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1.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 91-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407069

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed in various cell types in the central nervous system and exerts maximal inflammatory responses among the TLR family members. TLR4 can be activated by many endogenous ligands having damage-associated molecular patterns including heme and fibrinogen at the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm, and therefore its activation is reasonable as an initial step of cascades to brain injuries after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). TLR4 activation induces tenascin-C (TNC), a representative of matricellular proteins that are a class of inducible, nonstructural, secreted, and multifunctional extracellular matrix glycoproteins. TNC is also an endogenous activator and inducer of TLR4, forming positive feedback mechanisms leading to more activation of the signaling transduction. Our studies have demonstrated that TLR4 as well as TNC are involved in inflammatory reactions, blood-brain barrier disruption, neuronal apoptosis, and cerebral vasospasm after experimental SAH. This article reviews recent understanding of TLR4 and TNC in SAH to suggest that the TLR4-TNC signaling may be an important therapeutic target for post-SAH brain injuries.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Tenascina , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/metabolismo , Tenascina/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1134-1145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561304

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) from layer house has adverse effect on people and chicken respiratory health, which can further influence animal performance and reduce production efficiency. However, little study focus on the respiratory inflammation induced by PM2.5 from layer house and the underlying mechanism also unclear. In this study, human adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 cell) was subjected to the PM2.5 from layer house to evaluate the inflammation reaction caused by PM2.5 and explore the role of Nrf2 and autophagy in regulating the inflammation. Results showed that the viability of A549 cell decreased in a time - and concentration - dependent manner after PM2.5 treatment. TNFα, IL6, and IL8 increased significantly treated with PM2.5 at 12 h. RNA sequencing indicated differentially expressed genes were enriched in immune system process, oxidative stress (OS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and autophagy. Further studies showed TLR4 - NFκB p65 signal pathway involved in the inflammation reaction caused by PM2.5. The overexpression of Nrf2 decreased the level of TNFα, IL6, IL8 markedly as well as the level of NFκB p65 and NFκB pp65. OS and ERS were also limited under overactivation of Nrf2 in PM2.5 treated cells. Autophagy induced by PM2.5 promoted the inflammation through increasing the level of NFκB p65 and NFκB pp65. Autophagy deficient strengthened the expression of Nrf2. Collectively, our study revealed Nrf2 prevents inflammation caused by layer house PM2.5 stimulation, however, autophagy exerts a promotive role in TLR4 - NFκB p65 mediating inflammation in A549 cell.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Life Sci ; 233: 116704, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369761

RESUMO

AIMS: Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, has a toxic effect on many tissues such as heart, pancreas, liver, kidney, and testis. The aim of current study is to investigate whether melatonin would be protective in doxorubicin-induced beta (ß) cell toxicity via HMGB1/TLR2/TLR4/MAPK/NF-қB signaling pathway. MAIN METHODS: Human pancreatic ß cell (1.1B4) was used in the present study. Four experimental groups were created as control, melatonin (10 µM), doxorubicin (2 µM) and the combination of melatonin with doxorubicin. Following 24-h treatment, Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), Toll like receptors (TLRs) including TLR2 and TLR4, pro-and anti-apoptotic protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. Total antioxidant (TAS), oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of the cells as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined. Active caspase-8 activity was measured and TUNEL staining was performed to study apoptotic pathways. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), some protein expressions and F-actin distribution were analyzed. KEY FINDINGS: Doxorubicin caused to depolarize MMP, resulting in enhancing apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 via MAPKs/NF-кB pathway via elevation of TOS and decreasing TAS. Also, doxorubicin destroyed F-actin distribution and elevated TLR2 and some apoptotic proteins, including Bax. However, co-treatment of melatonin with doxorubicin could reverse depolarization of MMP and inhibition of apoptosis through MAPK/NF-кB signaling by decreasing TOS and increasing TAS. The co-treatment reversed the alternations of TLR2, TLR4, MAPKs and apoptotic protein expressions induced by doxorubicin. SIGNIFICANCE: Melatonin could be a good candidate against pancreatic ß cell toxicity-induced by doxorubicin through TLR2/TLR4/MAPK/NF-кB pathways.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108777, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376360

