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J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 46(2): 86-106, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533223


Dentists have a wide variety of techniques available to them such as tell -show-do, relaxation, distraction, systematic desensitisation, modelling, audio analgesia, hypnosis, and behaviour rehearsal. There is no concrete research as systematic review and meta-analysis indicating which explains the most effective distraction technique. AIM: To summarize effectiveness of audio and audio-visual (AV) distraction aids for management of pain and anxiety in children undergoing dental treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Literature search: PubMed/MEDLINE, DOAJ, Science Direct from June - July 2020 with randomized control clinical trials conducted on children with audio and AV distraction aids as intervention and those which had anxiety and pain as outcomes were searched. Fifty articles were identified and relevance was determined. 14 studies were included for qualitative synthesis and 05 were eligible for meta-analysis. Cochrane handbook used to assess the risk of bias. The meta analysis conducted using review manager 5.3 software. RESULTS: Meta-analysis, cumulative mean difference for audio and AV distraction techniques was calculated with main outcomes as pulse rate, O2 level, Vehman's picture and clinical test. These findings showed significant difference favoring the intervention (audio and AV) group when compared with control but indicating more effectiveness of AV distractions. CONCLUSION: Different audio-visual aids assist in reducing pain and anxiety in children but using audio distraction aids when audio-visual aids are not available could be acceptable way for distracting and treating children.

Ansiedade , Dor , Adulto , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Recursos Audiovisuais , Criança , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Manejo da Dor
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266204, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417491


Media bias has a substantial impact on individual and collective perception of news. Effective communication that may counteract its potential negative effects still needs to be developed. In this article, we analyze how to facilitate the detection of media bias with visual and textual aids in the form of (a) a forewarning message, (b) text annotations, and (c) political classifiers. In an online experiment, we randomized 985 participants to receive a biased liberal or conservative news article in any combination of the three aids. Meanwhile, their subjective perception of media bias in this article, attitude change, and political ideology were assessed. Both the forewarning message and the annotations increased media bias awareness, whereas the political classification showed no effect. Incongruence between an articles' political position and individual political orientation also increased media bias awareness. Visual aids did not mitigate this effect. Likewise, attitudes remained unaltered.

Viés , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Atitude , Recursos Audiovisuais , Humanos , Política
Front Public Health ; 10: 838106, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356026


In the spring semester of 2020, online flipped classroom was used to replace offline face-to-face teaching of the physiology course at Xiangya School of Medicine. In order to analyze the preferences and utilization of different teaching resources by students, registered questionnaire was applied to investigate the preference divergence of the students on the duration of different teaching videos used in the online flipped classroom model. One hundred forty-seven students of clinical medicine in grade 2018 of Xiangya School of Medicine were selected as the research objects. Three formal surveys were conducted in total. The results showed that there were significant divergences in preference of students for different durations in the first two surveys. 56.43 and 50.00% of the students preferred 15 min mini-video, whereas 43.57 and 50.00% preferred 45 min complete video. Meanwhile, students showed a significant preference for mini-video in active learning before class, with 65.00 and 59.29% watched only mini-video, 17.14 and 25.71% watched only complete videos, and 17.86 and 15.00% watched both mini and complete videos. Although most students preferred to watch mini-video in active learning before class, there was a significant proportion of students who watched complete video before class. The results suggested that the individualization of student in the online flipped classroom is prominent. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the selection of videos with different durations at different time points (before, in and after class) was significantly associated with the characteristics of the videos themselves. Therefore, the construction of online teaching resources and the application of teaching methods should consider the requirements of different student groups and provide a variety of online curriculum resources.

Recursos Audiovisuais , Currículo , Educação à Distância , China , Educação Médica , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Materiais de Ensino
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 216, 2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296238


