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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2568: 147-163, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227567

RESUMO

Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has been widely applied as an enabling integrative technique for comprehensive analysis of the structure of biomacromolecules by multiple, complementary techniques in solution. SAXS in combination with computational modeling can be a powerful strategy bridging the secondary and 3D structural analysis of large RNAs, including the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). Here, we outline the major procedures and techniques in the combined use of SAXS and computational modeling for 3D structural characterization of a lncRNA, the subgenomic flaviviral RNA from Zika virus. lncRNA production and purification, RNA buffer and sample preparation for SAXS experiments, SAXS data collection and analysis, SAXS-aided RNA 3D structure prediction, and computational modeling are described.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X , Raios X , Zika virus/genética
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 630(Pt B): 202-214, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327723

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Dairy proteins and mono- and diglycerides (MDG) are often used in unison to tailor the properties of dairy-based emulsions. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of how proteins affect lipid crystallisation at the oil-water interface. We have used a unique combination of interfacially-sensitive techniques to elucidate the impact of dairy proteins on interfacial MDG crystal formation. EXPERIMENTS: The formation temperature of interfacial MDG crystals was assessed through interfacial tension studies via drop shape analysis. Small and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering measurements were performed on isolated oil-water interfaces, allowing for in-situ interrogation of MDG crystal structure and concentration at and near the interface. FINDINGS: Dairy proteins are seen to reduce the temperature at which MDG crystals form at the oil-water interface. The displacement of proteins upon interfacial crystal formation was also clearly observed in interfacial tension measurements. For the first time, lipid crystals formed at the oil-water interface have been characterised using X-ray scattering. All scattering studies showed no change to the MDG crystal structures at the oil-water interface in the presence of adsorbed proteins. The results demonstrate that informed selection of emulsifier components is critical to controlling interfacial crystallisation with concomitant impact on emulsion stability.


Assuntos
Óleos , Água , Emulsões/química , Óleos/química , Raios X , Água/química , Emulsificantes
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 630(Pt B): 28-36, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327730

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique allows the deposition of gold nanoparticles and nanoclusters (atomically precise nanoparticles below 2 nm in diameter) onto solid substrates with an unprecedented degree of control and high transfer ratios. Nanoclusters are expected to follow the crinkle folding mechanism, which promotes the formation of trilayers of nanoparticles but kinetically disfavors the formation of the fourth layer. EXPERIMENTS: LB films of Au38(SC2H4Ph)24 nanocluster were prepared at a range of surface pressures in the bilayer/trilayer regime and their internal structure was analyzed with X-ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (GIWAXS). Bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging was used to quantify the elastic modulus, which can be correlated with the topography at the same point on the surface. FINDINGS: Nanocluster bilayers and trilayers exhibited the elastic moduli of ca. 1.2 GPa and 0.9 GPa respectively. Films transferred in the 20-25 mN/m surface pressure regime displayed a particular propensity to form highly vertically organized trilayers. Further compression resulted in disorganization of the layers. Crucially, the use of two cantilevers of contrasting stiffness for bimodal AFM measurements has demonstrated a new approach to quantify the mechanical properties of ultrathin films without the use of deconvolution algorithms to remove the substrate contribution.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Raios X , Módulo de Elasticidade
4.
Talanta ; 252: 123820, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969925

RESUMO

The study focuses on the development of a new procedure for the preparation of reference samples with a given concentration for X-ray fluorescence analysis by adding certain volume of analyzed elements solutions with a known concentration to certified reference rock materials and further fusion with borate fluxes. The presented method of preparing emitters allows not only to obtain samples with the required concentrations for the elements to be determined, but also to preserve the influence that other elements have on the analytical signal. A set of 12 certified reference samples of rocks was used to construct calibration dependencies. The preparation of multicomponent modified reference samples (MRS) was carried out on the basis of certified reference materials (CRM) included in the set for constructing calibration curves. The concentration dependences on the analytical signal were established for the main oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, TFe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5) and minor elements (Cr, Cu, Ba, Ni, Sr, V, Zr, and Zn) using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with wavelength dispersion. With the help of modified reference samples, the calibration curves were expanded and supplemented both for major oxides (P2O5, MnO) and for minor elements (Zn, Sr). Also, in the course of the research, a comparison was made of the homogeneity of the emitters obtained according to the MRS preparation procedure presented in the work and reference samples (RS) made of CRM prepared according to the standard method for rocks, and the composition of inclusions on the surface of the fused disks was determined.


