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1.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 22: 15330338221145246, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601658

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Triple-negative breast cancers do not express estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and have a higher recurrence rate, greater metastatic potential, and lower overall survival rate than those of other breast cancers. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer is challenging; molecular-targeted therapies are largely ineffective and there is no standard treatment. In this review, we evaluate current attempts to classify triple-negative breast cancers based on their molecular features. We also describe promising treatment methods with different advantages and discuss genetic biomarkers and other prediction tools. Accurate molecular classification of triple-negative breast cancers is critical for patient risk categorization, treatment decisions, and surveillance. This review offers new ideas for more effective treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and identifies novel targets for drug development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo
3.
Anticancer Res ; 43(2): 707-711, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: A subset of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative, and node-negative breast cancer experience recurrences. Predicting patients who will have recurrences within 5 years of surgery is essential so that patients can be selected to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The 95-gene classifier (95-GC) has been validated as a method to differentiate patients into high and low-risk groups for early recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, we performed 95-GC analysis on 56 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients who underwent surgery for ER-positive, HER2-negative, and node-negative breast cancer and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. We associated the obtained high- and low-risk groups with clinicopathological characteristics and recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: We classified 12 out of 56 patients into the high-risk recurrence group. We found significantly higher KI67 scores in patients in the high-risk group. Other clinicopathological characteristics were not associated with the 95-GC risk groups. Patients in the 95-GC low-risk group had a significantly better prognosis than those in the high-risk group (p=0.0387). The 5-year RFS rate was 97.6% in the low-risk group and 74.1% in the high-risk group, while the 10-year RFS rates were 90.1% and 74.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 95-GC score can accurately predict RFS within 5 years of surgery for ER-positive, HER2-negative, and node-negative breast cancer using FFPE tissue samples. These prediction models could help assign patients to the most effective treatment regimen.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Inclusão em Parafina , Receptores de Estrogênio , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Formaldeído , Quimioterapia Adjuvante
4.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 23(1): 67-86, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633402

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While endocrine therapy is the standard-of-care adjuvant treatment for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancers, there is also extensive evidence for the role of pre-operative (or neoadjuvant) endocrine therapy (NET) in HR+ postmenopausal women. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a thorough review of the published literature, to summarize the evidence to date, including studies of how NET compares to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which NET agents are preferable, and the optimal duration of NET. We describe the importance of on-treatment assessment of response, the different predictors available (including Ki67, PEPI score, and molecular signatures) and the research opportunities the pre-operative setting offers. We also summarize recent combination trials and discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic led to increases in NET use for safe management of cases with deferred surgery and adjuvant treatments. EXPERT OPINION: NET represents a safe and effective tool for the management of postmenopausal women with HR+/HER2- breast cancer, enabling disease downstaging and a wider range of surgical options. Aromatase inhibitors are the preferred NET, with evidence suggesting that longer regimens might yield optimal results. However, NET remains currently underutilised in many territories and institutions. Further validation of predictors for treatment response and benefit is needed to help standardise and fully exploit the potential of NET in the clinic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Pós-Menopausa , Pandemias , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2
5.
