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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298210, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324616

RESUMO

This work intends to comprehensively analyze the application of blockchain technology in enterprise financial accounting information sharing and address prevalent issues such as information opacity, data tampering, and data security in the current practices. Therefore, it writes smart contracts based on the Ethereum platform to achieve the secure sharing of financial accounting information between enterprises. This work employs a randomized experimental design approach, using a computer-generated random number program to divide 100 enterprises into experimental and control groups, each comprising 50 enterprises. Enterprises in the experimental group share financial accounting information using smart contracts on the Ethereum platform during the experiment. The financial personnel of these enterprises upload reconciled data to the corresponding smart contracts using the enterprise's digital signatures after each month's accounting process. Enterprises in the control group continue to use traditional methods of financial accounting information sharing (such as email and web platforms) to share financial data files directly. Quantitative analysis is performed to compare the data between the experimental and control groups. Empirical results reveal a notable enhancement in information-sharing efficiency by 25.7%, a 19.8% improvement in data accuracy, and a 13.6% reduction in financial information-sharing costs within the experimental group compared to the control group. This work provides compelling evidence that adopting blockchain-based information-sharing methods can effectively elevate data trustworthiness and security. Supported by systematic empirical findings, this work validates the significant potential of blockchain technology in the realm of enterprise financial accounting information sharing.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Segurança Computacional , Tecnologia , Disseminação de Informação , Registros
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(8): e2307656121, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315821

RESUMO

Despite the significant scientific advancement in deciphering the "deaths of despair" narrative, most relevant studies have focused on drug-, alcohol-, and suicide-related (DAS) deaths. This study directly investigated despair as a determinant of death and the temporal variation and racial heterogeneity among individuals. We used psychological distress (PD) as a proxy for despair and drew data from the US National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files 1997 to 2014, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Multiple Cause of Death database 1997 to 2014, CDC bridged-race population files 1997 to 2014, Current Population Survey 1997 to 1999, and the American Community Survey 2000 to 2014. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality hazard ratios of PD and compared age-standardized PD- and DAS-related mortality rates by race/ethnicity and over time. We found that while Whites had a lower prevalence of PD than Blacks and Hispanics throughout the whole period, they underwent distinctive increases in PD-related death and have had a higher PD-related mortality rate than Blacks and Hispanics since the early 2000s. This was predominantly due to Whites' relatively high and increasing vulnerability to PD less the prevalence of PD. Furthermore, PD induced a more pervasive mortality consequence than DAS combined for Whites and Blacks. In addition, PD- and DAS-related deaths displayed a concordant trend among Whites but divergent patterns for Blacks and Hispanics. These findings suggest that 1) DAS-related deaths underestimated the mortality consequence of despair for Whites and Blacks but overestimated it for Hispanics; and 2) despair partially contributed to the DAS trend among Whites but probably not for Blacks and Hispanics.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Registros , Narração , Brancos
3.
J Biomed Inform ; 150: 104605, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Physicians and clinicians rely on data contained in electronic health records (EHRs), as recorded by health information technology (HIT), to make informed decisions about their patients. The reliability of HIT systems in this regard is critical to patient safety. Consequently, better tools are needed to monitor the performance of HIT systems for potential hazards that could compromise the collected EHRs, which in turn could affect patient safety. In this paper, we propose a new framework for detecting anomalies in EHRs using sequence of clinical events. This new framework, EHR-Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), is motivated by the gaps in the existing deep-learning related methods, including high false negatives, sub-optimal accuracy, higher computational cost, and the risk of information loss. EHR-BERT is an innovative framework rooted in the BERT architecture, meticulously tailored to navigate the hurdles in the contemporary BERT method; thus, enhancing anomaly detection in EHRs for healthcare applications. METHODS: The EHR-BERT framework was designed using the Sequential Masked Token Prediction (SMTP) method. This approach treats EHRs as natural language sentences and iteratively masks input tokens during both training and prediction stages. This method facilitates the learning of EHR sequence patterns in both directions for each event and identifies anomalies based on deviations from the normal execution models trained on EHR sequences. RESULTS: Extensive experiments on large EHR datasets across various medical domains demonstrate that EHR-BERT markedly improves upon existing models. It significantly reduces the number of false positives and enhances the detection rate, thus bolstering the reliability of anomaly detection in electronic health records. This improvement is attributed to the model's ability to minimize information loss and maximize data utilization effectively. CONCLUSION: EHR-BERT showcases immense potential in decreasing medical errors related to anomalous clinical events, positioning itself as an indispensable asset for enhancing patient safety and the overall standard of healthcare services. The framework effectively overcomes the drawbacks of earlier models, making it a promising solution for healthcare professionals to ensure the reliability and quality of health data.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Registros , Pessoal de Saúde
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295242, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346027

