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1.
J Appl Meas ; 21(1): 17-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129767

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the psychometric properties of the general movements optimality score (GMOS) by examining its dimensionality, rating scale functioning, and item hierarchies using Rasch measurement. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the GMOS data for video-recording of 383 infants with uni-, multidimensional, and mixed Rasch partial credit models. Videos were scored based on the global General Movement Assessment categories, and on the amplitude, speed, spatial range, proximal and distal rotations, onset and offset, tremulous and cramped components of the upper and lower extremities (21 items), resulting in the GMOS. RESULTS: The GMOS data fits best to a unidimensional mixed Rasch model with three different classes of infants, with all but two items contributing to the infants' separation. Rating scales functioned well for 19 items. Item difficulty hierarchies varied depending on infants' class. No floor effect and no substantive gaps between item difficulty estimates were found. CONCLUSION: The GMOS has strong psychometric properties to distinguish infants with different functional motor performance and provides a quantitative measure of quality of movement. INTERPRETATION: The GMOS can be confidently used to assist with early diagnosis, grade motor performance, and provide a solid base to study individual general movement developmental trajectories.


Assuntos
Movimento , Psicometria , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Appl Meas ; 21(1): 68-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129770

RESUMO

The purpose of the present report was to assess congruence between a language-based national examination (termed English placement test - EPT) and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) levels. To this end, a series of methodological steps were put forth to accumulate evidence suggesting that language performance based on the EPT instrument can be split onto meaningful subgroups based on theoretical (expert judgement on difficulty level and CEFR correspondence) and empirical considerations (i.e., how well these levels and subgroups emerged). Participants were 2642 high school graduates who took on the EPT instrument as part of their entry criteria to the university and for the purposes of the present study only the structure subscale is presented. Items were classified as reflecting specific CEFR levels and a person-based analysis attempted to classify individuals sharing the same behavioral patterns. Results using a latent class analysis (LCA) indicated that a Pre-A1, an A1 an A2 a B1 and a B2 levels were present with regard to the structure domain of language. Results showed a strong alignment between the EPT structure domain and CEFR guidelines using various methodological approaches.


Assuntos
Linguagem , Psicometria , Humanos , Registros
3.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 25(1): 80-88, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aesthetic analysis of a smile may be facilitated by the use of a template that provides several dental aesthetic references and support for the diagnosis, simplifying it and defining guidelines for the aesthetic planning of orthodontic and integrated treatments. OBJECTIVE: To describe a simple and objective procedure for the evaluation of smile aesthetics using the SmileCurves digital template (SCT), based on the superimposition of intraoral photographic images and close-up views of a smile. CONCLUSION: SCT is a simple and objective tool for the aesthetic analysis of a smile.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Dente , Registros , Sorriso
4.
5.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(2): 68-74, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the 2015 and 2019 AGS Beers Criteria® of potentially inappropriate medications in the elderly.
DATA SOURCES: American Geriatrics Society 2015 and 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria® for Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) Use in Older Adults published literature.
STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: The literature was reviewed, compared, and summarized to identify pertinent changes and updates to the AGS Beers Criteria of PIMs in the elderly.
DATA SYNTHESIS: The AGS Beers Criteria® contains a list of potentially inappropriate medications that should be used with caution, avoided, notable drug-drug interactions, and drugs that should be dose-adjusted based on kidney function in the older adult. The updated AGS Beers Criteria® also includes removal of medications that are no longer sold in the United States, have a low usage rate, provide low evidence of harm, and/or the potential harm is not unique to the older adult.
CONCLUSION: The AGS Beers Criteria® is intended to improve and optimize the care of the geriatric population. It serves as a guide to minimize older adults' exposure to PIMs whenever possible. As with previously published updates to the AGS Beers Criteria®, the 2019 update outlines the following: recommendations, rationale, and quality of the recommendations, as well as the strength of the recommendations.


