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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 43, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630371

RESUMO

The GATA transcription factors (TFs) have been extensively studied for its regulatory role in various biological processes in many plant species. The functional and molecular mechanism of GATA TFs in regulating tolerance to abiotic stress has not yet been studied in the common bean. This study analyzed the functional identity of the GATA gene family in the P. vulgaris genome under different abiotic and phytohormonal stress. The GATA gene family was systematically investigated in the P. vulgaris genome, and 31 PvGATA TFs were identified. The study found that 18 out of 31 PvGATA genes had undergone duplication events, emphasizing the role of gene duplication in GATA gene expansion. All the PvGATA genes were classified into four significant subfamilies, with 8, 3, 6, and 13 members in each subfamily (subfamilies I, II, III, and IV), respectively. All PvGATA protein sequences contained a single GATA domain, but subfamily II members had additional domains such as CCT and tify. A total of 799 promoter cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were predicted in the PvGATAs. Additionally, we used qRT-PCR to investigate the expression profiles of five PvGATA genes in the common bean roots under abiotic conditions. The results suggest that PvGATA01/10/25/28 may play crucial roles in regulating plant resistance against salt and drought stress and may be involved in phytohormone-mediated stress signaling pathways. PvGATA28 was selected for overexpression and cloned into N. benthamiana using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic lines were subjected to abiotic stress, and results showed a significant tolerance of transgenic lines to stress conditions compared to wild-type counterparts. The seed germination assay suggested an extended dormancy of transgenic lines compared to wild-type lines. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the PvGATA gene family, which can serve as a foundation for future research on the function of GATA TFs in abiotic stress tolerance in common bean plants.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Phaseolus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição GATA/genética , Agrobacterium , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Secas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8365-8371, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588402

RESUMO

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) play an important role in alleviating the detrimental effects of biotic and abiotic stress and improving crop yield and quality. As a novel PGR from Streptomyces registered in 2021, guvermectin (GV) has the potential to improve plant yield and defense, making its application in agriculture a subject of interest. Here, we describe the discovery process, functional activities, agricultural applications, toxicity, environmental safety, and biosynthetic mechanism of GV. This Perspective provides a guide for the development of novel PGRs from microorganisms.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Agricultura , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
3.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 24(2): 73, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598147

RESUMO

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in many physiological processes in plants and animals. In humans, vitamin C is an antioxidant, reducing agent, and cofactor in diverse chemical processes. The established role of vitamin C as an antioxidant in plants is well recognized. It neutralizes reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause damage to cells. Also, it plays an important role in recycling other antioxidants, such as vitamin E, which helps maintain the overall balance of the plant's antioxidant system. However, unlike plants, humans cannot synthesize ascorbic acid or vitamin C in their bodies due to the absence of an enzyme called gulonolactone oxidase. This is why humans need to obtain vitamin C through their diet. Different fruits and vegetables contain varying levels of vitamin C. The biosynthesis of vitamin C in plants occurs primarily in the chloroplasts and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The biosynthesis of vitamin C is a complex process regulated by various factors such as light, temperature, and plant hormones. Recent research has identified several key genes that regulate vitamin C biosynthesis, including the GLDH and GLDH genes. The expression of these genes is known to be regulated by various factors such as light, temperature, and plant hormones. Recent studies highlight vitamin C's crucial role in regulating plant stress response pathways, encompassing drought, high salinity, and oxidative stress. The key enzymes in vitamin C biosynthesis are L-galactose dehydrogenase (GLDH) and L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH). Genetic studies reveal key genes like GLDH and GLDH in Vitamin C biosynthesis, offering potential for crop improvement. Genetic variations influence nutritional content through their impact on vitamin C levels. Investigating the roles of genes in stress responses provides insights for developing resilient techniques in crop growth. Some fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, lemons, and grapefruits, along with strawberries and kiwi, are rich in vitamin C. Guava. Papaya provides a boost of vitamin C and dietary fiber. At the same time, red and yellow bell peppers, broccoli, pineapple, mangoes, and kale are additional sources of this essential nutrient, promoting overall health. In this review, we will discuss a brief history of Vitamin C and its signaling and biosynthesis pathway and summarize the regulation of its content in various fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Verduras , Animais , Humanos , Antioxidantes , Frutas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2943, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580637