PLoS Genet ; 19(1): e1010563, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have provided a comprehensive picture of genomic alterations in primary and metastatic Hormone Receptor (HR)-positive, Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer (HR+ HER2- BC). However, the evolution of the genomic landscape of HR+ HER2- BC during adjuvant endocrine therapies (ETs) remains poorly investigated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a genomic characterization of surgically resected HR+ HER2- BC patients relapsing during or at the completion of adjuvant ET. Using a customized panel, we comprehensively evaluated gene mutations and copy number variation (CNV) in paired primary and metastatic specimens. After retrieval and quality/quantity check of tumor specimens from an original cohort of 204 cases, 74 matched tumor samples were successfully evaluated for DNA mutations and CNV analysis. Along with previously reported genomic alterations, including PIK3CA, TP53, CDH1, GATA3 and ESR1 mutations/deletions, we found that ESR1 gene amplification (confirmed by FISH) and MAP3K mutations were enriched in metastatic lesions as compared to matched primary tumors. These alterations were exclusively found in patients treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors or LHRH analogs plus tamoxifen, but not in patients treated with tamoxifen alone. Patients with tumors bearing MAP3K mutations in metastatic lesions had significantly worse distant relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 3.4, 95% CI 1.52-7.70, p value 0.003) and worse overall survival (HR 5.2, 95% CI 2.10-12.8, p-value < 0.001) independently of other clinically relevant patient- and tumor-related variables. CONCLUSIONS: ESR1 amplification and activating MAP3K mutations are potential drivers of acquired resistance to adjuvant ETs employing estrogen deprivation in HR+ HER2- BC. MAP3K mutations are associated with worse prognosis in patients with metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Tamoxifeno
6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 42(1): 25, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrinsic or acquired resistance to HER2-targeted therapy is often a problem when small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors or antibodies are used to treat patients with HER2 positive breast cancer. Therefore, the identification of new targets and therapies for this patient group is warranted. Activated choline metabolism, characterized by elevated levels of choline-containing compounds, has been previously reported in breast cancer. The glycerophosphodiesterase EDI3 (GPCPD1), which hydrolyses glycerophosphocholine to choline and glycerol-3-phosphate, directly influences choline and phospholipid metabolism, and has been linked to cancer-relevant phenotypes in vitro. While the importance of choline metabolism has been addressed in breast cancer, the role of EDI3 in this cancer type has not been explored. METHODS: EDI3 mRNA and protein expression in human breast cancer tissue were investigated using publicly-available Affymetrix gene expression microarray datasets (n = 540) and with immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray (n = 265), respectively. A panel of breast cancer cell lines of different molecular subtypes were used to investigate expression and activity of EDI3 in vitro. To determine whether EDI3 expression is regulated by HER2 signalling, the effect of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA silencing of HER2, as well as the influence of inhibiting key components of signalling cascades downstream of HER2 were studied. Finally, the influence of silencing and pharmacologically inhibiting EDI3 on viability was investigated in vitro and on tumour growth in vivo. RESULTS: In the present study, we show that EDI3 expression is highest in ER-HER2 + human breast tumours, and both expression and activity were also highest in ER-HER2 + breast cancer cell lines. Silencing HER2 using siRNA, as well as inhibiting HER2 signalling with lapatinib decreased EDI3 expression. Pathways downstream of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and GSK3ß, and transcription factors, including HIF1α, CREB and STAT3 were identified as relevant in regulating EDI3 expression. Silencing EDI3 preferentially decreased cell viability in the ER-HER2 + cells. Furthermore, silencing or pharmacologically inhibiting EDI3 using dipyridamole in ER-HER2 + cells resistant to HER2-targeted therapy decreased cell viability in vitro and tumour growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that EDI3 may be a potential novel therapeutic target in patients with HER2-targeted therapy-resistant ER-HER2 + breast cancer that should be further explored.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colina/metabolismo , Colina/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fosfolipases/genética
7.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672182

RESUMO

The efficacy of CD19-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of leukemia/lymphoma relies, at least in part, on the unique properties of the particular CAR and the presence of healthy B cells that enhance the target cell lysis and cytokine secretion through repetitive stimulation. Here, we report to apply the same CAR to target solid tumors, such as ErbB2+ carcinoma. CD19 CAR T cells are redirected towards the ErbB2+ cells by a fusion protein that is composed of the herceptin-derived anti-ErbB2 scFv 4D5 linked to the CD19 exodomain. The CD19-4D5scFv engager enabled CD19 CAR T cells to recognize the ErbB2+ cancer cells and to suppress the ErbB2+ tumor growth. The primary killing capacity by the ErbB2-redirected CD19 CAR T cells was as efficient as by the ErbB2 CAR T cells, however, adding CD19+ B cells furthermore reinforced the activation of the CD19 CAR T cells, thereby improving the anti-tumor activities. The ErbB2-redirected CD19 CAR T cells, moreover, showed a 100-fold superior selectivity in targeting cancer cells versus healthy fibroblasts, which was not the case for the ErbB2 CAR T cells. The data demonstrate that the CD19 CAR T cells can be high-jacked by a CD19-scFv engager protein to attack specifically solid cancer, thereby expanding their application beyond the B cell malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Trastuzumab , Linfócitos B , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Linfócitos T , Receptor ErbB-2