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the pressing need for constant surveillance, updating of the response plan in post-peak periods and readiness for the possibility of new waves of the pandemic. A short initial period of steady rise in the number of new cases is sometimes followed by one of exponential growth. Systematic public health surveillance of the pandemic should signal an alert in the event of change in epidemic activity within the community to inform public health policy makers of the need to control a potential outbreak. The goal of this study is to improve infectious disease surveillance by complementing standardized metrics with a new surveillance metric to overcome some of their difficulties in capturing the changing dynamics of the pandemic. At statistically-founded threshold values, the new measure will trigger alert signals giving early warning of the onset of a new pandemic wave. We define a new index, the weighted cumulative incidence index, based on the daily new-case count. We model the infection spread rate at two levels, inside and outside homes, which explains the overdispersion observed in the data. The seasonal component of real data, due to the public surveillance system, is incorporated into the statistical analysis. Probabilistic analysis enables the construction of a Control Chart for monitoring index variability and setting automatic alert thresholds for new pandemic waves. Both the new index and the control chart have been implemented with the aid of a computational tool developed in R, and used daily by the Navarre Government (Spain) for virus propagation surveillance during post-peak periods. Automated monitoring generates daily reports showing the areas whose control charts issue an alert. The new index reacts sooner to data trend changes preluding new pandemic waves, than the standard surveillance index based on the 14-day notification rate of reported COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Registros
5.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 28(6): e2323175, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This randomized crossover trial evaluated periodontal indexes of two types of 3 x 3 retainers (a modified 0.032-in SS V-loop retainer and a conventional 0.0215-in SS coaxial wire retainer) after bonded for six months. Also, bonded failure rate, and a questionnaire about comfort, ease of cleaning and overall preference were recorded. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 15 patients were enrolled in this study who used both retainers for six months each, having a 15-day wash-out interval between each bonded retainer usage. The following periodontal index were recorded: Plaque Index (PI), Calculus Index (CI) and Gingival Index (GI). Patients answered a questionnaire to assess comfort, ease of cleaning and overall retainer-type preference. Rate of bonding failure was also evaluated. RESULTS: V-Loop retainer showed higher PI (P<0.05) as compared to conventional 0.0215-in coaxial wire retainer. However, CI and GI presented no statistically significant differences between both types of retainers. The conventional 0.0215-in coaxial wire retainer was chosen as the most comfortable (p<0.05), although no statistically significant differences were found for all other questionnaire answers. Bonding failure events were more observed in the 3x3 V-Loop retainer (p<0.002), as compared to the conventional 0.0215-in coaxial retainer. CONCLUSION: V-Loop retainer showed higher PI (p<0.05), higher bonding failure rate and less comfortable, as compared to conventional 0.0215-in coaxial wire.


Assuntos
Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Registros , Humanos , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice Periodontal
6.
Sci Justice ; 64(1): 43-49, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38182312

RESUMO

Predictability of legal decisions is usually considered a prerequisite for the rule of law, following the maxim 'like cases should be treated alike'. Yet, this presupposes that the case outcome can be predicted based on the merits of the case, rather than other factors. The purpose of this study was to test whether and to what extent legal decisions on petitions for new criminal trials can be predicted on the basis of other fairly superficial criteria that one could access without even reading the case file, e.g. which Court decided, whether the applicant had legal representation etc. To this end, all petitions for new criminal trials submitted to the Swedish Supreme Court and the six Courts of Appeal in the time period 2010-2020 (n = 3915) were reviewed. This data formed the basis of a regression model which was then used to predict decisions regarding petitions in 2021. On the basis of access to legal representation and crime type, the regression model predicted accurately 100 % of the decisions made in 2021. This raises questions about the evidentiary basis for the decisions and also the role of judges in situations where their decisions are fully predictable.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Criminosos , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Crime , Registros
7.
Gigascience ; 132024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jupyter notebooks facilitate the bundling of executable code with its documentation and output in one interactive environment, and they represent a popular mechanism to document and share computational workflows, including for research publications. The reproducibility of computational aspects of research is a key component of scientific reproducibility but has not yet been assessed at scale for Jupyter notebooks associated with biomedical publications. APPROACH: We address computational reproducibility at 2 levels: (i) using fully automated workflows, we analyzed the computational reproducibility of Jupyter notebooks associated with publications indexed in the biomedical literature repository PubMed Central. We identified such notebooks by mining the article's full text, trying to locate them on GitHub, and attempting to rerun them in an environment as close to the original as possible. We documented reproduction success and exceptions and explored relationships between notebook reproducibility and variables related to the notebooks or publications. (ii) This study represents a reproducibility attempt in and of itself, using essentially the same methodology twice on PubMed Central over the course of 2 years, during which the corpus of Jupyter notebooks from articles indexed in PubMed Central has grown in a highly dynamic fashion. RESULTS: Out of 27,271 Jupyter notebooks from 2,660 GitHub repositories associated with 3,467 publications, 22,578 notebooks were written in Python, including 15,817 that had their dependencies declared in standard requirement files and that we attempted to rerun automatically. For 10,388 of these, all declared dependencies could be installed successfully, and we reran them to assess reproducibility. Of these, 1,203 notebooks ran through without any errors, including 879 that produced results identical to those reported in the original notebook and 324 for which our results differed from the originally reported ones. Running the other notebooks resulted in exceptions. CONCLUSIONS: We zoom in on common problems and practices, highlight trends, and discuss potential improvements to Jupyter-related workflows associated with biomedical publications.