Assuntos
Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Interações de Medicamentos , Geriatria , Humanos , Registros , Estados Unidos
8.
Nature ; 577(7790): 439-440, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932750
9.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 25(1): 12-14, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804021

RESUMO

The last decades saw remarkable change in the way healthcare professionals generate and consume medical knowledge. Information management technologies have evolved considerably, yet medical publications continue to use a referencing system that has changed very little since the turn of the 20th century. Research suggests that up to one in five referenced claims quotes the original text inaccurately. Many authors, perhaps inadvertently, contribute to this process by citing non-primary data and amplifying the errors of their predecessors. Erroneous claims are propagated, accumulate into false belief systems and generate inaccurate knowledge. Updating the referencing system to provide additional information to support each referenced claim (eg, the location of the referenced statement in the original text and the nature of that text) could, perhaps, address this cycle of inaccuracy. We believe such changes in the referencing system would prompt authors to rigorously verify referenced claims and provide readers with context to inform a critical evaluation of the text. We detail our proposal for changes in the notations used for referencing, as well as in the information provided within reference lists. We also discuss some barriers and solutions to the adoption of our proposal.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Publicações , Registros
11.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(1): 97-101, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder mucocele is a potentially life-threatening extrahepatic biliary disease in dogs. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of cholecystitis in dogs with gross and histopathologically confirmed gallbladder mucocele and to investigate if there is an association between cholecystitis, including its subtypes (eg, acute, acute on chronic, with necrosis, chronic), and survival. Our secondary objective was to evaluate if there is an association between cholecystitis and intraoperative bacteriological culture positivity. KEY FINDINGS: Two hundred nineteen dogs with gallbladder mucocele were included in this multi-institutional retrospective study, of which 63 (28.8%) dogs had histopathological evidence of cholecystitis. The most common forms of cholecystitis were acute on chronic (n = 22/63, 34.9%) and with necrosis (n = 20, 31.7%). Thirty-one (14.1%) dogs had growth of at least 1 bacterial isolate; however, 88.7% had antimicrobials administered within the 48 hours before surgery or intraoperatively. There was not an association between cholecystitis or its subtypes and survival. Furthermore, there was not an association between cholecystitis and intraoperative bacteriological culture positivity. A total of 38 (17.4%) dogs either died or were euthanized during hospitalization. SIGNIFICANCE: Cholecystitis is a common comorbidity in dogs with gallbladder mucocele but was not associated with decreased survival.


Assuntos
Colecistite/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Mucocele/veterinária , Animais , Arizona/epidemiologia , Colecistite/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mucocele/complicações , Mucocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
12.
Int J Med Inform ; 133: 104006, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of routine HIV programme data for surveillance is often limited due to inaccuracies associated with patient misclassification which can be addressed by unique patient identification.We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating an iris recognition biometric identification system into routine HIV care services at 4 sites in Kenya. METHODS: Patients who had recently tested HIV-positive or were engaged in care were enrolled. Images of the iris were captured using a dual-iris camera connected to a laptop. A prototype iris biometric identification system networked across the sites, analysed the iris patterns; created a template from those patterns; and generated a 12-digit ID number based on the template. During subsequent visits, the patients' irises were re-scanned, and the pattern was matched to stored templates to retrieve the ID number. RESULTS: Over 55 weeks 8,614 (98%) of 8,794 new patients were assigned a unique ID on their first visit. Among 6,078 return visits, the system correctly re-identified patients' IDs 5,234 times (86%). The false match rate (a new patient given the ID of another patient) was 0·5% while the generalized false reject rate (re-scans assigned a new ID) was 4·7%. Overall, 9 (0·1%) agreed to enrol but declined to have an iris scan. The most common reasons cited for declining an iris scan were concerns about privacy and confidentiality. CONCLUSION: Implementation of an iris recognition system in routine health information systems is feasible and highly acceptable as part of routine care in Kenya. Scale-up could improve unique patient identification and tracking, enhancing disease surveillance activities.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Infecções por HIV , Registros , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Humanos , Iris , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
BMJ ; 367: l6873, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822465
15.
Nature ; 576(7786): 213, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822843
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0223243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report demographic characteristics of a contemporary population of dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma and assess the relationship between demographic characteristics, site distribution, and phylogenetic breed clusters. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A search of the Veterinary Medical Database was performed for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma as a new diagnosis. Entries were reviewed for the sex, neuter status, age at diagnosis, breed, affected limb, and tumor location. The reported breed for purebred dogs was used to categorize each dog into one of five phylogenetic groups based on microsatellite analysis. RESULTS: 744 client-owned dogs were included in the study. Study dogs were represented by a male-to-female ratio of 0.95:1.0, the majority of which (80.9%) were neutered. Most dogs were diagnosed between 7-10 years of age. The majority (77.8%) of dogs were large or giant-breed dogs. Purebred dogs comprised 80.4% of the population. The most common purebred breed affected by OS was the Rottweiler (17.1%). The most common phylogenetic group represented was Mastiff-Terrier (M-T, 26.3%). OS was more commonly located in the forelimb (64.2%) versus the hindlimb (35.8%), and the humerus was the most common site (20.9%). The distribution of age groups and tumor locations were significantly different between phylogenetic clusters. The distribution of age groups and neuter status were significantly different between size groups. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The demographic data of canine appendicular OS are similar to previous reports. The data on phylogenetic associations can guide future studies aimed at evaluating the genomic mutations that contribute to OS development and its biological behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteossarcoma/epidemiologia , Osteossarcoma/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Cruzamento , Demografia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Cães , Feminino , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Masculino , Osteossarcoma/fisiopatologia , Osteossarcoma/veterinária , Filogenia , Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4751-4755, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872674