RESUMO

Nicorandil ameliorated doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity; this study aimed to show and explain the mechanism of this protection. A precise method was elucidated to study the effect of nicorandil on doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats depending on the critical inflammation pathway TLR4/MAPK P38/NFκ-B. Adult male rats were subdivided into four groups. The 1st group was normal control, the 2nd group received nicorandil (3 mg/kg; p.o., for 4 weeks), the 3rd group received doxorubicin (2.6 mg/kg, i.p., twice per week for 4 weeks), and the fourth group was combination of doxorubicin and nicorandil for 4 weeks. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by biochemical tests through measuring Kidney function biomarkers such as [serum levels of urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein] besides renal kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and cystatin C], oxidative stress parameters such as [renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), SOD, catalase and nrf-2], mediators of inflammation such as [Toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4), Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), p38 MAPK, Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 ß), and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] and markers of apoptosis [BAX and Bcl-2 in renal tissue]. Finally, our data were supported by histopathology examination. Nicorandil pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in nephrotoxicity biomarkers, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory mediators and prevented apoptosis through decreasing BAX and increasing Bcl-2 in renal tissues. Nicorandil prevented all the histological alterations caused by doxorubicin. Nicorandil is a promising antidote against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity by neutralizing all toxicity mechanisms caused by doxorubicin through normalizing inflammatory cascade of TLR4/MAPK P38/NFκ-B.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicorandil/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9477-9491, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429552

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a bacterial endotoxin that induces intestine inflammation. Milk exosomes improve the intestine and immune system development of newborns. This study aims to establish the protective mechanisms of porcine milk exosomes on the attenuation of LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and apoptosis. In vivo, exosomes prevented LPS-induced intestine damage and inhibited (p < 0.05) LPS-induced inflammation. In vitro, exosomes inhibited (p < 0.05) LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis (23% ± 0.4% to 12% ± 0.2%). Porcine milk exosomes also decreased (p < 0.05) the LPS-induced TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation. Furthermore, exosome miR-4334 and miR-219 reduced (p < 0.05) LPS-induced inflammation through the NF-κB pathway and miR-338 inhibited (p < 0.05) the LPS-induced apoptosis via the p53 pathway. Cotransfection with these three miRNAs more effectively prevented (p < 0.05) LPS-induced cell apoptosis than these miRNAs individual transfection. The apoptosis percentage in the group cotransfected with the three miRNAs (14% ± 0.4%) was lower (p < 0.05) than that in the NC miRNA group (28% ± 0.5%), and also lower than that in each individual miRNA group. In conclusion, porcine milk exosomes protect the intestine epithelial cells against LPS-induced injury by inhibiting cell inflammation and protecting against apoptosis through the action of exosome miRNAs. The presented results suggest that the physiological amounts of miRNAs-enriched exosomes addition to infant formula could be used as a novel preventative measure for necrotizing enterocolitis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
6.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(6): e201900604, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In view of the principal role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in mediating sterile inflammatory response contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known TLR4 activator, to clarify whether modulation of TLR4 contributed to the protective actions of intra-articular administration of curcumin in a classical rat OA model surgically induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). METHODS: The rats underwent ACLT and received 50µl of curcumin at the concentration of 1 mg mL-1 and 10 µg LPS by intra-articular injection once a week for 8 weeks. Morphological changes of the cartilage and synovial tissues were observed. Apoptotic chondrocytes were detected using TUNEL assay. The concentrations of IL-1ß and TNF-ɑ in synovial fluid were determined using ELISA kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Intra-articular administration of curcumin significantly improved articular cartilage injury, suppressed synovial inflammation and down-regulated the overexpression of TLR4 and its downstream NF-κB caused by LPS-induced TLR4 activation in rat osteoarthritic knees. CONCLUSION: The data suggested that the inhibition of TLR4 signal might be an important mechanism underlying a protective effect of local curcumin administration on OA.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/prevenção & controle , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/patologia , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/induzido quimicamente , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(4): 1051-1062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392878

