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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722449

RESUMO

Background: As the world is still being ravaged by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the first line of prevention lies in understanding the causative and preventive factors of the disease. However, given varied socioeconomic circumstances, there may be some inequality in the level of proper knowledge of COVID-19. Despite a proliferation of studies on COVID-19, the extent and prevalence of inequalities in knowledge about COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia are not known. Most related studies have only focused on understanding the determinants of COVID-19 knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in knowledge regarding COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were extracted from an online cross-sectional self-reported questionnaire conducted on the knowledge about COVID-19 from 3,388 participants. Frequencies and graphs were used to identify the level and distribution of inequality in knowledge about COVID-19. Concentration curves and concentration indices were further used to assess and quantify the income- and education-related inequality in knowledge about COVID-19. Results: The level of COVID-19 knowledge was high among the surveyed sample, although the extent of knowledge varied. The findings further suggest the existence of socioeconomic inequality in obtaining proper knowledge about COVID-19, indicating that inequality in comprehensive knowledge is disproportionately concentrated among the wealthy (concentration index = 0.016; P < 0.001) and highly educated individuals (concentration index = 0.003; P = 0.029) in Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: There is inequality in the level of knowledge about COVID-19 among the more socioeconomically privileged population of Saudi Arabia. Given that COVID-19 cases ebb and flow in different waves, it is important that proper policies be put in place that will help in improving knowledge among the lower income and less educated individuals, leading to behavior that can help reduce transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 268, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) experience a higher risk of mortality, in general, and alcohol-attributable mortality in particular. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the dose-response relationships between the level of socioeconomic deprivation and the alcohol-attributable mortality risk. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in August of 2020 to update a previous systematic review that included studies published up until February of 2013. Quantitative studies reporting on socioeconomic inequality in alcohol-attributable mortality among the general adult population were included. We used random-effects dose-response meta-analyses to investigate the relationship between the level of socioeconomic deprivation and the relative alcohol-attributable risk (RR), by sex and indicator of SES (education, income, and occupation). RESULTS: We identified 25 eligible studies, comprising about 241 million women and 230 million men, among whom there were about 75,200 and 308,400 alcohol-attributable deaths, respectively. A dose-response relationship between the level of socioeconomic deprivation and the RR was found for all indicators of SES. The sharpest and non-linear increase in the RR of dying from an alcohol-attributable cause of death with increasing levels of socioeconomic deprivation was observed for education, where, compared to the most educated individuals, individuals at percentiles with decreasing education had the following RR of dying: women: 25th: 2.09 [95% CI 1.70-2.59], 50th: 3.43 [2.67-4.49], 75th: 4.43 [3.62-5.50], 100th: 4.50 [3.26-6.40]; men: 25th: 2.34 [1.98-2.76], 50th: 4.22 [3.38-5.24], 75th: 5.87 [4.75-7.10], 100th: 6.28 [4.89-8.07]. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show that individuals along the entire continuum of SES are exposed to increased alcohol-attributable mortality risk. Differences in the dose-response relationship can guide priorities in targeting public health initiatives.


Assuntos
Renda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8S): S169-S176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740425

RESUMO

Poverty threatens child health. In the United States, financial strain, which encompasses income and asset poverty, is common with many complex etiologies. Even relatively successful antipoverty programs and policies fall short of serving all families in need, endangering health. We describe a new approach to address this pervasive health problem: antipoverty medicine. Historically, medicine has viewed poverty as a social problem outside of its scope. Increasingly, health care has addressed poverty's downstream effects, such as food and housing insecurity. However, strong evidence now shows that poverty affects biology, and thus, merits treatment as a medical problem. A new approach uses Medical-Financial Partnerships (MFPs), in which healthcare systems and financial service organizations collaborate to improve health by reducing family financial strain. MFPs help families grow assets by increasing savings, decreasing debt, and improving credit and economic opportunity while building a solid foundation for lifelong financial, physical, and mental health. We review evidence-based approaches to poverty alleviation, including conditional and unconditional cash transfers, savings vehicles, debt relief, credit repair, financial coaching, and employment assistance. We describe current national MFPs and highlight different applications of these evidence-based clinical financial interventions. Current MFP models reveal implementation opportunities and challenges, including time and space constraints, time-sensitive processes, lack of familiarity among patients and communities served, and sustainability in traditional medical settings. We conclude that pediatric health care practices can intervene upon poverty and should consider embracing antipoverty medicine as an essential part of the future of pediatric care.