RESUMO

Increased exposure to environmental stresses due to climate change have adversely affected plant growth and productivity. Upon stress, plants activate a signaling cascade, involving multiple molecules like H2O2, and plant hormones such as salicylic acid (SA) leading to resistance or stress adaptation. However, the temporal ordering and composition of the resulting cascade remains largely unknown. In this study we developed a nanosensor for SA and multiplexed it with H2O2 nanosensor for simultaneous monitoring of stress-induced H2O2 and SA signals when Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis (Pak choi) plants were subjected to distinct stress treatments, namely light, heat, pathogen stress and mechanical wounding. Nanosensors reported distinct dynamics and temporal wave characteristics of H2O2 and SA generation for each stress. Based on these temporal insights, we have formulated a biochemical kinetic model that suggests the early H2O2 waveform encodes information specific to each stress type. These results demonstrate that sensor multiplexing can reveal stress signaling mechanisms in plants, aiding in developing climate-resilient crops and pre-symptomatic stress diagnoses.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico
5.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(2): 34, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568355

RESUMO

Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) enzymes play an important role in plant growth and development by producing a wide array of apocarotenoids and their derivatives. These compounds are vital for colouring flowers and fruits and synthesizing plant hormones such as abscisic acid and strigolactones. Despite their importance, the gene family responsible for CCO enzymes in sunflowers has not been identified. In this study, we identify the CCO genes of the sunflower plant to fill this knowledge gap. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis indicated that the Helianthus annnus CCO (HaCCO) genes were conserved in different plant species and they could be divided into three subgroups based on their conserved domains. Analysis using MEME tool and multiple sequence alignment identified conserved motifs in the HaCCO gene sequence. Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) analysis of the HaCCO genes indicated the presence of various responsive elements related to plant hormones, development, and responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This implies that these genes may respond to plant hormones, developmental cues, and drought stress, offering potential applications in the development of more resistant crops. Genes belonging to the 9-cis-epoxy carotenoid dioxygenases (NCED) subgroups predominantly exhibited chloroplast localization, whereas the genes found in other groups are primarily localized in the cytoplasm. These 21 identified HaCCOs were regulated by 60 miRNAs, indicating the crucial role of microRNAs in gene regulation in sunflowers. Gene expression analysis under drought stress revealed significant up-regulation of HaNCED16 and HaNCED19, genes that are pivotal in ABA hormone biosynthesis. During organ-specific gene expression analysis, HaCCD12 and HaCCD20 genes exhibit higher activity in leaves, indicating a potential role in leaf pigmentation. This study provides a foundation for future research on the regulation and functions of the CCO gene family in sunflower and beyond. There is potential for developing molecular markers that could be employed in breeding programs to create new sunflower lines resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Helianthus/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ácido Abscísico , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
6.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 148, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578547

RESUMO

A slight variation in ecological milieu of plants, like drought, heavy metal toxicity, abrupt changes in temperature, flood, and salt stress disturbs the usual homeostasis or metabolism in plants. Among these stresses, salinity stress is particularly detrimental to the plants, leading to toxic effects and reduce crop productivity. In a saline environment, the accumulation of sodium and chloride ions up to toxic levels significantly correlates with intracellular osmotic pressure, and can result in morphological, physiological, and molecular alterations in plants. Increased soil salinity triggers salt stress signals that activate various cellular-subcellular mechanisms in plants to enable their survival in saline conditions. Plants can adapt saline conditions by maintaining ion homeostasis, activating osmotic stress pathways, modulating phytohormone signaling, regulating cytoskeleton dynamics, and maintaining cell wall integrity. To address ionic toxicity, researchers from diverse disciplines have explored novel approaches to support plant growth and enhance their resilience. One such approach is the application of nanoparticles as a foliar spray or seed priming agents positively improve the crop quality and yield by activating germination enzymes, maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis, promoting synthesis of compatible solutes, stimulating antioxidant defense mechanisms, and facilitating the formation of aquaporins in seeds and root cells for efficient water absorption under various abiotic stresses. Thus, the assessment mainly targets to provide an outline of the impact of salinity stress on plant metabolism and the resistance strategies employed by plants. Additionally, the review also summarized recent research efforts exploring the innovative applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles for reducing salt stress at biochemical, physiological, and molecular levels.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco , Estresse Salino , Estresse Fisiológico , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Salinidade
7.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611765