Assuntos
Óxidos , Dióxido de Silício , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Raios X , Óxidos/análise , Calibragem
5.
Talanta ; 252: 123844, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001900

RESUMO

In this paper, the main subject concerns comparing different techniques to prepare raw clay samples for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). Three kinds of sample preparation procedures are examined, such as loose powder, pressed pellet, and fired pressed pellet. The fired pressed pellet approach was observed as a part of universal sample preparation for physic, mechanical, and instrumental analysis, which has not been previously tested as a solution in chemical analysis by the EDXRF method. The observed sample preparation techniques were compared by calculating the parameters of validation (recoveries, limit of detection - LOD, limit of quantification - LOQ, precision, and expanded uncertainties of measurements) of 11 elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Ti, P, Mn, and S) using 15 certified reference materials (CRMs). Calibration curves were created and evaluated using 30 reference materials (RM) for all three approaches. Results proved that the fired pressed pellet is the most practical and precise approach for sample preparation of raw clays.


Assuntos
Argila , Raios X , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Calibragem
6.
Protein Expr Purif ; 202: 106188, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229000

RESUMO

Phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) by eIF2α kinases is a common mechanism to regulate the initiation of translation under stress conditions. The PK2 protein from baculovirus Autographica californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) binds and inhibits eIF2α kinases to ensure efficient virus propagation. The C-terminal region of PK2 shares a homology with the C-lobe of eIF2α kinases, but the N-terminal region of PK2 is unique to the orthologous proteins. In order to understand the detailed structure and function of PK2, both the full-length PK2 and its N-terminal truncated protein (PK2Δ22) were expressed as a His-tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by three steps of chromatography. Notably, the cysteine mutant, PK2 C181S/C211S, promotes the solubility and stability of the PK2 protein. The results of the size-exclusion chromatography showed that the full-length PK2 exists in both multimeric and monomeric forms, and the molecular interaction of PK2 and the eIF2α kinase domain. The purified proteins were used further to screen various conditions to obtain these crystals. Crystals of the full-length PK2 and PK2Δ22 were obtained by a sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using lithium sulfate and PEG3350 as the precipitant, respectively. The crystal of PK2 belonged to space group P41212, and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein, and the solvent content was 67.4%. Whereas, the crystal of the PK2Δ22 belonged to space group P212121, diffracted X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained three molecules of the protein, and the solvent content was 48.1%. The crystallographic study of the PK2 protein will provide mechanistic insights into the inhibition of eIF2α kinase by the PK2 protein, and also pave the way for the improvement of the baculovirus-based protein expression system.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae , Escherichia coli , Raios X , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Baculoviridae/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Solventes
7.
Ann Anat ; 245: 152005, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: the world studies showed the interest in measurement of the buccal or anterior cortical plate thickness. Data indicate a significant superiority of the spongy substance over the compact one in the distal part of the jaw, which makes it possible to think about a higher effectiveness of transcortical injections. The empirical "rule of 10″ provides for the choice of a method of anesthesia in children for primary teeth but demonstrates difficulties with high-quality anesthesia accompanied for permanent teeth. Therefore, the importance of clinical examination and anatomical investigation of the jaw cortical plate in children for competent planning of transcortical interventions has been determined. AIM: To study the features of the clinical and X-ray anatomy of the cortical layer in distal alveolar part of the mandible in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of the X-ray anatomical characteristics of the mandible was carried out according to 150 anonymized cone-beam computed tomograms of patients aged 6-12 years, performed for the treatment of major diseases. Qualitative assessment and examination of the cortical plate of the distal alveolar part of the mandible were carried out on the skeletonized certified preparations of aged 6-12 in the amount of 50. RESULTS: The age characteristics of the cortical plate in the area of the chewing group of teeth in the mandible were determined according to macro anatomical studies, which confirms with the X-ray results. Therefore, the obtained images serve as actual confirmation of X-ray studies, which are ranked by age. The thickness of the cortical plate in the second primary molar of the mandible in subgroups 6, 7 and 8 years has a proportional increase from the cervical region to the apical projection. The average thickness of the cortical plate is 1.57 mm at 6 years, 1.52 mm at 7 years, 1.6 mm at 8 years and 1.84 at 9 years. The cortical plate thickness in the first primary molar of the mandible in subgroups 6 and 7 years has a proportional decrease from the cervical region to the apical projection as well as an inverse proportion to age. The average thickness of the cortical plate is 1.33 mm. In the first molar of the mandible at the age limit of 6-12 years the attention is drawn to the linear increase in tissue volume from the cervical region to the apical projection up to 8 years. At 6-8 years the average thickness of the cortical plate in this age group is 1.74 ± 0.2 mm, at 9 years - 2.03 mm, at 10 - average value in the cervical region it is 1.53 ± 0.23 mm, in the root middle it is 2.19 ± 0.13 mm and in the apical projection it is 1.98 ± 0.16 mm, at 11-2.22 mm and at 12-2.35 mm. For the second primary molar the average thickness of the buccal cortical plate of the second primary molar is 1.4 mm in cervical part, 1.68 mm in the root middle and 1.81 mm in the apical projection. Finally, thickness of the buccal cortical plate in the cervical region of the first permanent molar is 2 mm in groups. CONCLUSION: The study makes it possible to determinate with noninvasive way the age limit for the least pronounced zone of the buccal cortical plate.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Mandíbula , Criança , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Raios X , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia
8.
Mol Pharm ; 19(2): 508-519, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939811

