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1.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 251, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a world-leading educational system, an achievement gap in educational outcomes exists between children of refugee background and native-born peers in Finland. To offer targeted support for children at schools, we need to be able to reliably assess and understand the interplay of the aspects of children's cognitive, social, and mental health functions that may explain the underachievement of refugee children. This study tests a novel research-based, universally applicable screening battery for evaluating cognitive, social, and mental health functioning of children at schools and planning supportive actions. It aims to answer research questions about a) the cognitive, social, and mental health functioning of refugee children compared with non-refugee immigrant and native-born children, b) the interplay of these different functions among refugee and other children, c) whether implementing a screening battery can inform schools in planning supportive actions for (refugee) children, and d) whether such supportive actions result in improvements in cognitive, social, and mental health functioning. METHODS: Four hundred fifty children aged 10-12 will be recruited from primary schools, including 150 children of refugee background, 150 of non-refugee immigrant background, and 150 native-born Finnish children. A screening battery including tasks and questionnaires on different aspects of cognitive, social, and mental health functioning will be used to assess the children in their classrooms at the start and end of a school year. Supporting information will also be collected from parents and teachers. The information gathered will be collated into class-level feedback reports for teachers and, with parental permission, individualized reports for multiprofessional student welfare bodies, for informing supportive actions. Correlational and latent profile analyses, ANOVAs, and linear regression will be used to answer the research questions. DISCUSSION: This study will help clarify how the interplay of cognitive, social, and mental health factors may explain underachievement at school among refugee children. It will provide evidence about the extent to which a standardized screening battery could be helpful in informing and planning supportive actions for children at schools, and whether such supportive actions can lead to positive cognitive, social, or mental health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study will be preregistered on the Open Science Framework.


Assuntos
Cognição , Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Finlândia , Masculino , Feminino , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38077, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728480

RESUMO

Depression is a leading cause of disability, morbidity, and mortality among adolescent girls in Africa, with varying prevalence across different populations. However, there is paucity of data on the burden of depression among priority groups in unique settings like adolescent girls living in refugee settlements, where access to mental health services including psychosocial support and psychiatric consultation is scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study among adolescent girls from 4 selected refugee settlements in Obongi and Yumbe districts, Uganda. A multi-stage sampling, and cluster sampling techniques, where each settlement represented 1 cluster was done. Prevalence of depression was assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 modified for adolescents, followed by the P4 screener assessment tool for suicidal risks. We performed modified Poisson regression analysis to establish predictors of depression. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. We included 385 participants with a mean age of 17 (IQR: 15-18) years. The prevalence of depression was 15.1% (n = 58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.6-19.0). Overall, 8.6% (n = 33) participants had recent suicidal thoughts (within 1 month) and 2.3% (n = 9) attempted suicide. Participants who experienced pregnancy (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.00-5.94, P = .049), sexual abuse (aPR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.19-3.76, P = .011), and physical abuse (aPR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.01-2.74, P = .044) were independently associated with depression. In this study, we found about one in every 6 adolescents living in refugee settlements of northern Uganda to suffer from depression, particularly among those who experienced adolescent pregnancy and various forms of abuses. Incorporating mental health care in the existing health and social structures within the refugee settlements, exploring legal options against perpetrators of sexual abuse and encouraging education is recommended in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Depressão , Refugiados , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Prevalência , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371598, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689772

RESUMO

Background: Humanitarian emergencies are a major global health challenge with the potential to have a profound impact on people's mental and psychological health. Displacement is a traumatic event that disrupts families and affects physical and psychological health at all ages. A person may endure or witness a traumatic incident, such as being exposed to war, and, as a result, develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is a lack of information about post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder in low and middle-income countries in humanitarian emergency contexts such as Mozambique. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of PTSD, depression, and anxiety, and associated factors among armed conflict survivors in Cabo Delgado, north region of Mozambique in 2023. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2023 among 750 participants, who were selected by convenience. A face-to-face interview used the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PC-PTSD-5) to evaluate PTSD, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) to evaluate anxiety and the Patient Health Questionnaire - Mozambique (PHQ-9 MZ) to evaluate depression. The association between PTSD and demographic and psychosocial characteristics was analyzed using bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression. We used a 5% significance level. Results: The three mental disorders assessed were highly prevalent in our sample with 74.3% PTSD, 63.8% depression, and 40.0% anxiety. The chance of developing PTSD was higher in females (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.50-3.51), in patients with depression symptoms (AOR = 8.27, 95% CI = 4.97-13.74) and anxiety symptoms (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.84-2.50). Conclusion: This study reported that the prevalence of PTSD, depression, and anxiety were high. Patients having depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and being female are more at risk of developing PTSD. There is a need to integrate screening for common mental disorders in the context of humanitarian emergencies and its adapted integration of psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1372334, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737863

