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4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(53): 1201-1205, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945036

RESUMO

Control of communicable diseases in children, including respiratory and diarrheal illnesses that affect U.S. school-aged children, might require public health preventive efforts both in the home and at school, a primary setting for transmission. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data on school absenteeism and gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in the United States during 2010-2016 were analyzed to examine their associations with income. Prevalence of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses (queried for the 2 weeks preceding the survey) increased as income decreased. The likelihood of missing any school days during the past year decreased with reduced income. However, among children who missed school, those from low-income households missed more days of school than did children from higher income households. Although the reason for absenteeism cannot be ascertained from this analysis, these data underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g. hand hygiene promotion and education) and the opportunity for both homes and schools to serve as important points for implementation of public health preventive measures, including improved hand hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(3): 494-502, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disparities in gastric cancer have been associated with differences in care and inferior outcomes. We evaluated the presentation, treatment, and survival for patients with gastric cancer (GC) in a metropolitan setting with a large African American population. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of patients with GC (2003-2018) across a multi-hospital system was performed. Associations between socioeconomic and clinicopathologic data with the presentation, treatment, and survival were examined. RESULTS: Of 359 patients, 255 (71%) were African American and 104 (29%) Caucasian. African Americans were more likely to present at a younger age (64.0 vs 72.5, P < .001), have state-sponsored or no insurance (19.7% vs 6.9%, P = .02), reside within the lowest 2 quintiles for median income (67.4% vs 32.7%, P < .001), and have higher rates of Helicobacter pylori (14.9% vs 4.8%, P = .02). Receipt of multi-modality therapy was not impacted by race or insurance status. On multivariable analysis, only AJCC T class (HR 1.68) and node positivity (HR 2.43) remained significant predictors of disease-specific survival. CONCLUSION: Despite socioeconomic disparities, African Americans, and Caucasians with GC had similar treatment and outcomes. African Americans presented at a younger age with higher rates of H. pylori positivity, warranting further investigation into differences in risk factors and tumor biology.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Classe Social , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por Helicobacter/virologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18625, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inequality in health and health care remains a rather challenging issue in China, existing both in rural and urban area, and between rural and urban. This study used nationally representative data to assess inequality in both rural and urban China separately and to identify socioeconomic factors that may contribute to this inequality. METHODS: This study used 2008 National Health Services Survey data. Demographic characteristics, income, health status, medical service utilization, and medical expenses were collected. Horizontal inequality analysis was performed using nonlinear regression method. RESULTS: Positive inequity in outpatient services and inpatient service was evident in both rural and urban area of China. Greater inequity of outpatient service use in urban than that in rural areas was evident (horizontal inequity index [HI] = 0.085 vs 0.029). In contrast, rural areas had greater inequity of inpatient service use compared to urban areas (HI = 0.21 vs 0.16). The decomposition analysis found that the household income made the greatest pro-rich contribution in both rural and urban China. However, chronic diseases and aging were also important contributors to the inequality in rural area. CONCLUSION: The inequality in health service in both rural and urban China was mainly attributed to the household income. In addition, chronic disease and aging were associated with inequality in rural population. Those findings provide evidences for policymaker to develop a sustainable social welfare system in China.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 94-98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mixed results exist regarding the benefit of orthobiologic injections. The purpose of this study was to assess the variability in costs for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cell (SC) injections and evaluate for variables that influence pricing. HYPOTHESIS: There will be significant variability in the cost of PRP and SC injections throughout the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Calls were made to 1345 orthopaedic sports medicine practices across the United States inquiring into the availability of PRP or SC knee injections and associated costs. In addition to pricing, the practice type, number of providers, and population and income demographics were recorded. Univariate statistical analyses were used to identify differences in availability and cost between variables. RESULTS: Of the contacted offices that