BACKGROUND: Hearing and vision impairments and the use of audio-visual aids are associated with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older people, but effects in long-term care facilities (LFCF) are unclear. We hypothesize that visual and hearing impairment are associated with cognitive decline and these relationships are mediated by using visual and hearing aids. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of a longitudinal study was conducted in the 7 government-subsidized LTCF operated by one of the largest non-governmental organizations in Hong Kong using data between 2005 and 2016. Eligible residents were ≥ 60 years of age without severe cognitive impairment at baseline who had stayed in the facilities for more than 3 years. All variables were measured by using the Minimum Data Set-Resident Assessment Instrument Version 2.0, Hong Kong version. The outcome was cognitive decline. Predictors were visual and hearing impairments. Mediators were the use of visual and hearing aids. General linear models were employed to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: Results for 2,233 residents were analyzed, with a mean age of 82.1 ± 8.2 years and a mean follow-up period of 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Results showed that those who had visual impairment (p = 0.004) and hearing impairments (p = 0.022) had a higher risk of cognitive decline. Using hearing aids (coefficient = 0.0186, p < 0.05) positively mediates the effect of hearing impairment on cognitive decline. Using visual aids (coefficient = -0.0881, p < 0.05) negatively mediates the effects of visual impairment on cognitive decline. CONCLUSION: In LTCF, hearing and visual impairments are associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline. Hearing aids often-users were associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline. LTCF residents with visual impairment did not use visual aids. Use of visual aids demonstrated potential effects in slowing cognitive decline. A future study with a larger and more diverse sample with attention to quality of devices is proposed to confirm its effects.

Disfunção Cognitiva , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Recursos Audiovisuais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 172, 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279156


BACKGROUND: Cinemeducation courses are used to supplement more standard teaching formats at medical schools and tend to emphasise biopsychosocial aspects of health. The purpose of this paper is to explore why medical students attend the cinemeducation course M23 Cinema (M23C) at LMU Munich and whether a film screening with a subsequent expert and peer discussion benefits their studies and their future careers as medical doctors. METHODS: An exploratory sequential mixed methods study design was used. Qualitative research, i.e. three focus groups, four expert interviews, one group interview and one narrative interview, was conducted to inform a subsequent quantitative survey. Qualitative data was analysed using qualitative content analysis and quantitative data was analysed descriptively. The findings were integrated using the "following a thread" protocol. RESULTS: In total, 28 people were interviewed and 503 participants responded to the survey distributed at seven M23C screenings. Participants perceive the M23C as informal teaching where they learn about perspectives on certain health topics through the combination of film and discussion while spending time with peers. The reasons for and reported benefits of participation varied with educational background, participation frequency and gender. On average, participants gave 5.7 reasons for attending the M23C. The main reasons for participating were the film, the topic and the ability to discuss these afterwards as well as to spend an evening with peers. Attending the M23C was reported to support the students' memory with regards to certain topics addressed in the M23C when the issues resurface at a later stage, such as during university courses, in the hospital, or in their private life. CONCLUSIONS: The M23C is characterised by its unique combination of film and discussion that encourages participants to reflect upon their opinions, perspectives and experiences. Participating in the M23C amplified the understanding of biopsychosocial aspects of health and illness in students. Thus, cinemeducative approaches such as the M23C may contribute to enabling health professionals to develop and apply humane, empathetic and relational skills.

Recursos Audiovisuais , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-48668


A página do Ministério da Saúde no youtube divulga vídeos sobre a Covid-19, Campanhas de Saúde de 2021, Fala Doutor, Agendas do Ministro, O Brasil quer saber, Saúde Brasil 2021, Como parar de fumar e Vigilância em Saúde

Promoção da Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Saúde Pública , Recursos Audiovisuais
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263041, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108328


This study aims to explore how visual aids (VA) are used in ambulatory medical practice. Our research group (two doctors, one graphic designer and one sociologist) have led a qualitative study based on Focus Groups. A semi-structured guide and examples of VA were used to stimulate discussions. Participants were healthcare professionals (HP) working in ambulatory practice in Geneva and French-speaking outpatients. After inductive thematic analysis, the coding process was analyzed and modified to eventually reach consensus. Six focus groups gathered twenty-one HP and fifteen patients. Our study underlines the variety of purposes of use of VA and the different contexts of use allowing the distinction between "stand-alone" VA used out of consultation by patients alone and "interactive" VA used during a consultation enriched by the interaction between HP and patients. HP described that VA can take the form of useful tools for education and communication during consultation. They have questioned the quality of available VA and complained about restricted access to them. Patients expressed concern about the impact of VA on the interaction with HP. Participants agreed on the beneficial role of VA to supplement verbal explanation and text. Our study emphasizes the need to classify available VA, guarantee their quality, facilitate their access and deliver pertinent instructions for use.

Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Audiovisuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146971, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119460


Importance: Stigma toward people with opioid use disorder (OUD) is pervasive in clinical settings, impeding delivery of high-quality care. To date, no study has evaluated the effect of different stigma-reduction messages or messengers among health care professionals. Objective: To evaluate the effect of OUD-related messages delivered by different messengers on stigma and attitudes toward people with OUD among health care professionals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial examined the effects of OUD-related messages delivered by a visual campaign alone or in combination with a written narrative vignette from the perspective of 1 of 3 messengers. Health care professionals in the US were recruited from 2 national online survey panels (Ipsos KnowledgePanel and SurveyHealthcareGlobus). A total of 1842 participants completed a web-based survey measuring stigma toward people with OUD from November 13 to 30, 2020. Interventions: Eight groups were exposed to 1 of 2 message frames. One frame (Words Matter) emphasized the harm of stigmatizing language, and the other (Medication Treatment Works) focused on the effectiveness of medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of OUD. Message frames were communicated through either a visual campaign alone or a visual campaign in combination with a written narrative vignette from the perspective of a simulated patient with OUD, a clinician, or a health care system administrator. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dimensions of stigma toward people with OUD were measured on 5-point Likert scales that included items about desire for social distance from people with OUD, perception of individual blame for OUD, perspective of OUD as a medical condition, and support for increased governmental spending on OUD treatment. The level of warmth felt toward people with OUD was measured by a feeling thermometer (range, 0-100 points). Results: Among 1842 participants, the mean (SD) age was 47 (13) years; 1324 participants (71.9%) were female, 145 (7.9%) were Hispanic, 140 (7.6%) were non-Hispanic Black, 1344 (73.0%) were non-Hispanic White, and 213 (11.6%) were of other non-Hispanic race (ie, individuals who did not self-report race as Black or White and did not self-report ethnicity as Hispanic). Compared with nonexposure, exposure to the combination of visual campaign and narrative vignette communicating the importance of nonstigmatizing language from the perspective of a patient with OUD was associated with a lower probability (difference, -16.8 percentage points, 95% CI, -26.1 to -7.4; P < .001) of unwillingness to have a person with OUD marry into the family (a measure of social distance preference) and a 7.2-point (95% CI, 3.2-11.1; P < .001) higher warmth rating. Participants exposed to the combined visual campaign and patient vignette about the value of medication treatment for OUD also had significantly lower levels of stigma compared with those in the nonexposed control group (eg, unwillingness to have a person with OUD as a neighbor: difference, -15.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -24.6 to -6.0; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, messages about nonstigmatizing language and effective medication for OUD reduced stigma among health care professionals. Stigma-reduction efforts targeting health care professionals may improve health care system capacity to serve people with OUD. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT05127707.

Recursos Audiovisuais , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263353, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139101


In the UK, it is currently recommended that owned cats be neutered from four months of age. However, its uptake is inconsistent across the veterinary profession. Here we assess the effect of a brief video intervention that aimed to encourage four month neutering, whilst preserving clinical autonomy. We compare this theory-driven approach with traditional information giving and a control group. Veterinary surgeons who regularly undertook feline neutering work in the UK but did not routinely neuter cats at four months and/or recommend four month neutering for client owned cats were randomised into three groups (n = 234). Participants received either no information, a written summary of evidence or the video. The primary behaviour outcomes were the recommending and carrying out of neutering cats at four months. Evaluative, belief and stages of change measures were also collected. Self-reported outcomes were assessed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, two months post-intervention and six months post-intervention. At two months, participants that had received the video intervention were significantly more likely to have started recommending neutering cats at four months. At six months, participants that had received the video intervention were significantly more likely to have started carrying out neutering cats at four months. There were no significant behaviour changes for the other groups. At two months, the video intervention was associated with a significant increase in thinking about, and speaking to colleagues about, four-month neutering, relative to the control group. The written summary of evidence had no similar effect on stages of change, despite it being perceived as a significantly more helpful resource relative to the video. To conclude, a brief one-off video intervention resulted in an increase in positive behaviours towards neutering cats at 4 months, likely mediated by the social influences of the intervention prompting the opportunity to reflect and discuss four-month neutering with colleagues.