RESUMO

The development of electronic technology has attracted attention on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It remains controversial whether EMP irradiation is neurotoxic or beneficial for recovery from injuryies such as cerebral ischemia. Microglia is innate immune cells in the brain, exhibiting either neurotoxicity or neuroprotection effect during various central nervous system diseases, depending on their activation into a classical (M1) or alternative (M2) phenotype, respectively. The Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway is important for microglia activation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EMP on neuronal apoptosis and microglia polarization in vivo and in vitro, using an EMP of 400 kV/m and 1 hertz for 200 pulses. Short EMP irradiation (≤24 h) resulted in microglial conversion from the resting to the M1-type state, activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as neuronal apoptosis induction. In contrast, long EMP irradiation (3 days) resulted in microglial activation into the M2-type, decreased apoptosis and inflammatory mediator production, and increased levels of the neuroprotective effectors IL-10, transforming growth factor beta, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. EMP induces both neuronal damage and neuronal recovery by influencing the switch of M1/M2 polarization and the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Polaridade Celular , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Microglia/citologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(7): 527-532, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357779

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the expressional changes in Notch signaling pathway and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and their interactions on the functions of CD14(+) monocytes in chronic hepatitis C patients. Methods: A total of 24 treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C cases and 10 healthy individuals, who visited Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital from August to October 2017, were enrolled. Selected CD14(+) monocytes were stimulated by the Notch signaling pathway inhibitor DAPT or transfected with TLR4 siRNA, and the levels of Notch1, Notch2, Hes1 and Hes5 mRNA were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. TLR4 protein levels and phosphorylation of NF-κB was detected by Western blot. ELISA was used to detect the level of cytokines secreted from CD14(+) monocytes. A t-test or paired t-test was used for comparison between groups. Results: The relative expression of Notch1 mRNA (3.97 ± 2.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.76, P < 0.01) and downstream of Notch signaling pathway (5.96 ± 2.31 vs. 0.99 ± 0.45, P < 0.01), Hes1 mRNA and Hes5 mRNA (4.31 ± 1.05 vs. 0.84 ± 0.20, P < 0.01) in CD14+ monocytes of chronic hepatitis C patients was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals. The relative expression of TLR4 mRNA (5.14 ± 1.09 vs. 1.27 ± 0.39) and protein level in CD14(+) monocytes of chronic hepatitis C patients were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals (P < 0.01). An inhibition of Notch signaling pathway with DAPT had reduced the relative expression level of TLR4 mRNA (2.58 ± 1.36 vs. 4.34 ± 1.88, P < 0.05), protein expression and phosphorylation of NF-B in CD14(+) monocytes of chronic hepatitis C patients. Furthermore, the secretion level of MCP-1 [(94.32 ± 23.59) pg/ml vs. (64.07 ± 9.39) pg/ml, P < 0.01] and IL-8 [(12.54 ± 4.89) pg/ml vs. (7.92 ± 3.01) pg/ml, P < 0.05] was significantly reduced. TLR4 siRNA transfection reduced the expressions of Notch1 mRNA (2.09 ± 1.72 vs. 3.73 ± 1.75, P < 0.05), Hes1 (2.87 ± 0.84 vs. 5.54 ± 0.97, P < 0.01), and Hes5 (2.89 ± 0.93 vs. 4.51 ± 1.54, P < 0.01) in CD14(+) monocytes of chronic hepatitis C patients. Conclusion: Interaction of Notch signaling pathway with TLR4 can promote the function of CD14(+) monocytes in chronic hepatitis C patients.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Monócitos/citologia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
9.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(6): 473-476, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357768

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a member of the toll-like receptor family and belongs to the family of pattern recognition receptors. The role of TLR4 signaling pathway in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury has been widely studied in recent years, and its control methods in inflammatory response is becoming the most important research hotspot. In this paper, the research progress of the molecules and their regulatory mechanisms involved with TLR4 signaling pathway in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury is reviewed, which act as a new foundation of clinical research to study the pathogenic mechanisms and treatment plan.


