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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129840, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088879

RESUMO

Hyperaccumulators are plant species that tolerate and accumulate very high concentrations of toxic metals, including Cd. Hyperaccumulation of heavy metals is reported to benefit plant biotic resistance; however, no prior study has examined the possible role of toxic metals on abiotic stress resistance in hyperaccumulators. A preliminary experiment found that Cd significantly improved plant growth of a hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance, under heat stress. This study investigated the possible role of Cd in S. alfredii's heat resistance, using infrared thermography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR), and high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that high temperatures irreversibly damaged stomatal function, chloroplast structure, photosynthesis in S. alfredii, and lowered survival rates to 25%. However, Cd application significantly decreased the leaf temperature of S. alfredii and increased the survival rate to 75%. Cd penetrated the guard cells, restored stomatal function, and mitigated excessive water loss from S. alfredii under heat stress. Moreover, it activated antioxidant enzymes, promoted phytohormone biosynthesis, and upregulated a series of unigenes, thereby augmenting heat resistance in S. alfredii. These results indicate that Cd effectively improved thermotolerance in S. alfredii by regulating stomatal movement and antioxidant systems via upregulation of phytohormones and heat shock proteins.


Assuntos
Sedum , Poluentes do Solo , Termotolerância , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sedum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Água
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128270, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347483

RESUMO

In this study, a novel method of coupling phytohormones with saline wastewater was proposed to drive efficient microalgal lipid production. All the six phytohormones effectively promoted microalgae growth in saline wastewater, and further increased the microalgal lipid content based on salt stress, so as to achieve a large increase in microalgal lipid productivity. Among the phytohormones used, abscisic acid had the most significant promoting effect. Under the synergistic effect of 20 g/L salt and 20 mg/L abscisic acid, the microalgal lipid productivity reached 3.7 times that of the control. Transcriptome analysis showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of microalgae in saline wastewater were mainly up-regulated under the effects of phytohormones except brassinolide. Common DEGs analysis showed that phytohormones all regulated the expression of genes related to DNA repair and substance synthesis. In conclusion, synergistic effect of salt stress and phytohormones can greatly improve the microalgal lipid production efficiency.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Águas Residuárias , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Estresse Salino , Biomassa
3.
Microbiol Res ; 266: 127218, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242861

RESUMO

The bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is often related to the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on plant development. In PGPR belonging to the Bacillus genus, the synthesis of IAA may occur through different metabolic pathways that are still poorly understood. B. thuringiensis (Bt) is well known for its insecticidal properties; however, its beneficial features are not limited to pest control. Our group has been studed the beneficial effects of Bt strain RZ2MS9 as growth promoter in a range of plant crops, including soybean, tomato, and maize. We recently demonstrated that bacterial IAA biosynthesis plays an important role in the ability of RZ2MS9 to benefit plant development. However, the molecular involved mechanisms in the IAA biosynthesis by this bacterium in the beneficial interaction with plants remain unclear. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of IAA biosynthesis by RZ2MS9. We knocked out the ipdC gene, involved in IAA biosynthesis via the tryptophan-dependent IPyA pathway, using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Our results showed that, by disrupting the IPyA pathway, the amount of IAA synthesized by the mutant RZ2MS9 (ΔipdC) in the presence of tryptophan drops 57%. The gene knockout did not affect the bacterial growth, but it did affect its ability to colonize maize. Moreover, deactivating the ipdC gene in RZ2MS9 significantly reduces its ability to promote maize growth. ΔipdC performed worse than RZ2MS9 in almost all evaluated plant parameters, including total root length, projected root area, lateral roots, aerial part dry matter, and germination speed index. Therefore, we demonstrated that tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway by RZ2MS9 is strongly influenced by the ipdC gene. Furthermore, IAA biosynthesis by RZ2MS9 is a major mechanism used by this PGPR to promote maize growth.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo
4.
Microbiol Res ; 266: 127237, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270107