provided information on both PRP and SC availability (n = 1325), 268 (20.2%) offered both treatments, 550 (41.5%) offered only PRP injections, 20 (1.5%) offered only SC injections, and 487 (36.8%) did not offer either treatment. The mean ± SD cost of a PRP injection was $707 ± $388 (range, $175-$4973), and the mean cost of an SC injection was $2728 ± $1584 (range, $300-$12,000). Practices offering PRP and SC injections tended to be larger (PRP, 12.0 physicians per practice vs. 8.1 [P < 0.001]; SC, 13.6 vs 9.7 [P < 0.001]). Practices that offered PRP injections were located in areas with higher median household income (P = 0.047). Variables associated with higher cost of PRP injections included city population (P < 0.001) and median income of residents (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: While the majority of sports medicine practices across the United States offer some type of orthobiologic injection, there exists significant variability in the cost of these injections. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrates the significant variability in costs of orthobiologic injections throughout the country, which will allow sports medicine physicians to appreciate the value of these injections when counseling patients on available treatment options.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Traumatismos do Joelho/economia , Traumatismos do Joelho/terapia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Células-Tronco , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Ambio ; 49(2): 628-639, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161600

RESUMO

Fishing is a dangerous and financially risky way to make a living, but it attracts many participants that prefer it to higher paying and safer jobs. Based on a survey of over 1400 U.S. West Coast fishing vessel owners we use factor analysis and structural equation modeling to quantify distinct latent variables representing job satisfaction related to non-monetary versus monetary aspects of fishing and measures of identity and social capital associated with being a fisher. We show that these latent variables have distinct effects on (stated) fishery participation behavior and that higher non-monetary job satisfaction, social capital, and identity, are associated with a willingness to forgo higher income to be a fisher. Understanding how these factors affect and are affected by participation in fisheries could be important to increase benefits from fisheries and to ensure sustainability of management regimes that rely on indirect controls on effort to limit catch.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Satisfação no Emprego , Animais , Renda , Alimentos Marinhos
9.
J Surg Res ; 245: 629-635, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) accounts for more than 2 million U.S. hospital admissions annually. Low-income EGS patients have higher rates of postoperative adverse events (AEs) than high-income patients. This may be related to health care segregation (a disparity in access to high-quality centers). The emergent nature of EGS conditions and the limited number of EGS providers in rural areas may result in less health care segregation and thereby less variability in EGS outcomes in rural areas. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of income on AEs for both rural and urban EGS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (2007-2014) was queried for patients receiving one of 10 common EGS procedures. Multivariate regression models stratified by income quartiles in urban and rural cohorts adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and other hospital-based factors were used to determine the rates of surgical AEs (mortality, complications, and failure to rescue [FTR]). RESULTS: 1,687,088 EGS patients were identified; 16.60% (n = 280,034) of them were rural. In the urban cohort, lower income quartiles were associated with higher odds of AEs (mortality OR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.15-1.27], complications, 1.07 [1.06-1.09]; FTR, 1.17 [1.10-1.24] P < 0.001). In the rural context, income quartiles were not associated with the higher odds of AE (mortality OR, 1.14 [0.83-1.55], P = 0.42; complications, 1.06 [0.97-1,16], P = 1.17; FTR, 1.12 [0.79-1.59], P = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Lower income is associated with higher postoperative AEs in the urban setting but not in a rural environment. This socioeconomic disparity in EGS outcomes in urban settings may reflect health care segregation, a differential access to high-quality health care for low-income patients.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Falha da Terapia de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Rurais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 671-681, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919464