Castração , Gatos/cirurgia , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Cirurgiões , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Audiovisuais , Castração/educação , Castração/psicologia , Castração/veterinária , Cultura , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Cirurgia Veterinária/normas , Materiais de Ensino , Reino Unido
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): e20226544, 21 janeiro 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1359633


OBJETIVO: Identificar possibilidades/condições de acessibilidade à pessoa surda sobre informações relacionadas à pandemia por coronavírus disponíveis na plataforma YouTube. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo-exploratório analisou vídeos disponibilizados em sites oficiais do governo entre março/2020 a março/2021. Buscaram-se aspectos indicativos de acessibilidade na comunicação (Legendas e/ou Intérprete de Libras) nos conteúdos audiovisuais. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.577 vídeos acessados, quase 60% apresentaram acessibilidade parcial (Libras ou legendas), aproximadamente 30% sem acessibilidade e, 9,8% apresentaram (legenda + Libras). Assim, a condição esperada à acessibilidade na comunicação (presença de legenda e Libras nos materiais audiovisuais) apresentou baixo percentual contrapondo-se ao elevado número de vídeos sem acessibilidade. CONCLUSÃO: Recursos audiovisuais são fundamentais na comunicação da pessoa surda e condições adequadas favorecem o acesso às informações circulantes nas plataformas de vídeos. A temática é relevante, mas ainda, pouco abordada necessitando outros estudos. Para além da pandemia, ampliarmos esta discussão visando reduzir e/ou eliminar barreiras comunicativas, é outra necessidade.

OBJECTIVE: To identify possibilities/conditions for deaf persons to access information related to the coronavirus pandemic available at the YouTube platform. METHOD: Descriptive-exploratory study analyzed vídeos available in the government's oficial sites from March 2020 to March 2021. The research was centered on indicative aspects of accessibility in the communication (text captions and/or LIBRAS interpreter) in audio-visual contents. RESULTS: Out of the 2.577 videos analyzed, some 60% presented partial accessibility (LIBRAS or text captions); about 30% offered no accessibility at all; and 9.8% offered text captions + LIBRAS. Therefore, the result proved low percentage of records of the expected condition for accessibility in communication (the presence of text captions and LIBRAS), as opposed to the high number of videos with no accessibility. Conclusions: Audio-visual resources are critical for the communication of deaf persons, and adequate conditions favor the access to information provided in video platforms. The theme is relevant, yet not sufficiently discussed, thus demanding further studies. Beyond the pandemic, widening this discussion in order to reduce and/or eliminate communication barriers is also required.

OBJETIVO: Identificar las posibilidades/condiciones de accesibilidad para la persona sorda sobre la información relacionada con la pandemia de coronavirus disponible en la plataforma YouTube. MÉTODO: El estudio descriptivo exploratorio analizó vídeos disponibles en los sitios web oficiales del gobierno brasileño entre marzo/2020 y marzo/2021. Se buscaron aspectos indicativos de accesibilidad en la comunicación (subtítulos y/o intérprete de lengua de señas) en los contenidos audiovisuales. RESULTADOS: De los 2.577 vídeos a los que se accedió, casi el 60% presentaban una accesibilidad parcial (lengua de señas o subtítulos), aproximadamente el 30% ninguna accesibilidad y el 9,8% contaban con subtítulos y lengua de señas. Así, la esperada condición de accesibilidad en la comunicación (presencia de subtítulos y lengua de señas en los materiales audiovisuales) presentó un bajo porcentaje, en contraste con el alto número de vídeos sin accesibilidad. CONCLUSIONES: Los recursos audiovisuales son fundamentales en la comunicación de la persona sorda y condiciones adecuadas favorecen el acceso a la información que circula en las plataformas de vídeos. La temática es relevante, pero aún poco investigada, por lo que requieren otros estudios. Más allá de la pandemia, ampliar esta discusión para reducir y/o eliminar las barreras de comunicación es otra necesidad.

Brasil , Surdez , e-Acessibilidade , COVID-19 , Órgãos Governamentais , Recursos Audiovisuais , Educação em Saúde , Acesso à Informação , Comunicação em Saúde , Mídias Sociais
Texto & contexto enferm ; 31: e20210334, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1357480


ABSTRACT Objective: to map, in the scientific literature, the use of audiovisual aids as an educational strategy during the preoperative period of cardiac surgery. Method: a scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria in the search by the audiovisual aid, cardiac surgery and preoperative care variables, including those that answered the research question. Results: final sample of nine studies, where the most used audiovisual aids were videos followed by apps, used because they are easily accessible and democratic. Such tools in health education optimize the team's time and promote patient education, improving the postoperative period, in addition to reducing risks and improving adherence to the treatment. Conclusion: it was possible to map the audiovisual aids used in the health education of surgical patients, such as videos, apps and information systems. These tools facilitate Nursing guidelines in the preoperative period of cardiac surgeries, increasing the patient's knowledge about the surgery.

