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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208638

RESUMO

Fatty acids are derived from diet and fermentative processes by the intestinal flora. Two to five carbon chain fatty acids, termed short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are increasingly recognized to play a role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the characteristics of slightly longer 6 to 10 carbon, medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), derived primarily from diet, are less understood. Here, we demonstrated that SCFA and MCFA have divergent immunomodulatory propensities. SCFA down-attenuated host pro-inflammatory IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα response predominantly through the TLR4 pathway, whereas MCFA augmented inflammation through TLR2. Butyric (C4) and decanoic (C10) acid displayed most potent modulatory effects within the SCFA and MCFA, respectively. Reduction in TRAF3, IRF3 and TRAF6 expression were observed with butyric acid. Decanoic acid induced up-regulation of GPR84 and PPARγ and altered HIF-1α/HIF-2α ratio. These variant immune characteristics of the fatty acids which differ by just several carbon atoms may be attributable to their origins, with SCFA being primarily endogenous and playing a physiological role, and MCFA exogenously from the diet.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Biomarcadores , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Candida/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Imunomodulação/genética , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204506

RESUMO

Ergosta-7, 9 (11), 22-trien-3ß-ol (EK100) was isolated from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine. EK100 has been reported to attenuate inflammatory diseases, but its anti-inflammatory mechanism is still unclear. We were the first to investigate the effect of EK100 on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor of the κ light chain enhancer of B cells (NF-κB) signaling in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled NF-κB reporter gene of Drosophila. EK100 suppressed the release of the cytokine and attenuated the mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. EK100 inhibited the inhibitor kappa B (IκB)/NF-κB signaling pathway. EK100 also inhibited phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein kinase B (Akt) signal transduction. Moreover, EK100 interfered with LPS docking to the LPS-binding protein (LBP), transferred to the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), and bonded to TLR4/myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) co-receptors. Compared with the TLR4 antagonist, resatorvid (CLI-095), and dexamethasone (Dexa), EK100 suppressed the TLR4/AKT signaling pathway. In addition, we also confirmed that EK100 attenuated the GFP-labeled NF-κB reporter gene expression in Drosophila. In summary, EK100 might alter LPS docking to LBP, CD14, and TLR4/MD-2 co-receptors, and then it suppresses the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and Drosophila.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Drosophila/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/química , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/química
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281186

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative motor disorder characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain, depletion of dopamine (DA), and impaired nigrostriatal pathway. The pathological hallmark of PD includes the aggregation and accumulation α-synuclein (α-SYN). Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PD are still unknown, the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), mainly TLR4 and subsequent neuroinflammatory immune response, seem to play a significant role. Mounting evidence suggests that viral infection can concur with the precipitation of PD or parkinsonism. The recently identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), responsible for 160 million cases that led to the death of more than three million individuals worldwide. Studies have reported that many patients with COVID-19 display several neurological manifestations, including acute cerebrovascular diseases, conscious disturbance, and typical motor and non-motor symptoms accompanying PD. In this review, the neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of PD are discussed. Specifically, the involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in mediating the virus entry, as well as the massive immune and inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients is explored. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein to TLR4 and the possible interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and α-SYN as contributing factors to neuronal death are also considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3519, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112781