RESUMO

Researchers have documented multiple stressors and mental health problems along the journey of refugees as they are displaced to seek refuge in nearby and remote host countries. This article examines published research on Syrian refugees to propose a framework to conceptualize Syrian refugees' pre- and post-stressors and their collective impact on their mental health. The proposed framework provides a comprehensive understanding of the interconnected pathways between pre-displacement stressors, post-displacement stressors, and mental health outcomes for Syrian refugees. Pre-displacement stressors are best captured by the concept of trauma centrality and emotional suppression. Post-displacement stressors, categorized under financial, political, and social themes, have a direct impact on the mental health of the refugees, but could also play a partial mediating role on the impact of pre-displacement stressors on mental health. The framework suggests a direct pathway between the experience of war-related traumatic events and mental health and introduces the country of residence as a potential moderator of the severity of mental health. The latter is primarily influenced by local policies and the host communities' acceptance of refugees. We believe that the proposed framework can guide the work of researchers, policymakers, and practitioners concerned with the mental health and well-being of Syrian refugees. Additionally, although based on the experience of Syrian refugees, it presents a holistic perspective that could be adapted in other refugee settings.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Estresse Psicológico , Refugiados/psicologia , Humanos , Síria/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
5.
Pediatr Ann ; 53(5): e167-e170, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700921

RESUMO

In the United States, there are millions of globally displaced children who travel with family to seek immigration relief, many of whom have experienced family separation or live under the constant threat of separation. Family separation constitutes a significant trauma with lifelong impacts on a child's mental health, physical health, and development. This review provides a summary of the various contexts within which family separation occurs as well as the current literature on long-term health sequelae. These include mental illness, externalizing behaviors, developmental challenges, family stability, economic impacts, and educational attainment. Given the number of newcomer children in the US, it is paramount that pediatric clinicians develop a holistic understanding of their needs and the effects of separation to provide evidence-based care and to advocate for the prevention of this trauma for all future migrant families. [Pediatr Ann. 2024;53(5):e167-e170.].


Assuntos
Separação da Família , Humanos , Criança , Estados Unidos , Refugiados/psicologia , Saúde Mental
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1358250, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699416

RESUMO

Introduction: This article explores how systemic injustices and social inequalities affect refugee and asylum seeker integration, thriving, and mental health in London. This is pertinent as the United Kingdom currently operates a 'broken' asylum system with unfair policies and a 'tough' immigration rhetoric which makes it extraordinarily difficult for asylum seekers and refugees to achieve community integration, have a good quality of life, be able to thrive, and have good health including mental health. Paradoxically, the United Kingdom Home Office also features an Indicators for Integration Framework to provide practical ways to design more effective strategies, monitor services and evaluated integration interventions. Methods: This study employed a qualitative research design including semi-structured interviews with 19 mental health and psychosocial support service providers working in third-sector organizations in London. Results: The study results show that the current asylum system severely undermines efforts to support asylum seekers and refugees with their integration. All participants highlighted that asylum seekers and refugees lacked experienced poor quality of life and faced structural challenges to build meaningful social connections; to have access education, fair employment and good work; to achieve good mental health and wellbeing; and to be able to thrive. Discussion: To improve community integration, quality of life, thriving, and mental health for asylum seekers and refugees in London and, beyond, the United Kingdom, four recommendations are made on structural and service-levels: (1) reform of the current asylum system by centering human rights; (2) implement and carry out needs assessments among asylum seekers and refugees focussing on key social determinants; (3) ensure asylum seekers and refugees benefit from the NHS Inclusion Health framework; and (4) extend the NHS Patient and Carer Race Equality framework beyond England. To be effective, all four initiatives need to be grounded in a participatory approach that meaningfully involves diverse groups of stakeholders including asylum seekers and refugees.


