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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 259-265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004724

RESUMO

Background: Dental fear is a common cause of uncooperative behavior among young children, which poses a challenge in providing effective dental treatment. With the advancements in technology, several behavior guidance techniques in the form of distraction have emerged over time for managing uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four different behavior guidance techniques in managing uncooperative pediatric patients by measuring pre- and post-operative dental fear/anxiety levels using physiological and nonphysiological parameters. Methodology: Sixty systemically healthy children aged 5-8 years with negative behavior as per Frankl's Rating Scale, requiring restoration were included in the study and randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 15), based on the guidance techniques used: Tell-Show-Do (TSD) as a control group and audio distraction, audiovisual distraction (AVD) (virtual reality [VR]) and Mobile Phone Game Distraction as test groups. Pre- and post-intervention levels of the child's fear/anxiety were assessed using both physiological (blood pressure and pulse rate) and nonphysiological (facial image scale) parameters. The data were evaluated using t-test and one-way ANOVA test. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in both physiological and non-physiological parameters post-intervention in the groups with a maximum decrease in the AVD (VR) group. Conclusions: AVD (VR) was found to be the most effective while TSD alone as the least effective behavior guidance technique in reducing dental fear/anxiety in uncooperative pediatric dental patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2429-2433, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018497

RESUMO

Manual assessment from experts in neonatal endotracheal intubation (ETI) training is a time-consuming and tedious process. Such subjective, highly variable, and resource-intensive assessment method may not only introduce inter-rater/intra-rater variability, but also represent a serious limitation in many large-scale training programs. Moreover, poor visualization during the procedure prevents instructors from observing the events occurring within the manikin or the patient, which introduces an additional source of error into the assessment. In this paper, we propose a physics-based virtual reality (VR) ETI simulation system that captures the entire motions of the laryngoscope and the endotracheal tube (ETT) in relation to the internal anatomy of the virtual patient. Our system provides a complete visualization of the procedure, offering instructors with comprehensive information for accurate assessment. More importantly, an interpretable machine learning algorithm was developed to automatically assess the ETI performance by training on the performance parameters extracted from the motions and the scores rated by experts. Our results show that the leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV) classification accuracy of the automated assessment algorithm is 80%, which indicates that our system can reliably conduct a consistent and standardized assessment for ETI training.


Assuntos
Laringoscópios , Realidade Virtual , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Interface Usuário-Computador
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2925-2928, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018619

RESUMO

An emerging corpus of research seeks to use virtual realities (VRs) to understand the neural mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and decision making in rodents. These studies have primarily used visual stimuli to represent the virtual world. However, auditory cues play an important role in navigation for animals, especially when the visual system cannot detect objects or predators. We have developed a virtual reality environment defined exclusively by free-field acoustic landmarks for head-fixed mice. We trained animals to run in a virtual environment with 3 acoustic landmarks. We present evidence that they can learn to navigate in our context: we observed anticipatory licking and modest anticipatory slowing preceding the reward region. Furthermore, we found that animals were highly aware of changes in landmark cues: licking behavior changed dramatically when the familiar virtual environment was switched to a novel one, and then rapidly reverted to normal when the familiar virtual environment was re-introduced, all within the same session. Finally, while animals executed the task, we performed in-vivo calcium imaging in the CA1 region of the hippocampus using a modified Miniscope.org system. Our experiments point to a future in which auditory virtual reality can be used to expand our understanding of the neural bases of audition in locomoting animals and the variety of sensory cues which anchor spatial representations in a new virtual environment.


Assuntos
Navegação Espacial , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Camundongos , Percepção Espacial , Interface Usuário-Computador
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2942-2945, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018623

RESUMO

Multisensory integration is the process by which information from different sensory modalities is integrated by the nervous system. Understanding this process is important not only from a basic science perspective but also for translational reasons, e.g. for the development of closed-loop neural prosthetic systems. Here we describe a versatile virtual reality platform which can be used to study the neural mechanisms of multisensory integration for the upper limb and could potentially be incorporated into systems for training of robust neural prosthetic control. The platform involves the interaction of multiple computers and programs and allows for selection of different avatar arms and for modification of a selected arm's visual properties. The system was tested with two non-human primates (NHP) that were trained to reach to multiple targets on a tabletop. Reliability of arm visual feedback was altered by applying different levels of blurring to the arm. In addition, tactile feedback was altered by adding or removing physical targets from the environment. We observed differences in movement endpoint distributions that varied between animals and visual feedback conditions, as well as across targets. The results indicate that the system can be used to study multisensory integration in a well-controlled manner.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Animais , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3035-3039, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018645