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a strong risk factor for incidence and premature mortality from several cancers. Our study aimed at quantifying the association between SEP and gastric cancer (GC) risk through an individual participant data meta-analysis within the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Educational level and household income were used as proxies for the SEP. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across levels of education and household income by pooling study-specific ORs through random-effects meta-analytic models. The relative index of inequality (RII) was also computed. A total of 9,773 GC cases and 24,373 controls from 25 studies from Europe, Asia and America were included. The pooled OR for the highest compared to the lowest level of education was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.84), while the pooled RII was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69). A strong inverse association was observed both for noncardia (OR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.70) and cardia GC (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.22-0.99). The relation was stronger among H. pylori negative subjects (RII 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04-0.48) as compared to H. pylori positive ones (RII 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), in the absence of a significant interaction (p = 0.28). The highest household income category showed a pooled OR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89), while the corresponding RII was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.72). Our collaborative pooled-analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between SEP indicators and GC risk. Our data call for public health interventions to reduce GC risk among the more vulnerable groups of the population.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 134-145, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the employment status in working-age survivors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explore clinical, treatment, and sociodemographic factors that may facilitate or impede successful return to work (RTW). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This Canadian study was part of a larger cross-sectional study assessing late toxicities in 107 disease-free survivors of NPC who received curative-intent intensity modulated radiation therapy ≥4 years earlier. For this substudy, eligible participants were employed at diagnosis and were of working age (<65 years) at study enrollment. Patient-reported work status (modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Work Status Questionnaire), quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck questionnaire), symptom burden (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for head and neck cancer), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), neurobehavioral functioning (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale), and neurocognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) were assessed. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the impact of variables on RTW status. RESULTS: Among 73 eligible patients, the median age was 53 years (range, 32-64) and median time from intensity modulated radiation therapy completion was 7.3 years (range, 4.2-11.1). At enrollment, 45 (62%) were working, of whom 14 (31%) had reduced work hours from diagnosis by a median of 12 h/wk (range, 4-30). Overall, mean work hours decreased from 41.6 to 37.8 h/wk (P = .005). Currently employed (vs unemployed) patients were younger (P = .017) and reported better performance status (P = .013). They had higher quality of life (P = .044), lower symptom burden (P = .03), less significant change from their baseline neurobehavioral function (P = .008), and disability (P = .0025) or private health benefits (P = .035). Anxiety, depression, occupation type, income, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score were not significantly associated with RTW in the univariable analysis. Age, change in baseline neurobehavioral function, and having private health benefits were all independent predictors of RTW. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of long-term survivors of NPC do RTW, although almost one-third report working fewer hours. Prospective research is needed to better understand and facilitate successful RTW in survivors of NPC.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Canadá , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/psicologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/psicologia , Ocupações , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
12.
BJOG ; 127(1): 47-56, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in pregnancy in Australia and New Zealand (A&NZ). DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING: Hospital-based maternity units throughout A&NZ. POPULATION: Pregnant women with RHD with a birth outcome of ≥20 weeks of gestation between January 2013 and December 2014. METHODS: We identified eligible women using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS). De-identified antenatal, perinatal and postnatal data were collected and analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of RHD in pregnancy. Perinatal morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: There were 311 pregnancies associated with women with RHD (4.3/10 000 women giving birth, 95% CI 3.9-4.8). In Australia, 78% were Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (60.4/10 000, 95% CI 50.7-70.0), while in New Zealand 90% were Maori or Pasifika (27.2/10 000, 95% CI 22.0-32.3). One woman (0.3%) died and one in ten was admitted to coronary or intensive care units postpartum. There were 314 births with seven stillbirths (22.3/1000 births) and two neonatal deaths (6.5/1000 births). Sixty-six (21%) live-born babies were preterm and one in three was admitted to neonatal intensive care or special care units. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy persists in disadvantaged First Nations populations in A&NZ. It is associated with significant cardiac and perinatal morbidity. Preconception planning and counselling and RHD screening in at-risk pregnant women are essential for good maternal and baby outcomes. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy persists in First Nations people in Australia and New Zealand and is associated with major cardiac and perinatal morbidity.