Assuntos
Integração Comunitária , Saúde Mental , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Refugiados , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Londres , Feminino , Masculino , Entrevistas como Assunto , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Mental
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD014300, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of wars, conflicts, persecutions, human rights violations, and humanitarian crises, about 84 million people are forcibly displaced around the world; the great majority of them live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). People living in humanitarian settings are affected by a constellation of stressors that threaten their mental health. Psychosocial interventions for people affected by humanitarian crises may be helpful to promote positive aspects of mental health, such as mental well-being, psychosocial functioning, coping, and quality of life. Previous reviews have focused on treatment and mixed promotion and prevention interventions. In this review, we focused on promotion of positive aspects of mental health. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions aimed at promoting mental health versus control conditions (no intervention, intervention as usual, or waiting list) in people living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven other databases to January 2023. We also searched the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing studies, and checked the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychosocial interventions versus control conditions (no intervention, intervention as usual, or waiting list) to promote positive aspects of mental health in adults and children living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. We excluded studies that enrolled participants based on a positive diagnosis of mental disorder (or based on a proxy of scoring above a cut-off score on a screening measure). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were mental well-being, functioning, quality of life, resilience, coping, hope, and prosocial behaviour. The secondary outcome was acceptability, defined as the number of participants who dropped out of the trial for any reason. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence for the outcomes of mental well-being, functioning, and prosocial behaviour. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 RCTs with 7917 participants. Nine RCTs were conducted on children/adolescents, and four on adults. All included interventions were delivered to groups of participants, mainly by paraprofessionals. Paraprofessional is defined as an individual who is not a mental or behavioural health service professional, but works at the first stage of contact with people who are seeking mental health care. Four RCTs were carried out in Lebanon; two in India; and single RCTs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Jordan, Haiti, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the occupied Palestinian Territories (oPT), Nepal, and Tanzania. The mean study duration was 18 weeks (minimum 10, maximum 32 weeks). Trials were generally funded by grants from academic institutions or non-governmental organisations. For children and adolescents, there was no clear difference between psychosocial interventions and control conditions in improving mental well-being and prosocial behaviour at study endpoint (mental well-being: standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.17 to 0.29; 3 RCTs, 3378 participants; very low-certainty evidence; prosocial behaviour: SMD -0.25, 95% CI -0.60 to 0.10; 5 RCTs, 1633 participants; low-certainty evidence), or at medium-term follow-up (mental well-being: mean difference (MD) -0.70, 95% CI -2.39 to 0.99; 1 RCT, 258 participants; prosocial behaviour: SMD -0.48, 95% CI -1.80 to 0.83; 2 RCT, 483 participants; both very low-certainty evidence). Interventions may improve functioning (MD -2.18, 95% CI -3.86 to -0.50; 1 RCT, 183 participants), with sustained effects at follow-up (MD -3.33, 95% CI -5.03 to -1.63; 1 RCT, 183 participants), but evidence is very uncertain as the data came from one RCT (both very low-certainty evidence). Psychosocial interventions may improve mental well-being slightly in adults at study endpoint (SMD -0.29, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.14; 3 RCTs, 674 participants; low-certainty evidence), but they may have little to no effect at follow-up, as the evidence is uncertain and future RCTs might either confirm or disprove this finding. No RCTs measured the outcomes of functioning and prosocial behaviour in adults. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: To date, there is scant and inconclusive randomised evidence on the potential benefits of psychological and social interventions to promote mental health in people living in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises. Confidence in the findings is hampered by the scarcity of studies included in the review, the small number of participants analysed, the risk of bias in the studies, and the substantial level of heterogeneity. Evidence on the efficacy of interventions on positive mental health outcomes is too scant to determine firm practice and policy implications. This review has identified a large gap between what is known and what still needs to be addressed in the research area of mental health promotion in humanitarian settings.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica , Altruísmo , Adolescente , Refugiados/psicologia , Viés , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
8.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 49: 10-22, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734444

