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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300437, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593176

RESUMO

Almost 380,000 new cases of oral cancer were reported worldwide in 2020. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for 90% of all types of oral cancers. Emerging studies have shown association of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels and tissue localization of TRL1 to TRL10 and NF-κB between OSCC and healthy oral mucosa, as well as effect of Candida colonization in TRL expression in OSCC. Full thickness biopsies and microbial samples from 30 newly diagnosed primary OSCC patients and 26 health controls were collected. The expression of TLR1 to TLR10 and NF-κB was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microbial samples were collected from oral mucosa to detect Candida. OSCC epithelium showed lower staining intensity of TRL1, TRL2 TRL5, and TRL8 as compared to healthy controls. Similarly, staining intensity of TRL3, TRL4, TRL7, and TRL8 were significantly decreased in basement membrane (BM) zone. Likewise, OSCC endothelium showed lower staining intensity of TLR4, TLR7 and TLR8. Expression of NF-κB was significantly stronger in normal healthy tissue compared to OSCC sample. Positive correlation was found between the expression of NF-κB, TRL9 and TRL10 in basal layer of the infiltrative zone OSCC samples (P = 0.04 and P = 0.002, respectively). Significant increase in TRL4 was seen in BM zone of sample colonized with Candida (P = 0.01). According to the limited number of samples, our data indicates downregulation of TLRs and NF-κB in OSCC, and upregulation of TLR4 expression with presence of Candida.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612423

RESUMO

Periodontitis, characterized by persistent inflammation in the periodontium, is intricately connected to systemic diseases, including oral cancer. Bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, play a pivotal role in periodontitis development because they contribute to dysbiosis and tissue destruction. Thus, comprehending the interplay between these bacteria and their impacts on inflammation holds significant relevance in clinical understanding and treatment advancement. In the present work, we explored, for the first time, their impacts on the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators after infecting oral keratinocytes (OKs) with a co-culture of pre-incubated P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Our results show that the co-culture increases IL-1ß, IL-8, and TNF-α expressions, synergistically augments IL-6, and translocates NF-kB to the cell nucleus. These changes in pro-inflammatory mediators-associated with chronic inflammation and cancer-correlate with an increase in cell migration following infection with the co-cultured bacteria or P. gingivalis alone. This effect depends on TLR4 because TLR4 knockdown notably impacts IL-6 expression and cell migration. Our study unveils, for the first time, crucial insights into the outcomes of their co-culture on virulence, unraveling the role of bacterial interactions in polymicrobial diseases and potential links to oral cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Periodontite , Humanos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Interleucina-6 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Inflamação , Mediadores da Inflamação , Queratinócitos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8495, 2024 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605161