RESUMO

AIM: of the current research was to use plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sequestration and biotransformation of the toxic form of Cr and As into non-toxic form. Remediating these contaminants using microbes is a common technique and rhizo-microbiota not only relieves metal stress but also acts as biofertilizers. Role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains Acinetobacter beijerinckii (C5) and Raoultella planticola (C9) in counteracting chromium and arsenic stress in soybean seedlings was assessed. The isolated rhizobacteria were able to tolerate excessive quantities (up to 1200 ppm) of chromate and arsenate in liquid media. Beside their growth in heavy metal containing media, the strains were able to bio-transform chromate and arsenate to their least toxic form. They released significant quantities of stress related metabolites including phenols, flavonoids, proline, sugars and protein even in the presence of 1200 ppm of the heavy metals. They also released several plant hormones together with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellins. Another important feature of the isolates was their ability to solubilize phosphate and release siderophores and exposure to different levels of the selected heavy metals enhanced phosphate solubilization potential of both the isolates by up to 2-fold. Release of siderophore in A. beijerinckii C5 was enhanced by increasing heavy metals concentration in the media but in case of R. planticola C9 a decline was noted. When inoculated on soybean seedlings, the isolates modulated several metabolites of the hos plant enabling them to combat heavy metal toxicity at different levels. The PGPR strains boosted host's antioxidants production which minimized the oxidative damage by scavenging excessive ROS produced under stress. Control plants showed upregulation of stress response metabolites compared to PGPR application, whereas, IAA and SA were significantly higher in PGPR associated seedlings. In conclusion, PGPR alters the physiological and metabolic responses of soybean enabling it to cope better with chromate and arsenic toxicity and grow well under the stress.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja , Arseniatos , Cromatos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plântula , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Fosfatos
5.
Gene ; 850: 146905, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181988

RESUMO

The CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) is a multi-functional protein complex, which is involved in plant growth and abiotic stress response. However, the evolution and function of the CSN genes in land plants are still largely unclear. Here, we have identified 124 CSN genes and constructed phylogenetic trees of these CSN proteins to elucidate their feature and evolution in twelve land plants. Analysis of gene structure, protein property and protein motif composition shows the evolutional conservation and variation of the CSN proteins in land plants. These CSN genes might evolve through whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental duplication (SD) and tandem duplication (TD). Analysis of promoter cis-elements shows that the CSN genes are implicated in diverse biological processes and different signaling pathways. RT-qPCR indicates that the transcript abundance of the OsCSN genes is up-regulated or down-regulated in response to abiotic stress and treatment with various hormones in rice. These results provide new insights into the CSN gene evolution and its possible function in land plants.


Assuntos
Embriófitas , Oryza , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Embriófitas/metabolismo , Hormônios
6.
Food Chem ; 401: 134072, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108381

RESUMO

Plant growth regulator N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) is widely used in fruit production. However, the mechanism in which CPPU affects melon fruit quality, especially aroma compound, remains unclear. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to detect the sugar, citric acid, and aroma content in CPPU-treated and pollinated melon fruit. Results showed that the application of CPPU decreased the sugar and aroma content in melon fruit. The relative content of several important esters, including isobutyl acetate, ethyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, methyl acetate, benzyl acetate, and phenethyl acetate, in CPPU-treated fruits was significantly lower than that in honeybee-pollinated fruits. The content of many amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, and l-phenylalanine), which could be metabolized into aroma compounds, in CPPU-treated fruits was significantly higher than that in honeybee-pollinated fruits. In conclusion, CPPU application interferes with amino-acid metabolism and affects the production of aromatic esters in melon fruit.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Abelhas , Animais , Frutas/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Isoleucina , Leucina/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Valina/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Odorantes
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2581: 43-56, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413309

RESUMO

Signaling proteins trigger a sequence of molecular switches in the cell, which permit development, growth, and rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions. SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize signaling proteins prompting changes in their fate, one of these being ubiquitylation followed by degradation by the proteasome. SCFs together with their ubiquitylation targets (substrates) often serve as phytohormone receptors, responding and/or assembling in response to fluctuating intracellular hormone concentrations. Tracing and understanding phytohormone perception and SCF-mediated ubiquitylation of proteins could provide powerful clues on the molecular mechanisms utilized for plant adaptation. Here, we describe an adaptable in vitro system that uses recombinant proteins and enables the study of hormone-triggered SCF-substrate interaction and the dynamics of protein ubiquitylation. This system can serve to predict the requirements for protein recognition and to understand how phytohormone levels have the power to control protein fate.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/metabolismo , Hormônios
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 144, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337273