RESUMO

Using light scattering (LS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and coarse-grained Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we studied the self-interactions of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), PPI03 and PPI13. With LS measurements, we obtained the osmotic second virial coefficient, B22, and the molecular weight, Mw, of the two mAbs, while with SAXS measurements, we studied the mAbs' self-interaction behavior in the high protein concentration regime up to 125 g/L. Through SAXS-derived coarse-grained representations of the mAbs, we performed MC simulations with either a one-protein or a two-protein model to predict B22. By comparing simulation and experimental results, we validated our models and obtained insights into the mAbs' self-interaction properties, highlighting the role of both ion binding and charged patches on the mAb surfaces. Our models provide useful information about mAbs' self-interaction properties and can assist the screening of conditions driving to colloidal stability.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Método de Monte Carlo , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X , Raios X
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18635, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329118

RESUMO

Imaging of the focal spot size in X-ray generators can be achieved by means of a pinhole in a highly attenuating material, such as gold. For microfocus generators with spot sizes of only around 10 microns or less, the material must be very thin to avoid an impractical aspect ratio. With a 90 kV source, only 11% attenuation is attained with 5 µm gold. For a pinhole that is smaller than the focal spot, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be less than 1. To image the focal spot of a medical X-ray generator, a coded aperture has been used previously to reduce the exposure time required, however the same technique does not appear to have been used to increase the SNR when the attenuation is very low. Such a method is used here, using a no-two-holes-touching variation of a modified uniformly redundant array (MURA). In a prototype sample, with only 5 µm gold having 2.75 µm holes, the focal spot of a microfocus X-ray generator used in a micro-CT system could be clearly visualised and quantified. Directionality of the aberrations made focussing of the X-ray spot more intuitive and reduced the time required to obtain an optimal, quantifiable focus.


Assuntos
Ouro , Raios X , Radiografia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Razão Sinal-Ruído
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18573, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329253