Assuntos
Documentação , Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodução , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 769, 2024 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191594

RESUMO

Even though many varieties have been recommended across agro-climate zones of Himachal Pradesh, yet the information on stability is lacking in this State. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to identify high yielding stable genotypes among various pre-adapted landraces. The material consists of 20 chilli landraces including check i.e. DKC-8. The experiment was laid out in a RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed to work out mean performances and the inferences were drawn for parameters of variability, correlation coefficients, path coefficients and stability analysis. As per mean performances, CS7 and CS9 were earliest in flowering, CS13 is earliest in days to ripe maturity, CS10 had highest plant height and CS9 had highest average fruit weight and ripe fruit yield plant-1. High PCV and GCV were recorded for ripe fruit yield plant-1. Heritability and genetic advance were recorded maximum for plant height in summer seasons and were recorded maximum for number of ripe fruits plant-1 in winter season. Correlation coefficients showed that number of ripe fruits plant-1 and average ripe fruit weight were positively and significantly correlated with ripe fruit yield plant-1. Path coefficient analysis in summer and winter seasons showed that average ripe fruit weight had the highest positive direct effect on ripe fruit yield plant-1. The pooled data over environments were analyzed to estimate the interaction effects between genotypes × environment. The mean sum of squares due to genotypes, environments and genotypes × environment interaction were significant for all the characteristics. CS1, CS3, CS6, CS10, CS13, CS15 were adapted to all environments, CS7 and CS9 were specifically adapted to favourable environment and CS2 was specifically adapted to unfavorable environment for 50% flowering, landraces CS1, CS2 and CS3were well adapted to all environments for ripe maturity whereas landraces CS6, CS10 and CS19 were well adapted to all environment for number of ripe fruit and ripe fruit yield.


Assuntos
Clima , Frutas , Frutas/genética , Genótipo , Registros
9.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296713, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current formulations of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children with HIV present significant barriers to adherence, leading to drug resistance, ART ineffectiveness, and preventable child morbidity and mortality. Understanding these challenges and how they contribute to suboptimal adherence is an important step in improving outcomes. This qualitative study describes how regimen-related challenges create barriers to adherence and impact families. METHODS: We conducted key informant interviews (KIIs) with 30 healthcare providers and 9 focus group discussions (FGDs) with a total of 72 caregivers, across three public hospitals in Siaya and Mombasa Kenya. The KIIs and FGDs were audio recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were hand coded based on emergent and a-priori themes. RESULTS: Caregivers discussed major regimen-related challenges to adherence included poor palatability of current formulations, complex preparation, and administration (including measuring, crushing, dissolving, mixing), complex drug storage, and frequent refill appointments and how these regimen-related challenges contributed to individual and intrapersonal barriers to adherence. Caregivers discussed how poor taste led to child anxiety, refusal of medications, and the need for caregivers to use bribes or threats during administration. Complex preparation led to concerns and challenges about maintaining privacy and confidentiality, especially during times of travel. Providers corroborated this patient experience and described how these challenges with administration led to poor infant outcomes, including high viral load and preventable morbidity. Providers discussed how the frequency of refills could range from every 2 weeks to every 3 months, depending on the patient. Caregivers discussed how these refill frequencies interrupted work and school schedules, risked unwanted disclosure to peers, required use of financial resources for travel, and ultimately were a challenge to adherence. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the need for improved formulations for pediatric ART to ease the daily burden on caregivers and children to increase adherence, improve child health, and overall quality of life of families.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Qualidade de Vida , Lactente , Humanos , Criança , Quênia , Pessoal de Saúde , Registros
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 1398-1399, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269665