8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 25(1): 1, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer mortality is principally due to recurrent disease that becomes resistant to therapy. We recently identified copy number (CN) gain of the putative membrane progesterone receptor PAQR8 as one of four focal CN alterations that preferentially occurred in recurrent metastatic tumors compared to primary tumors in breast cancer patients. Whether PAQR8 plays a functional role in cancer is unknown. Notably, PAQR8 CN gain in recurrent tumors was mutually exclusive with activating ESR1 mutations in patients treated with anti-estrogen therapies and occurred in > 50% of both patients treated with anti-estrogen therapies and those treated with chemotherapy or anti-Her2 agents. METHODS: We used orthotopic mouse models to determine whether PAQR8 overexpression or deletion alters breast cancer dormancy or recurrence following therapy. In vitro studies, including assays for colony formation, cell viability, and relative cell fitness, were employed to identify effects of PAQR8 in the context of therapy. Cell survival and proliferation were quantified by immunofluorescence staining for markers of apoptosis and proliferation. Sphingolipids were quantified by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: We show that PAQR8 is necessary and sufficient for efficient mammary tumor recurrence in mice, spontaneously upregulated and CN gained in recurrent tumors that arise following therapy in multiple mouse models, and associated with poor survival following recurrence as well as poor overall survival in breast cancer patients. PAQR8 promoted resistance to therapy by enhancing tumor cell survival following estrogen receptor pathway inhibition by fulvestrant or estrogen deprivation, Her2 pathway blockade by lapatinib or Her2 downregulation, and treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Pro-survival effects of PAQR8 were mediated by a Gi protein-dependent reduction in cAMP levels, did not require progesterone, and involved a PAQR8-dependent decrease in ceramide levels and increase in sphingosine-1-phosphate levels, suggesting that PAQR8 may possess ceramidase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide in vivo evidence that PAQR8 plays a functional role in cancer, implicate PAQR8, cAMP, and ceramide metabolism in breast cancer recurrence, and identify a novel mechanism that may commonly contribute to the acquisition of treatment resistance in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Animais , Camundongos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Lapatinib , Fulvestranto , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Estrogênios , Receptores de Progesterona
9.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 93, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This retrospective study explored the relationship between hormone receptor (HR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and bone involvement in the first distant metastases (DM) of Chinese breast cancer (BC) patients who lacked the HER2 targeted therapy. Such therapy was rarely received due to its lag approval or high cost in China compared with the developed countries. METHODS: All eligible women with primary unilateral stage I - III BC and first DM diagnosed in 2008-2018 at one cancer center were identified for enrollment. Based on chart records, a full or no/partial compliance status of endocrine therapy (ET) was assigned for HR-positive patients. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratio (aOR), its 95%CI and p value. RESULTS: Four hundred eighteen patients had an average age of 50.7 years and median disease-free survival of 27.1 months at DM. Bone, lung, liver and brain metastasis rates in patients were 55.7%, 34.7%, 33.0% and 8.1%, respectively. Compared to HR-negative patients, HR-positive patients with the full and non/partial compliance of ET were significantly associated with higher risk of bone involvement with an aOR of 2.329 (1.316 - 1.741, p = 0.004) and 2.317 (1.330 - 4.036, p = 0.003), respectively. No difference of such risk was found between the two groups of ET compliance (p = 0.984) nor between HER2-negative and HER2-positive patients (aOR 0.827, p = 0.431). Stratified analyses further indicated that HR-positive was associated with bone involvement only in HER2-negative BC patients (p = 0.006-0.015). CONCLUSIONS: HR-positive tumors are significantly associated with bone involvement in HER2-negative metastatic BC patients. ET does not appear to impact this association. HER2 status per se is not associated with such risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Hormônios
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 18: 339-351, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703724

RESUMO