Assuntos
Renda , Pobreza , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Emprego , Família , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769684

RESUMO

Economic crises cause significant shortages in disposable income and a sharp decline in the living conditions, affecting healthcare sector, hitting the profitability and sustainability of companies leading to raises in unemployment. At micro level, these sharp decreases in earnings associated with unemployment and furthermore with the lack of social protection will impact the quality of life and finally the health of individuals. In time of crisis, it becomes vital to support not only the critical sectors of the economy, the assets, technology, and infrastructure, but to protect jobs and workers. This health crisis has hit hard the jobs dynamics through unemployment and underemployment, the quality of work (through wages, or access to social protection), and through the effects on specific groups, with a higher degree of vulnerability to unfavorable labor market outcomes. In this context, providing forecasts as recent as possible for the unemployment rate, a core indicator of the Romanian labor market that could include the effects of the market shocks it becomes fundamental. Thus, the paper aims to offer valuable forecasts for the Romanian unemployment rate using univariate vs. multivariate time series models for the period 2021-2022, highlighting the main patterns of evolution. Based on the univariate time series models, the paper predict the future values of unemployment rate based on its own past using self-forecasting and implementing ARFIMA and SETAR models using monthly data for the period January 2000-April 2021. From the perspective of multivariate time series models, the paper uses VAR/VECM models, analyzing the temporal interdependencies between variables using quarterly data for the period 2000Q1-2020Q4. The empirical results pointed out that both SETAR and VECM provide very similar results in terms of accuracy replicating very well the pre-pandemic period, 2018Q2-2020Q1, reaching the value of 4.1% at the beginning of 2020, with a decreasing trend reaching the value of 3.9%, respectively, 3.6% at the end of 2022.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desemprego , Economia , Emprego , Humanos , Renda , Romênia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769702

RESUMO

Over the past 12 years, Bloomberg Philanthropies (BP) and its partner organisations have implemented a global road safety program in low- and middle-income countries. The program was implemented to address the historically increasing number of road fatalities and the inadequate funding to reduce them. This study evaluates the performance of the program by estimating lives saved from road safety interventions implemented during the program period (2007-2018) through to 2030. We estimated that 311,758 lives will have been saved by 2030, with 97,148 lives saved up until 2018 when the evaluation was conducted and a further 214,608 lives projected to be saved if these changes are sustained until 2030. Legislative changes alone accounted for 75% of lives saved. Concurrent activities related to reducing drink driving, implementing legislative changes, and social marketing campaigns run in conjunction with police enforcement and other road safety activities accounted for 57% of the total estimated lives saved. Saving 311,758 lives with funding of USD $259 million indicates a cost-effectiveness ratio of USD $831 per life saved. The potential health gains achieved through the number of lives saved from the road safety initiatives funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies represent a considerable return on investment. This study demonstrates the extent to which successful, cost-effective road safety initiatives can reduce road fatalities in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Dirigir sob a Influência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Renda , Polícia , Segurança
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is crucial for human flourishing and strongly influences having meaning in life. We investigated the association between local public library density as a shared resource and motivational orientation toward their occupation in Japanese adolescents. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted using data from a nationwide birth cohort survey in Japan (n = 12,184). At age 7, their caregivers answered questionnaires on children including the number of books read. Library density (low, moderate, or high) in each municipality was obtained from national statistics. At age 15, the adolescents indicated whether they had decided on an occupation and selected motivational orientations from among intrinsic (own ability and interest), extrinsic (high earnings, social class, or job stability), and altruistic (social contribution) orientations. Multilevel linear probability models were fitted, adjusting for confounders, including household socioeconomic status and city size. RESULTS: Intrinsic, extrinsic, and altruistic motivations for desired occupation were reported by 40.7%, 31.9% and 41.8% of participants, respectively. Living in a municipality with a high library density at age 7 was associated with having intrinsic motivation at age 15 than low density by 3.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 5.85). The association was more prominent for those with lower income (P for interaction = 0.026). Neither extrinsic nor altruistic motivations were associated with library density (coefficient: -0.13; 95% CI: -2.81, 2.56; coefficient: 0.08; 95% CI: -2.72, 2.88 percentage points, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Developing libraries in communities could encourage intrinsic motivation in adolescents, specifically for those in low-income households.