RESUMO

Recent developments in deep learning have impacted medical science. However, new privacy issues and regulatory frameworks have hindered medical data sharing and collection. Deep learning is a very data-intensive process for which such regulatory limitations limit the potential for new breakthroughs and collaborations. However, generating medically accurate synthetic data can alleviate privacy issues and potentially augment deep learning pipelines. This study presents generative adversarial neural networks capable of generating realistic images of knee joint X-rays with varying osteoarthritis severity. We offer 320,000 synthetic (DeepFake) X-ray images from training with 5,556 real images. We validated our models regarding medical accuracy with 15 medical experts and for augmentation effects with an osteoarthritis severity classification task. We devised a survey of 30 real and 30 DeepFake images for medical experts. The result showed that on average, more DeepFakes were mistaken for real than the reverse. The result signified sufficient DeepFake realism for deceiving the medical experts. Finally, our DeepFakes improved classification accuracy in an osteoarthritis severity classification task with scarce real data and transfer learning. In addition, in the same classification task, we replaced all real training data with DeepFakes and suffered only a [Formula: see text] loss from baseline accuracy in classifying real osteoarthritis X-rays.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Raios X , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Radiografia
11.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 484-493, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336441

RESUMO

Forensic anthropologists may not always be able to differentiate heat-induced fractures from fractures with other aetiologies, namely sharp force traumas, with clear nefarious impact on medico-legal conclusions. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate if blade chemical traces are transferred to defleshed bone tissue and if they remain there after a burning event. This was accomplished by prompting sharp force traumas in 20 macerated fresh pig ribs with five different instruments, namely a stainless steel knife, an artisanal knife and a ceramic kitchen knife, a small axe and a large axe. Another pig rib was used as control, not being subjected to any trauma. All instruments were probed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to establish the composition of each blade. Bone samples, both pre-burned and post-burned (at 500 °C, 700 °C, 900 °C and 1100 °C), were then probed by XRF. All sharp force instruments left detectable chemical traces on pre-burned bone, although not in all samples. Furthermore, traces were still detected after experimental burning in most cases. Potentially, XRF can provide relevant information about the aetiology of fractures in burned and unburned bones, although the effect of soft tissues and diagenesis must still be investigated.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Suínos , Animais , Raios X , Fluorescência , Costelas , Medicina Legal
12.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 582-593, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336451

RESUMO

The need to forensically search soil for small artefacts at a burial site or traces of evidence in a deposition site is a common task shared by investigators and forensic archaeologists. In forensic casework, the importance of finding small pieces of evidence, such as personal effects or ballistic fragments, cannot be overstated as it can assist in the positive identification of the deceased, give an insight into the manner and cause of death, and identify any perpetrators. The soil search methods known as wet and dry sieving, are cumbersome, time-consuming and have limited success for some soil types. This often leads to the decision not to search, resulting in missed opportunities to identify potential evidence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if a dual energy X-ray baggage scanner could be used to search for items of potential forensic interest in soil. A trial was conducted using a Smiths Detection ScanTrailer 100100 V-2is mobile X-ray inspection system to establish if it could be used to detect organic, inorganic, and metallic items located within soil. The soil type and natural variables such as water and organic content were adjusted to simulate different environments. The baggage scanner was found to provide a quick and easy way to detect items contained within various soil types, particularly in a sand rich matrix. It is estimated that using this method to search 1 m3 of soil, when broken down into samples that are < 13 cm in depth, would take around one hour to complete, compared with 100 to 150 person-hours by manual sieving. This is believed to be the first use of dual energy X-ray technology for this purpose and shows the potential for further research and use of this method in forensic archaeology.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Solo , Humanos , Raios X , Sepultamento , Medicina Legal/métodos
13.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 40(10): 733-736, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348552