RESUMO

TLR4 signaling plays key roles in the innate immune response to microbial infection. Innate immune cells encounter different mechanical cues in both health and disease to adapt their behaviors. However, the impact of mechanical sensing signals on TLR4 signal-mediated innate immune response remains unclear. Here we show that TLR4 signalling augments macrophage bactericidal activity through the mechanical sensor Piezo1. Bacterial infection or LPS stimulation triggers assembly of the complex of Piezo1 and TLR4 to remodel F-actin organization and augment phagocytosis, mitochondrion-phagosomal ROS production and bacterial clearance and genetic deficiency of Piezo1 results in abrogation of these responses. Mechanistically, LPS stimulates TLR4 to induce Piezo1-mediated calcium influx and consequently activates CaMKII-Mst1/2-Rac axis for pathogen ingestion and killing. Inhibition of CaMKII or knockout of either Mst1/2 or Rac1 results in reduced macrophage bactericidal activity, phenocopying the Piezo1 deficiency. Thus, we conclude that TLR4 drives the innate immune response via Piezo1 providing critical insight for understanding macrophage mechanophysiology and the host response.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Fagossomos/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/genética , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Fagocitose/imunologia , Fagossomos/imunologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
5.
Phytomedicine ; 88: 153606, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are thought to promote cancer development and depressive remission has been reported to be effective for defeating cancer. The herbal formula Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (XCHT), that has an anti-depressive efficacy, has been widely utilized in China. However, its anti-cancer effect and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of XCHT on the depression-associated tumor and its potential mechanisms. METHODS: A placebo-controlled trial was conducted in cancer patients comorbid with depressive symptoms to evaluate the effects of XCHT on depressive scales, tumor-related immune indicators, and gut microbial composition. A xenografted colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse model exposure to chronic restraint stress (CRS) was established to examine XCHT effects on tumorigenesis in vivo. Further, by manipulating gut bacteria with fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) or antibiotics-induced bacterial elimination in CRS-associated xenografted model, gut microbiota-mediated anti-tumor mechanism was explored. RESULTS: In cancer patients comorbid with depressive symptoms, XCHT showed substantial effects on improvement of depressive scales, system inflammatory levels and gut dysbiosis. In vivo, XCHT inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival time in addition to showing anti-depressive effect. Similarly, in our clinical trial, XCHT partially reversed gut dysbiosis, particularly through reducing abundances of Parabacteroides, Blautia and Ruminococcaceae bacterium. Manipulation of gut bacteria in CRS-associated xenografted model further proved that the inhibition of XCHT on tumor progression was mediated by gut microbiota and that the underlying mechanism involves in downregulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that gut microbiota mediates the anti-tumor action of the formula XCHT in cancer patients and models that were comorbid with depressive symptoms. This study implies a novel clinical significance of anti-depressive herbal medicine in the cancer treatment and clarifies the important role of gut microbiota in treating cancer accompanied by depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073777

RESUMO

House dust mites (HDM) are critical factors in airway inflammation. They activate respiratory epithelial cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). ROS induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in respiratory epithelial cells. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant nutrient with anti-inflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate whether HDM induce intracellular and mitochondrial ROS production, TLR4 activation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-6 and IL-8) in respiratory epithelial A549 cells. Additionally, we examined whether lycopene inhibits HDM-induced alterations in A549 cells. The treatment of A549 cells with HDM activated TLR4, induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8, and increased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. TAK242, a TLR4 inhibitor, suppressed both HDM-induced ROS production and cytokine expression. Furthermore, lycopene inhibited the HDM-induced TLR4 activation and cytokine expression, along with reducing the intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels in HDM-treated cells. These results collectively indicated that the HDM induced TLR4 activation and increased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, thus resulting in the induction of cytokine expression in respiratory epithelial cells. The antioxidant lycopene could inhibit HDM-induced cytokine expression, possibly by suppressing TLR4 activation and reducing the intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels in respiratory epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Licopeno/farmacologia , Pyroglyphidae/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3878, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188032

RESUMO

Different levels of regulatory mechanisms, including posttranscriptional regulation, are needed to elaborately regulate inflammatory responses to prevent harmful effects. Terminal uridyltransferase 7 (TUT7) controls RNA stability by adding uridines to its 3' ends, but its function in innate immune response remains obscure. Here we reveal that TLR4 activation induces TUT7, which in turn selectively regulates the production of a subset of cytokines, including Interleukin 6 (IL-6). TUT7 regulates IL-6 expression by controlling ribonuclease Regnase-1 mRNA (encoded by Zc3h12a gene) stability. Mechanistically, TLR4 activation causes TUT7 to bind directly to the stem-loop structure on Zc3h12a 3'-UTR, thereby promotes Zc3h12a uridylation and degradation. Zc3h12a from LPS-treated TUT7-sufficient macrophages possesses increased oligo-uridylated ends with shorter poly(A) tails, whereas oligo-uridylated Zc3h12a is significantly reduced in Tut7-/- cells after TLR4 activation. Together, our findings reveal the functional role of TUT7 in sculpting TLR4-driven responses by modulating mRNA stability of a selected set of inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063554

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Anilidas/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tiadiazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068193

RESUMO

In this study, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a novel antimicrobial peptide, YD1, isolated from Kimchi, in both in vitro and in vivo models. We establish that YD1 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via up-regulation of the Nrf2 pathway, resulting in the production of HO-1, which suppresses activation of the NF-κB pathway, including the subsequent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. We also found that YD1 robustly suppresses nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by down-regulating the expression of the upstream genes, iNOS and COX-2, acting as a strong antioxidant. Collectively, YD1 exhibits vigorous anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, presenting it as an interesting potential therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/patologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
10.
Life Sci ; 278: 119600, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984362