RESUMO

A worldwide increase in the prevalence of coral diseases and mortality has been linked to ocean warming due to changes in coral-associated bacterial communities, pathogen virulence, and immune system function. In the Mediterranean basin, the worrying upward temperature trend has already caused recurrent mass mortality events in recent decades. To evaluate how elevated seawater temperatures affect the immune response of a thermophilic coral species, colonies of Astroides calycularis were exposed to environmental (23 °C) or elevated (28 °C) temperatures, and subsequently challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using immunolabeling with specific antibodies, we detected the production of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), molecules involved in coral immune responses, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) activity, involved in general responses to thermal stress. A histological approach allowed us to characterize the tissue sites of activation (epithelium and/or gastroderm) under different experimental conditions. The activity patterns of the examined markers after 6 h of LPS stimulation revealed an up-modulation at environmental temperature. Under warmer conditions plus LPS-challenge, TLR4-NF-kB activation was almost completely suppressed, while constituent elevated values were recorded under thermal stress only. An HSP70 up-regulation appeared in both treatments at elevated temperature, with a significantly higher activation in LPS-challenge colonies. Such an approach is useful for further understanding the molecular pathogen-defense mechanisms in corals in order to disentangle the complex interactive effects on the health of these ecologically relevant organisms related to global climate change.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Aquecimento Global , Lipopolissacarídeos , NF-kappa B , Água do Mar , Temperatura , Recifes de Corais
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 165, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STI) worldwide. Vaccination is generally considered to be one of the most effective methods of preventing infectious diseases. Using AP65, AP33 and α-actinin proteins, this research aims to develop a protein vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis. METHODS: Based on the B-cell and T-cell epitope prediction servers, the most antigenic epitopes were selected, and with the necessary evaluations, epitope-rich domains of three proteins, AP65, AP33, and α-actinin, were selected and linked. Subsequently, the ability of the vaccine to interact with toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) was assessed. The stability of the interactions was also studied by molecular dynamics for a duration of 100 nanoseconds. RESULTS: The designed protein consists of 780 amino acids with a molecular weight of 85247.31 daltons. The results of the interaction of the vaccine candidate with TLR2 and TLR4 of the immune system also showed that there are strong interactions between the vaccine candidate protein with TLR2 (-890.7 kcal mol-1) and TLR4 (-967.3 kcal mol-1). All parameters studied to evaluate the stability of the protein structure and the protein-TLR2 and protein-TLR4 complexes showed that the structure of the vaccine candidate protein is stable alone and in complex with the immune system receptors. Investigation of the ability of the designed protein to induce an immune response using the C-ImmSim web server also showed that the designed protein is capable of stimulating B- and T-cell lymphocytes to produce the necessary cytokines and antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our vaccine may have potential protection against Trichomonas vaginalis. However, for experimental in vivo and in vitro studies, it may be a good vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Trichomonas vaginalis , Vacinas , Animais , Trichomonas vaginalis/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , 60444 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Vacinas/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
5.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 42(2): 214-226, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to reveal critical genes regulating peri-implantitis during its development and construct a diagnostic model by using random forest (RF) and artificial neural network (ANN). METHODS: GSE-33774, GSE106090, and GSE57631 datasets were obtained from the GEO database. The GSE33774 and GSE106090 datasets were analyzed for differential expression and functional enrichment. The protein-protein interaction networks (PPI) and RF screened vital genes. A diagnostic model for peri-implantitis was established using ANN and validated on the GSE33774 and GSE57631 datasets. A transcription factor-gene interaction network and a transcription factor-micro-RNA (miRNA) regulatory network were also established. RESULTS: A total of 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the regulation of peri-implantitis were screened. Enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly associated with immune receptor activity and cytokine receptor activity and were mainly involved in processes such as leukocyte and neutrophil migration. The PPI and RF screened six essential genes, namely, CD38, CYBB, FCGR2A, SELL, TLR4, and CXCL8. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) indicated that the ANN model had an excellent diagnostic performance. FOXC1, GATA2, and NF-κB1 may be essential transcription factors in peri-implantitis, and hsa-miR-204 may be a key miRNA. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic model of peri-implantitis constructed by RF and ANN has high confidence, and CD38, CYBB, FCGR2A, SELL, TLR4, and CXCL8 are potential diagnostic markers. FOXC1, GATA2, and NF-κB1 may be essential transcription factors in peri-implantitis, and hsa-miR-204 plays a vital role as a critical miRNA.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Peri-Implantite , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/diagnóstico , Peri-Implantite/genética , Algoritmo Florestas Aleatórias , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Redes Neurais de Computação
7.
Arch Esp Urol ; 77(2): 193-201, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is associated with various malignant tumors. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) play a significant part in the event and development of prostate cancer. Dishevelled segment polarity protein 3 (DVL3) is a shared component of the Wnt/ß-catenin and Notch signaling pathways, which are involved in tumor progression, chemoresistance, and maintenance of stem cell-like properties. According to reports, prostatic cancer cell invasion and proliferation are mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the role and regulation of DVL3 in prostate cancer and its relationship with TLR4 remain unclear. METHODS: Survival curves were plotted to evaluate the relationship between DVL3 expression and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer. DVL3 was silenced in PC3 and DU145 cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Subsequently, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay, transwell migration assay, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to investigate the role of DVL3 in cell proliferation and migration in vitro. The protein markers of potential pathways were analyzed via western blotting. RESULTS: DVL3 expression was linked to prognosis in patients with prostate cancer; In particular, patients with high DVL3 expression had a poor prognosis. LPS stimulation increased (p < 0.01) the expression of DVL3 in PC3 cells. DVL3 regulated tumor cell proliferation and migration by mediating the increase (p < 0.01) in TLR4 expression. Knockout of TLR4 validated that TLR4 played a crucial role in LPS-induced DVL3 expression. Silencing of DVL3 decreased (p < 0.01) the LPS-induced proliferation and migration of PC3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial LPS-induced DVL3 promoted the multiplication and migration of prostate cancer cells through the TLR4 pathway. This study offers a valuable reference for the development and clinical application of targeted drugs for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Próstata/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612546