RESUMO

The number of refugees and asylum seekers worldwide is increasing, and these populations often experience significant mental health challenges due to their difficult life experiences. This study aims to explore the perspectives of refugees and asylum seekers regarding their behavior when seeking mental healthcare. We conducted a meta-synthesis of thirteen articles published between January 2000 and January 2023. The study identified four main themes: understanding of mental health, utilization of health services, the role of society, and necessary interventions. Based on our findings, we provided recommendations for healthcare providers, governments, and researchers to improve the mental healthcare-seeking behavior of these populations in the future.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Refugiados , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Refugiados/psicologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1306, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We assessed the impact of a personal agency-based training for refugee women and their male partners on their economic and social empowerment, rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner violence (NPV). METHODS: We conducted an individually randomized controlled trial with 1061 partnered women (aged 18-45) living in a refugee camp in Rwanda. Women received two days of training, and their partners received one day of training. The follow-up survey where all relevant outcomes were assessed was carried out at 6-9 months post-intervention. RESULTS: At follow up, women in the intervention arm were more likely to report partaking in income generating activities (aIRR 1.27 (1.04-1.54), p < 0.05) and skill learning (aIRR 1.59 (1.39-1.82), p < 0.001) and reported a reduction in experience of physical or sexual NPV in the past six months (aIRR 0.65 (0.39-1.07), p < 0.09). While improved, no statistically significant impacts were seen on physical or sexual IPV (aIRR 0.80 (0.58-1.09), p = 0.16), food insecurity (ß 0.98 (0.93 to 1.03), p = 0.396), or clean cookstove uptake (aIRR 0.95 (0.88 to 1.01), p = 0.113) in the past six months. We found statistically significant reduction in physical and sexual IPV amongst those experiencing IPV at baseline (aIRR 0.72 (0.50 to 1.02), p < 0.07). Small improvements in self-efficacy scores and our indicator of adapting to stress were seen in the intervention arm. Some challenges were also seen, such as higher prevalence of probable depression and/or anxiety (aIRR 1.79 (1.00-3.22), p = 0.05) and PTSD (aIRR 2.07 (1.10-3.91), p < 0.05) in the intervention arm compared to the control arm. CONCLUSION: Our findings echo previous research showing personal agency training can support economic well-being of women. We also find potentially promising impacts on gender-based violence. However, there is some evidence that integration of evidence-based mental health support is important when enhancing agency amongst conflict-affected populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT04081441 on 09/09/2019.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Humanos , Ruanda , Feminino , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Empoderamento , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 350: 116761, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Existing literature documents high rates of experienced violence in asylum seekers. Despite this high prevalence, experiences of traumatic stress are neither necessary nor sufficient grounds for claiming asylum, without documented experiences of persecution. The aim of the current study is to better understand the role of co-occurring pre-migratory social determinants, stigma, and trauma on the experiences of persecution among asylum seekers in the United States. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective file review of legal declarations submitted by 25 asylum seekers who participated in forensic mental health evaluations at a pro-bono asylum clinic. We coded de-identified data for co-occurring events of trauma, social determinants of health, and components of "discrimination" from the legal definition of persecution - conceptualizing persecution as stigma-driven infliction of violence. Data was analyzed using a tiered deductive and inductive reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Findings suggest pre-migratory social determinants included demographics, neighborhood, economic, environmental, and social and cultural level disparities across various grounds for seeking asylum, and experiences of stigma were associated with the specific acts of violence and harm. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings - specific to asylum seekers who have obtained legal representation and completed applications for asylum in the United States - describe the co-occurrence of social determinants, stigma and traumatic experiences among asylum seekers. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to bridge the existing legal framework of asylum to a psychological construct incorporating trauma, stigma, and social determinants of health, lending support for the conceptualization of persecution as stigma-driven trauma.