RESUMO

Sophora davidii is an important plant resource in the karst region of Southwest China, but S. davidii plant-height mutants are rarely reported. Therefore, we performed phenotypic, anatomic structural, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to study the mechanisms responsible for S. davidii plant-height mutants. Phenotypic and anatomical observations showed that compared to the wild type, the dwarf mutant displayed a significant decrease in plant height, while the tall mutant displayed a significant increase in plant height. The dwarf mutant cells were smaller and more densely arranged, while those of the wild type and the tall mutant were larger and loosely arranged. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in cell wall biosynthesis, expansion, phytohormone biosynthesis, signal transduction pathways, flavonoid biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were significantly enriched in the S. davidii plant-height mutants. Metabolomic analysis revealed 57 significantly differential metabolites screened from both the dwarf and tall mutants. A total of 8 significantly different flavonoid compounds were annotated to LIPID MAPS, and three metabolites (chlorogenic acid, kaempferol and scopoletin) were involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis. These results shed light on the molecular mechanisms of plant height in S. davidii mutants and provide insight for further molecular breeding programs.


Assuntos
Sophora , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Sophora/genética , Sophora/metabolismo
9.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 669, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329059

RESUMO

Rose is one of the most important ornamental plants, accounting for one-third of the world's fresh cut flower market. The vase life refers to the period of a cut flower retaining its appearance in a vase. During this period, the rose was subjected to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, resulting in a reduction in the life of cut flowers. Numerous studies have been carried out on cut rose, which proves the effects of various plant hormones on post-harvest dehydration, petal senescence and abscission, disease and vase life of cut rose flowers. In addition, the natural or synthetic hormones or its inhibitor have been successfully used in cut flower preservatives to extend the vase life of rose. However, there is still a lack of systematic and in-depth research on the expression of rose genes related to plant hormone response. Here we analyzed the gene expression changes of the rose flower under treatment of 11 different plant hormones or its inhibitors in order to provide reference for rose studies.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Rosa , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Rosa/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 247: 114248, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332406