RESUMO

The unsatisfactory efficacy of immunotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major challenge for clinicians and patients. The tumor microenvironment may promote CRC progression by upregulating the expression of hypoxia-inducing factor (HIF) and PD-L1. Therefore, this study explored the expression and correlation of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in the CRC microenvironment. The expression and correlation of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in CRC were analyzed using bioinformatics and Western blotting (WB). The hypoxia and inflammation of the CRC microenvironment were established in the CT26 cell line. CT26 cells were stimulated with two hypoxia mimics, CoCl2 and DFO, which were used to induce the hypoxic environment. Western blotting was used to assess the expression and correlation of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in the hypoxic environment.LPS stimulated CT26 cells to induce the inflammatory environment. WB and bioinformatics were used to assess the expression and correlation of TLR4, HIF-1α, and PD-L1 in the inflammatory environment. Furthermore, the impact of curcumin on the inflammatory environment established by LPS-stimulated CT26 cells was demonstrated through MTT, Transwell, molecular docking, network pharmacology and Western blotting assays. In this study, we found that the HIF-1α/PD-L1 pathway was activated in the hypoxic and inflammatory environment and promoted immune escape in CRC. Meanwhile, curcumin suppressed tumor immune escape by inhibiting the TLR4/HIF-1α/PD-L1 pathway in the inflammatory environment of CRC. These results suggest that combination therapy based on the HIF-1α/PD-L1 pathway can be a promising therapeutic option and that curcumin can be used as a potent immunomodulatory agent in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Curcumina , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Hipóxia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612870

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) that is characterized by systemic immune system activation. This study was performed to assess the alleviative effect of administering an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves (AEEL) on cognitive dysfunction in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The major bioactive compounds of AEEL were identified as a quinic acid derivative, caffeic acid-O-hexoside, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid using UPLC Q-TOF/MSE. AEEL administration alleviated colitis symptoms, which are bodyweight change and colon shortening. Moreover, AEEL administration protected intestinal barrier integrity by increasing the tight junction protein expression levels in colon tissues. Likewise, AEEL improved behavioral dysfunction in the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. Additionally, AEEL improved short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content in the feces of DSS-induced mice. In addition, AEEL improved damaged cholinergic systems in brain tissue and damaged mitochondrial and antioxidant functions in colon and brain tissues caused by DSS. Also, AEEL protected against DSS-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation in colon and brain tissues by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Therefore, these results suggest that AEEL is a natural material that alleviates DSS-induced cognitive dysfunction with the modulation of gut-brain interaction.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Colite , Eucommiaceae , Animais , Camundongos , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Clorogênico , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico
10.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29570, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558098

RESUMO

Previous research results of our group showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nucleolin synergistically mediate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in human central neuron cells, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. Here we designed and synthesized lentiviruses with TIR (674-815 aa), TLR4 (del 674-815 aa), GAR (645-707 aa), and NCL (del 645-707 aa) domains, and obtained stable overexpression cell lines by drug screening, and subsequently infected RSV at different time points. Laser confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation were used for the observation of co-localization and interaction of TIR/GAR domains. Western blot analysis was used for the detection of p-NF-κB and LC3 protein expression. Real-time PCR was used for the detection of TLR4/NCL mRNA expression. ELISA assay was used to measure IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α concentrations and flow cytometric analysis was used for the study of apoptosis. Our results suggest that overexpression of TIR and GAR domains can exacerbate apoptosis and autophagy, and that TIR and GAR domains can synergistically mediate RSV infection and activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, which regulates the secretion of downstream inflammatory factors, such as IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α, and ultimately leads to neuronal inflammatory injury.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , 60657 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Tunis Med ; 102(2): 100-106, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important member of the host's innate immune response, is coded by a polymorphic gene. This polymorphism could be a predisposing factor for NasoPharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC). AIM: To determine the association between TLR4 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to NPC in a cohort of Tunisian affected patients. METHODS: Genomic DNAs from 245 unrelated patients affected by undifferentiated carcinoma type (UCNT) and 264 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped for the five single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR4 locus (4434 A>G (rs1927914),7263 G>C (rs10759932), 6134 A>G(rs4986790), 8851C>T (rs 4986791), 5272 T>C(rs11536889), +8469 T>C (rs11536891)) by Taqman® 5'-nuclease assay. RESULTS: Among all polymorphisms studied, only the rs4986790 G and rs4986791 T alleles were significantly more prevalent in patients' group than controls (45% vs. 38%; p=0.03; pc=0.06) and increased the risk of the NPC (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.01-1.69). Also, we found that the frequency of the rs4986790 AA and rs4986791 TT genotypes was significantly higher in controls than in patients (25.7% vs 37%; p=0.006, pc=0.02) and conferred a protector factor in NPC (OR= 0.59, 95% CI= 0.39-0.87). Further, based on the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed also the positive effect ofrs1927914 AA genotype on a prognostic of NPC (p=0.006; pc=0.01). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that impaired production of TLR4 seems to be a risk factor of NPC development but functional studies are needed to confirm these findings. As to rs1927914 AA appears to be a good biomarker for better survival in a patient with NPC.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301012, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573884