RESUMEN Objetivo: mapear en la literatura científica el uso de recursos audiovisuales como estrategia educativa durante el período preoperatorio de cirugías cardíacas. Método: revisión de alcance que siguió la metodología del Instituto Joanna Briggs. Dos revisores independientes analizaron los estados, aplicando los criterios de exclusión e inclusión en la búsqueda por medio de las siguientes variables: recurso audiovisual, cirugía cardíaca y cuidados preoperatorios, incluyéndose los que respondían a la pregunta de la investigación. Resultados: la muestra final estuvo compuesta por nueve estudios, en los que los recursos audiovisuales más utilizados fueron los vídeos seguidos de aplicaciones, usados por ser de fácil acceso y democráticos. Estas herramientas de educación en salud optimizan el tiempo del equipo y promueven la educación del paciente, mejorando así el período postoperatorio, además de reducir riesgos y mejorar la adhesión al tratamiento. Conclusión: fue posible mapear los recursos audiovisuales utilizados en la educación en salud de los pacientes quirúrgicos, como ser vídeos, aplicaciones y sistemas de información. Estas herramientas facilitan las pautas orientadoras de la Enfermería en el período preoperatorio de cirugías cardíacas, incrementando así el conocimiento de los pacientes sobre las cirugías.

RESUMO Objetivo: mapear na literatura científica a utilização de recurso audiovisual como estratégia educativa durante o pré-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca. Método: revisão de escopo seguindo a metodologia do Instituto Joanna Briggs. Dois revisores independentes analisaram os estudos, aplicando os critérios de exclusão e inclusão na busca pelas variáveis recurso audiovisual, cirurgia cardíaca e cuidados pré-operatórios, tendo sido incluídos aqueles que respondiam à questão de pesquisa. Resultados: amostra final de nove estudos, nos quais os recursos audiovisuais mais utilizados foram os vídeos seguidos de aplicativos, usados por serem de fácil acesso e democráticos. Essas ferramentas na educação em saúde otimizam o tempo da equipe e promovem a educação do paciente, melhorando o pós-operatório. Além de reduzir riscos e melhorar a adesão ao tratamento. Conclusão: foi possível mapear os recursos audiovisuais utilizados na educação em saúde dos pacientes cirúrgicos, como vídeos, aplicativos e sistemas de informações. Essas ferramentas são facilitadoras das orientações de enfermagem no pré-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, aumentando o conhecimento do paciente sobre a cirurgia.

Humanos , Recursos Audiovisuais , Cirurgia Torácica , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Tecnologia Educacional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e234194, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1360637


Resumo Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa-intervenção que teve como objetivo investigar a potência da mediação audiovisual em um percurso formativo com trabalhadoras da Proteção Social Básica do Sistema Único de Assistência Social (SUAS) no município de Joinville - SC no Brasil. A orientação teórica e metodológica foi a Psicologia Sócio-histórica em diálogo com conceitos da obra de Jacques Rancière. A ênfase metodológica do percurso foi a mediação audiovisual, que privilegiou a audiência de obras cinematográficas produzidas na cidade, dentre outras atividades imagéticas, seguida por um grupo de discussão. No processo de análise buscou-se trabalhar com a montagem de cenas da pesquisa, conjecturando relações entre o plano destes episódios na pesquisa-intervenção com o campo mais amplo que contorna a experiência de ser trabalhador(a) do SUAS. Os resultados e discussões são apresentados em três cenas. Na primeira cena destacamos o trabalho de mediação e apresentamos uma narrativa pontuando alguns episódios e detalhes dos próprios encontros da pesquisa. Na segunda são discorridos os prováveis sentidos da expectação e discute-se o modo como a participação no percurso produziu vivências qualitativas com a expectação. Por fim, na terceira cena, refletimos a necessidade de atividades de educação permanente que possibilitem espaços de diálogo, vivências e abertura para significar o trabalho socioassistencial. Consideramos que o modo como o percurso foi vivenciado permitiu a emergência de cenas na pesquisa que expressam a potência da mediação audiovisual. Ademais, o arranjo teórico metodológico que embasou o percurso formativo foi indispensável para a construção destes resultados.(AU)