Introduction: Nanobubble is an innovative ultrasound contrast agent that triggers the development of targeted imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer by combining with HER2 affibody and IR783. HPPH is a second-generation photosensitiser that is effective in treating tumours. Hence, the nanobubble-IR783-HPPH-affibody (NIHA) complex demonstrates considerable potential in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Methods: We fabricated the NIHA complex via an advanced thin-film hydration method and detected its characteristics such as particle size, morphology, stability, and cytotoxicity. Moreover, the effect of NIHA complex with laser on HER2-positive breast cancer was confirmed via in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results: The NIHA complex was spheroid, stable and exhibited no cytotoxicity; moreover, its particle size was 524.8 ± 53.3 nm (n = 5). In combination with laser treatment, NIHA complex reduced the cell viability and tumour volume, induced apoptosis of HER2-positive breast cancer cells, and prolonged survival of nude mice. Conclusion: The newly prepared NIHA complex with laser treatment has the potential on treating HER2-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Lasers , Neoplasias , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ultrassonografia , Receptor ErbB-2
11.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 44, 2023 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressed associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer and HER2 has been defined as a therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. We aimed to explore the molecular biological information in ultrasound radiomic features (URFs) of HER2-positive breast cancer using radiogenomic analysis. Moreover, a radiomics model was developed to predict the status of HER2 in breast cancer. METHODS: This retrospective study included 489 patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer. URFs were extracted from a radiomics analysis set using PyRadiomics. The correlations between differential URFs and HER2-related genes were calculated using Pearson correlation analysis. Functional enrichment of the identified URFs-correlated HER2 positive-specific genes was performed. Lastly, the radiomics model was developed based on the URF-module mined from auxiliary differential URFs to assess the HER2 status of breast cancer. RESULTS: Eight differential URFs (p < 0.05) were identified among the 86 URFs extracted by Pyradiomics. 25 genes that were found to be the most closely associated with URFs. Then, the relevant biological functions of each differential URF were obtained through functional enrichment analysis. Among them, Zone Entropy is related to immune cell activity, which regulate the generation of calcification in breast cancer. The radiomics model based on the Logistic classifier and URF-module showed good discriminative ability (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI). CONCLUSION: We searched for the URFs of HER2-positive breast cancer, and explored the underlying genes and biological functions of these URFs. Furthermore, the radiomics model based on the Logistic classifier and URF-module relatively accurately predicted the HER2 status in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Genômica por Imageamento , Receptor ErbB-2 , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Mamária , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 34: 100671, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the long-term outcome of patients who underwent Oncotype DX® testing. The relationship between the RS, adjuvant treatments received, and clinical outcomes across the entire range of RS results are reported. METHODS: 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for distant recurrence/BC-specific survival (BCSS) in this cohort. The analysis included 439 patients. The follow-up time ranged from 14 to 142 months. All analyses were performed using the SPSS v20. RESULTS: More than half of patients had low RS (<18) (55.6%) and 15.3% had RS ≥ 31. Chemotherapy use was consistent with the RS with 4.4%, 7.1%, 28.0%, 71.4% and 91.0% receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with RS < 11, 11-17, 18-25, 26-30, and ≥31, respectively. The overall chemotherapy rate was 27.6%. Distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) differed significantly (P < 0.001) between the RS groups with 10 year DMFS rates of 99% (SE +/- 0.01) in the RS<11, 97% (SE +/- 0.03) in the RS 11-17, 97% (SE +/- 0.02) in the RS 18-25, 85% (SE +/- 0.1) in the RS 26-30 and 74% (SE +/- 0.08) in the RS ≥ 31 group. Ten year breast cancer specific survival also differed significantly (P < 0.001) between the RS groups; this risk was 100% (no deaths from breast cancer reported in the first 10 years) in RS < 11, 95% (SE +/- 0.03) in RS 11-17, 94% (SE +/- 0.04) in RS 18-25, 93% (SE +/- 0.07) in RS 26-30, and 79% (SE +/- 0.07) in the RS ≥ 31 group. CONCLUSIONS: Use of Oncotype DX RS does guide the treatment decisions and correlates with the BCSS and disease-free survival for ER positive, Her2 negative, early-stage, node negative breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptor ErbB-2 , Prognóstico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 198(1): 143-148, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status can be tested with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH). The 2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) HER2 testing guidelines suggest initial HER2 testing using IHC and further testing IHC equivocal cases with ISH. However, many institutions perform both IHC and ISH on the same specimen. This study aims to analyze the concordance between HER2 IHC and ISH in order to evaluate the benefit of repeating HER2 testing on the same breast cancer specimens. METHOD: Patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer through BreastScreen NSW Sydney West program between January 2018 and December 2020 were identified and their HER2 IHC and HER2 ISH results on core needle biopsy (CNB) and surgical excisions (SE) were retrospectively collected. Specimens with both IHC and ISH results were then analyzed for agreement and concordance using unweighted kappa values. Equivocal IHC (2+) cases were excluded from concordance analysis. RESULTS: Overall, there were 240 invasive breast cancer specimens (CNB and SE) with both IHC and ISH recorded. Concordance between HER2 IHC and ISH was 100% (95% CI: 96.2-100%; κ = 1.00 (P < 0.001)). Of the IHC equivocal cases (n = 146), 94.5% were ISH negative. CONCLUSION: There was perfect positive concordance and agreement between non-equivocal IHC and ISH results. This reinforces that IHC alone can be utilized reliably for testing HER2 status of non-equivocal cases consistent with the 2018 ASCO/CAP guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hibridização In Situ , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo
14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 198(1): 159-166, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Delaying chemotherapy remains a vital goal in therapeutic management of HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, recent reports continue to highlight substantially high chemotherapy utilization in earlier therapy lines. In this study, we explored the impact of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor therapy class, introduced in 2015, on early chemotherapy utilization in an older population of patients with HR+/HER2- MBC in the United States (US). METHODS: Using an interrupted time series design, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MBC aged ≥ 65 years initiating systemic therapy during 2010-2019 were selected from the SEER-Medicare database. The proportion of chemotherapy use was summarized quarterly based on the date of treatment initiation separately in the first, second, and third lines. Segmented regression models adjusted for autocorrelation over time were fitted to estimate trends before and after the availability of CDK4/6 inhibitors in the first quarter of 2015. RESULTS: Of the 3244 eligible women (median age at diagnosis: 74 years), all initiated first-line therapy; 47.9% (n = 1581) initiated second-line therapy, and 50.1% (n = 792) initiated third-line therapy. Overall utilization of chemotherapy (alone or in combination) during the study period was 15.7% for the first line, 19.6% for the second line, and 24.8% for the third line. Chemotherapy utilization in the period immediately after introduction of CDK4/6 inhibitor therapy decline by estimated 2.5% in the first line (P = 0.408), 15.5% in the second line (P = 0.005), and 16.3% in the third line (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study illustrates that chemotherapy utilization in earlier therapy lines for HR+/HER2- MBC declined steadily between 2010 and 2019. These declines were significantly accelerated by the introduction of CDK4/6 therapy class in 2015, notably in the second- and third-line settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Idoso , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medicare , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Receptor ErbB-2
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 198(1): 67-74, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dual anti-HER2 targeted therapy and chemotherapy is the current first-line standard of care for HER2 + metastatic breast cancer (MBC), with endocrine therapy (ET) the backbone of treatment in hormone receptor positive (HR +) disease. The potential ET benefit in HER2 + /HR + patients is unknown as pivotal dual anti-HER2 clinical trials precluded ET use. METHODS: Real-world data from a multi-site registry of consecutive HER2 + MBC patients treated at clinician discretion were examined. Patients that were HR + (ER + and/or PR +) and had received first-line chemotherapy alongside trastuzumab and pertuzumab were explored. Of 362 patients in the registry, 215 were excluded due to being HR- (n = 210) or not receiving chemotherapy (n = 5). RESULTS: Of the 147 patients included, 91 (62%) received concurrent ET and 56 (38%) had not. Comparing the groups, there were no significant differences in age, performance status, metastatic sites, use of previous therapy and de novo metastatic disease. More patients with ER + PR + disease versus those with ER + PR- or ER-PR + received ET (73 vs 45%). The addition of ET was associated with significantly improved 5-year PFS (HR 0.58, CI 0.37-0.89, p = 0.014) and OS (HR 0.52, CI 0.31-0.90, p = 0.018), with no increase in adverse events noted. CONCLUSION: The addition of ET to first-line dual anti-HER2 therapy post chemotherapy in patients with HER2 + /HR + MBC was associated with major gains in PFS and OS with no safety concerns evident. Further studies of this combination are justified, along with studies of how best to integrate other agents that are active in this patient subset, including CDK4/6 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2 , Trastuzumab , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280507, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706086