RESUMO

Alert fatigue, a decrease in sensitivity to alerts, is a problem in the medical field. In this study, a survey was conducted on medical accidents in order to develop an alert that could be expected to reduce alert fatigue. As a result, medical accidents related to drugs are common worldwide, and the need for an alert system that can detect the implementation of medical treatment was found.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Registros
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 79-83, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269769

RESUMO

Data maps to translate information recorded in one code system to another code system are common in digital health. In the past these were used for data aggregation and national reporting where minor errors caused little impact. Today these maps are used invisibly behind the scenes when sharing clinical data. This is a data quality and safety bomb ready to blow. The International Standards Organization (ISO) have prepared to review their standard on map quality, a standard which when used can identify safety and quality issues in mapped data and assist in development of a pathway to improvement. The key determinants of map quality are discussed here and their impact on patient safety considered based upon real world experiences. Suggestions are included on the potential minimal requirements for any map used in a clinical environment, whether for use for interoperability or for other purposes. Alternatives to encourage improvement in map quality are also suggested.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Registros
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 114-118, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269776

RESUMO

While research on the effects of patient access to health records is increasing, a basic understanding of the spread of patient-accessible electronic health records worldwide is lacking. In this survey of healthcare experts with professional and personal experience from 29 countries, we explored the state of patient online record access (ORA). We asked participants whether ORA exists in their country and which information is available through it. Experts in all polled countries reported having some national access to health records, with 6 (21%) countries providing exclusively paper-based records and 23 (79%) countries having ORA. Overview of test/lab results and prescription/medication lists were the most commonly available information. Free-text clinical notes were accessible in less than half of the surveyed countries (12, 41%). We will continue to map the state of patient ORA, focusing on traditionally underrepresented countries.


Assuntos
Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Humanos , Registros , Eletrônica , Instalações de Saúde
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 154-158, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269784

RESUMO

Decision-making in healthcare is heavily reliant on data that is findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR). Evolving advancements in genomics also heavily rely on FAIR data to steer reliable research for the future. For practical purposes, ensuring FAIRness of a clinical data set can be challenging but could be aided by using FAIR validators. The study describes the test of two open-access web-tools in their demo versions to determine the FAIR levels of three submitted genomic data files with different formats (JSON, TXT, CSV). The F-UJI tool and FAIR-Checker tools provided similar FAIR scores for the three submitted files. However, the F-UJI tool assigned a total rating whereas the FAIR-Checker gave scores clustered by FAIR principles. Neither tool was suited to determine FAIR levels of a FHIR® JSON metadata file. Despite their early developmental status, FAIR validator tools have great potential to assist clinicians in the FAIRification of their research data.


Assuntos
Genômica , Instalações de Saúde , Metadados , Registros
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 314-318, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269816

RESUMO

Sepsis is a global health priority associated with high mortality. Clinical decision support systems have been developed to support clinicians with sepsis management. Ordering blood cultures (BCs) for suspected sepsis patients are strongly recommended by clinical guidelines. However, limited evidence exists investigating BC ordering following sepsis alerts and subsequent patient outcomes. This study aimed to investigate this issue using electronic health record data from an acute care hospital in Australia. Of 4,092 patients, only 16.6% had a BC ordered following a sepsis alert. The median time from the first sepsis alert to a BC order was 15.3 hours. Patients had 5.89 times higher odds of being diagnosed with sepsis if a BC was ordered following a sepsis alert than those without BC ordered (p<0.0001). Further investigation is needed to understand reasons behind the delay or failure to order a BC despite receiving electronic sepsis alerts and how decision support can be optimized to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sepse , Humanos , Hemocultura , Registros , Sepse/diagnóstico , Austrália
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 369-373, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269827

RESUMO

Patient identifiers such as name, date of birth, or gender are the first line of defense to ensure the accuracy of the health data displayed in health information exchange. Health data display is the impetus for clinical decisions and patient outcomes and directly correlates with promoting interoperability and health information exchange. Therefore, constant monitoring of quality metrics is imperative for clinical leaders to keep a pulse on what is happening within their organizations. However, the electronic health records (EHRs) designer should also take precautions to ensure the visualizations are not misleading, given that EHRs have been shown in some studies to lead to increased patient safety events.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Registros , Humanos , Benchmarking , Apresentação de Dados , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 354-358, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269824