RESUMO

Halosulfuron-methyl (HSM) is a new and highly effective sulfonylurea herbicide widely used in weed control, but its residue in the environment poses a potential risk to soybean. Soybean-rhizobium symbiotic nitrogen fixation is crucial for sustainable agricultural development and ecological environment health. However, the impact of HSM on the symbiosis between soybean and rhizobium is unclear. In this study, the effects of HSM on the soybean-rhizobium symbiotic process and nitrogen fixation were investigated by means of transcriptomic and physiological analyses. Treatment with a concentration of HSM less than 0.5 mg L-1 had no effect on rhizobium growth, but significantly reduced nodules number, the biomass of soybean nodules, and nitrogenase activity in root nodules (P < 0.05). Transcriptomic analysis showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in NH4+ assimilation were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). In addition, the activities of NH4+ assimilation enzymes were markedly reduced. This result was further confirmed by the accumulation of NH4+ in root nodules, indicating that the inhibition of nitrogen fixation by HSM may be caused by excessive NH4+ accumulation in root nodules. Furthermore, DEGs involved in flavonoid synthesis, phytohormone biosynthesis, and phytohormone signaling transduction were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05), which was consistent with the decrease in flavonoid and phytohormone contents determined in this study. These results suggested that HSM may inhibit soybean nodulation by inhibiting flavonoid synthesis in soybean roots, disrupting the balance of plant endogenous hormones in roots during symbiosis, and blocking the transmission of hormone signals during the symbiosis. Our findings provide new insights into the effects of HSM on the legume-rhizobium nodule symbiotic process.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Rhizobium , Soja/genética , Simbiose , Transcriptoma , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Flavonoides
11.
BMC Biotechnol ; 22(1): 34, 2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Callus induction is the first step in optimizing plant regeneration. Fit embryogenesis and shooting rely on callus induction. In addition, using artificial intelligence models in combination with an algorithm can be helpful in the optimization of in vitro culture. The present study aimed to evaluate the percentage and speed of callus induction optimization in carrot with a Multilayer Perceptron-Single point discrete genetic algorithm (GA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the outputs included callus induction percentage and speed, while inputs were different types and concentrations of plant growth regulator (0. 5, 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 mg/l BAP, 1, 0.2 mg/l Kin, and 2 mg/l NAA), different explants (shoot, root, leaf, and nodal), a different concentration compound of MS medium (1 × MS, 4× MS, and 8× MS) and time of sampling. The data were obtained in the laboratory, and multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF), two well-known ANNs, were employed to model. Then, GA was used for optimization, and sensitivity analysis was performed to indicate the inputs' importance. RESULTS: The results showed that MLP had better prediction efficiency than RBF. Based on the results, R2 in training and testing data was 95 and 95% for the percentage of callus induction, while it was 94 and 95% for the speed of callus induction, respectively. In addition, a concentration compound of MS had high sensitivity, while times of sampling had low sensitivity. Based on the MLP-Single point discrete GA, the best results were obtained for shoot explants, 1× MS media, and 0.5 mg/l 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg/l BAP. Further, a non-significant difference was observed between the test result and predicted MLP. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, MLP-Single point discrete GA is considered a potent tool for predicting treatment and fit model results used in plant tissue culture and selecting the best medium for callus induction.


Assuntos
Daucus carota , Inteligência Artificial , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Folhas de Planta
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 523, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) in inducing adventitious root (AR) formation, biomass accumulation, and plant development under long-term waterlogging (LT-WL) conditions are largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine the roles of exogenous application of ABA and IAA in two woody plants (Cleistocalyx operculatus and Syzygium jambos) under LT-WL conditions. A pot experiment was conducted using a complete randomized design with two factors: (i) LT-WL and (ii) application of exogenous phytohormones (ABA and IAA) for 120 d. RESULTS: Results revealed that exogenous ABA and IAA promoted LT-WL tolerance in both species. In C. operculatus and S. jambos, plant height, the number of blades, leaf area, and fresh shoot weight were increased by exogenous IAA under LT-WL. However, exogenous ABA affected more the adventitious and primary root in C. operculatus compared to S. jambos. LT-WL decreased drastically the photosynthetic activities in both species, but adding moderate amounts of exogenous ABA or IAA protected the photosynthesis apparatus under LT-WL. Exogenous phytohormones at certain levels decreased the superoxide anion level and malondialdehyde accumulation in plants under LT-WL. Also, the increase of the peroxidases and superoxide dismutase activities by exogenous phytohormones was more marked in C. operculatus compared to S. jambos. Meanwhile, the catalase activity was down-regulated in both species by exogenous phytohormones. Exogenous ABA or IAA positively regulated the jasmonic acid content in ARs under LT-WL. Moderate application of exogenous ABA or IAA in plants under LT-WL decreased the ABA content in the leaves. Lower accumulation of IAA and ABA in the leaves of C. operculatus under LT-WL was positively correlated with a decrease in antioxidant activity. CONCLUSIONS: Lastly, C. operculatus which has greater morphology indexes was more tolerant to waterlogging than S. jambos. Moreover, the adaptive strategies via exogenous ABA were more built around the below-ground biomass indexes particularly in C. operculatus, while exogenous IAA backed the above-ground biomass in both species. Overall, the exogenous hormones applied (spraying or watering) influenced differentially the plant's responses to LT-WL. The phytohormonal profile of plants exposed to waterlogging stress varied depending on the species' tolerance level.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Syzygium , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19068, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352006