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of this disease. Targeted treatment has improved outcome, but there is still a need for new therapeutic strategies as some patients respond poorly to treatment. Our aim was to identify compounds that substantially affect viability in HER2+ breast cancer cells in response to combinatorial treatment. We performed a high-throughput drug screen of 278 compounds in combination with trastuzumab and lapatinib using two HER2+ breast cancer cell lines (KPL4 and SUM190PT). The most promising drugs were validated in vitro and in vivo, and downstream molecular changes of the treatments were analyzed. The screen revealed multiple drugs that could be used in combination with lapatinib and/or trastuzumab. The Src-inhibitor dasatinib showed the largest combinatorial effect together with lapatinib in the KPL4 cell line compared to treatment with dasatinib alone (p < 0.01). In vivo, only lapatinib significantly reduced tumor growth (p < 0.05), whereas dasatinib alone, or in combination with lapatinib, did not show significant effects. Protein analyses of the treated xenografts showed significant alterations in protein levels compared to untreated controls, suggesting that all drugs reached the tumor and exerted a measurable effect. In silico analyses suggested activation of apoptosis and reduced activity of survival pathways by all treatments, but the opposite pattern was observed for the combinatorial treatment compared to lapatinib alone.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Lapatinib/farmacologia , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico
17.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 45(1): 101-107, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709127

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prognosis impact of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive early breast cancer patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted, HER-2-positive T1N0M0 stage breast cancer patients who underwent surgery in the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 2010 to December 2019 were divided into treatment group and control group according to whether they were treated with trastuzumab or not. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance the confounding bias caused by differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the risk factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the 3- and 5-year DFS and overall survival (OS) rates of the two groups before and after PSM. Results: There were 291 patients with HER-2 positive T1N0M0 stage breast cancer, including 21 cases in T1a (7.2%), 61 cases in T1b (21.0%), and 209 cases in T1c (71.8%). Before PSM, there were 132 cases in the treatment group and 159 cases in the control group, the 5-year DFS rate was 88.5%, and the 5-year OS rate was 91.5%. After PSM, there were 103 cases in the treatment group and 103 cases in the control group, the 5-year DFS rate was 86.0%, and the 5-year OS rate was 88.5%. Before PSM, there were significant differences in tumor size, histological grade, vascular invasion, Ki-67 index, postoperative chemotherapy or not and radiotherapy between the treatment group and the control group (P<0.05). After PSM, there were no significant difference in clinicopathological features between the treatment group and the control group (P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that histological grade (HR=2.927, 95 CI: 1.476, 5.805; P=0.002), vascular invasion (HR=3.410, 95 CI: 1.170, 9.940; P=0.025), menstrual status (HR=3.692, 95 CI: 1.021, 13.344, P=0.046), and chemotherapy (HR=0.238, 95 CI: 0.079, 0.720; P=0.011) were independent factors affecting DFS. After PSM, the 5-year DFS rate of the treatment group was 89.2%, while that of the control group was 83.5%(P=0.237). The 5-year OS rate of the treatment group was 96.1%, while that of the control group was 84.7%(P=0.036). Conclusion: Postoperative targeted therapy with trastuzumab can reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis in patients with HER-2-positive T1N0M0 stage breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Doença
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 25(1): 4, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors have been established as a standard treatment for hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC); however, predictive biomarkers with translational relevance have not yet been elucidated. METHODS: Data from postmenopausal women who received the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib and letrozole for HR-positive, HER2-negative ABC from tertiary referral centers were analyzed (N = 221; exploratory cohort). Pre- and on-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and derived NLR (dNLR; neutrophil/[leukocyte-neutrophil]) were correlated with survival outcomes. Data from the PALOMA-2 (NCT01740427) and PALOMA-3 studies (NCT01942135) involving patients treated with endocrine treatment with or without palbociclib were also analyzed (validation cohort). Prospectively enrolled patients (N = 20) were subjected to immunophenotyping with circulating immune cells to explore the biological implications of immune cell dynamics. RESULTS: In the exploratory cohort, palbociclib administration significantly reduced leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts on day 1 of cycle 2. Although the baseline dNLR was not significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS), higher on-treatment dNLRs were associated with worse PFS (hazard ratio = 3.337, P < 0.001). In the PALOMA-2 validation cohort, higher on-treatment dNLRs were associated with inferior PFS in patients treated with palbociclib and letrozole (hazard ratio = 1.498, P = 0.009), and reduction in the dNLR after treatment was predictive of a survival benefit (hazard ratio = 1.555, P = 0.026). On-treatment dNLRs were also predictive of PFS following palbociclib and fulvestrant treatment in the PALOMA-3 validation cohort. Using flow cytometry analysis, we found that the CDK4/6 inhibitor prevented T cell exhaustion and diminished myeloid-derived suppressor cell frequency. CONCLUSIONS: On-treatment dNLR significantly predicted PFS in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative ABC receiving palbociclib and endocrine treatment. Additionally, we observed putative systemic immune responses elicited by palbociclib, suggesting immunologic changes upon CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