Abstract This paper presents the results of an intervention study that aimed to investigate the capacity of audiovisual mediation in a formative course with workers from the basic social assistance of the Single Social Assistance System - SUAS in the municipality of Joinville in Brazil. The theoretical and methodological orientation was the social historical psychology in dialogue with ideas from Jacques Rancière's work. The route's methodological emphasis was the audiovisual mediation, that privileged the audience of cinematographic works produced in the city, among other imagetic activities, followed by a discussion group. In the process of analysis, we sought to work with the assembly of the scenes of the study, conjecturing relations between the plan of these episodes in the intervention-study with the broader field that circumvents the experience of being a worker of SUAS. We present the results and discussions in three scenes. In the first scene we highlight the work of mediation and present a narrative showing some episodes and details of the study meetings. In the second we discuss the probable senses of expectation and debate the way the participation in the course produced qualitative experiences with expectation. And, in the third scene, we reflect on the need for permanent education activities that allow spaces for dialogue, experiences, and openness to give meaning to the social assistance work. We consider that the way in which the journey was experienced allowed the emergence of scenes in the study that express the power of audiovisual mediation. Also, the theoretical methodological arrangement that underpinned the training course was necessary for the construction of these results.(AU)

Resumen Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación-acción cuyo objetivo fue investigar la potencia de la mediación audiovisual en un recorrido formativo con trabajadoras de la Protección Social Básica del Sistema Único de Asistencia Social (SUAS) en el municipio de Joinville, en Brasil. El enfoque teórico-metodológico fue la psicología sociohistórica en diálogo con los conceptos de la obra de Jacques Rancière. El énfasis metodológico del recorrido fue la mediación audiovisual, que privilegió la audiencia de obras cinematográficas producidas en la ciudad, entre otras actividades imagéticas, seguido de un grupo de discusión. En el proceso de análisis se buscó trabajar con el montaje de escenas de la investigación, conjeturando relaciones entre el plan de estos episodios en la investigación-acción con el campo más amplio que rodea la experiencia de ser trabajador/a del SUAS. Los resultados y discusiones se presentan en tres escenas. En la primera escena se destaca el trabajo de mediación y se presenta una narrativa puntuando algunos episodios y detalles de los propios encuentros de la investigación. En la segunda se discuten los probables sentidos de la expectación y se ventila cómo la participación en el recorrido produjo vivencias cualitativas con la expectación. En la tercera escena, se refleja la necesidad de actividades de educación continua que posibiliten espacios de diálogo, vivencias y apertura para significar el trabajo socioasistencial. Es necesario señalar que el modo en que fue vivido el recorrido permitió la emergencia de escenas en la investigación que expresan la potencia de la mediación audiovisual. Además, el arreglo teórico-metodológico que basó el recorrido formativo fue indispensable para construir estos resultados.(AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Política Pública , Educação Continuada , Filmes Cinematográficos , Psicologia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Apoio Social , Educação , Categorias de Trabalhadores
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(12): e1009650, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898598


Academic graphs are essential for communicating complex scientific ideas and results. To ensure that these graphs truthfully reflect underlying data and relationships, visualization researchers have proposed several principles to guide the graph creation process. However, the extent of violations of these principles in academic publications is unknown. In this work, we develop a deep learning-based method to accurately measure violations of the proportional ink principle (AUC = 0.917), which states that the size of shaded areas in graphs should be consistent with their corresponding quantities. We apply our method to analyze a large sample of bar charts contained in 300K figures from open access publications. Our results estimate that 5% of bar charts contain proportional ink violations. Further analysis reveals that these graphical integrity issues are significantly more prevalent in some research fields, such as psychology and computer science, and some regions of the globe. Additionally, we find no temporal and seniority trends in violations. Finally, apart from openly releasing our large annotated dataset and method, we discuss how computational research integrity could be part of peer-review and the publication processes.

Recursos Audiovisuais/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/normas , Gráficos por Computador/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(2): 244-265, 31 dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353106