RESUMO

The color of the pericarp is a crucial characteristic that influences the marketability of papaya fruit. Prior to ripening, normal papaya exhibits a green pericarp, whereas the cultivar 'Zihui' displays purple ring spots on the fruit tip, which significantly affects the fruit's visual appeal. To understand the mechanism behind the formation of purple pericarp, this study performed a thorough examination of the transcriptome, plant hormone, and metabolome. Based on the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system, a total of 35 anthocyanins and 11 plant hormones were identified, with 27 anthocyanins and two plant hormones exhibiting higher levels of abundance in the purple pericarp. In the purple pericarp, 14 anthocyanin synthesis genes were up-regulated, including CHS, CHI, F3H, F3'5'H, F3'H, ANS, OMT, and CYP73A. Additionally, through co-expression network analysis, three MYBs were identified as potential key regulators of anthocyanin synthesis by controlling genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, we have identified numerous key genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis and developed new insights into how the purple pericarp of papaya is formed.


Assuntos
Carica , Carica/genética , Antocianinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Metaboloma , Verduras
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612408

RESUMO

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, EC 5.3.4.1) is a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase that plays a crucial role in catalyzing the oxidation and rearrangement of disulfides in substrate proteins. In plants, PDI is primarily involved in regulating seed germination and development, facilitating the oxidative folding of storage proteins in the endosperm, and also contributing to the formation of pollen. However, the role of PDI in root growth has not been previously studied. This research investigated the impact of PDI gene deficiency in plants by using 16F16 [2-(2-Chloroacetyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1-methyl-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester], a small-molecule inhibitor of PDI, to remove functional redundancy. The results showed that the growth of Arabidopsis roots was significantly inhibited when treated with 16F16. To further investigate the effects of 16F16 treatment, we conducted expression profiling of treated roots using RNA sequencing and a Tandem Mass Tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics approach at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels. Our analysis revealed 994 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcript level, which were predominantly enriched in pathways associated with "phenylpropane biosynthesis", "plant hormone signal transduction", "plant-pathogen interaction" and "starch and sucrose metabolism" pathways. Additionally, we identified 120 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at the protein level. These proteins were mainly enriched in pathways such as "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", "photosynthesis", "biosynthesis of various plant secondary metabolites", and "biosynthesis of secondary metabolites" pathways. The comprehensive transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed a regulatory network for root shortening in Arabidopsis seedlings under 16F16 treatment, mainly involving phenylpropane biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction pathways. This study enhances our understanding of the significant role of PDIs in Arabidopsis root growth and provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms of root shortening following 16F16 treatment.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Indóis , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Transcriptoma , Arabidopsis/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteômica , Ácidos Carboxílicos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612787

RESUMO

Sulfur (S), one of the crucial macronutrients, plays a pivotal role in fundamental plant processes and the regulation of diverse metabolic pathways. Additionally, it has a major function in plant protection against adverse conditions by enhancing tolerance, often interacting with other molecules to counteract stresses. Despite its significance, a thorough comprehension of how plants regulate S nutrition and particularly the involvement of phytohormones in this process remains elusive. Phytohormone signaling pathways crosstalk to modulate growth and developmental programs in a multifactorial manner. Additionally, S availability regulates the growth and development of plants through molecular mechanisms intertwined with phytohormone signaling pathways. Conversely, many phytohormones influence or alter S metabolism within interconnected pathways. S metabolism is closely associated with phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (AUX), brassinosteroids (BR), cytokinins (CK), ethylene (ET), gibberellic acid (GA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and strigolactones (SL). This review provides a summary of the research concerning the impact of phytohormones on S metabolism and, conversely, how S availability affects hormonal signaling. Although numerous molecular details are yet to be fully understood, several core signaling components have been identified at the crossroads of S and major phytohormonal pathways.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Sulfatos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Ácido Abscísico , Citocininas
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612923