RESUMO

The concept of 'presence' in the context of virtual reality (VR) refers to the experience of being in the virtual environment, even when one is physically situated in the real world. Therefore, it is a key parameter of assessing a VR system, based on which, improvements can be made to it. To overcome the limitations of existing methods that are based on standard questionnaires and behavioral analysis, this study proposes to investigate the suitability of biosignals of the user to derive an objective measure of presence. The proposed approach includes experiments conducted on 20 users, recording EEG, ECG and electrodermal activity (EDA) signals while experiencing custom designed VR scenarios with factors contributing to presence suppressed and unsuppressed. Mutual Information based feature selection and subsequent paired t-tests used to identify significant variations in biosignal features when each factor of presence is suppressed revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences in the mean values of EEG signal power and coherence within alpha, beta and gamma bands distributed in specific regions of the brain. Statistical features showed a significant variation with the suppression of realism factor. The variations of activity in the temporal region lead to the assumption of insula activation which may be related to the sense of presence. Therefore, the use of biosignals for an objective measurement of presence in VR systems indicates promise.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral , Interface Usuário-Computador
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3162-3165, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018676

RESUMO

Immersive virtual reality provides a safe and costeffective approach to administrating balance disruption during ambulation. Previous research has explored the effects of applying continuous perturbations in a virtual environment to challenge balance. This pilot study investigates the ability to disrupt balance with discrete visual perturbations during ambulation in healthy young adults. During the study participants walked on a treadmill within a virtual environment. As they walked the entire visual scene was intermittently shifted to the left or right 1 meter over 1 second. The results demonstrate a significant decrease in step length (p <; 0.05) and change in center of mass excursion (p <; 0.05) across participants (N=13). Changes in gait lasted up to three steps after application, suggesting a consistent challenge to dynamic balance control as a result of the discrete visual perturbation . Further, participants did not demonstrate a reduction in response to the discrete visual perturbation with repeated exposure. The results indicate that discrete visual perturbations of a virtual scene can be used to challenge gait and modulate center of mass sway. The use of visual perturbations within a virtual environment to challenge dynamic balance could provide a safer and more affordable avenue for balance rehabilitation by reducing the need for systems that physically perturb balance.


Assuntos
Marcha , Realidade Virtual , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3192-3195, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018683

RESUMO

Spatial attention is an important feature for filtering everyday inputs. The direction of the attention can be guided by the use of visual, auditory or tactile stimuli. The literature regarding the effect of cueing spatial attention in visual search tasks consistently shows an improvement in accuracy and reaction time. So far, most studies have used two-dimensional setups, for which ecological validity may be questioned. In this study with healthy participants, we investigated the feasibility of a virtual reality-based setup. We examined the feasibility and compared the performance in a visual search task as auditory, tactile or combined cues were given. The results revealed high usability and a significantly higher detection rate for combined audio-tactile cues compared to auditory cues alone.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Realidade Virtual , Atenção , Humanos , Tato , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3244-3247, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018696

RESUMO

A unique virtual reality platform for multisensory integration studies is presented. It allows to provide multimodal sensory stimuli (i.e. auditory, visual, tactile, etc.) ensuring temporal coherence, key factor in cross-modal integration. Four infrared cameras allow to real-time track the human motion and correspondingly control a virtual avatar. A user-friendly interface allows to manipulate a great variety of features (i.e. stimulus type, duration and distance from the participants' body, as well as avatar gender, height, arm pose, perspective, etc.) and to real-time provide quantitative measures of all the parameters. The platform has been validated on two healthy participants testing a reaction time task which combines tactile and visual stimuli, for the investigation of peripersonal space. Results proved the effectiveness of the proposed platform, showing a significant correlation (p=0.013) between the participant's hand distance from the visual stimulus and the reaction time to the tactile stimulus. More participants will be recruited to further investigate the other measures provided by the platform.


Assuntos
Percepção do Tato , Realidade Virtual , Mãos , Humanos , Espaço Pessoal , Tato
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3347-3350, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018721

RESUMO

During human standing, it has been previously observed that information about the position and frequency of visual surround motion improves balance by reducing sway responses to external disturbances. However, experimental limitations only allowed for independent investigation of such parameters while being incapable of providing a fully immersive experience of a real environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of visual information on dynamic body sway in the human upright stance by presenting perturbations through a virtual reality (VR) system. Moreover, we designed a new perturbation signal based on trapezoidal velocity (TrapV) pulses enabling us to simultaneously examine the effects of amplitude and velocity on balance control. The experiments included four different peak-to-peak amplitudes (1-10 degrees), and three velocities (2-10 degree/sec). The body angle, ankle torques and shank angles were measured and analyzed in response to each perturbation. The results reveal that stimuli with higher amplitudes evoked larger responses, while they were initially increased and reached a peak, then decreased by increasing the motion velocity of visual surround.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Equilíbrio Postural , Posição Ortostática , Visão Ocular
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3747-3750, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018816