Assuntos
Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/etnologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/etnologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Northern Territory/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BJOG ; 127(1): 8-16, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With expanding recreational cannabis legalisation, pregnant women and their offspring are at risk of potentially harmful consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of recreational cannabis use among pregnant women, health outcomes associated with prenatal recreational cannabis use, and the potential impact of recreational cannabis legalisation on this population. SEARCH STRATEGY: Five databases and the grey literature were systematically searched (2000-2019). SELECTION CRITERIA: Human studies published in English or French reporting on the prevalence of prenatal recreational cannabis use in high-income countries. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data on study characteristics, prenatal substance use, and health outcomes were extracted and qualitatively synthesised. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-one publications met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of prenatal cannabis use varied substantially (min-max: 0.24-22.6%), with the greatest use in the first trimester. In the three studies with temporal data available, rates of prenatal cannabis use increased across years. Only 7/41 and 5/41 studies provided information on gestational age of exposure and frequency of use, respectively. The concomitant use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco was higher among cannabis users than nonusers. Prenatal cannabis use was associated with select neonatal, but not maternal, health outcomes. There were insufficient data to compare prenatal cannabis use between the pre- and post-legalisation periods. CONCLUSION: Cannabis use among pregnant women is prevalent and may be associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Future studies should assess the gestational age and frequency of cannabis exposure, and usage patterns prior to and following legalisation. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Women who consume cannabis during pregnancy could risk predisposing their newborns to poor birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Renda , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(12): 2390-2398, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between cost sharing and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected detailed cost-sharing information for patients enrolled in CR at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts, including the presence (or absence) and amounts of co-pays and deductibles. We evaluated the association between cost sharing and the total number of CR sessions attended as well as the influence of household income on CR attendance. RESULTS: In 2015, 603 patients enrolled in CR had complete cost-sharing information. In total, 235 (39%) had some form of cost sharing. Of these, 192 (82%) had co-pays (median co-pay, $20; interquartile range [IQR], $10-$32) and 79 (34%) had an unmet deductible (median, $500; IQR, $250-$1800). The presence of any amount or form of cost sharing was associated with 6 fewer sessions of CR (16; IQR, 4-36 vs 10; IQR, 4-27; P<.001). Patients hospitalized in November or December with deductibles that renewed in January attended 4.5 fewer sessions of CR (8.5; IQR, 3.25-12.50 vs 13; IQR, 5.25-36.00; P=.049). After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, every $10 increase in co-pay was associated with 1.5 (95% CI, -2.3 to -0.7) fewer sessions of CR (P<.001). Household income did not moderate these relationships. CONCLUSION: Cost sharing was associated with lower CR attendance and exhibited a dose-response relationship such that higher cost sharing was associated with lower CR attendance. Given that CR is cost-effective and underutilized, insurance companies and other payers should reevaluate their cost-sharing policies for CR.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Reabilitação Cardíaca/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
N Engl J Med ; 381(25): 2440-2450, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the national obesity epidemic has been well documented, less is known about obesity at the U.S. state level. Current estimates are based on body measures reported by persons themselves that underestimate the prevalence of obesity, especially severe obesity. METHODS: We developed methods to correct for self-reporting bias and to estimate state-specific and demographic subgroup-specific trends and projections of the prevalence of categories of body-mass index (BMI). BMI data reported by 6,264,226 adults (18 years of age or older) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (1993-1994 and 1999-2016) were obtained and corrected for quantile-specific self-reporting bias with the use of measured data from 57,131 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fitted multinomial regressions for each state and subgroup to estimate the prevalence of four BMI categories from 1990 through 2030: underweight or normal weight (BMI [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], <25), overweight (25 to <30), moderate obesity (30 to <35), and severe obesity (≥35). We evaluated the accuracy of our approach using data from 1990 through 2010 to predict 2016 outcomes. RESULTS: The findings from our approach suggest with high predictive accuracy that by 2030 nearly 1 in 2 adults will have obesity (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.7 to 50.1), and the prevalence will be higher than 50% in 29 states and not below 35% in any state. Nearly 1 in 4 adults is projected to have severe obesity by 2030 (24.2%; 95% CI, 22.9 to 25.5), and the prevalence will be higher than 25% in 25 states. We predict that, nationally, severe obesity is likely to become the most common BMI category among women (27.6%; 95% CI, 26.1 to 29.2), non-Hispanic black adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 29.9 to 33.4), and low-income adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 30.2 to 33.