Assuntos
Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Humanos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
10.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(4): 1063-1072, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353880

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a disease with high incidence and no effective therapeutic treatments. miR- 145-5p has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in lung injury tissues, suggesting a potential role in the progression and development of ALI. To validate this hypothesis and explore the underlying mechanism, a mouse model of ALI was established using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hematoxylin and eosin (Hand E) staining verified the successful establishment of mouse model with ALI. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL- 6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. Mouse type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT II) were isolated and treated with LPS. miR-145-5p was significantly down-regulated both in mice with acute lung injury and LPS-induced AT II cells. Dual luciferase assays confirmed miR-145-5p could target and regulate Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). Further analysis showed that miR-145-5p overexpression decreased the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced AT II cells. miR-145-5p overexpression also blocked the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in AT II cells. Finally, in ALI mouse model, miR-145-5p overexpression alleviated lung tissue injury, decreased the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α and reduced MPO activity. In conclusion, miR-145-5p participated in the progression and development of ALI by decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibiting NF-κB pathway and suppressing ROS accumulation, shedding light on miR-145-5p as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108743, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299241

RESUMO

Paraquat (PQ) is a widely characterized neurotoxicant able to induce a series of nervous system disorders, including neurobehavioral defects and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the direct evidence that PQ could induce inflammatory responses in central nervous system and largely contribute to neurotoxicity, the putative adverse effects of PQ on the neuroimmune interactions have rarely been investigated. Therefore, the present study investigated underlying mechanisms of PQ-induced inflammatory response in BV-2 microglia cells. Proliferation, migration and phagocytosis of BV-2 cells upon PQ exposure were first investigated to demonstrate that PQ did stimulate BV-2 microglia into an active phenotype. Increased microglia M1 markers expression and decreased microglia M2 markers expression confirmed that PQ induces BV-2 cells towards M1 activation. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined using ELISA and western blotting assays, showing that paraquat significantly promote the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The up-regulation of TLR4/MyD88 protein expressions and enhanced translocation of NF-κB p65 protein upon PQ exposure were further demonstrated. Taken together, our results suggested that PQ induces M1 microglia polarization by increased production of pro-inflammatory molecules, which could be explained by the activation of the TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Paraquat/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/patologia , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , Paraquat/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2566-2571, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359725

RESUMO

This study was to investigate the mechanism of safflower yellow injection for regulating inflammatory response against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury( MIRI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation group,model group,Hebeishuang group,safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups. MIRI model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed by HE staining; myocardial infarct size was detected by TTC staining; content and changes of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) and interleukin-6( IL-6),serum creatine kinase( CK),aspartate aminotransferase( AST),and lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) were detected by biochemical method or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4( TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB( NF-κB p65) in myocardial tissues. The results showed that as compared with the sham operation group,the myocardial arrangement of the model group was disordered,with severe edemain the interstitial,significantly increased area of myocardial infarction,increased activities of AST,CK and LDH in serum,and significantly increased contents of TNF-α and IL-6; the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in myocardial tissues were also increased. As compared with the model group,the myocardial tissues were arranged neatlyin the Hebeishuang group and safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups; the edema was significantly reduced; the myocardial infarct size was significantly reduced; the serum AST,CK,LDH activity and TNF-α,IL-6 levels were significantly decreased,and the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in myocardial tissues were decreased. As compared with the Hebeishuang group,the myocardial infarct size was larger in the safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups; the activities of AST,CK and LDH in serum and the contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum were higher,but there was no statistically significant difference in the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in tissues. It is suggested that safflower yellow injection has a significant anti-MIRI effect,and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of TLR-NF-κB pathway to inhibit inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Chalcona/farmacologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103567, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163250