19.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 77, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precision medicine with gene panel testing based on next-generation sequencing for patients with cancer is being used increasingly in clinical practice. HER2, which encodes the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), is a potentially important driver gene. However, therapeutic strategies aimed at mutations in the HER2 extracellular domain have not been clarified. We therefore investigated the effect of EGFR co-targeted therapy with HER2 on patient-derived cancer models with the HER2 extracellular domain mutation E401G, based on our previous findings that this mutation has an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated activation mechanism. METHODS: We generated a xenograft (PDX) and a cancer tissue-originated spheroid (CTOS) from a patient's cancer containing an amplified HER2 E401G mutation. With these platforms, we compared the efficacy of afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor having anti-HER2 and anti-EGFR activity, with two other therapeutic options: lapatinib, which has similar properties but weaker EGFR inhibition, and trastuzumab plus pertuzumab, for which evidence exists of treatment efficacy against cancers with wild-type HER2 amplification. Similar experiments were also performed with H2170, a cell line with wild-type HER2 amplification, to contrast the characteristics of these drug's efficacies against HER2 E401G. RESULTS: We confirmed that PDX and CTOS retained morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics and HER2 gene profiles of the original tumor. In both PDX and CTOS, afatinib reduced tumor size more than lapatinib or trastuzumab plus pertuzumab. In addition, afatinib treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction in HER2 copy number at the end of treatment. On the other hand, in H2170 xenografts with wild-type HER2 amplification, trastuzumab plus pertuzumab was most effective. CONCLUSIONS: Afatinib, a dual inhibitor of HER2 and EGFR, showed a promising effect on cancers with amplified HER2 E401G, which have an EGFR-mediated activation mechanism. Analysis of the activation mechanisms of mutations and development of therapeutic strategies based on those mechanisms are critical in precision medicine for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Afatinib , Lapatinib , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Mutação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/genética
20.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 78, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence and risk factors for seizures among women with advanced breast cancer (BC) and brain metastases are not well characterized across treatment-related or clinical subtypes. This study leveraged a large real-world dataset to describe incidence and risk factors for seizures in BRCA-associated metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: The Optum® de-identified electronic health records database was used. Females with a BC diagnoses between 2008 and 2018, with clinic visits 12 months before BC index date, evidence of BRCA mutation (BRCA+), evidence of metastasis, and no previous cancers were included. Analyses were stratified by the overall BRCA+ cohort and 4 molecular phenotypes: HER2+/HR- (human epidermal growth factor 2/hormone receptor), HER2-/HR+, HER2+/HR+, and triple negative BC (TNBC; HER2-/HR-). Seizures were identified using diagnosis codes and natural language processing. Incidence, occurrence rates, and cumulative incidence of seizures from the diagnosis of metastasis to the end of follow up were calculated. Comparisons were made between phenotypes and stratified on PARP inhibitor use, diagnosed brain metastases, history of seizures, and anticonvulsants use before BC. All comparisons included age at metastasis, number of prior lines of treatment, and metastasis location as covariates. RESULTS: 27.8% of 7941 BRCA+ patients had ≥1 seizure over a mean follow-up time of 2.35 years. Incidence and occurrence rates were 11.83 (95% CI: 11.35-12.33) and 201.3 (95% CI: 198.05-204.50), respectively, per 100 person-years. HER2-/HR+ and TNBC patients had the lowest and highest seizure incidence rates, respectively (10.94 [95% CI: 10.23-11.71] and 16.83 [95% CI: 15.34-18.46]). With HER2-/HR+ as the reference group in a competing risk analysis, TNBC (hazard ratio, HR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.21, 1.52; p < 0.001) and HER2+/HR- (HR = 1.29; 95%CI: 1.07, 1.56; p < 0.01) patients had a greater risk of seizures. Patients with diagnosed brain metastases or a history of seizures had higher seizure rates. Incidence trended higher with PARP inhibitor use, but patient numbers were low. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel real-world evidence on seizure incidence rates in BRCA+ BC patients, even those without diagnosed brain metastases, and underscores the need to understand patients' tumor phenotypes when assessing seizure risk. These findings may have implications for clinical practice and assessment of benefit-risk ratios of new therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Receptores ErbB/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/uso terapêutico
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