RESUMO

Different functional foods with bioactive nutrients are being explored for the management of NAFLD. Whey proteins are rich in bioactive peptides and are suggested to show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We aim to test the hypothesis that the whey protein supplementation following a high fat-high fructose (HFHF) diet would protect against liver damage, inflammation, endotoxemia and steatosis in male Wistar rats. 36 rats were randomized into four groups for 8 weeks as the HFHF diet group, HFHF diet and whey protein isolate (WPI-200mg/kg/day) group (HFHF+WPI), control (C) group, and C+WPI (200mg/kg/day) group. Rats fed with a HFHF diet had higher final body weight compared to C and C+WPI groups (p = 0.002). Thus, WPI showed no significant effects for the body weight of rats with a HFHF diet. On the other hand, the HFHF+WPI group had significantly lower abdominal circumference when compared with the HFHF group (p<0,001). Higher serum CRP levels were observed in the groups with a HFHF diet (p<0,001) and WPI supplementation showed no effects on CRP levels. Whey protein supplementation resulted with lower total liver damage score in HFHF+WPI group compared with the HFHF diet group (p<0,001). Conversely, higher liver damage scores were observed with the C+WPI group compared to C group (p<0,001). HFHF diet resulted with higher expression of TLR-4 in the liver meanwhile WPI supplementation showed no effects on liver TLR-4 expression. We observed higher colon Occludin expression in HFHF+WPI and C+WPI groups compared with HFHF and C groups (p<0,001). Our results showed that, whey protein supplementation might help improve liver damage associated with a high fat-high fructose diet and increase the expression of Occludin in the small intestine and colon.


Assuntos
Frutose , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Ocludina , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Peso Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais
13.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 357(4): e2300631, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574101

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disorder affecting a quarter of the global residents. Progression of NAFL into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may cause cirrhosis, liver cancer, and failure. Gut microbiota imbalance causes microbial components translocation into the circulation, triggering liver inflammation and NASH-related fibrosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via repressing target genes. Exosomal miRNAs are diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for NAFL and NASH liver damage. Our work investigated the role of the gut microbiota in NAFLD pathogenesis via the lipopolysaccharide/toll-like receptor 4/Forkhead box protein O3 (LPS/TLR-4/FoxO3) pathway and certain miRNAs as noninvasive biomarkers for NAFL or its development to NASH. miRNA expression levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 50 NAFL patients, 50 NASH patients, and 50 normal controls. Plasma LPS, TLR-4, adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), and FoxO3 concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In NAFL and NASH patients, miR-122, miR-128, FoxO3, TLR-4, LPS, and PPAR-γ were upregulated while miR-200, miR-298, miR-342, and adiponectin were downregulated compared with the normal control. The examined miRNAs might distinguish NAFL and NASH patients from the normal control using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Our study is the first to examine these miRNAs in NAFLD. Our findings imply that these are potentially promising biomarkers for noninvasive early NAFL diagnosis and NASH progression. Understanding the LPS/TLR-4/FoxO3 pathway involvement in NAFL/NASH pathogenesis may aid disease management.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1362727, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585277