RESUMO

Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) and chloroxylenol (PCMX) are popular disinfectants often used in personal care products (PCPs). The unregulated discharge of these micropollutants into the environment, as well as the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer and reclaimed water in agriculture, poses a serious threat to ecosystems. However, research into their ecotoxicity towards nontarget organisms is very limited. In the present study, for the first time, the ecotoxicity of biocides to Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas moorei, Sphingomonas mali, and Bacillus subtilis was examined. The toxicity of MIT and PCMX was evaluated using the microdilution method, and their influence on the viability of bacterial cells was investigated by the AlamarBlue® test. The ability of the tested bacteria to form biofilms was examined by a microtiter plate assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured with CM-H2DCFDA. The effect of MIT and PCMX on phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production was determined by spectrophotometry and LC‒MS/MS techniques. The permeability of bacterial cell membranes was studied using the SYTOX Green assay. Changes in the phospholipid profile were analysed using LC‒MS/MS. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 3.907 to 15.625 mg L-1 for MIT and 62.5 to 250 mg L-1 for PCMX, indicating that MIT was more toxic. With increasing concentrations of MIT and PCMX, the cell viability, biofilm formation ability and phytohormone synthesis were maximally inhibited. Moreover, the growth of bacterial cell membrane permeability and a significantly increased content of ROS were observed, indicating that the exposure caused serious oxidative stress and homeostasis disorders. Additionally, modifications in the phospholipid profile were observed in response to the presence of sublethal concentrations of the chemicals. These results prove that the environmental threat posed by MIT and PCMX must be carefully monitored, especially as their use in PCPs is still growing.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Solo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Cromatografia Líquida , Ecossistema , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Bactérias , Fosfolipídeos
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 533, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid-Na (MPCA-Na) is a phenoxy carboxylic acid selective hormone herbicide that is widely used in the crop fields. However, drift of MPCA-Na during application is highly damaging to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and other crop plants. This study was carried out from 2019 to 2020 to determine the effects of different concentrations of MPCA-Na on physiological and metabolic activities besides growth and yield of cotton plants at seedling, budding, flowering and boll stages. Moreover, we evaluated the different combinations of 24-epibrassinolide, gibberellin (GA3), phthalanilic acid and seaweed fertilizer to ameliorate herbicide damage. RESULTS: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid-Na (MPCA-Na) exposure caused a decrease in the chlorophyll content, and an increase in the soluble protein content, Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and protective enzyme activity. It also caused significant reductions in plant height, boll number and the single boll weight at the seedling and budding stages, but had little effects on plant height and the single boll weight at flowering and boll stage. Under the maximum recommended dose of MPCA-Na (130 g/L), the number of cotton bolls at seedling and budding stages decreased by 75.33 and 79.50%, respectively, and the single boll weight decreased by 46.42 and 36.31%, respectively. Nevertheless, the number of G. hirsutum bolls and single boll weight at flowering and boll stage decreased by 48.15 and 5.38%, respectively. Application of plant growth regulators decreased the MDA content, and increased chlorophyll, soluble protein content and protective enzyme activity, and alleviated MCPA-Na toxicity. Positive effects in case of growth regulators treated plants were also observed in terms of G. hirsutum yield. Phthalanilic acid + seaweed fertilizer, 24-epibrassinolide + seaweed fertilizer, and GA3 + seaweed fertilizer should be used at the seedling, budding, and flowering and boll stages, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of current study suggest that certain plant growth regulators could be used to alleviate MPCA-Na damage and maintain G. hirsutum yield. When the cotton exposed to MCPA-Na at the seedling stage, it should be treated with phthalanilic acid + seaweed fertilizer, while plants exposed at the budding stage should be treated with 24-epibrassinolide + seaweed fertilizer, and those exposed at the flowering and boll stages should be treated with GA3 + seaweed fertilizer to mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Ácido 2-Metil-4-clorofenoxiacético , Herbicidas , Gossypium/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Fertilizantes , Clorofila/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361778