Assuntos
Motivação , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Renda , Estudos Longitudinais , Ocupações
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769749

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the combined effects of affordability, housing conditions and neighborhood characteristics on the housing stability and health of low-income homeowners. We begin to address these gaps through a mixed-method study design that evaluates the Make-it-Home program (MiH) in Detroit, Michigan, aimed at helping low-income tenants become homeowners when their landlords lose their homes to tax foreclosure. We compare the 'intervened group' of MiH homeowners to a 'comparison' group of similarly situated households whose homes experience property tax foreclosure at the same time. The comparison group represents the likely outcomes for the participants had they not participated the program. Participants will be surveyed twice (intervened group), or once (comparison group) per year over a three-year period, regarding their housing and neighborhood conditions, health, life events, and socio-economic status, including income and employment. We will use property and neighborhood census data to further examine the conditions experienced. The findings for policy and program development from this study are timely as the nation faces a chronic shortage of affordable housing for both purchasers and renters. The results suggest ways to improve the MiH program and lay out approaches for researchers to navigate some of the complexities associated with this type of research.


Assuntos
Habitação , Pobreza , Características da Família , Humanos , Renda , Características de Residência
8.
J Insur Med ; 49(s1): 1-31, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE.­: To propose an insurance product called special needs insurance. The insurance will pay parents a lump sum up to $100,000 if they have a child that is born with or develops a special needs condition such as Down syndrome, cerebral palsy or autism. BACKGROUND.­: Raising a child is expensive; raising a child with a special need can be hundreds of thousands of dollars more expensive. These additional costs include direct costs that are not covered by health insurance and indirect costs such as the loss of earnings when a working parent must tend to a special needs child. METHOD.­: We analyze a gamut of birth and early childhood disabilities, both physical and cognitive, from the medico-actuarial perspective. We describe each condition using relevant medical literature and calculate prevalence rates from epidemiological studies (appendix A1-A15). After accounting for multiple births, we develop a final premium. RESULTS.­: We find that physical impairments are sufficiently well understood to guarantee a fixed payout, whereas cognitive impairments such as autism are less understood, and so for these we propose a cognitive fund that does not guarantee a fixed payout. We find that an average single premium of $4,600 allows the insurer to profitably pay out the proposed benefits. CONCLUSIONS.­: Raising a special needs child can put a significant strain on the affected family's budget. We propose an insurance product that provides relief through a large lump sum payout. Although no new insurance product can be guaranteed success, our analysis of this product gives an interested insurer reasonable justification to take on this new risk.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Seguro Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Humanos , Renda , Pais
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731212

RESUMO

A key goal for society as a whole is the pursuit of well-being, which leads to the happiness of its individual members; as such, it is of critical socioeconomic relevance. In this regard, it is important to study which factors primarily affect the happiness of the population. In principle, these factors are associated with income level and residential and job stability, or more specifically, citizens' quality of life. This research, which is based on a multidimensional concept of quality of life, uses a regression model to explain the dependence of Spaniards' happiness on the well-being or quality of life provided by their work, their family situation, their income level and aspects of their place of residence, among other factors. The data were collected through an anonymous survey administered to a representative sample of Spanish citizens. The methodology used approaches the intangible concept of happiness as resulting from different individual and social causes selected from dimensions addressed in the literature, and calculates their effects or importance through regression coefficients. One of the findings is that people with the highest level of well-being or quality of life in the most important dimensions mostly claim to be happy. With respect to gender, it has a significant influence on the dimensions included in the model of citizen happiness and on personal issues. It is also shown that the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic negatively influenced the quality of life of Spanish citizens and therefore their happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Qualidade de Vida , Teoria Social , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Emprego , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 633909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744587