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estigma Social , Violência , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 88, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internally displaced people (IDP) in Iraq are 1.2 million (as March 2023). Protracted refugee status endangers the mental health, especially of minorities who survived persecution and conflict, such as the Yazidis. This study aims to identify the mental health needs of Yazidi adolescents and young adults (AYA) in the IDP camp of Bajed Kandala (Iraqi Kurdistan). METHODS: A focus group discussion (FGD) study was conducted between April and August 2022. The FGDs involved AYAs, as well as the staff of the clinic of the Bajed Kandala camp. An inductive approach was adopted referring to the 'theme' as the unit of content analysis of the text. All FGDs were recorded and transcribed. The analysis was carried out independently by two researchers. The inter-rater agreement was assessed through the Cohen's k. RESULTS: A total of 6 FGDs were conducted. The participants were 34 of whom 21 (61.8%) females with a median age of 18.5 years (IQR 17.0-21.0). A total of 156 themes were found as relevant to the objective of this study. Four main areas and twelve subareas of needs in mental health were identified. The interrater agreement over the main area and subareas was good (κ = 0.78 [0.95CI 0.69-0.88], κ = 0.82 [0.95CI 0.73-0.91], respectively). The four areas had a similar frequency: Activities (28.2%), Individual (27.6%), Social relationships (22.4%) and Places/setting (21.8%). The subareas 'community' and 'internal resources' were labelled as negative 85.7% and 61.9% of the time, respectively. These sub-areas referred to stigma and self-stigma towards mental health. The subarea 'female condition' was always considered as negative, as well as the subareas 'camp' and 'tent' referring to housing as an important social determinant of mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Community stigma and self-stigma are two still important factors preventing the achievement of mental well-being. Alongside these, a gender gap in mental health was identified in the FGDs. These factors should be taken into account in order to guide future mental health interventions in refugee camps.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Iraque , Adulto Jovem , Refugiados/psicologia , Avaliação das Necessidades , Adulto , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 585, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5.8 million Ukrainian refugees arriving in European countries must navigate varying healthcare systems and different and often unknown languages in their respective host countries. To date, there has been little exploration of the experiences, perceived differences, information and support needs of these refugees regarding the use of healthcare in Germany. METHODS: We conducted ten qualitative interviews with Ukrainian refugees living in Germany from February to May 2023, using Ukrainian, English and German language. The transcribed interviews were analysed using the qualitative content analysis method according to Kuckartz and Rädiker with the MAXQDA software. RESULTS: In general, participants consistently had a positive experience of the German healthcare system, particularly regarding the quality of treatments and insurance. Differences have been reported in the structure of the healthcare systems. The Ukrainian healthcare system is divided into private and state sectors, with no mandatory insurance and frequent out-of-pocket payments. Pathways differ and tend to focus more on clinics and private doctors. General practitioners, often working in less well-equipped offices, have only recently gained prominence due to healthcare system reforms. Initiating contact with doctors is often easier, with much shorter waiting times compared to Germany. Interviewees often found the prescription requirements for many medications in Germany to be unusual. However, the mentioned differences in healthcare result in unmet information needs among the refugees, especially related to communication, navigating the healthcare system, health insurance, waiting times and medication access. These needs were often addressed through personal internet research and informal (social media) networks because of lacking official information provided during or after their arrival. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the positive experiences of Ukrainian refugees in the German healthcare system, differences in the systems and language barriers led to barriers using healthcare and information needs among refugees. The dissemination of information regarding characteristics of the German health care system is crucial for successful integration but is currently lacking. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00030942, date of registration: 29.12.2022.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Ucrânia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto , Atenção à Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Avaliação das Necessidades
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756883