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis is a complex inflammatory disease resulting in extreme pain and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. It can be caused by several factors ranging from genetics, alcohol use, gall stones, and ductal obstruction caused by calcification or neutrophil extracellular traps. Acute pancreatitis is also characterized by immune cell infiltration of neutrophils and M1 macrophages. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern recognition receptor that has been noted to respond to endogenous ligands such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and or exogenous ligands such as lipopolysaccharide both of which can be present during the progression of acute pancreatitis. This receptor can be found on a variety of cell types from endothelial cells to resident and infiltrating immune cells leading to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as immune cell activation and maturation resulting in the furthering of pancreatic damage during acute pancreatitis. In this review we will address the various mechanisms mediated by TLR4 in the advancement of acute pancreatitis and how targeting this receptor could lead to improved outcomes for patients suffering from this condition.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Humanos , Doença Aguda , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Pâncreas , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
15.
J Med Chem ; 67(7): 5603-5616, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513080

RESUMO

Vaccines are one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine. Due to their safer profile, the latest investigations usually focus on subunit vaccines. However, the active component often needs to be coupled with an adjuvant to be effective and properly trigger an immune response. We are developing a new synthetic monosaccharide-based TLR4 agonist, such as glucosamine-derived compounds FP18 and FP20, as a potential vaccine adjuvant. In this study, we present a new FP20 derivative, FP20Hmp, with a hydroxylated ester linked to the glucosamine core. We show that the modification introduced improves the activity of the adjuvant and its solubility. This study presents the synthesis of FP20Hmp, its in vitro characterization, and in vivo activity while coupled with the ovalbumin antigen or in formulation with an enterococcal antigen. We show that FP20Hmp enables increased production of antigen-specific antibodies that bind to the whole bacterium.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes de Vacinas , Enterococcus faecium , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Vacinas de Subunidades , Glucosamina
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(6): 5703-5710, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535999

RESUMO

AIM: This work aimed to investigate the role of M1 intestinal macrophages-derived exosomes (M1-Exo) in colitis and its mechanism. METHODS: M1 polarization of intestinal macrophages was induced in vitro, and their exosomes were extracted and identified. Thereafter, the DSS-induced colitis mouse model was built. Each mouse was given intraperitoneal injection of exosomes, and then mouse weight and DAI were dynamically monitored. In addition, the levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA. After treatment with the TLR4 inhibitor Resatorvid, the effects of M1 macrophages-derived exosomes were observed. Besides, the mouse intestinal epithelial cells were cultured in vitro for observing function of M1-Exo. RESULTS: M1-exo aggravated the colitis and tissue inflammation in mice, activated the TLR4 signal, and destroyed the mucosal barrier. But M0 macrophages-derived exosomes (M0-Exo) did not have the above effects. Resatorvid treatment antagonized the roles of M1-exo. Moreover, as confirmed by cellular experiments in vitro, M1-exo destroyed mucosal barrier. CONCLUSION: M1-exo serve as the pro-inflammatory mediator, which can promote mouse colitis progression by activating TLR4 signal.


Assuntos
Colite , Exossomos , Sulfonamidas , Animais , Camundongos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Macrófagos
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(3): e1012130, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551978

RESUMO

Classical Swine Fever (CSF), caused by the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), inflicts significant economic losses on the global pig industry. A key factor in the challenge of eradicating this virus is its ability to evade the host's innate immune response, leading to persistent infections. In our study, we elucidate the molecular mechanism through which CSFV exploits m6A modifications to circumvent host immune surveillance, thus facilitating its proliferation. We initially discovered that m6A modifications were elevated both in vivo and in vitro upon CSFV infection, particularly noting an increase in the expression of the methyltransferase METTL14. CSFV non-structural protein 5B was found to hijack HRD1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase for METTL14, preventing METTL14 degradation. MeRIP-seq analysis further revealed that METTL14 specifically targeted and methylated TLRs, notably TLR4. METTL14-mediated regulation of TLR4 degradation, facilitated by YTHDF2, led to the accelerated mRNA decay of TLR4. Consequently, TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling, a crucial component of the innate immune response, is suppressed by CSFV. Collectively, these data effectively highlight the viral evasion tactics, shedding light on potential antiviral strategies targeting METTL14 to curb CSFV infection.