As barragens de rejeito de minério de ferro fazem parte do processo de mineração no Brasil. Trata-se de uma técnica antiga envolvendo diversas tecnologias para torná-la mais segura. A constante vigília e cuidado sobre essas estruturas tornaram-se uma rotina frequente das mineradoras para evitar possíveis rupturas dessas barragens. Após o rompimento da barragem de rejeitos de minério em Brumadinho-MG e Mariana-MG muitos discursos com elementos metafóricos acerca da sustentabilidade e a prática de uso de barragens de rejeitos foram sustentados por uma intencionalidade discursiva voltada para a crítica social. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar e analisar o uso de metáforas conceptuais presentes como elementos multimodais na argumentação textual, numa perspectiva sociocognitiva e interacional da linguagem. Para isso, adota-se uma pesquisa expo-facto. O viés teórico da intencionalidade discursiva na linha de Searle; o caráter de modelos mentais, representações sociais e conhecimento sociocultural tal com prevê Van Dijk, a visão sociosemiótica de Geeraerts para compreender como argumentação por meio do campo imagético das charges é construída e sustentada socialmente e o dialogismo na perspectiva de Meyer a partir da argumentação. Nessa perspectiva sociocognitiva e interacional, o texto é pensado como uma construção linguístico-discursiva na qual a intencionalidade está relacionada com os modelos mentais resultantes de representações construídas a partir da experiencia do sujeito em sociedade e das práticas interacionais. Nesse contexto, o texto contempla uma gama de operações cognitivas interligadas como direciona Marscuschi. Constitui-se um corpus de charges publicadas na mídia brasileira, orientadas para a temática do rompimento de barragens de rejeitos de minério de ferro para a análise do aparecimento de metáforas conceptuais. Conclui-se que as metáforas se constituem recursos multimodais na orientação argumentativa e revelam metáforas do medo e da lama envolvendo um discurso do horror sobre a tragédia das cidades de Brumadinho e Mariana.

Iron ore tailings dams are part of the mining process in Brazil. It is an old technique involving several technologies to make it more secure. Constant vigilance and care about these structures have become a frequent routine for mining companies to avoid possible failures of these dams. After the collapse of the ore tailings dam in Brumadinho (MG) and Mariana (MG) cities, many discourses with metaphorical elements about sustainability and the practice of using tailings dams were supported by a discursive intentionality focused on social criticism. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the use of conceptual metaphors present as multimodal elements in textual argumentation, in a sociocognitive and interactional perspective of language. For this, it is adopted from expo-facto research. The theoretical bias of discursive intentionality along the lines of Searle; the character of mental models, social representations,and sociocultural knowledge as predicted by Van Dijk, the sociosemiotic vision of Geeraerts (2016) to understand how argumentation through the imagery field of cartoons is constructed and socially supported and dialogism in perspective of Meyer from the argumentation. In this sociocognitive and interactional perspective, the text is thought of as a linguistic-discursive construction in which intentionality is related to mental models resulting from representations built from the subject's experience in society and interactional practices. In this context, the text contemplates a range of interconnected cognitive operations as directed by Marscuschi. A corpus of cartoons published in the Brazilian media is constituted, oriented to the theme of breaking up iron ore tailings dams for the analysis of the appearance of conceptual metaphors. It is concluded that metaphors are multimodal resources in the argumentative orientation and reveal metaphors offear and mud involving a horror speech about the tragedy of the cities of Brumadinho and Mariana.

Humanos , Desastres Provocados pelo Homem , Cognição , Metáfora , Controle Comportamental , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Mineração , Recursos Audiovisuais , Brasil , Compreensão
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833788


Attention and awareness towards musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession has increased considerably in the last few years. From recent literature reviews, it appears that the prevalence of MSDs in dentists concerns between 64 and 93%. In our clinical trial, we have assessed the dentist posture during the extraction of 90 third lower molars depending on whether the operator performs the intervention by the use of the operating microscope, surgical loupes, or with the naked eye. In particular, we analyzed the evolution of the body posture during different interventions evaluating the impact of visual aids with respect to naked eye interventions. The presented posture assessment approach is based on 3D acquisitions of the upper body, based on planar markers, which allows us to discriminate spatial displacements up to 2 mm in translation and 1 degree in rotation. We found a significant reduction of neck bending in interventions using visual aids, in particular for those performed with the microscope. We further investigated the impact of different postures on MSD risk using a widely adopted evaluation tool for ergonomic investigations of workplaces, named (RULA) Rapid Upper Limb Assessment. The analysis performed in this clinical trial is based on a 3D marker tracker that is able to follow a surgeon's upper limbs during interventions. The method highlighted pros and cons of different approaches.

Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Recursos Audiovisuais , Odontologia , Ergonomia , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Postura
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 960-973, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344153


Este artigo apresenta um estudo que investiga a abordagem dos comportamentos suicidas nos curtasmetragens do festival de filmes universitários Osga. Foram identificados 11 filmes que apresentam a temática. Tais vídeos foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo com base nas categorias ideações suicidas, parassuicídio e tentativas de suicídio, sistematizadas por Botega (2015). A partir das análises, identificouse essa última como a categoria mais frequente, corroborando os apontamentos presentes na literatura especializada. Os casos analisados revelam também que, geralmente, o suicídio é motivado por eventos de profundo sofrimento dos sujeitos que tentam e/ou conseguem realizá-lo.