RESUMO

There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of Skin Conductance (SC) for assessing changes in emotional states, such as engagement to learning tasks, and its importance to estimate possible drawbacks affecting overall performance. To date, most of the commonly used methods for SC signal analysis, i.e. detecting its phasic and tonic components and thus extracting informative features, are either too simple and unreliable or too complex and thus inaccessible and inflexible, as well as unable to perform online analyses. The current work proposes a simplified but clear and effective algorithm based on a Machine State to search for expected behaviors in the well-defined morphology of the signal. Eleven (11) features were correctly extracted from 79 healthy subjects during an experimental setup for immersive virtual rehabilitation (balance study case). The method was also successfully applied as a tool to identify significant changes in the subjective psychophysiological response to different experimental conditions. These results point toward a potential role in virtual rehabilitation applications by getting real-time feedback in human-in-the-loop approaches.


Assuntos
Telerreabilitação , Realidade Virtual , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Projetos Piloto
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 867-870, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018122

RESUMO

Stress can affect a person's performance and health positively and negatively. A lot of the relaxation methods have been suggested to reduce the amount of stress. This study used virtual reality (VR) video games to alleviate stress. Physiological signals captured from Electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and respiration (RESP) were used to determine if the subject was stressed or relaxed. Time and frequency domain features were then extracted to evaluate stress levels. Frequency domain methods such as low-frequency (LF), high-frequency (HF), LF-HF ratio (LF/HF) are considered the most effective for HRV analysis, Poincare plots are moré discerning visually and shares a 81% correlation with LF/HF ratio. GSR is associated with EDA activity, which only increases due to stress. Stress and relax were classified using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Decision Tree, Support Vector machine (SVM), Gradient Boost (GB), and Naive Bayes. GB performed the best with an accuracy of 85% after 5 fold cross validation with 100 iterations, which is admirable from a small dataset with 50 samples.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo , Realidade Virtual , Teorema de Bayes , Eletrocardiografia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5106-5110, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019135

RESUMO

Amblyopia is a medical condition in which the visual inputs from one of the eyes is suppressed by the brain. This leads to reduced visual acuity and poor or complete loss of stereopsis. Conventional clinical tests such as Worth 4-dot test and Bagolini striated lens test can only detect the presence of suppression but cannot quantify the extent of suppression, which is important for identifying the effectiveness of treatments for amblyopia. A novel approach for quantifying the level of suppression in amblyopia is proposed in this paper. We hypothesize that the level of suppression in amblyopia can be measured by measuring the symmetry/asymmetry in the suppression experienced during a dichoptic image recognition task. Preliminary studies done on fifty one normal subjects prove that the differences between the accuracies of the left and right eyes can be used as a measure of asymmetry. Equivalence test performed using 'two-one-sided t-tests' procedure shows that the equivalence of the accuracies of left and right eyes for normal subjects is statistically significant (p = .03, symmetric equivalence margin of 5 percentage points). To validate this method, six amblyopic children underwent this test and the results obtained are promising. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first work to make use of VR glasses and dichoptic image recognition task for quantifying the level of ocular suppression in amblyopic patients.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Realidade Virtual , Ambliopia/diagnóstico , Criança , Óculos , Humanos , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
13.
Cancer Control ; 27(1): 1073274820964800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023342

RESUMO

Emergence of the COVID-19 crisis has catalyzed rapid paradigm shifts throughout medicine. Even after the initial wave of the virus subsides, a wholesale return to the prior status quo is not prudent. As a specialty that values the proper application of new technology, radiation oncology should strive to be at the forefront of harnessing telehealth as an important tool to further optimize patient care. We remain cognizant that telehealth cannot and should not be a comprehensive replacement for in-person patient visits because it is not a one for one replacement, dependent on the intention of the visit and patient preference. However, we envision the opportunity for the virtual patient "room" where multidisciplinary care may take place from every specialty. How we adapt is not an inevitability, but instead, an opportunity to shape the ideal image of our new normal through the choices that we make. We have made great strides toward genuine multidisciplinary patient-centered care, but the continued use of telehealth and virtual visits can bring us closer to optimally arranging the spokes of the provider team members around the central hub of the patient as we progress down the road through treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Quartos de Pacientes/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Comorbidade , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916738