RESUMO

Ethylene (ETH), as a key plant hormone, plays critical roles in various processes of plant growth and development. ETH has been reported to induce adventitious rooting. Moreover, our previous studies have shown that exogenous ETH may induce plant adventitious root development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). However, the key genes involved in this process are still unclear. To explore the key genes in ETH-induced adventitious root development, we employed a transcriptome technique and revealed 1415 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 687 DEGs up-regulated and 728 DEGs down-regulated. Using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, we further identified critical pathways that were involved in ETH-induced adventitious root development, including carbon metabolism (starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid biosynthesis, and fatty acid degradation), secondary metabolism (phenylalanine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis) and plant hormone signal transduction. In carbon metabolism, ETH reduced the content of sucrose, glucose, starch, the activity of sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) and hexokinase (HK), and the expressions of CsHK2, pyruvate kinase2 (CsPK2), and CsCYP86A1, whereas it enhanced the expressions of ß-amylase 1 (CsBAM1) and ß-amylase 3 (CsBAM3). In secondary metabolism, the transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (CsPAL) and flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase (CsF3'M) were negatively regulated, and that of primary-amine oxidase (CsPAO) was positively regulated by ETH. Additionally, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content and the expressions of auxin and ETH signaling transduction-related genes (auxin transporter-like protein 5 (CsLAX5), CsGH3.17, CsSUAR50, and CsERS) were suppressed, whereas the abscisic acid (ABA) content and the expressions of ABA and BR signaling transduction-related genes (CsPYL1, CsPYL5, CsPYL8, BRI1-associated kinase 1 (CsBAK1), and CsXTH3) were promoted by ETH. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of these genes were confirmed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). These results indicate that genes related to carbon metabolism, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and plant hormone signaling transduction are involved in ETH-induced adventitious root development. This work identified the key pathways and genes in ETH-induced adventitious rooting in cucumber, which may provide new insights into ETH-induced adventitious root development and will be useful for investigating the molecular roles of key genes in this process in further studies.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , beta-Amilase , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , beta-Amilase/genética , beta-Amilase/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361817

RESUMO

Floral initiation is a major phase change in the spermatophyte, where developmental programs switch from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. It is a key phase of flowering in tea-oil trees that can affect flowering time and yield, but very little is known about the molecular mechanism of floral initiation in tea-oil trees. A 12-year-old Camellia oleifera (cultivar 'changlin53') was the source of experimental materials in the current study. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the key stage of floral initiation, and transcriptome analysis was used to reveal the transcriptional regulatory network in old leaves involved in floral initiation. We mined 5 DEGs related to energy and 55 DEGs related to plant hormone signal transduction, and we found floral initiation induction required a high level of energy metabolism, and the phytohormones signals in the old leaves regulate floral initiation, which occurred at stage I and II. Twenty-seven rhythm-related DEGs and 107 genes associated with flowering were also identified, and the circadian rhythm interacted with photoperiod pathways to induce floral initiation. Unigene0017292 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR), Unigene0046809 (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL), Unigene0009932 (GIGANTEA), Unigene0001842 (CONSTANS), and Unigene0084708 (FLOWER LOCUS T) were the key genes in the circadian rhythm-photoperiod regulatory network. In conjunction with morphological observations and transcriptomic analysis, we concluded that the induction of floral initiation by old leaves in C. oleifera 'changlin53' mainly occurred during stages I and II, floral initiation was completed during stage III, and rhythm-photoperiod interactions may be the source of the main signals in floral initiation induced by old leaves.


Assuntos
Camellia , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Árvores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Flores/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Chá/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361937

RESUMO

Auxins and cytokinins are considered the most important plant hormones, responsible for fundamental traits of the plant organism [...].