This article presents a study that investigates the approach to suicidal behaviors in the short films of the Osga university film festival. 11 films that present the theme were identified. Such videos were submitted to content analysis based on the categories of: suicidal ideations, parasuicide, and suicide attempt systematized by Botega (2015). From the analysis, the last was identified as the most frequent category, corroborating the notes presented in the specialized literature. The analysis also reveals that generally the suicide is motivated by events of profound suffering of the subjects who try and/or perform it.

Este artículo presenta un estudio que investiga el enfoque de los comportamientos suicidas en los cortometrajes del festival universitario de cine Osga. Se han identificado 11 películas que presentan el tema. Dichos videos fueron sometidos al análisis de contenido basado en las categorías ideas suicidas, parasuicidas e intentos de suicidio sistematizados por Botega (2015). A partir del análisis, esta última ha sido identificada como la categoría más frecuente, corroborando las observaciones presentes en la literatura especializada. Además, el análisis revela que el suicidio es generalmente motivado por eventos de profundo sufrimiento experimentado por los sujetos que lo intentan y/o lo realizan.

Humanos , Recursos Audiovisuais , Suicídio , Tentativa de Suicídio , Universidades , Saúde Mental , Comunicação em Saúde , Filmes Cinematográficos , Disseminação de Informação
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003744, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582438


BACKGROUND: In South Africa, breastfeeding promotion is a national health priority. Regular perinatal home visits by community health workers (CHWs) have helped promote exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in underresourced settings. Innovative, digital approaches including mobile video content have also shown promise, especially as access to mobile technology increases among CHWs. We measured the effects of an animated, mobile video series, the Philani MObile Video Intervention for Exclusive breastfeeding (MOVIE), delivered by a cadre of CHWs ("mentor mothers"). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial from November 2018 to March 2020 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The trial was conducted in collaboration with the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Trust, a nongovernmental community health organization. We quantified the effect of the MOVIE intervention on EBF at 1 and 5 months (primary outcomes), and on other infant feeding practices and maternal knowledge (secondary outcomes). We randomized 1,502 pregnant women in 84 clusters 1:1 to 2 study arms. Participants' median age was 26 years, 36.9% had completed secondary school, and 18.3% were employed. Mentor mothers in the video intervention arm provided standard-of-care counseling plus the MOVIE intervention; mentor mothers in the control arm provided standard of care only. Within the causal impact evaluation, we nested a mixed-methods performance evaluation measuring mentor mothers' time use and eliciting their subjective experiences through in-depth interviews. At both points of follow-up, we observed no statistically significant differences between the video intervention and the control arm with regard to EBF rates and other infant feeding practices [EBF in the last 24 hours at 1 month: RR 0.93 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.01, P = 0.091); EBF in the last 24 hours at 5 months: RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.04, P = 0.152)]. We observed a small, but significant improvement in maternal knowledge at the 1-month follow-up, but not at the 5-month follow-up. The interpretation of the results from this causal impact evaluation changes when we consider the results of the nested mixed-methods performance evaluation. The mean time spent per home visit was similar across study arms, but the intervention group spent approximately 40% of their visit time viewing videos. The absence of difference in effects on primary and secondary endpoints implies that, for the same time investment, the video intervention was as effective as face-to-face counseling with a mentor mother. The videos were also highly valued by mentor mothers and participants. Study limitations include a high loss to follow-up at 5 months after premature termination of the trial due to the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in mentor mother service demarcations. CONCLUSIONS: This trial measured the effect of a video-based, mobile health (mHealth) intervention, delivered by CHWs during home visits in an underresourced setting. The videos replaced about two-fifths of CHWs' direct engagement time with participants in the intervention arm. The similar outcomes in the 2 study arms thus suggest that the videos were as effective as face-to-face counselling, when CHWs used them to replace a portion of that counselling. Where CHWs are scarce, mHealth video interventions could be a feasible and practical solution, supporting the delivery and scaling of community health promotion services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at (#NCT03688217) on September 27, 2018.

Recursos Audiovisuais , Aleitamento Materno , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Visita Domiciliar , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Mentores , Mães , Filmes Cinematográficos , Organizações , Pandemias , Gravidez , África do Sul , Gravação de Videoteipe