RESUMO

Background: The influx of undocumented migrants and asylum seekers into Lithuania, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, presents unique public health challenges. This study employs the Social Determinants of Health framework to explore the healthcare and social needs of this vulnerable population. Methods: In May 2022, we carried out a qualitative study through semi-structured interviews with asylum seekers across four centers in Lithuania. Employing both purposive and snowball sampling techniques, we selected participants for our investigation. The study comprised 21 interviews-19 conducted in Arabic and 2 in English-with durations ranging between 20 and 40 min each. We audio-recorded all interviews, transcribed them verbatim, and subsequently performed a thematic analysis using Atlas.ti software. This process of design and analysis strictly followed the principles of thematic analysis as outlined by Braun and Clarke, guaranteeing methodological precision and rigor. Findings: 21 interviews revealed critical insights into the healthcare access challenges, mental health issues, and social integration barriers faced by the participants. Key themes included 'Healthcare Needs and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic 'and 'Social needs and Aspirations Amidst Pandemic-Induced Uncertainty '. The findings highlight the multifaceted healthcare and social needs of asylum seekers, juxtaposed against significant barriers they face. Access to medical services is hindered by long waiting times and financial constraints, especially for specialized care such as dental services. Communication issues during medical appointments due to language barriers and the lack of gender-specific healthcare, such as access to gynecological services, further exacerbate the challenges. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic introduces hurdles such as limited testing, isolation measures, language-specific information barriers, and insufficient social distancing practices. Mental health has emerged as a critical concern, with asylum seekers reporting significant stress and emotional exhaustion due to uncertainty and restrictive living conditions. Social needs extend to delayed asylum application processes, inconsistent language education opportunities, inadequate clothing, and nutrition that lacks cultural sensitivity, and living conditions characterized by overcrowding and insufficient facilities. The restricted freedom of movement within asylum seeking centres severely impacts their psychological well-being, underscoring a deep longing for autonomy and a better life despite the myriad of challenges faced. Discussion: The study illustrates the complex interplay between migration, health, and social factors in the context of a global pandemic. It highlights the need for culturally sensitive healthcare services, mental health support, and structured language education programs. Offering educational avenues alongside language courses for children and adults is essential for fostering social inclusion and securing economic prosperity. Addressing the challenge of language barriers is of utmost importance, as these barriers significantly impede undocumented migrants' and asylum seekers employment opportunities and their access to crucial services. The findings emphasized immigration as a health determinant and underscored the importance of inclusive health policies and advocacy for undocumented migrants and asylum seekers' rights and needs. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for comprehensive policies and practices that are grounded in the principles of equity, compassion, and human rights. Additionally, advocating for practice adaptations that are culturally sensitive, linguistically inclusive, and responsive to the unique challenges faced by undocumented migrants and asylum seekers. As global migration continues to rise, these findings are crucial for informing public health strategies and social services that cater to the diverse needs of this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados , Humanos , Lituânia , Refugiados/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Imigrantes Indocumentados/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto , Saúde Mental , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2349445, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753438

RESUMO

Background: High levels of post-traumatic stress are well documented among refugees. Yet, refugee adolescents display high heterogeneity in their type of trauma and symptom levels.Objective: Following the recurrent plea for validated trauma screening tools, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-8) among refugee adolescents from Afghanistan (n = 148), Syria (n = 234), and Somalia (n = 175) living in Europe.Method: The model fit for the confirmatory factor structures was tested, as well as measurement invariance between the three groups. The robustness of results was evaluated by testing measurement invariance between recently arrived and settled adolescents, and between different response labelling options. Reliability (α, ω, and ordinal α), criterion validity, and prevalence estimates were calculated.Results: The intrusion subscale showed a better stable model fit than the avoidance subscale, but the two-factor structure was mainly supported. Configural measurement invariance was achieved between Afghan and Somali adolescents, and strong measurement invariance between Syrian and Somali adolescents. The results were robust considering the time living in the host country and response labelling styles. Reliability was low among Afghan and Syrian adolescents (.717-.856), whereas it was higher among Somali adolescents (.831-.887). The total score had medium-sized correlations with emotional problems (.303-.418) and low correlations with hyperactivity (.077-.155). There were statistically significant differences in symptom prevalence: Afghan adolescents had higher prevalence (55.5%) than Syrian (42.8%) and Somali (37%) adolescents, and unaccompanied refugee minors had higher symptom prevalence (63.5%) than accompanied adolescents (40.7%).Conclusions: This study mostly supports the use of the CRIES-8 among adolescents from Afghanistan, Syria, and Somalia, and even comparative analyses of group means. Variation in reliability estimates, however, makes diagnostic predictions difficult, as the risk of misclassification is high.


