identify with the sociocultural roles, behaviors, and expressions of being a Black woman. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of Black women PAs using the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale during a 2-month period in 2019. RESULTS: Black women PAs experienced gendered racial microaggressions in clinical settings. Gendered racial microaggressions were correlated with stress, being silenced and marginalized, and assumptions of beauty and sexual objectification. No correlations were found between stress and the angry Black woman and strong Black woman variables. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that Black women have interlocking forms of oppression related to their race and gender, which are associated with psychologic distress. Awareness of these occurrences can reduce the unknowing perpetuation of gendered racial microaggressions and create cultural awareness practices.


Assuntos
Agressão , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Assistentes Médicos , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Assistentes Médicos/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Racismo/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica
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