RESUMO

Objectives: An inverse relationship between education and cardiovascular risk has been described, however, the combined association of education, income, and neighborhood socioeconomic status with macrovascular disease is less clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of educational level, equivalent household income and area deprivation with macrovascular disease in Germany. Methods: Cross-sectional data from two representative German population-based studies, SHIP-TREND (n = 3,731) and KORA-F4 (n = 2,870), were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between socioeconomic determinants and macrovascular disease (defined as self-reported myocardial infarction or stroke). Results: The study showed a higher odds of prevalent macrovascular disease in men with low and middle educational level compared to men with high education. Area deprivation and equivalent income were not related to myocardial infarction or stroke in any of the models. Conclusion: Educational level, but not income or area deprivation, is significantly related to the macrovascular disease in men. Effective prevention of macrovascular disease should therefore start with investing in individual education.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Doenças Vasculares , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 755, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the financial insecurity of women and their families globally. Some studies have explored the impact of financial strain among pregnant women, in particular, during the pandemic. However, less is known about the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a non-probability sample to examine the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic. In January 2021, 183 pregnant women living in the United States participated in an online Qualtrics panel survey. In addition to socio-demographic characteristics, individuals were asked about their finances and predictors of financial well-being, mental health symptoms, and intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences. Chi-square analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to examine whether women's experiences with material hardship and associated factors differed by income level (i.e., less than $20,000; $20,000 to $60,000; more than $60,000). Ordinary least squares regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted estimates. RESULTS: Study findings showed that the majority of women in the sample experienced at least one form of material hardship in the past year. Individuals with an annual household income less than $20,000 reported the highest average number of material hardships experienced (M = 3.7, SD = 2.8). Compared to women with household incomes less than $20,000, women with incomes of more than $60,000 reported significantly fewer material hardships, less financial strain, and higher levels of financial support, economic self-efficacy, and economic-self-sufficiency. Women with incomes of $60,000 or more also reported significantly lower levels of psychological abuse, and a smaller percentage met the cut-off for anxiety. Economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and economic abuse were all significantly associated with material hardship. CONCLUSIONS: A contribution of this study is that it highlights the significant, positive association between economic abuse, a unique form of IPV, and material hardship among pregnant women during the pandemic. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice interventions that help to ameliorate the financial insecurity experienced by some pregnant women, as well as respond to associated bidirectional vulnerabilities (e.g., mental health symptoms, experiences of IPV).


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Status Econômico , Renda/classificação , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3583, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752020

RESUMO

Benzodiazepines and "Z-drugs" (BZD/Z) are overprescribed in many countries. This study evaluates their consumption in a social security sector health insurance provider with national coverage in Argentina. With a descriptive and observational approach, outpatient dispensations of BZD/Zs were analyzed for people over 18 years old from April 2020 to March 2021, disaggregated by sex, age, active ingredient, and half-life. An annual prevalence of use of 11.6% was found among the 431,445 adult affiliates, with higher rates in women and in those over age 60. Overall consumption of BZD/Zs was 77.6 defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 enrollee-days. The average user received 5.1 annual dispensations and the equivalent of 1.4 DDD for each day of the year. BZD/Zs with long half-life were the most used. We found high levels of BZD/Z consumption and for longer periods than recommended. It is necessary to improve the quality of consumption and reduce the negative impact of inappropriate use of these drugs among treated individuals.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Previdência Social
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5069-5080, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787199

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze inequalities in active aging indicators according to race/skin color, level of education, income, and possession of health insurance among 986 older people who participated in the 2014/15 Campinas Health Survey. We estimated the prevalence of participation in 11 activity domains using Poisson regression. The findings reveal similar levels of participation among white and black people in all the domains of the social dimension. The prevalence of work-related physical activity was higher among black people (14.1% compared to 8.2% in white people) and the prevalence of internet use was higher among white people (PR = 2.11). The prevalence of participation in leisure time physical activity, internet use, courses, and in all domains of the social dimension except attendance at religious services was higher among respondents in the highest educational and income groups and among those with health insurance. The findings reveal that older people with a higher income and higher level of education are more likely to participate in activities associated with better health and well-being. The study also shows that older people place a significant demand on Brazil's public health system since individuals who depend exclusively on public health services tend to participate less in activities that are shown to promote health benefits.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Promoção da Saúde , Idoso , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5157-5170, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787207