We investigated the psychometric properties of the 8-item Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-8) among refugee adolescents from Afghanistan, Syria, and Somalia living in Europe.We found support for the CRIES-8 as a suitable assessment tool for Afghan, Syrian, and Somali adolescents.The reliability of the CRIES-8 was low among Afghan and Syrian adolescents, whereas among Somali adolescents, reliability was higher.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Psicometria/normas , Síria/etnologia , Somália/etnologia , Feminino , Masculino , Afeganistão/etnologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Criança
15.
Perspect Public Health ; 144(3): 138-140, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757935

RESUMO

The number of displaced people, including asylum seekers and refugees, in the UK continues to rise. This article highlights findings from two participatory community listening exercises on the topic of health of displaced people.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Refugiados/psicologia , Humanos , Reino Unido
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300894, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internally displaced people (IDPs), uprooted by conflict, violence, or disaster, struggle with the trauma of violence, loss, and displacement, making them significantly more vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence and associated factors of PTSD among IDPs in Africa. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases was conducted to identify relevant studies published between 2008 and 2023. The search included electronic databases such as PubMed, CABI, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINHAL, and AJOL, as well as other search sources. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Data were extracted using Microsoft Excel, and analysis was performed using STATA 17 software. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the JBI quality appraisal tool. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors. The funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used to assess publication bias, and I2 test statistics was used to assess heterogeneity. The protocol for this review has been registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42023428027). RESULTS: A total of 14 studies with a total of 7,590 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of PTSD among IDPs in Africa was 51% (95% CI: 38.-64). Female gender (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.65-2.32), no longer married (OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.43-2.43), unemployment (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.17-2.67), being injured (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.50-1.50), number of traumatic events experienced [4-7(OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.16-3.01), 8-11 (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 2.18-4.12), 12-16 (OR = 5.37, 95% CI: 2.61-8.12)], illness without medical care (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.41-2.29), being depressed (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 2.07-3.86), and frequency of displacement more than once (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.41-2.85) were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis highlight the alarming prevalence of PTSD among IDPs in Africa. Female gender, marital status, number of traumatic events, ill health without medical care, depression, and frequency of displacement were identified as significant risk factors for PTSD. Effective interventions and the development of tailored mental health programs are needed to prevent PTSD among IDPs, focusing on the identified risk factors.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , África/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Violência , Prevalência
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298369, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626038

RESUMO

The NIMH-funded Multilevel Community-Based Mental Health Intervention to Address Structural Inequities and Adverse Disparate Consequences of COVID-19 Pandemic on Latinx Immigrants and African Refugees study aims to advance the science of multilevel interventions to reduce the disparate, adverse mental health, behavioral, and socioeconomic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic that are a result of complex interactions between underlying structural inequities and barriers to health care. The study tests three nested levels of intervention: 1) an efficacious 4-month advocacy and mutual learning model (Refugee and Immigrant Well-being Project, RIWP); 2) engagement with community-based organizations (CBOs); and 3) structural policy changes enacted in response to the pandemic. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study builds on long-standing collaboration with five CBOs. By including 240 Latinx immigrants and 60 African refugees recruited from CBO partners who are randomly assigned to treatment-as-usual CBO involvement or the RIWP intervention and a comparison group comprised of a random sample of 300 Latinx immigrants, this mixed methods longitudinal waitlist control group design study with seven time points over 36 months tests the effectiveness of the RIWP intervention and engagement with CBOs to reduce psychological distress, daily stressors, and economic precarity and increase protective factors (social support, access to resources, English proficiency, cultural connectedness). The study also tests the ability of the RIWP intervention and engagement with CBOs to increase access to the direct benefits of structural interventions. This paper reports on the theoretical basis, design, qualitative and quantitative analysis plan, and power for the study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hispânico ou Latino , Pandemias , Refugiados/psicologia , População Negra , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2334190, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590137