RESUMO

Taking the Zeyao Materia Medica,Benjing Fengyuan,De Pei Materia Medica,Shiyi Materia Medica,Harmful Benefits of Materia Medica as representative works in Qing Dynasty,this paper extracts text information from four aspects: drug identification,drug use,drug prevention and detoxification,constructs a drug pharmacovigilance information table of Qing Dynasty herbal works,and summarizes the drug pharmacovigilance of Qing Dynasty. Thought,in the Qing Dynasty,there were many recordings of drug pharmacovigilance. In the aspect of drug awareness,the main representative was Shi Yi Materia Medica which added many new drugs and introduced more new uses of drugs. In addition,in the aspect of drug use and prevention,the main representatives were Zeyao Materia Medica,Benjing Fengyuan,De Pei Materia Medica,and Harmful Benefits of Materia Medica. In the aspect of taboo of disease and syndrome,attention should be paid to the integration of medicine so as to make drugs closely related to clinical use. Although there is no special introduction on detoxification,it has been introduced in various medicines in the De Pei Materia Medica,Shiyi Materia Medica,which has a relatively systematic and complete drug warning ideology system of " drug identification-use-drug prevention-detoxification".This study found that the traditional pharmacovigilance thought of Qing Dynasty had the characteristics of attaching importance to the clinical application of toxic traditional Chinese medicine and the combination of medicine,which had certain guiding significance for modern clinical medication. This paper aims to explore the traditional drug pharmacovigilance knowledge in representative works of the Qing Dynasty,analyze the characteristics of the drug pharmacovigilance thought in the Qing Dynasty,and lay a foundation for clarifying the traditional drug pharmacovigilance system.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Farmacovigilância , Registros
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4293-4299, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872712

RESUMO

Based on the characteristics of biological supramolecules and the law of " imprinting template",the research status and common problems in " maintaining medicinal properties after carbonisatus" in traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) were analyzed,and the further countermeasures were put forward. According to the historical evolution of " maintaining medicinal properties after carbonisatus" in TCM processing,the origin of its common problems was clarified by using the theory of biosupramolecular chemistry. TCM is a megacomplex biological supramolecular system,so TCM processing is just the processing of megacomplex biological supramolecular system,and its essence is a TCM pharmaceutical technology with chemical changes in host and guest of biological supramolecular system with or without adjuvant material under high temperature and humidity. In this study on pharmaceutical technology,host molecule was destructed in the process of carbonizing,but guest molecule was retained. The changing law of the host and guest molecule was controlled by the " imprinting template",which was reflected in the degree of change in the drug properties and efficacy of the decoction pieces. Supramolecular chemistry ran through the whole process,and the " imprinting template" of charcoal medicine was characterized by the supramolecular topological structure characteristics and imprinting behavior. After being combined with the quantitative mathematical model of heating degree in processing,it can realize the accurate processing of " maintaining medicinal properties after carbonisatus" from the source,quantitatively control the quality of carbonic herbs,and formulate stable and controllable quality standards.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Registros , Padrões de Referência , Tecnologia
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