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the prevalence of adult obesity and severe obesity will continue to increase nationwide, with large disparities across states and demographic subgroups. (Funded by the JPB Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Mórbida/etnologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ ; 367: l6326, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine how the UK National Health Service (NHS) is performing relative to health systems of other high income countries, given that it is facing sustained financial pressure, increasing levels of demand, and cuts to social care. DESIGN: Observational study using secondary data from key international organisations such as Eurostat and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. SETTING: Healthcare systems of the UK and nine high income comparator countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 79 indicators across seven domains: population and healthcare coverage, healthcare and social spending, structural capacity, utilisation, access to care, quality of care, and population health. RESULTS: The UK spent the least per capita on healthcare in 2017 compared with all other countries studied (UK $3825 (£2972; €3392); mean $5700), and spending was growing at slightly lower levels (0.02% of gross domestic product in the previous four years, compared with a mean of 0.07%). The UK had the lowest rates of unmet need and among the lowest numbers of doctors and nurses per capita, despite having average levels of utilisation (number of hospital admissions). The UK had slightly below average life expectancy (81.3 years compared with a mean of 81.7) and cancer survival, including breast, cervical, colon, and rectal cancer. Although several health service outcomes were poor, such as postoperative sepsis after abdominal surgery (UK 2454 per 100 000 discharges; mean 2058 per 100 000 discharges), 30 day mortality for acute myocardial infarction (UK 7.1%; mean 5.5%), and ischaemic stroke (UK 9.6%; mean 6.6%), the UK achieved lower than average rates of postoperative deep venous thrombosis after joint surgery and fewer healthcare associated infections. CONCLUSIONS: The NHS showed pockets of good performance, including in health service outcomes, but spending, patient safety, and population health were all below average to average at best. Taken together, these results suggest that if the NHS wants to achieve comparable health outcomes at a time of growing demographic pressure, it may need to spend more to increase the supply of labour and long term care and reduce the declining trend in social spending to match levels of comparator countries.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda , Reino Unido
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1418, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early exit from paid employment is a notable public health and societal challenge. Previous research has largely focused on the relationships among variables instead of the relationships among individuals with different work participation history. Person-oriented methods enable to identify latent groups of individuals who are likely to follow similar development in their work participation over time. We thus aimed to identify work participation trajectories during early and midlife careers and their social determinants using large nationally representative data comprising over 1 million initially employed individuals and a 10-year follow-up for their work participation. A further aim was to determine the cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to key diagnostic groups, mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases within the trajectories. METHODS: Young (25-38 years at baseline, n = 495,663) and midlife (39-52 years at baseline, n = 603,085) Finnish people, all working in 2004, were followed up through 2013, with registers of the Social Insurance Institution, and the Statistics Finland. The registers provided data for work participation and its determinants, as well as for computing the cumulative incidence of sickness absence. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: Three distinctive trajectories were identified: temporary exit, permanent exit, and continuously employed people. As compared to the other trajectories, those belonging to the permanent exit trajectory were more likely men, manual workers and had a lower income. The cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to mental disorders was highest in the permanent exit trajectory group. For musculoskeletal diseases, the cumulative incidence of sickness absence increased in the permanent exit trajectory mainly in the older age groups. CONCLUSION: Distinct group-based trajectories of early work exit can be identified in a representative cohort of initially employed people. Focusing on the determinants of premature exit and early intervention to tackle increasing sickness absence may promote work participation particularly in the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Emprego , Renda , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Licença Médica , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1424, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking, alcohol and obesity are important risk factors for a number of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of these risk factors differ by socioeconomic group in most populations, but this socially stratified distribution may depend on the social and cultural context. Little information on this topic is currently available in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and obesity by several socioeconomic determinants in the French West Indies (FWI). METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional health survey conducted in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2014 in a representative sample of the population aged 15-75 years (n = 4054). All analyses were stratified by gender, and encompassed sample weights, calculated to account for the sampling design and correct for non-response. For each risk factor, we calculated weighted prevalence by income, educational level, occupational class and having hot water at home. Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Current smoking and harmful chronic alcohol use were more common in men than in women (PR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.55-2.09; PR = 4.53, 95% CI = 3.38-6.09 respectively). On the other hand, the prevalence of obesity was higher in women than in men (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.57-0.79). Higher education, higher occupational class and higher income were associated with lower prevalence of harmful alcohol drinking in men (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.25-0.72; PR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-1.01; PR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.03 respectively), but not in women. For tobacco smoking, no variation by socioeconomic status was observed in men whereas the prevalence of current smoking was higher among women with higher occupational class (PR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91) and higher income (PR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03). In women, a lower prevalence of obesity was associated with a higher income (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.33-0.56), a higher occupational class (PR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.50-0.80), a higher educational level (PR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.26-0.50) and having hot water at home (PR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.54-0.80). CONCLUSION: Women of high socio-economic status were significantly more likely to be smokers, whereas alcohol drinking in men and obesity in women were inversely associated with socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Renda , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Classe Social , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Região do Caribe , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guadalupe/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Martinica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ ; 367: l5837, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether calorie labeling of menus in large restaurant chains was associated with a change in mean calories purchased per transaction. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental longitudinal study. SETTING: Large franchise of a national fast food company with three different restaurant chains located in the southern United States (Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi) from April 2015 until April 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 104 restaurants with calorie information added to in-store and drive-thru menus in April 2017 and with weekly aggregated sales data during the pre-labeling (April 2015 to April 2017) and post-labeling (April 2017 to April 2018) implementation period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the overall level and trend changes in mean purchased calories per transaction after implementation of calorie labeling compared with the counterfactual (ie, assumption that the pre-intervention trend would have persisted had the intervention not occurred) using interrupted time series analyses with linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes were by item category (entrees, sides, and sugar sweetened beverages). Subgroup analyses estimated the effect of calorie labeling in stratums defined by the sociodemographic characteristics of restaurant census tracts (defined region for taking census). RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 14 352 restaurant weeks. Over three years and among 104 restaurants, 49 062 440 transactions took place and 242 726 953 items were purchased. After labeling implementation, a level decrease was observed of 60 calories/transaction (95% confidence interval 48 to 72; about 4%), followed by an increasing trend of 0.71 calories/transaction/week (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) independent of the baseline trend over the year after implementation. These results were generally robust to different analytic assumptions in sensitivity analyses. The level decrease and post-implementation trend change were stronger for sides than for entrees or sugar sweetened beverages. The level decrease was similar between census tracts with higher and lower median income, but the post-implementation trend in calories per transaction was higher in low income (change in calories/transaction/week 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.21) than in high income census tracts (0.50, 0.19 to 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: A small decrease in mean calories purchased per transaction was observed after implementation of calorie labeling in a large franchise of fast food restaurants. This reduction diminished over one year of follow-up.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Prevalência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1511, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the transition to adulthood many young adults become obese for the first time in their lives, yet relatively little research has examined why people in this life phase become obese. This study examines what career and family life-course pathways during the transition to adulthood are related to developing obesity in young adulthood. METHODS: We use data from the NLSY97, a U.S. nationally representative panel survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics between 1997 to 2013 (N = 4688), and apply multichannel sequence analysis in order to identify clusters of typical career-family pathways during the transition to adulthood (age 17 to 27), and subsequently investigate whether these pathways are associated with becoming obese at the end of young adulthood (age 28), using logistic regression. We control for obesity at age 17 and family background factors (race, parental education, parental income, and family structure). To take into account the fact that the transition to adulthood has a different meaning for men and for women, we also interact career-family clusters with gender. RESULTS: For women, pathways characterized by college education, early home leaving, and postponement of family formation decrease the probability of becoming obese. For men, pathways characterized by early marriage increase the probability of becoming obese. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of gender differences in how career and family pathways are related to becoming obese in young adulthood.


Assuntos
Emprego , Família , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Casamento , Obesidade/etiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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