RESUMO

This work aimed to identify the prevalence of positive self-perceived health among non-long-lived and long-lived older adults and associated factors. This is a study with older adults in the Family Health Strategy of Montes Claros. The Brazilian Older Americans Resources and Services Multidimensional Function Assessment Questionnaire was used. Bivariate and multiple analyses were performed using Poisson Regression. A total of 1,750 older adults participated in the study, of which 1,420 were non-long-lived older adults, and 330 were long-lived older adults. Positive self-perception was reported among 71.9% of the non-long-lived older adults and 67.8% of the long-lived older adults. Among the non-long-lived, positive self-perceived health was associated with five years of schooling (PR=1.12); household income from two to less than three minimum wages (PR=1.13) and ≥three minimum wages (PR=1.12); preserved vision (PR=1.13); proper chewing (PR=1.16); preserved sleep (PR=1.23); absence of polypathologies (PR=1.29); absence of diabetes (PR=1.15); falls in the last year (PR=1.13); and physical activity (PR=1.11). Among the long-lived older adults, it was associated with the use of prosthesis, sleeping disorders, and polypathologies and physical activities. Positive self-perception of health is associated with social and health determinants.


Assuntos
Renda , Autoimagem , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(5): 779-789, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than half of the worlds's population is deprived of essential healthcare services. In consideration of this, the World Health Organization introduced the concept of Social Determinants of Health to improve the awareness of this problem. AIM: To investigate and compare the pertinence of monetary and multidimensional measures of poverty as indirect measures of health status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three indices were used: the Historic Multidimensional Poverty Index (HMPI), calculated using Alkire-Foster method; health deprivations associated with the HMPI; and households in conditions of monetary poverty. The poverty identification outcomes for the three indices mentioned were all estimated using data from the Chilean national socioeconomic survey CASEN for the period 1992-2017. RESULTS: First, independently of how poverty is measured (monetarily or multidimensionally), the degree to which households living in poverty conditions are simultaneously suffering health deprivations steadily decreased during the period 1992-2017. Second, the association between multidimensional poverty and health deprivations is stronger than the association between health deprivations and monetary poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty calculated on the basis of income alone is an inadequate predictor of health deprivations; multidimensional poverty performs better. However, poverty and health indicators have become progressively less associated. Therefore, it becomes necessary either to adapt the health indicators included in Multidimensional Poverty Index to the current health challenges or to implement a Multidimensional Health Deprivation Index, with a view to improving the integration of health within the current social policy framework.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Pobreza , Chile , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 736-749, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665767

RESUMO

The quality of drinking water differs across countries, so households show different levels of willingness to pay (WTP) to improve it, which is also influenced by their income levels. This study presents a meta-analysis using studies from 30 developed and developing countries, representing 4.7 billion inhabitants. At the international level, by standardizing these values (PPP) to international US dollars of 2011, developing countries show, on average, a greater WTP than developed countries relative to their income and an inverse correlation between their water footprint and their WTP.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Renda , Características da Família , Água Doce
19.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 263-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTS: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675182

RESUMO

In this paper we analyze the role of Labor and Social Security Inspectorate (Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social in Spanish) in the assessment and management of the risks associated to COVID-19 in the workplaces, since the beginning of the pandemic until the enforcement of the Royal Decree-Law 26/2020, with special focus on the Operative and Technical Criteria issued by the Directorate of the State Labor and Social Security Inspectorate. The paper describes the differentiation of those situations where the infection risk is derived from the work activity itself and, therefore, has a professional nature, from those where the risk is external to the work activity, thus lacking such character. A specific part of this paper is dedicated to the study of the collaboration and coordination between the Labor and Social Security Inspectorate and the Public Health Authorities, which has been become essential to effectively protect the health of workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Previdência Social , Humanos , Renda , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
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