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), a Gram-positive bacterium, is one of the main causing piglet diarrhea, which leads serious economic loss in the world swine industries. Generally, the innate immune response plays a critical role in host defense against pathogen invasion. TLR4, a member of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family, has been considered to implicate in the host immune responses and induce secretion of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial infection. However, little is clear about the effects of TLR4 and key signaling genes in the process of piglet inflammatory and immune responses after C. perfringens infection. This study aims to explore the effect of C. perfringens type C infection on the key mRNAs of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways during the process of piglet diarrhea. In this study, the expressions of TLR4 and other key mRNAs in the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways were quantified in piglet ileum and jejunum tissues among IR (intestinal resistance), IS (intestinal susceptibility) and IC (intestinal control) groups by qPCR and Western blot methods, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in intestinal tissues and serum immunoglobulins were also tested by ELISA kits. Results showed that compared to IC group, expressions of ileum TLR4 and TNF-α was significantly increased in the IS and IR groups, specially TBK1 gene; the expressions of ileum TLR2, TRAF6, MyD88 and IL-8 mRNAs was significantly up-regulated in the IS group, the expressions of TLR9, NF-κB, IL-6, IFN-γ and MAPK1 genes were not significant differences among the IR, IS and IC groups. Meanwhile, the protein levels of TLR4, HMGB1 and NF-κB were higher in the IS and IR groups. The levels of jejunum IFN-γ and IL-6, ileum IL-6 and IL-12 were risen in the IR group. Serum immunoglobulin IgA and IgG in the IR and IS groups reached a peak on the 72 h and 48 h post infection, respectively. These findings suggest that C. perfringens type C infection induces host immune responses involving in the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways in ileum than in jejunum, which may provide valuable information for innate immune mechanisms involved in regulation of piglet diarrhea caused by C. perfringens type C infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/imunologia , Clostridium perfringens/patogenicidade , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Suínos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 219: 269-279, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151525

RESUMO

The protective mechanism of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) -induced inflammatory responses in IPEC-J2 and in mice with DSS dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis is reported. Upon exposure to LPS, the proliferation rate of IPEC-J2 cells markedly decreased, and epithelial cell integrity was compromised. However, COS pretreatment significantly reduced these changes. Low-concentration (200 µg/mL) COS up-regulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear p65 expression, but inhibited LPS-induced expression of nuclear p65, IL-6, and IL-8. Addition of the TLR4 inhibitor reduced nuclear p65, IL-6, and IL-8 expression in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to COS or LPS alone, and a slight up-regulation in nuclear p65 was observed in COS and LPS co-treated cells. Medium-dose COS (600 mg/kg/d) protected against DSS-induced colitis, in which TLR4 and nuclear p65 expression levels were decreased. We postulate that the prevention of both LPS- and DSS -induced inflammatory responses in IPEC-J2 cells and mice by COS are related to the inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Gene ; 710: 114-121, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153885

RESUMO

Mastitis impairs animal health and results in economic loss. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may cause immune response and inflammation in the bovine mammary gland. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter that acts as an anti-inflammation regulator in many cells. Despite the importance of H2S in regulating inflammation, the effect and mechanism of exogenous H2S on LPS-induced inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells are unknown. In the present study, with NaHS as a donor of H2S, the bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) was applied as an in vitro model to study the role of H2S on LPS-induced MAC-T cells. The results verified that the cell viability was diminished by LPS but restored by exogenous H2S at a physiologically relevant concentration (10 µM). Additionally, the production of H2S was mitigated in the LPS-induced MAC-T cells. Meanwhile, exogenous H2S decreased the intracellular ROS production and mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-8, and IL-6. Furthermore, exogenous H2S inhibited the mRNA expression of TLR4 and activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, exogenous H2S exerts anti-inflammatory effects through attenuating oxidative stress and blocking the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in the LPS-induced bovine mammary epithelial cells. Our findings might clarify new prophylactic approaches for mastitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
16.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 302-306, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167688