RESUMO

Small peptides in plants are typically characterized as being shorter than 120 amino acids, with their biologically active variants comprising fewer than 20 amino acids. These peptides are instrumental in regulating plant growth, development, and physiological processes, even at minimal concentrations. They play a critical role in long-distance signal transduction within plants and act as primary responders to a range of stress conditions, including salinity, alkalinity, drought, high temperatures, and cold. This review highlights the crucial roles of various small peptides in plant growth and development, plant resistance to abiotic stress, and their involvement in long-distance transport. Furthermore, it elaborates their roles in the regulation of plant hormone biosynthesis. Special emphasis is given to the functions and mechanisms of small peptides in plants responding to abiotic stress conditions, aiming to provide valuable insights for researchers working on the comprehensive study and practical application of small peptides.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Aminoácidos , Peptídeos , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
PeerJ ; 12: e17236, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618572

RESUMO

Purpose: Juniper (Juniperus procera) is a common forest tree species in Saudi Arabia. The decline in many populations of J. procera in Saudi Arabia is mainly due to seed dormancy and loss of natural regeneration. This study assessed the effects of chemical and hormonal treatments on seed germination and seedling growth in juniper plants. Methods: The seeds were subjected to either chemical scarification with 90% sulfuric acid and 20% acetic acid for 6 min or hormonal treatment by seed soaking in two concentrations (50 and 100 ppm) of three growth regulators, namely, indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA3), and kinetin, for 72 h. A control group without any seed treatment was also prepared. The experiments were performed in an incubator maintained at room temperature and under a light and dark period of 12 h for 6 w. The germinated seeds for each treatment were counted and removed from the dishes. The selected germinated seeds from different treatments were planted in a greenhouse and irrigated with tap water for another 6 weeks. The hormone-treated seedlings were sprayed with their corresponding hormone concentrations 1 w after planting. Results: The highest percentage of seed germination was significantly recorded after seed soaking in 50 ppm GA3, whereas treatment with IAA (100 ppm) resulted in the best seedling growth. Seedlings treated with the three phytohormones showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars, proteins, percentage of oil, IAA, GA3, and kinetin contents of juniper seedlings compared with the control value, whereas abscisic acid content was decreased compared with chemical treatments. Conclusion: The investigated different treatments had an effective role in breaking seed dormancy and improving seedling growth of J. procera, which is facing a notable decline in its population worldwide. Moreover, such an effect was more pronounced in the three phytohormones that succeeded in breaking dormancy and growth of the Juniperus plant than in the other treatments.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Juniperus , Ligas Metalo-Cerâmicas , Plântula , Titânio , Germinação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Cinetina/farmacologia , Sementes , Hormônios
12.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 362, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rose is recognized as an important ornamental plant worldwide, and it is also one of the most widely used flowers in gardens. At present, the improvement of rose traits is still difficult and uncertain, and molecular breeding can provide new ideas for the improvement of modern rose varieties. Somatic embryos are quite good receptors for genetic transformation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying during the regeneration process of rose somatic embryos. To elucidate the molecular regulation mechanism of somatic embryo plantlet regeneration, the relationship between the differences in traits of the two different regenerated materials and the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to phytohormone pathways in the process of regeneration were be investigated. RESULTS: These representative two regenerated samples from single-piece cotyledonary somatic embryo (SPC) culture of Rosa hybrida 'John F. Kennedy', were harvested for transcriptome analysis, with the SPC explants at the initial culture (Day 0) as the control. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the materials from two different types for regeneration approach (SBF type: the regeneration approach type of single bud formed from SPC explants; MBF type: the regeneration approach type of multiple buds formed from SPC explants) were be screened by means of the transcriptome sequencing technology. In this study, a total of about 396.24 million clean reads were obtained, of which 78.95-82.92% were localized to the reference genome, compared with the initial material (CK sample), there were 5594 specific genes in the material of SBF type and 6142 specific genes in the MBF type. The DEGs from the SBF type material were mainly concentrated in the biological processes of GO terms such as phytohormones, substance transport, cell differentiation, and redox reaction. The KEGG enrichment analysis revealed these DEGs were more active in ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, steroid biosynthesis, and glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-globo and isoglobo series. In contrast, the DEGs induced by the MBF type material were mainly associated with the biological processes such as phytohormones, phosphorylation, photosynthesis and signal transduction. According to KEGG analysis, these DEGs of MBF type were significantly enriched in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, brassinosteroid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, and peroxisome. Furthermore, the results from the phytohormone pathways analysis showed that the auxin-responsive factor SAUR and the cell wall modifying enzyme gene XTH were upregulated for expression but the protein phosphatase gene PP2C was downregulated for expression in SBF type; the higher expression of the ethylene receptor ETR, the ethylene transduction genes EBF1/2, the transcription factor EIN3, and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor ERF1/2 were induced by MBF type. CONCLUSIONS: According to the GO and KEGG analysis, it indicated the DEGs between two different regenerated materials from somatic embryos were significantly different which might be causing morphological differences. That was somatic embryos from Rosa hybrida 'John F. Kennedy' could regenerate plantlet via both classic somatic embryogenesis (seed-like germination) and organogenesis, cotyledonary somatic embryos should be considered as one kind of intermediate materials similiar to callus, rather than the indicator materials for somatic embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Rosa , Rosa/genética , Etilenos , Regeneração , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fatores de Transcrição
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8311, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594449