Assuntos
Citocininas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Transporte Biológico , Transdução de Sinais , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Percepção , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362292

RESUMO

Warm temperatures induce plant bolting accompanied by flower initiation, where endogenous auxin is dynamically associated with accelerated growth. Auxin signaling is primarily regulated by a family of plant-specific transcription factors, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs), which either activate or repress the expression of downstream genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, the relationship between ARFs and bolting has not been completely understood in lettuce yet. Here, we identified 24 LsARFs (Lactuca sativa ARFs) in the lettuce genome. The phylogenetic tree indicated that LsARFs could be classified into three clusters, which was well supported by the analysis of exon-intron structure, consensus motifs, and domain compositions. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that more than half of the LsARFs were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, whereas a small number of LsARFs responded to UV or cadmium stresses. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of most LsARFs could be activated by more than one phytohormone, underling their key roles as integrative hubs of different phytohormone signaling pathways. Importantly, the majority of LsARFs displayed altered expression profiles under warm temperatures, implying that their functions were tightly associated with thermally accelerated bolting in lettuce. Importantly, we demonstrated that silencing of LsARF8a, expression of which was significantly increased by elevated temperatures, resulted in delayed bolting under warm temperatures, suggesting that LsARF8a might conduce to the thermally induced bolting. Together, our results provide molecular insights into the LsARF gene family in lettuce, which will facilitate the genetic improvement of the lettuce in an era of global warming.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Alface , Alface/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(45): 14352-14366, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326728

RESUMO

Diuron [DU; 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea], a widely used herbicide for weed control, arouses ecological and health risks due to its environment persistence. Our findings revealed that DU at 0.125-2.0 mg L-1 caused oxidative damage to rice. RNA-sequencing profiles disclosed a globally genetic expression landscape of rice under DU treatment. DU mediated downregulated gene encoding photosynthesis and biosynthesis of protein, fatty acid, and carbohydrate. Conversely, it induced the upregulation of numerous genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, detoxification, and anti-oxidation. Furthermore, 15 DU metabolites produced by metabolic genes were identified, 7 of which include two Phase I-based and 5 Phase II-based derivatives, were reported for the first time. The changes of resistance-related phytohormones, like JA, ABA, and SA, in terms of their contents and molecular-regulated signaling pathways positively responded to DU stress. Our work provides a molecular-scale perspective on the response of rice to DU toxicity and clarifies the biotransformation and degradation fate of DU in rice crops.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Oryza , Diurona/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 529, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, which contains rich polysaccharides, flavonoids and alkaloids, is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with important economic benefits, while various pathogens have brought huge losses to its industrialization. NBS gene family is the largest class of plant disease resistance (R) genes, proteins of which are widely distributed in the upstream and downstream of the plant immune systems and are responsible for receiving infection signals and regulating gene expression respectively. It is of great significance for the subsequent disease resistance breeding of D. officinale to identify NBS genes by using the newly published high-quality chromosome-level D. officinale genome. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 655 NBS genes were uncovered from the genomes of D. officinale, D. nobile, D. chrysotoxum, V. planifolia, A. shenzhenica, P. equestris and A. thaliana. The phylogenetic results of CNL-type protein sequences showed that orchid NBS-LRR genes have significantly degenerated on branches a and b. The Dendrobium NBS gene homology analysis showed that the Dendrobium NBS genes have two obvious characteristics: type changing and NB-ARC domain degeneration. Because the NBS-LRR genes have both NB-ARC and LRR domains, 22 D. officinale NBS-LRR genes were used for subsequent analyses, such as gene structures, conserved motifs, cis-elements and functional annotation analyses. All these results suggested that D. officinale NBS-LRR genes take part in the ETI system, plant hormone signal transduction pathway and Ras signaling pathway. Finally, there were 1,677 DEGs identified from the salicylic acid (SA) treatment transcriptome data of D. officinale. Among them, six NBS-LRR genes (Dof013264, Dof020566, Dof019188, Dof019191, Dof020138 and Dof020707) were significantly up-regulated. However, only Dof020138 was closely related to other pathways from the results of WGCNA, such as pathogen identification pathways, MAPK signaling pathways, plant hormone signal transduction pathways, biosynthetic pathways and energy metabolism pathways. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that the NBS gene degenerations are common in the genus Dendrobium, which is the main reason for the diversity of NBS genes, and the NBS-LRR genes generally take part in D. officinale ETI system and signal transduction pathways. In addition, the D. officinale NBS-LRR gene Dof020138, which may have an important breeding value, is indirectly activated by SA in the ETI system.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Ácido Salicílico , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Dendrobium/genética , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transcriptoma
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