RESUMO

Kidney injury is a relatively common complication of the use of aminoglycosides. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role in gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of the melatonergic agonist agomelatine (AGM) on GM nephrotoxicity, emphasizing the involvement of TLR-4 signaling, SIRT1 and PPARγ. Rats received 25 mg/kg AGM for 15 days and 100 mg/kg GM for eight days starting at day 7. Elevated serum creatinine, urea and Kim-1 along with multiple histological alterations in the kidney were observed in GM-intoxicated rats. Malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, IL-1ß, nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were increased, and GSH, SOD and catalase were decreased in the kidney of GM-intoxicated rats. Treatment with AGM significantly ameliorated the kidney function biomarkers, prevented tissue injury, decreased inflammatory cytokines, MDA, NO and MPO, and boosted antioxidants. In addition, AGM suppressed the expression of TLR-4, NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK, ERK-1, VCAM-1 and iNOS, whereas upregulated SIRT1 and PPARγ in the kidney of GM-intoxicated rats. In conclusion, AGM prevented GM nephrotoxicity in rats by attenuating oxidative injury and inflammation. AGM suppressed TLR-4 signaling, enhanced antioxidants and upregulated SIRT1 and PPARγ in the kidney of GM-induced rats.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153569, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR2/4) on microglia have been found as important regulators in the inflammatory response during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In China, traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) and its some components are considered to be effective in rescuing cerebral I/R injury through clinical practice. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Here we examined the effect of Salvianolic acid A (SAA), a monomer compound in the water extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza, on TLR2/4 of microglia and its mediated inflammatory injury during cerebral I/R in vivo and in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: For exploring the effect of SAA on cerebral I/R and TLR2/4, classic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and oxygen glucose deprivation / reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of co-culture with primary hippocampal neurons and microglia in vitro were used. Signal pathway research and gene knockout have been applied to further explain its mechanism. METHODS: The evaluation indexes of I/R injury included infarct size, edema degree and pathology as well as primary hippocampal neurons and microglia culture, ELISA, western, RT-PCR, HE staining, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, siRNA gene knockout were also employed. RESULTS: SAA significantly improved the degree of brain edema and ischemic area in I/R rats accompanied by decreases in levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Pathological staining revealed that SAA could reduce inflammatory cell infiltration and mcirogila activation after reperfusion. Both protein and gene expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in ischemic hemisphere were obviously inhibited by SAA treatment while changes were not found in the non-ischemic hemisphere. In order to further study its mechanism, OGD/R model was used to mimic inflammatory damage of ischemic tissue by co-culturing primary rat hippocampal neurons and microglial cells. It was found that SAA also inhibited the protein and gene expression of TLR2 and TLR4 after OGD/R injury in microglia. After TLR2/4 knockout, the inhibitory effect of SAA on IL-1ß and TNF-α levels in cell supernatant and neuron apoptosis were significantly weakened in each dose group. Moreover, expression levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), NFκB, IL-1ß and IL-6 in TLR2/4 mediated inflammatory pathway were reduced with SAA treatment. CONCLUSION: SAA could significantly reduce the inflammatory response and injury in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in vivo and in vitro, and its mechanism may be through the inhibition of TLR2/4 and its related signal pathway.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Lactatos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/uso terapêutico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactatos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
12.
J Food Biochem ; 45(7): e13757, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032295

RESUMO

Although astragaloside IV protects from acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF), the underlying mechanism of action is unclear. We determined the potential therapeutic effect of astragaloside IV using molecular docking approaches and validated the findings by the ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery-induced AMI rat model. The interaction between astragaloside IV and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was evaluated by SwissDock. To explore the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of astragaloside IV in the LAD coronary artery ligation-induced AMI model, we administered the rats with astragaloside IV for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic indexes were used to evaluate the degree of myocardial injury in model rats. The histopathological changes in myocardium were detected by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining and Masson's staining. Myocardium homogenate contents of collagen I and collagen III were evaluated by ELISA. The level of myocardial hydroxyproline (HYP) was determined by alkaline hydrolysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine collagen I. Western blotting was used to examine relevant proteins. As per the molecular docking study results, astragaloside IV may act on MyD88. Furthermore, astragaloside IV improved hemodynamic disorders, alleviated pathological changes, and reduced abnormal collagen deposition and myocardial HYP in vivo. Astragaloside IV significantly reduced the overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-Κb, and TGF-ß, which further validated the molecular docking findings. Hence, astragaloside IV ameliorates AMI by reducing inflammation and blocking TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling. These results indicate that astragaloside IV may alleviate AMI. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Astragaloside IV, a small active substance extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has demonstrated potent protective effects against cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion, diabetic nephropathy, and other diseases. Molecular docking experiments showed that astragaloside IV might act on the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Astragaloside IV can effectively reduce the overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65, indicating that astragaloside IV inhibits inflammation via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. These results indicate that astragaloside IV may alleviate acute myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Infarto do Miocárdio , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Triterpenos
13.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106879, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051372