RESUMO

Several bacteria of environmental and clinical origins, including some human-associated strains secrete a cross-kingdom signaling molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IAA is a tryptophan (trp) derivative mainly known for regulating plant growth and development as a hormone. However, the nutritional sources that boost IAA secretion in bacteria and the impact of secreted IAA on non-plant eukaryotic hosts remained less explored. Here, we demonstrate significant trp-dependent IAA production in Pseudomonas juntendi NEEL19 when provided with ethanol as a carbon source in liquid cultures. IAA was further characterized to modulate the odor discrimination, motility and survivability in Drosophila melanogaster. A detailed analysis of IAA-fed fly brain proteome using high-resolution mass spectrometry showed significant (fold change, ± 2; p ≤ 0.05) alteration in the proteins governing neuromuscular features, audio-visual perception and energy metabolism as compared to IAA-unfed controls. Sex-wise variations in differentially regulated proteins were witnessed despite having similar visible changes in chemo perception and psychomotor responses in IAA-fed flies. This study not only revealed ethanol-specific enhancement in trp-dependent IAA production in P. juntendi, but also showed marked behavioral alterations in flies for which variations in an array of proteins governing odor discrimination, psychomotor responses, and energy metabolism are held responsible. Our study provided novel insights into disruptive attributes of bacterial IAA that can potentially influence the eukaryotic gut-brain axis having broad environmental and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Animais , Humanos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297764, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598493