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Ageratina adenophora essential oil (AAEO-CP) and its effects on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Methods RAW264.7 cells were divided into control group, LPS group, and LPS combined with AAEO-CP group. The cytotoxicity of AAEO-CP was detected by CCK-8 assay. The mRNA and protein expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 were detected by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, and the protein expression of TLR4 in RAW264.7 cells was measured by Western blotting. Results AAEO-CP below 20 mg/mL was not cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells. LPS increased the protein expression of TLR4, also increased the protein and mRNA expression of IL-6, but decrease the protein and mRNA expression of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. And all of the above results were reversed by AAEO-CP. Conclusion AAEO-CP can play the anti-inflammatory effects by increasing the expression of IL-10 protein and decreasing the expression of IL-6 protein, and inhibiting TLR4 protein in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Ageratina/química , Inflamação/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 682-685, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238619

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of lipopolysaccharide intervention program on Legionella pneumonia. Methods: C3H/HeN mice (6-8 weeks old) were used as experimental animals. The mice were randomly divided into lipopolysaccharide intervention, non-lipopolysaccharide intervention and control groups. Each group was again divided into three time points: 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. Mice in the lipopolysaccharide intervention group were intraperitoneally injected with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (100 ng per mice), and the rest groups were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline. After 24 hours, mice in the lipopolysaccharide intervention and the non-intervention groups mice were infected with Legionella by tracheal injection and the control group was given the same amount of saline. All the mice were killed at 12, 24 and 48 hours respectively. The mice were anatomized, lungs of the mice were separated and weighed. Organ coefficients (lung weight/body weight of mice) were calculated. 1 ml Orbital blood was collected. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by flow cytometry. The contents of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the upper left lung lobe were measured by ELISA. Results: In the lung organs, the coefficients of lipopolysaccharide non-intervention group were higher than the other groups and there was no significant difference seen between the lipopolysaccharide intervention group and the controls. TLR4 peaked at 12 hours in both the lipopolysaccharide intervention and the non-intervention groups while the TLR4 level in the intervention group was higher than that in the non-intervention group. There were no significant differences appeared on the TLR4 expression levels between the two Legionella pneumonia modelled groups at 24 or 48 hours. There was no significant difference seen regarding the concentration of TNF-α and IL-1ß between the intervention and the control groups. The secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the non-intervention group were higher than those in the intervention group at each time point. Conclusion: The lipopolysaccharide intervention program may alleviate the inflammatory symptoms of Legionella infection.


Assuntos
Legionella , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pneumonia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Escherichia coli , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 22-29, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075559