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes. This happens, at least in part, because TLR4 modulates the enzyme NADPH oxidase, a primary source of ROS in vascular structures. Increased oxidative stress disrupts key vascular signaling mechanisms and drives the progression of diabetes, elevating the likelihood of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that patients with diabetes are also at a higher risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given the importance of the interaction between TLR4 and NADPH oxidase to the disrupted diabetic vascular system, we put forward the hypothesis that TLR4-mediated NADPH oxidase-derived ROS might be a critical mechanism to help explain why this disparity appears in diabetic patients, but unfortunately, conclusive experimental evidence still lacks in the literature. Herein, we focus on discussing the pathological implications of this signaling communication in the diabetic vasculature and exploring this crosstalk in the context of diabetes-associated severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/enzimologia , COVID-19/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/enzimologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/virologia , COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Ativação Enzimática , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Prognóstico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Neuroscience ; 465: 142-153, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957205

RESUMO

Among different kinds of dietary energy restriction, intermittent fasting (IF) has been considered a dietary regimen which causes a mild stress to the organism. IF can stimulate proteins and signaling pathways related to cell stress that can culminate in the increase of the body resistance to severe stress conditions. Energy intake reduction induced by IF can induce modulation of receptors, kinases, and phosphatases, which in turn can modulate the activation of transcription factors such as NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and cAMP response element-binding (CREB) which regulate the transcription of genes related to the translation of proteins such as growth factors: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), chaperone proteins: heat shock proteins (HSP), and so on. It has been shown that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important molecules in innate immune response which are present not only in the periphery but also in neurons and glial cells. In central nervous system, TLRs can exert functions related to set up responses to infection, as well as influence neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, being involved in cognitive parameters such as learning and memory. Little is known about the involvement of TLR4 on the beneficial effects induced by IF protocol. The present work investigated the effects of IF on memory and on the signaling mechanisms associated with NRF2 and CREB in Tlr4 knockout mice. The results suggest that TLR4 participates in the modulatory effects of IF on oxidative stress levels, on the transcription factors CREB and NRF2, and on BDNF and HSP90 expressions in hippocampus.


Assuntos
Jejum , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Memória , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8835408, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959665

RESUMO

This study was aimed at examining the effect and underlying mechanisms of bilobalide (BB) on hepatic injury in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in immature rats. Immature rats (one day old) were randomly divided into five groups: group I, control nondiabetic rats; group II, STZ-induced, untreated diabetic rats; groups III/IV/V, STZ-induced and BB-treated diabetic rats, which were intraperitoneally injected with BB (2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg) after 3 days followed by STZ treatment. We observed that BB improved the histopathological changes and maintained normal glucose metabolism, blood lipid, and liver function indicators, such as fasting blood glucose, obesity index, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fast serum insulin, adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) in STZ-induced DM in immature rats by a biochemical analyzer or ELISA. Meanwhile, Western blot analysis showed that in STZ-induced DM immature rats, BB decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9 while enhancing the Bcl-2 expression; BB downregulated the expression of ACC related to fat anabolism, while upregulating the expression of CPT-1 related to fat catabolism. Strikingly, treatment with BB significantly increased the expression of AMPKα1 as well as inhibited HMGB1, TLR4, and p-P65 expression in hepatic tissues of immature DM rats. AMPK inhibitor (compound C, CC) cotreated with BB undermined the protective effect of BB on the liver injury. The results of the present study suggested BB may have a significant role in alleviating liver damage in the STZ-induced immature DM rats.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Bilobalídeos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
16.
Life Sci ; 277: 119567, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965378