RESUMO

The commercial-scale production of Caralluma tuberculata faces significant challenges due to lower seed viability and sluggish rate of root growth in natural conditions. To overcome these obstacles, using phyto-mediated selenium nanomaterials as an in vitro rooting agent in plant in vitro cultures is a promising approach to facilitate rapid propagation and enhance the production of valuable therapeutic compounds. This study aimed to investigate the impact of phytosynthesized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on the morphological growth attributes, physiological status, and secondary metabolite fabrication in in vitro propagated Caralluma tuberculata. The results demonstrated that a lower dose of SeNPs (100 µg/L) along with plant growth regulators (IBA 1 mg/L) had an affirmative effect on growth parameters and promoted earliest root initiation (4.6±0.98 days), highest rooting frequency (68.21±5.12%), number of roots (6.3±1.8), maximum fresh weight (710±6.01 mg) and dry weight (549.89±6.77 mg). However, higher levels of SeNPs (200 and 400 µg/L) in the growth media proved detrimental to growth and development. Further, stress caused by SeNPs at 100 µg/L along with PGRs (IBA 1 mg/L) produced a higher level of total chlorophyll contents (32.66± 4.36 µg/ml), while cultures exposed to 200 µg/L SeNPs alone exhibited the maximum amount of proline contents (10.5± 1.32 µg/ml). Interestingly, exposure to 400 µg/L SeNPs induced a stress response in the cultures, leading to increased levels of total phenolic content (3.4 ± 0.052), total flavonoid content (1.8 ± 0.034), and antioxidant activity 82 ± 4.8%). Furthermore, the combination of 100 µg/L SeNPs and plant growth regulators (1 mg/L IBA) led to accelerated enzymatic antioxidant activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD = 4.4 ± 0.067 U/mg), peroxidase dismutase (POD = 3.3 ± 0.043 U/mg), catalase (CAT = 2.8 ± 0.048 U/mg), and ascorbate peroxidase (APx = 1.6 ± 0.082 U/mg). This is the first report that highlights the efficacy of SeNPs in culture media and presents a promising approach for the commercial propagation of C. tuberculata with a strong antioxidant defense system in vitro.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 266, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is grown in Hainan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Fujian provinces and Guanxi autonomous region of China. However, trees growing in these areas suffer severe cold stress during winter, which affects the yield. To this regard, data on global metabolome and transcriptome profiles of leaves are limited. Here, we used combined metabolome and transcriptome analyses of leaves of three mango cultivars with different cold stress tolerance, i.e. Jinhuang (J)-tolerant, Tainung (T) and Guiremang No. 82 (G)-susceptible, after 24 (LF), 48 (MF) and 72 (HF) hours of cold. RESULTS: A total of 1,323 metabolites belonging to 12 compound classes were detected. Of these, amino acids and derivatives, nucleotides and derivatives, and lipids accumulated in higher quantities after cold stress exposure in the three cultivars. Notably, Jinhuang leaves showed increasing accumulation trends of flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans and coumarins, and alkaloids with exposure time. Among the phytohormones, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid levels decreased, while N6-isopentenyladenine increased with cold stress time. Transcriptome analysis led to the identification of 22,526 differentially expressed genes. Many genes enriched in photosynthesis, antenna proteins, flavonoid, terpenoid (di- and sesquiterpenoids) and alkaloid biosynthesis pathways were upregulated in Jihuang leaves. Moreover, expression changes related to phytohormones, MAPK (including calcium and H2O2), and the ICE-CBF-COR signalling cascade indicate involvement of these pathways in cold stress responses. CONCLUSION: Cold stress tolerance in mango leaves is associated with regulation of primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. Jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinins are potential regulators of cold stress responses in mango leaves.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Mangifera , Oxilipinas , Transcriptoma , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Mangifera/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , China , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 236, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acyl-CoA-Binding proteins (ACBPs) function as coenzyme A transporters and play important roles in regulating plant growth and development in response to abiotic stress and phytohormones, as well as in membrane repair. To date, the ACBP family has not been a comprehensively characterized in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). RESULTS: Eight ACBP genes were identified in the barley genome and named as HvACBP1-8. The analysis of the proteins structure and promoter elements of HvACBP suggested its potential functions in plant growth, development, and stress response. These HvACBPs are expressed in specific tissues and organs following induction by abiotic stressors such as drought, salinity, UV-B exposure, temperature extremes, and exposure to exogenous phytohormones. The HvACBP7 and HvACBP8 amino acid sequences were conserved during the domestication of Tibetan Qingke barley. CONCLUSIONS: Acyl-CoA-binding proteins may play important roles in barley growth and environmental adaptation. This study provides foundation for further analyses of the biological functions of HvACBPs in the barley stress response.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Inibidor da Ligação a Diazepam/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Hormônios , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
17.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14271, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566130