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children are at increased risk of medication-associated adverse events, often due to weight-based dosing errors. We aimed to reduce the proportion of medications that were administered where the dosing weight was ≥ 10% different from the recorded weight. METHODS: We adopted in-situ usability testing to iteratively improve design of clinical decision support that would enable accurate dosing weight documentation by prompting clinicians to update weight if recorded weight was > 10% different and it had been at least 7 days since the last dosing weight update. RESULTS: The proportion of medication administrations with difference >10% between their recorded weight and dosing weight decreased from 13.1% (56,256/ 429,006) in the baseline period to 9.5% (35,560 / 372,443) in the intervention period (P < 0.001). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: User-centered design of an interruptive alert improved the accuracy of dosing weights during medication administrations without substantial alert burden. In-situ usability testing is an effective approach to rapidly obtain feedback from frontline users and iterate on the design to effect desired behavior changes.


Assuntos
Documentação , Registros , Criança , Humanos , Design Centrado no Usuário
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 310: 715-719, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38269902

RESUMO

Transformation of patient data extracted from a database into fixed-length numerical vectors requires expertise in topical medical knowledge as well as data manipulation-thus, manual feature design is labor-intensive. In this study, we propose a machine learning-based method to for this purpose applicable to electronic medical data recorded during hospitalization, which utilizes unsupervised feature extraction based on graph embedding. Unsupervised learning is performed on a heterogeneous graph using Graph2Vec, and the inclusion of clinically useful data in the obtained embedding representation is evaluated by predicting readmission within 30 days of discharge based on it. The embedded representations are observed to improve predictive performance significantly as the information contained in the graph increases, indicating the suitability of the proposed method for feature design corresponding to clinical information.


Assuntos
Registros Médicos , Registros , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hospitalização , Conhecimento
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1951, 2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263421

RESUMO

Motivated by DNA storage systems, this work presents the DNA reconstruction problem, in which a length-n string, is passing through the DNA-storage channel, which introduces deletion, insertion and substitution errors. This channel generates multiple noisy copies of the transmitted string which are called traces. A DNA reconstruction algorithm is a mapping which receives t traces as an input and produces an estimation of the original string. The goal in the DNA reconstruction problem is to minimize the edit distance between the original string and the algorithm's estimation. In this work, we present several new algorithms for this problem. Our algorithms look globally on the entire sequence of the traces and use dynamic programming algorithms, which are used for the shortest common supersequence and the longest common subsequence problems, in order to decode the original string. Our algorithms do not require any limitations on the input and the number of traces, and more than that, they perform well even for error probabilities as high as 0.27. The algorithms have been tested on simulated data, on data from previous DNA storage experiments, and on a new synthesized dataset, and are shown to outperform previous algorithms in reconstruction accuracy.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , DNA , Motivação , Probabilidade , Registros
19.
Nat Comput Sci ; 4(1): 43-56, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177491

RESUMO

Here we represent human lives in a way that shares structural similarity to language, and we exploit this similarity to adapt natural language processing techniques to examine the evolution and predictability of human lives based on detailed event sequences. We do this by drawing on a comprehensive registry dataset, which is available for Denmark across several years, and that includes information about life-events related to health, education, occupation, income, address and working hours, recorded with day-to-day resolution. We create embeddings of life-events in a single vector space, showing that this embedding space is robust and highly structured. Our models allow us to predict diverse outcomes ranging from early mortality to personality nuances, outperforming state-of-the-art models by a wide margin. Using methods for interpreting deep learning models, we probe the algorithm to understand the factors that enable our predictions. Our framework allows researchers to discover potential mechanisms that impact life outcomes as well as the associated possibilities for personalized interventions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Humanos , Registros
20.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 119, 2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263256

RESUMO

Stimulus-induced conflicts in decision-making tasks produce both behavioral and neuronal congruency effects. However, how and when conflicts are detected and resolved at the neuronal level remains largely unclear. To address these issues, we recorded from single neurons in the frontal eye fields of two macaques performing a conflict task. Although the temporal dynamics of the neuronal congruency effects are independent of the specific task rules, they are substantially different in target- and distractor-encoding neurons. Conflicts were detected ~100 ms after the conflict-inducing cue (20-30 ms after the visual response), which is much faster than predicted based on human EEG results. This suggests that conflict detection relies on a fast mechanism in frontal eye fields. Resolving the conflict at the neuronal level, however, requires between <400 ms to ~1000 ms, and shows profound interindividual differences and depends on task rules, indicating that it is a more complex and top-down driven process. Our findings illuminate the neuronal mechanisms underlying decision-making when a conflict is present, a crucial cognitive process playing a role in basic survival and high-level cognitive functions.


Assuntos
Cognição , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Animais , Macaca , Neurônios , Registros
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