RESUMO

Future or reality? Treating acute and chronic pain is a part of the daily routine of clinical anesthesiologists. Commonly used analgesics have unwanted side effects or may even be insufficient as in chronic pain treatment. Virtual Reality (VR) could be a promising new approach which offers noninvasive therapy options for the treatment of pain. In case of the opioid misuse the adjunctive treatment is mandatory. Various phenomena occur in VR, such as immersion, presence, embodiment and Proteus effect, which can cause a change in body awareness and behavior. Experimental and clinical studies already yielded some promising results for analgesic effects for acute and chronic pain conditions using VR simulation. Potential analgesic mechanisms include distraction, cognitive behavioral change, and distance from reality, leading to neurophysiological changes at the cortical level. The quality of the virtual environment, personalized avatars, as well as the possibility of interaction and multisensory input can increase immersion, which leads to a state of presence, and thus effective VR. VR can be used as an immersive extension or alternative to mirror therapy, especially for pain disorders such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or phantom limb pain. VR can be supplemented by gamification, which increases intrinsic motivation, well-being and adherence to therapy. In summary, VR could be an effective and realistic therapy option for acute and chronic pain in clinical and home settings in the future.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Realidade Virtual , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Manejo da Dor
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 332, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic brought significant disruption to in-hospital medical training. Virtual reality simulating the clinical environment has the potential to overcome this issue and can be particularly useful to supplement the traditional in-hospital medical training during the COVID-19 pandemic, when hospital access is banned for medical students. The aim of this study was to assess medical students' perception on fully online training including simulated clinical scenarios during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From May to July 2020 when in-hospital training was not possible, 122 students attending the sixth year of the course of Medicine and Surgery underwent online training sessions including an online platform with simulated clinical scenarios (Body Interact™) of 21 patient-based cases. Each session focused on one case, lasted 2 h and was divided into three different parts: introduction, virtual patient-based training, and debriefing. In the same period, adjunctive online training with formal presentation and discussion of clinical cases was also given. At the completion of training, a survey was performed, and students filled in a 12-item anonymous questionnaire on a voluntary basis to rate the training quality. Results were reported as percentages or with numeric ratings from 1 to 4. Due to the study design, no sample size was calculated. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen students (94%) completed the questionnaire: 104 (90%) gave positive evaluation to virtual reality training and 107 (93%) appreciated the format in which online training was structured. The majority of participants considered the platform of virtual reality training realistic for the initial clinical assessment (77%), diagnostic activity (94%), and treatment options (81%). Furthermore, 97 (84%) considered the future use of this virtual reality training useful in addition to the apprenticeship at patient's bedside. Finally, 32 (28%) participants found the online access difficult due to technical issues. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, online medical training including simulated clinical scenarios avoided training interruption and the majority of participant students gave a positive response on the perceived quality of this training modality. During this time frame, a non-negligible proportion of students experienced difficulties in online access to this virtual reality platform.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Realidade Virtual , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 26(5): 400-404, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936586

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and its need for social distancing as a response have the potential to increase the experience of loneliness in the population, with an associated increase in symptoms of mental disorders. As the world has largely adapted to remote platforms for employment, socializing, and health service delivery, the degree to which virtual opportunities for social engagement may offset the impact of limited in-person interactions on mental health functioning is unknown. This column offers preliminary data from an ongoing experience sampling study of the prevalence, course, and impact of loneliness on mental health in a community adult sample living under social distancing requirements during the COVID-19 pandemic. Initial findings aggregated across all experience sampling reports showed negative associations between virtual social contact (via text, phone, or videoconferencing) and feelings of loneliness, while in-person interactions appeared to have no impact on loneliness. In addition, respondents reported frequent instances of negative effects on physical and mental health, including disruptions in sleep and recurring suicidal ideation. While further analyses are needed, these findings are consistent with similar emerging reports showing increased rates of mental health concerns during periods of social distancing. Possible avenues for addressing these concerns using remote interventions are explored.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Realidade Virtual , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Dados Preliminares , Prevalência
19.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(7)2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898410

RESUMO

The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted individuals and groups all across the globe as countries and cities face widespread lockdown to limit transmission of the virus. Many have adapted quickly, utilizing virtual platforms for interviews, employment, and academic/social events. Academic conferences, such as the annual Cochrane Skin Conference, faced similar challenges as large gatherings have been banned. The in-person conference was cancelled several days prior to its hosting at the University of Colorado, leading conference organizers to employ a virtual platform to continue the conference as scheduled. In this letter, logistics, troubleshooting, and conversion of an NIH-funded conference from an in-person to a successful virtual conference are discussed. We hope this letter may serve as a guide for future hosting of academic conferences, and to those dedicated to collaboration and the sharing of information during such unprecedented times.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Realidade Virtual , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886717

RESUMO

Although many visual stimulus databases exist, to our knowledge, none includes 3D virtual objects, that can directly be used in virtual reality (VR). We present 121 objects that have been developed for scientific purposes. The objects were built in Maya, and their textures were created in Substance Painter. Then, the objects were exported to an FBX and OBJ format and rendered online using the Unreal Engine 4 application. Our goal was to develop the first set of high-quality virtual objects with standardized names, familiarity, and visual complexity. The objects were normed based on the input of 83 participants. This set of stimuli was created for use in VR settings and will facilitate research using VR methodology, which is increasingly employed in psychological research.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Interface Usuário-Computador
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