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of low-dose X-ray ionizing radiation on thyroid function of radiation workers. Methods: From January to December 2021, a total of 1039 medical workers in some tertiary hospitals in Wuhan were selected as the survey subjects, of which 518 radiation workers were selected as the exposure group, and 521 non-radiation workers were selected as the control group. The general conditions of the two groups were collected, and 5 indicators of thyroid function were measured, including total thyroxine (TT(4)) , total triiodothyronine (TT(3)) , free triiodothyronine (FT(3)) , thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) , and free thyroxine (FT(4)) . The annual cumulative dose of ionizing radiation exposure in the exposure group was collected. Pearson χ(2) test and independent sample t test were used to compare the general conditions, 5 indicators of thyroid function and abnormal rate between the two groups. Linear regression model was used to analyze the correlation between the annual cumulative dose and 5 indicators of thyroid function in the exposure group. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of thyroid dysfunction in the exposure group. Results: The TT(4) levels of the workers in the control group and the exposure group were (7.95±1.07) µg/dl and (8.26±1.41) µg/dl, respectively, and the FT(4) levels were (16.33±2.19) pmol/L and (17.15±2.42) pmol/L, respectively, the rate of thyroid dysfunction was 4.80% (25/521) and 8.49% (44/518) , and the above differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Linear regression analysis showed that the annual cumulative dose of the exposure group was significantly correlated with TT(4), TT(3), FT(4), and TSH (P<0.05) . For every 1 mSv increase in the annual cumulative dose, TT(4) increased by 1.661 µg/dl, FT(4) increased by 1.422 pmol/L, TT(3) decreased by 0.113 ng/ml, and TSH decreased by 0.731 µIU/ml. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the older the radiation workers, the higher the risk of thyroid dysfunction (OR=1.080, 95% CI: 1.016-1.148, P=0.013) ; the greater the annual cumulative dose, the higher the risk of thyroid dysfunction (OR=6.400, 95%CI: 1.796-22.811, P=0.004) . Conclusion: The annual cumulative dose of low-dose X-ray ionizing radiation is positively correlated with thyroid function TT(4) and FT(4) of radiation workers, and negatively correlated with TT(3) and TSH; the greater the age and annual cumulative dose, the higher the risk of thyroid dysfunction.


Assuntos
Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina , Humanos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Raios X , Tireotropina , Radiação Ionizante
15.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 78(Pt 6): 482-490, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318069

RESUMO

Dark-field X-ray microscopy is a diffraction-based synchrotron imaging technique capable of imaging defects in the bulk of extended crystalline samples. Numerical simulations are presented of image formation in such a microscope using numerical integration of the dynamical Takagi-Taupin equations and wavefront propagation. The approach is validated by comparing simulated images with experimental data from a near-perfect single crystal of diamond containing a single stacking-fault defect in the illuminated volume.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Síncrotrons , Raios X , Difração de Raios X , Radiografia
16.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 99, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417030

RESUMO

Radiologists often need only a glance to grasp the essence of complex medical images. Here, we use paradigms and manipulations from perceptual learning and expertise fields to elicit mechanisms and limits of holistic processing in radiological expertise. In the first experiment, radiologists were significantly better at categorizing thorax X-rays when they were presented for 200 ms in an upright orientation than when they were presented upside-down. Medical students, in contrast, were guessing in both situations. When the presentation time was increased to 500 ms, allowing for a couple more glances, the radiologists improved their performance on the upright stimuli, but remained at the same level on the inverted presentation. The second experiment circumvented the holistic processing by immediately cueing a tissue within the X-rays, which may or may not contain a nodule. Radiologists were again better than medical students at recognizing whether the cued tissue was a nodule, but this time neither the inverted presentation nor additional time affected their performance. Our study demonstrates that holistic processing is most likely a continuous recurring process which is just as susceptible to the inversion effect as in other expertise domains. More importantly, our study also indicates that holistic-like processing readily occurs in complex stimuli (e.g., whole thorax X-rays) but is more difficult to find in uniform single parts of such stimuli (e.g., nodules).


Assuntos
Radiologistas , Radiologia , Humanos , Raios X , Radiografia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20145, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418356

RESUMO

The study of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) emission spectra is a powerful technique used in applications that range from biology to cultural heritage. Key objectives of this technique include identification and quantification of elemental traces composing the analyzed sample. However, precise derivation of elemental concentration is often hampered by self-absorption of the XRF signal emitted by light constituents. This attenuation depends on the amount of sample present between the radiation source and detection system and allows for the exploitation of self-absorption in order to recover a sample topography. In this work, an X-ray-tracing application based on the use of multiple silicon drift detectors, is introduced to inversely reconstruct a 3D sample with correct topographical landscape, from 2D XRF count rates maps obtained from spectroscopy. The reconstruction was tested on the XRF maps of a simulated sample, which is composed of three cells with different size but similar composition. We propose to use the recovered 3D sample topography in order to numerically compute the self-absorption effects on the X-ray fluorescence radiation, thereby showing that a quantitative correction is possible. Lastly, we present a web application which implements the suggested methodology, in order to demonstrate its feasibility and applicability, available at: https://github.com/ElettraSciComp/xrfstir .