RESUMO

Background: Research indicates refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), particularly females, have a higher incidence of mental health problems compared to the global norm for conflict-affected populations.Objective: This study aimed to unpack gender differences in the mental health of Congolese refugees by examining specific risk (trauma exposure, adaptation challenges, and discrimination) and protective factors (marital status, literacy, and social resources) in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression. Method: Utilizing systematic random sampling, we surveyed 667 adult refugees (370 females, 297 males) in the Kyaka II refugee settlement in Western Uganda. A multi-group path analysis was conducted, initially allowing for variance between genders and subsequently comparing a constrained model, where paths were set equal across groups.Results: The unconstrained model presented an excellent fit to the data. When paths were set to be equal across groups, the decline in model fit, confirmed by a chi-square difference test, indicated differences in the model for males and females. A series of Z-tests were used to compare individual paths. Experiencing discrimination was a stronger risk factor for depression among men, whereas a history of rape was more strongly associated with depression for females. Being literate and a member of a social group in the settlement were stronger protective factors for depression among men, whereas living with a partner and a felt sense of connection to their community was more important for women. Associations between risk and protective factors and PTSS were more similar across groups, only membership in a group was significantly moderated by gender; with group membership being more impactful for males.Conclusion: The results highlight similarities and differences in predictors of distress for male and female Congolese refugees and point to potential avenues for tailoring programming to be gender sensitive.


This research identified key differences in how specific traumatic experiences and social factors correlate with psychological distress for male and female Congolese refugees, underscoring the need for tailored support strategies.The study reveals that while discrimination is a stronger predictor of depression in men, experiences of rape are more closely linked to depression in women. Conversely, social factors like literacy and group membership offer more protection to men, whereas relationship status and community connection are more protective for women.The findings shed light on the importance of gender-sensitive mental health and psychosocial support interventions.


Assuntos
Estupro , Refugiados , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Nível de Saúde
19.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise social determinants of health, mental health problems and potentially problematic symptoms in the adult population displaced by internal armed conflict in Colombia. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study with a random sample of 98 adults forcefully displaced to Soacha, Colombia, due to internal armed conflict. The Self Report Questionnaire to detect potentially problematic mental health problems and symptoms, and a structured questionnaire on social determinants of health were applied. RESULTS: The median age was 38 [interquartile range, 28-46] years, and women predominated (69.39%). The median time since displacement was 36 [16-48] months, and time since settlement in Soacha, 48 [5-48] months. 86.32% survived on less than the minimum wage per month and 93.87% did not have an employment contract. 42.86% and 7.14% reported being owners of their homes before and after displacement, respectively. Upon arriving in Soacha, 79.60% went to primary support networks and 3% to institutions. Before displacement, 16.33% lacked health insurance and 27.55% afterwards. Regarding mental health problems; there were possible depressive or anxious disorders in 57.29%; possible psychosis in 36.73%; and potentially problematic symptoms in 91.66%, being more prevalent and serious in women (p = 0.0025). CONCLUSIONS: A deterioration in living conditions and a higher prevalence of potentially problematic mental health problems and symptoms was reported in displaced adult populations settled in Soacha compared to other regions of the country. Analyses with complementary perspectives are required to evaluate these differences.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Transtornos Mentais , Refugiados , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673310

RESUMO

Research on mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions within refugee and migrant communities has increasingly focused on evaluating implementation, including identifying strategies to promote retention in services. This study examines the relationship between participant characteristics, study setting, and reasons for intervention noncompletion using data from the Entre Nosotras feasibility trial, a community-based MHPSS intervention targeting refugee, migrant, and host community women in Ecuador and Panama that aimed to promote psychosocial wellbeing. Among 225 enrolled women, approximately half completed the intervention, with varying completion rates and reasons for nonattendance across study sites. Participants who were older, had migrated for family reasons, had spent more time in the study community, and were living in Panamá (vs. Ecuador) were more likely to complete the intervention. The findings suggest the need to adapt MHPSS interventions to consider the duration of access to the target population and explore different delivery modalities including the role of technology and cellular devices as reliable or unreliable source for engaging with participants. Engaging younger, newly arrived women is crucial, as they showed lower completion rates. Strategies such as consulting scheduling preferences, providing on-site childcare, and integrating MHPSS interventions with other programs could enhance intervention attendance.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Humanos , Feminino , Refugiados/psicologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equador , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Panamá , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Apoio Social , América Latina
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