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury frequently occurs after liver transplantation, stroke, and trauma, resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. Hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation are identified as the hallmarks of liver I/R injury. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is induced following hypoxia or ischemic stimulation, and exerts the contradictory roles in various injury progression. However, its role and mechanism lying beneath hepatic I/R remains ill defined. In this study, elevation of MALAT1 expression was corroborated in human hepatocytes under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)H/R condition. Of interest, depression of MALAT1 blunted H/R-inhibited cell viability, and counteracted lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde release. Additionally, MALAT1 cessation antagonized H/R-evoked cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. Simultaneously, the increased inflammatory reaction triggered by H/R stimulation was also abrogated following MALAT1 suppression by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine transcripts and productions including IL-1ß and TNF-α. Mechanistically, H/R exposure activated the pathway of high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1)-TLR4, which was muted after MALAT1 inhibition. More importantly, elevation of HMGB1 reversed MALAT1 down-regulation-mediated inhibition in cell injury and inflammation. Moreover, blocking the TLR4 signaling also ameliorated H/R-evoked hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammatory response. Consequently, these data suggest that MALAT1 may aggravate hepatic I/R injury by regulating the HMGB1-TLR4-triggered cell apoptosis and inflammation, implying a promising therapeutic strategy to fight liver I/R injury.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(15): 1865-1878, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is generally considered toxic but has gained recent prominence for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of it on the interaction between intestinal flora and organisms and how it influences immune responses remain unresolved. AIM: To investigate the role of UCB in intestinal barrier function and immune inflammation in mice with dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis. METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by 3% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium salt in drinking water for 6 d followed by untreated water for 2 d. Concurrently, mice with colitis were administered 0.2 mL UCB (400 µmol/L) by intra-gastric gavage for 7 d. Disease activity index (DAI) was monitored daily. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The length of the colon and weight of the spleen were recorded. Serum level of D-lactate, intestinal digestive proteases activity, and changes to the gut flora were analyzed. In addition, colonic specimens were analyzed by histology and for expression of inflammatory markers and proteins. RESULTS: Mice treated with UCB had significantly relieved severity of colitis, including lower DAI, longer colon length, and lower spleen weight (colon length: 4.92 ± 0.09 cm vs 3.9 ± 0.15 cm; spleen weight: 0.33 ± 0.04 vs 0.74 ± 0.04, P < 0.001). UCB administration inactivated digestive proteases (chymotrypsin: 18.70 ± 0.69 U/g vs 44.81 ± 8.60 U/g; trypsin: 1.52 ± 0.23 U/g vs 9.05 ± 1.77 U/g, P < 0.01), increased expression of tight junction (0.99 ± 0.05 vs 0.57 ± 0.03, P < 0.001), decreased serum level of D-lactate (31.76 ± 3.37 µmol/L vs 54.25 ± 1.45 µmol/L, P < 0.001), and lowered histopathological score (4 ± 0.57 vs 7 ± 0.57, P < 0.001) and activity of myeloperoxidase (46.79 ± 2.57 U/g vs 110.32 ± 19.19 U/g, P < 0.001). UCB also regulated the intestinal microbiota, inhibited expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interleukin 1ß (TNF-α: 52.61 ± 7.81 pg/mg vs 105.04 ± 11.92 pg/mg, interleukin 1ß: 13.43 ± 1.68 vs 32.41 ± 4.62 pg/mg, P < 0.001), decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (0.61 ± 0.09 vs 1.07 ± 0.03, P < 0.001) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (0.73 ± 0.08 vs 1.01 ± 0.07, P < 0.05), and increased expression of TNF-receptor-associated factor 6 (0.79 ± 0.02 vs 0.43 ± 0.09 P < 0.05) and inhibitor of kappa B α (0.93 ± 0.07 vs 0.72 ± 0.07, P < 0.05) in the colon. CONCLUSION: UCB can protect intestinal barrier function, regulate normal intestinal homeostasis, and suppress inflammation via the Toll-like receptor 4/ nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bilirrubina/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Bilirrubina/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(18): 3667-3678, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062071

RESUMO

Cardiolipins (CLs) are tetra-acylated diphosphatidylglycerols found in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals. In healthy mammals, CLs are unsaturated, whereas saturated CLs are found in blood cells from Barth syndrome patients and in some Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we show that unsaturated but not saturated CLs block LPS-induced NF-κB activation, TNF-α and IP-10 secretion in human and murine macrophages, as well as LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1ß release in human blood mononuclear cells. Using HEK293 cells transfected with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its co-receptor Myeloid Differentiation 2 (MD2), we demonstrate that unsaturated CLs compete with LPS for binding TLR4/MD2 preventing its activation, whereas saturated CLs are TLR4/MD2 agonists. As a consequence, saturated CLs induce a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages characterized by TNF-α and IP-10 secretion, and activate the alternative NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in human blood-derived monocytes. Thus, we identify that double bonds discriminate between anti- and pro-inflammatory properties of tetra-acylated molecules, providing a rationale for the development of TLR4 activators and inhibitors for use as vaccine adjuvants or in the treatment of TLR4-related diseases.


Assuntos
Cardiolipinas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ligação Competitiva , Cardiolipinas/química , Cardiolipinas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/genética , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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