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Raios X , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Radiografia , Microscopia de Fluorescência
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7163, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418862

RESUMO

Polymer semiconductors are promising candidates for wearable and skin-like X-ray detectors due to their scalable manufacturing, adjustable molecular structures and intrinsic flexibility. Herein, we fabricated an intrinsically stretchable n-type polymer semiconductor through spatial nanoconfinement effect for ultrasensitive X-ray detectors. The design of high-orientation nanofiber structures and dense interpenetrating polymer networks enhanced the electron-transporting efficiency and stability of the polymer semiconductors. The resultant polymer semiconductors exhibited an ultrahigh sensitivity of 1.52 × 104 µC Gyair-1 cm-2, an ultralow detection limit of 37.7 nGyair s-1 (comparable to the record-low value of perovskite single crystals), and polymer film X-ray imaging was achieved at a low dose rate of 3.65 µGyair s-1 (about 1/12 dose rate of the commercial medical chest X-ray diagnosis). Meanwhile, the hybrid semiconductor films could sustain 100% biaxial stretching strain with minimal degeneracy in photoelectrical performances. These results provide insights into future high-performance, low-cost e-skin photoelectronic detectors and imaging.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Semicondutores , Raios X , Polímeros/química , Radiografia , Pele
19.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e66, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Symptom awareness campaigns have contributed to improved early detection of lung cancer. Previous research suggests that this may have been achieved partly by diagnosing lung cancer in those who were not experiencing symptoms of their cancer. This study aimed to explore the relationship between frequency of chest x-ray in the three years prior to diagnosis and stage at diagnosis. SETTINGS: Lung cancer service in a UK teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 2010 and 2013 were identified. The number of chest x-rays for each patient in the three years prior to diagnosis was recorded. Statistical analysis of chest x-ray frequency comparing patients with early- and late-stage disease was performed. RESULTS: One-thousand seven-hundred fifty patients were included - 589 (33.7%) with stage I/II and 1,161 (66.3%) with stage III/IV disease. All patients had at least one chest x-ray in the six months prior to diagnosis. Those with early-stage disease had more chest x-rays in this period (1.32 vs 1.15 radiographs per patient, P = 0.009). In the period 36 months to six months prior to lung cancer diagnosis, this disparity was even greater (1.70 vs 0.92, radiographs per patient, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased rates of chest x-ray are likely to contribute to earlier detection. Given the known symptom lead time many patients diagnosed through chest x-ray may not have been experiencing symptoms caused by their cancer. The number of chest x-rays performed could reflect patient and/or clinician behaviours in response to symptoms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pulmão , Humanos , Raios X , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico
20.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 8(6)2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332231

RESUMO

In this study, a novel anthropomorphic head phantom for quantitative image quality assessment in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is proposed. The phantom is composed of tissue equivalent materials (TEMs) which are suitable for cost-efficient fabrication methods such as silicone casting and 3D printing. A monocalcium phosphate/gypsum mixture (MCPHG), nylon and a silyl modified polymer gel (SMP) are proposed as bone, muscle and brain equivalent materials respectively. The TEMs were evaluated for their radiodensity in terms of Hounsfield Units (HU) and their x-ray scatter characteristics. The median radiodensity and inter quartile range (IQR) of the MCPHG and SMP were found to be within the range of the theoretical radiodensity for bone and brain tissue: 922 (IQR = 156) and 47 (IQR = 7) HU respectively. The median radiodensity of nylon was slightly outside of the HU range of muscle tissue, but within the HU range of a combination of muscle and adipose tissue: -18 (IQR = 40) HU. The median ratios between the measured scatter characteristics and simulated tissues were between 0.84 and 1.13 (IQR between 0.05 and 0.14). The preliminary results of this study show that the proposed design and TEMs are potentially suitable for the fabrication of a cost-efficient anthropomorphic head phantom for quantitative image quality assessment in CT or CBCT.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Nylons , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Raios X
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