RESUMO

Seed dormancy is an important life history state in which intact viable seeds delay or prevent germination under suitable conditions. Ascorbic acid (AsA) acts as a small molecule antioxidant, and breaking seed dormancy and promoting subsequent growth are among its numerous functions. In this study, a germination test using Pyrus betulifolia seeds treated with exogenous AsA or AsA synthesis inhibitor lycorine (Lyc) and water absorption was conducted. The results indicated that AsA released dormancy and increased germination and 20 mmol L-1 AsA promoted cell division, whereas Lyc reduced germination. Seed germination showed typical three phases of water absorption; and seeds at five key time points were sampled for transcriptome analysis. It revealed that multiple pathways were involved in breaking dormancy and promoting germination through transcriptome data, and 12 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the metabolism and signal transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GA) were verified by subsequent RT-qPCR. For metabolites, exogenous AsA increased endogenous AsA and GA3 but reduced ABA and the ABA/GA3 ratio. In addition, three genes regulating ABA synthesis were downregulated by AsA, while five genes mediating ABA degradation were upregulated. Taken together, AsA regulates the pathways associated with ABA and GA synthesis, catalysis, and signal transduction, with subsequent reduction in ABA and increase in GA and further the balance of ABA/GA, ultimately releasing dormancy and promoting germination.


Assuntos
Giberelinas , Pyrus , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Germinação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Sementes , Água/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 240, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570817

RESUMO

Apple is an important fruit crop that is always in demand due to its commercial and nutraceutical value. Also, the requirement for quality planting material for this fruit crop for new plantations is increasing continuously. In-vitro propagation is an alternative approach, which may help to produce genetically identical high grade planting material. In this study, for the first time, an efficient and reproducible propagation protocol has been established for apple root stock MM 104 via axillary bud. Culturing axillary buds on Murashige and Skoog apple rootstock (MM 104) resulted in better in-vitro propagation. (MS) basal medium supplemented with 3.0% (w/v) sucrose and 0.8% (w/v) agar. The axillary buds were established in MS basal medium with BA (5.0 µM), NAA (1.0 µM) and further used to establish invitro propagation protocol. Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs), BA (1.0 µM) in combination with NAA (1.0 µM) was found most efficient for shoot multiplication (100%) and produced 9.8 shoots/explants with an average shoot length of (2.4 ± cm). All the shoots produced roots in 0.1 µM IBA with a 5-day dark period. Acclimatization of in-vitro raised plantlets was obtained with vermiculite: perlite: sand: soil (2:2:1:1) resulting in 76% survival under field conditions. The study showed that the use of axillary bud is efficient for multiple-shoot production of apple rootstock (MM 104). This is the first comprehensive report on in-vitro growth of apple root stock MM 104 with an assessment of genetic stability using DNA fingerprinting profiles based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Start Codon Targeted (SCoT). The genetic stability of in-vitro-produced plants, as determined by SCoT and ISSR primers, demonstrated genetic closeness to the mother plant.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/genética , Códon de Iniciação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Frutas , Repetições de Microssatélites
19.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 29, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gleditsia sinensis is a significant tree species from both ecological and economic perspectives. However, its growth is hampered by temporary droughts during the seedling stage, thereby impeding the development of the G. sinensis industry. Drought stress and rehydration of semi-annual potted seedlings using an artificial simulated water control method. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses were conducted on leaves collected from highly resistant (HR) and highly susceptible (HS) seedling families at five different stages during the process of drought stress and rehydration to investigate their gene expression patterns. RESULTS: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were predominantly enriched in pathways related to "chloroplast" (GO:0009507), "photosynthesis" (GO:0015979), "plant hormone signal transduction" (map04075), "flavonoid biosynthesis" (map00941), "stress response", "response to reactive oxygen species (ROS)" (GO:0000302), "signal transduction" (GO:0007165) in G. sinensis HR and HS families exposed to mild and severe drought stress. Additionally, the pathways related to "plant hormone signal transduction" (map04075), and osmoregulation were also enriched. The difference in drought tolerance between the two families of G. sinensis may be associated with "transmembrane transporter activity" (GO:0022857), "stress response", "hormones and signal transduction" (GO:0007165), "cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis" (map00073), "ribosome" (map03010), "photosynthesis" (map00195), "sugar metabolism", and others. An enrichment analysis of DEGs under severe drought stress suggests that the drought tolerance of both families may be related to "water-soluble vitamin metabolic process" (GO:0006767), "photosynthesis" (map00195), "plant hormone signal transduction" (map04075), "starch and sucrose metabolism" (map00500), and "galactose metabolism" (map00052). Osmoregulation-related genes such as delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), Amino acid permease (AAP), Amino acid permease 2 (AAP2) and Trehalose-phosphate synthase (TPS), as well as the antioxidant enzyme L-ascorbate peroxidase 6 (APX6), may be significant genes involved in drought tolerance in G. sinensis. Five genes were selected randomly to validate the RNA-seq results using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and they indicated that the transcriptome data were reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The study presents information on the molecular regulation of the drought tolerance mechanism in G. sinensis and provides a reference for further research on the molecular mechanisms involved in drought tolerance breeding of G. sinensis.