Assuntos
Adenina , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica , Peste Suína Clássica , Suínos , Animais , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Imunidade Inata , Replicação Viral
18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1333086, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504994

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common chronic metabolic bone disorder. Recently, increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, a receptor located on the surface of osteoclasts and osteoblasts) plays a pivotal role in the development of osteoporosis. Herein, we performed a comprehensive review to summarize the findings from the relevant studies within this topic. Clinical data showed that TLR4 polymorphisms and aberrant TLR4 expression have been associated with the clinical significance of osteoporosis. Mechanistically, dysregulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts induced by abnormal expression of TLR4 is the main molecular mechanism underlying the pathological processes of osteoporosis, which may be associated with the interactions between TLR4 and NF-κB pathway, proinflammatory effects, ncRNAs, and RUNX2. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that many promising substances or agents (i.e., methionine, dioscin, miR-1906 mimic, artesunate, AEG-1 deletion, patchouli alcohol, and Bacteroides vulgatus) have been able to improve bone metabolism (i.e., inhibits bone resorption and promotes bone formation), which may partially attribute to the inhibition of TLR4 expression. The present review highlights the important role of TLR4 in the clinical significance and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis from the aspects of inflammation and immunity. Future therapeutic strategies targeting TLR4 may provide a new insight for osteoporosis treatment.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Humanos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo
19.
Clin Immunol ; 261: 110167, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453127

RESUMO

Excessive inflammatory response and increased oxidative stress play an essential role in the pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (IRI-AKI). Emerging evidence suggests that lipoxin A4 (LXA4), as an endogenous negative regulator in inflammation, can ameliorate several I/R injuries. However, the mechanisms and effects of LXA4 on IRI-AKI remain unknown. In this study, A bilateral renal I/R mouse model was used to evaluate the role of LXA4 in wild-type, IRG1 knockout, and IRAK-M knockout mice. Our results showed that LXA4, as well as 5-LOX and ALXR, were quickly induced, and subsequently decreased by renal I/R. LXA4 pretreatment improved renal I/R-induced renal function impairment and renal damage and inhibited inflammatory responses and oxidative stresses in mice kidneys. Notably, LXA4 inhibited I/R-induced the activation of TLR4 signal pathway including decreased phosphorylation of TAK1, p36, and p65, but did not affect TLR4 and p-IRAK-1. The analysis of transcriptomic sequencing data and immunoblotting suggested that innate immune signal molecules interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) and immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) might be the key targets of LXA4. Further, the knockout of IRG1 or IRAK-M abolished the beneficial effects of LXA4 on IRI-AKI. In addition, IRG1 deficiency reversed the up-regulation of IRAK-M by LXA4, while IRAK-M knockout had no impact on the IRG1 expression, indicating that IRAK-M is a downstream molecule of IRG1. Mechanistically, we found that LXA4-promoted IRG1-itaconate not only enhanced Nrf2 activation and increased HO-1 and NQO1, but also upregulated IRAK-M, which interacted with TRAF6 by competing with IRAK-1, resulting in deactivation of TLR4 downstream signal in IRI-AKI. These data suggested that LXA4 protected against IRI-AKI via promoting IRG1/Itaconate-Nrf2 and IRAK-M-TRAF6 signaling pathways, providing the rationale for a novel strategy for preventing and treating IRI-AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Lipoxinas , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Succinatos , Camundongos , Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Rim/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle
20.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2313176, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to observe the effect of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway activity on sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI), thereby providing new considerations for the prevention and treatment of SA-AKI. METHODS: The rats were divided into Sham, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), CLP + vehicle, and CLP + TAK-242 groups. Except the Sham group, a model of CLP-induced sepsis was established in other groups. After 24 h, the indicators related to kidney injury in blood samples were detected. The pathological changes in the kidneys were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and tubular damage was scored. Oxidative stress-related factors, mitochondrial dysfunction-related indicators in each group were measured; the levels of inflammatory factors in serum and kidney tissue of rats were examined. Finally, the expression of proteins related to the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway was observed by western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the CLP + vehicle and CLP + TAK-242 groups, the CLP + TAK-242 group reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), cystatin-C (Cys-C), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and inflammatory factors levels (p < 0.01), as well as increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of CLP rats (p < 0.01). Additionally, TAK-242 treatment improved the condition of CLP rats that had glomerular and tubular injuries and mitochondrial disorders (p < 0.01). Further mechanism research revealed that TAK-242 can inhibit the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activated by CLP (p < 0.01). Above indicators after TAK-242 treatment were close to those of the Sham group. CONCLUSION: TAK-242 can improve oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammatory response by inhibiting the activity of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby preventing rats from SA-AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Doenças Mitocondriais , Sepse , Sulfonamidas , Ratos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/metabolismo
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