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Asiatic acid (AA), a naturally occurring compound of pentacyclic triterpenoid, on the pathological processes of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: SD rats were induced to develop early DR by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Four weeks after injection, the diabetic rats were orally administrated with 37.5 mg/kg or 75 mg/kg AA every day for four weeks. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was measured by Evans blue staining. The polarization of microglia was determined by real-time PCR, western blot, and ELISA assays. The inner BRB (iBRB) or outer BRB (oBRB) breakdown was induced in human retinal endothelial cells or APRE19 cells through co-culture with high glucose and LPS-stimulated microglia BV2 cells. The damage to the iBRB and oBRB was measured using transendothelial/transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER/TER) and FITC-conjugated dextran cell permeability assays. KEY FINDINGS: Results demonstrated that AA alleviated BRB breakdown, as evidenced by decreased protein expression of occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1. Furthermore, AA treatment suppressed inflammation and M1 polarization, while it increased M2 polarization in the retina of DR rats. In vitro, the iBRB or oBRB breakdown was alleviated by AA. LPS-induced M1-polarization of BV2 cells under high glucose condition was also repressed through AA administration. Finally, we demonstrated that AA weakened the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro. SIGNIFICANCE: AA ameliorated early DR by regulating microglia polarization via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB p65 pathway. These data indicate that AA is a potential candidate for DR treatment.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Animais , Barreira Hematorretiniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retina/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
17.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(3): 309-318, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression affects people feeling to be anxious, worried, and restless. They also lose interest in activities, concentrating and appetite, they finally may attempt suicide. Depression is the second chronic disease, as a source of the global burden of disease, after heart disease. Its prevalence elevated seven times during the COVID-19. AIM: The current study was designed to evaluate camphor neuroprotective role against rats' ciprofloxacin-induced depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Depression was induced by administration of ciprofloxacin (50 mg/kg; orally) for 21 days. Wister albino male rats were divided into five groups. Group I (normal control): rats were given normal saline. Group II: rats received camphor (10 mg/kg; i.p.) for 21 days. Group III (depression control): rats received ciprofloxacin only. Groups IV and V: rats received camphor (5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.) for 21 days concurrent with ciprofloxacin. Behavior tests as forced swimming test, activity cage, and rotarod were estimated. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers as malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), catalase, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) besides inflammatory biomarkers as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as neurotransmitters were determined. Finally, histopathological examination was done. RESULTS: Camphor increased catalase and Nrf-2 activities, decreased NO, MDA, TNF-α, TLR4 serum levels, and elevating brain contents of serotonin, dopamine, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and P190-RHO GTP protein with normal neuronal cells of the frontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Camphor has neuroprotective effect via modulation of Nrf-2 and TLR4 against ciprofloxacin-induced depression in rats.


Assuntos
Cânfora/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/efeitos adversos , Depressão , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 665300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981312

RESUMO

The irruption of SARS-CoV-2 during 2020 has been of pandemic proportions due to its rapid spread and virulence. COVID-19 patients experience respiratory, digestive and neurological symptoms. Distinctive symptom as anosmia, suggests a potential neurotropism of this virus. Amongst the several pathways of entry to the nervous system, we propose an alternative pathway from the infection of the gut, involving Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), zonulin, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and zonulin brain receptor. Possible use of zonulin antagonists could be investigated to attenuate neurological manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/virologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 11595-11609, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872217

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), and macrophages serve as the primary natural host of M.tb. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes play an essential role in inflammatory responses. This study aimed to determine the role of exosomes derived from M.tb-infected MSCs (Exo-MSCs-M.tb) on macrophages in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we demonstrated that M.tb infection promoted the production of Exo-MSCs-M.tb, but did not influence MSCs proliferation. Exo-MSCs-M.tb were taken up by macrophages and then induced the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages through elevating the production of TNF-α, RANTES, and iNOS. Also, pro-inflammatory response induced by Exo-MSCs-M.tb displayed a time-dependent pattern in macrophages, in which the highest level of inflammatory response was observed at 72 hours post-infection of MSCs. In addition, the effect of Exo-MSCs-M.tb was mediated through TLR2/4 and MyD88 signaling pathways. Furthermore, Exo-MSCs-M.tb could induce the pro-inflammatory response in mice in vivo, and exosomes isolated from Exo-MSCs-M.tb-treated mice could also promote the pro-inflammatory response. Taken together, these results indicate that Exo-MSCs-M.tb induced the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages through TLRs signaling. This study provides new insight into the potential of MSCs-derived exosomes for the treatment of TB.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exossomos/imunologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 145-157, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878360

RESUMO

Two novel glucans named MIPB50-W and MIPB50-S-1 were obtained from edible Morchella importuna with molecular weights (Mw) of 939.2 kDa and 444.5 kDa, respectively. MIPB50-W has a backbone of α-(1 → 4)-d-glucan, which was substituted at O-6 position by α-d-Glcp-(1→. Moreover, MIPB50-S-1 has a backbone of α-(1 → 4)-d-glucan, which was substituted at O-6 position by α-d-Glcp-(1 → 6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→. This is the first report about glucan found in Morchella mushrooms. Furthermore, MIPB50-W and MIPB50-S-1 strengthened the phagocytosis function and the promoted secretion of interleukins (IL)-6/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), which induced the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 as well as mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. Interestingly, MIPB50-S-1 performed the better immunomodulatory activity than that of MIPB50-W in almost all tests. Therefore, MIPB50-W and MIPB50-S-1 are potential immune-enhancing components of functional foods.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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