Assuntos
Gleditsia , Plântula , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Secas , Gleditsia/genética , Gleditsia/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Água/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo
20.
PeerJ ; 12: e17068, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495756

RESUMO

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of exogenous sprays of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and 2-Diethylaminoethyl hexanoate (DTA-6) on the growth and salt tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. This study was conducted in a solar greenhouse at Guangdong Ocean University, where 'Huanghuazhan' was selected as the test material, and 40 mg/L 5-ALA and 30 mg/L DTA-6 were applied as foliar sprays at the three-leaf-one-heart stage of rice, followed by treatment with 0.3% NaCl (W/W) 24 h later. A total of six treatments were set up as follows: (1) CK: control, (2) A: 40 mg⋅ L-1 5-ALA, (3) D: 30 mg⋅ L-1 DTA-6, (4) S: 0.3% NaCl, (5) AS: 40 mg⋅ L-1 5-ALA + 0.3% NaCl, and (6) DS: 30 mg⋅ L-1 DTA-6+0.3% NaCl. Samples were taken at 1, 4, 7, 10, and 13 d after NaCl treatment to determine the morphology and physiological and biochemical indices of rice roots. The results showed that NaCl stress significantly inhibited rice growth; disrupted the antioxidant system; increased the rates of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion production; and affected the content of related hormones. Malondialdehyde content, hydrogen peroxide content, and superoxide anion production rate significantly increased from 12.57% to 21.82%, 18.12% to 63.10%, and 7.17% to 56.20%, respectively, in the S treatment group compared to the CK group. Under salt stress, foliar sprays of both 5-ALA and DTA-6 increased antioxidant enzyme activities and osmoregulatory substance content; expanded non-enzymatic antioxidant AsA and GSH content; reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; lowered malondialdehyde content; increased endogenous hormones GA3, JA, IAA, SA, and ZR content; and lowered ABA content in the rice root system. The MDA, H2O2, and O2- contents were reduced from 35.64% to 56.92%, 22.30% to 53.47%, and 7.06% to 20.01%, respectively, in the AS treatment group compared with the S treatment group. In the DS treatment group, the MDA, H2O2, and O2- contents were reduced from 24.60% to 51.09%, 12.14% to 59.05%, and 12.70% to 45.20%. In summary, NaCl stress exerted an inhibitory effect on the rice root system, both foliar sprays of 5-ALA and DTA-6 alleviated damage from NaCl stress on the rice root system, and the effect of 5-ALA was better than that of DTA-6.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Oryza , Humanos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Plântula , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Superóxidos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Hormônios/farmacologia , Malondialdeído/farmacologia
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