Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36.562
Filtrar
1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 13, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in applying a complex systems approach to understanding socioeconomic inequalities in health is growing, but an overview of existing research on this topic is lacking. In this systematic scoping review, we summarize the current state of the literature, identify shared drivers of multiple health and health behavior outcomes, and highlight areas ripe for future research. METHODS: SCOPUS, Web of Science, and PubMed databases were searched in April 2023 for peer-reviewed, English-language studies in high-income OECD countries containing a conceptual systems model or simulation model of socioeconomic inequalities in health or health behavior in the adult general population. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts. Data on study aim, type of model, all model elements, and all relationships were extracted. Model elements were categorized based on the Commission on Social Determinants of Health framework, and relationships between grouped elements were visualized in a summary conceptual systems map. RESULTS: A total of 42 publications were included; 18 only contained a simulation model, 20 only contained a conceptual model, and 4 contained both types of models. General health outcomes (e.g., health status, well-being) were modeled more often than specific outcomes like obesity. Dietary behavior and physical activity were by far the most commonly modeled health behaviors. Intermediary determinants of health (e.g., material circumstances, social cohesion) were included in nearly all models, whereas structural determinants (e.g., policies, societal values) were included in about a third of models. Using the summary conceptual systems map, we identified 15 shared drivers of socioeconomic inequalities in multiple health and health behavior outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The interconnectedness of socioeconomic position, multiple health and health behavior outcomes, and determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in health is clear from this review. Factors central to the complex system as it is currently understood in the literature (e.g., financial strain) may be both efficient and effective policy levers, and factors less well represented in the literature (e.g., sleep, structural determinants) may warrant more research. Our systematic, comprehensive synthesis of the literature may serve as a basis for, among other things, a complex systems framework for socioeconomic inequalities in health.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Renda , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 172, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qualitative social research has made valuable contributions to understanding technology-based interventions in global health. However, we have little evidence of who is carrying out this research, where, how, for what purpose, or the overall scope of this body of work. To address these questions, we undertook a systematic evidence mapping of one area of technology-focused research in global health, related to the development, deployment and use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) for low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We conducted an exhaustive search to identify papers reporting on primary qualitative studies that explore the development, deployment, and use of POCTs in LMICs and screened results to identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from included studies and descriptive analyses were conducted. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-eight studies met our inclusion criteria, with numbers increasing year by year. Funding of studies was primarily credited to high income country (HIC)-based institutions (95%) and 64% of first authors were affiliated with HIC-based institutions. Study sites, in contrast, were concentrated in a small number of LMICs. Relatively few studies examined social phenomena related to POCTs that take place in HICs. Seventy-one percent of papers reported on studies conducted within the context of a trial or intervention. Eighty percent reported on studies considering POCTs for HIV and/or malaria. Studies overwhelmingly reported on POCT use (91%) within primary-level health facilities (60%) or in hospitals (30%) and explored the perspectives of the health workforce (70%). CONCLUSIONS: A reflexive approach to the role, status, and contribution of qualitative and social science research is crucial to identifying the contributions it can make to the production of global health knowledge and understanding the roles technology can play in achieving global health goals. The body of qualitative social research on POCTs for LMICs is highly concentrated in scope, overwhelmingly focuses on testing in the context of a narrow number of donor-supported initiatives and is driven by HIC resources and expertise. To optimise the full potential of qualitative social research requires the promotion of open and just research ecosystems that broaden the scope of inquiry beyond established public health paradigms and build social science capacity in LMICs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Saúde Global , Humanos , Renda , Testes Imediatos , Países em Desenvolvimento
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296860, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315694

RESUMO

A substantial body of research has demonstrated that science knowledge is correlated with attitudes towards science, with most studies finding a positive relationship between the two constructs; people who are more knowledgeable about science tend to be more positive about it. However, this evidence base has been almost exclusively confined to high and middle-income democracies, with poorer and less developed nations excluded from consideration. In this study, we conduct the first global investigation of the science knowledge-attitude relationship, using the 2018 Wellcome Global Monitor survey. Our results show a positive knowledge-attitude correlation in all but one of the 144 countries investigated. This robust cross-national relationship is consistent across both science literacy and self-assessed measures of science knowledge.


Assuntos
Atitude , Renda , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Países em Desenvolvimento , Conhecimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2739, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302678

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited, progressively debilitating blood disorder. Emerging gene therapies (GTx) may lead to a complete remission, the benefits of such can only be realized if GTx is affordable and accessible in the low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) with the greatest SCD burden. To estimate the health impacts and country-specific value-based prices (VBP) of a future gene therapy for SCD using a cost-utility model framework. We developed a lifetime Markov model to compare the costs and health outcomes of GTx versus standard of care for SCD. We modeled populations in seven LMICs and six high-income countries (HICs) estimating lifetime costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in comparison to estimates of a country's cost-effectiveness threshold. Each country's unique VBP for GTx was calculated via threshold analysis. Relative to SOC treatment alone, we found that hypothetical GTx reduced the number of people symptomatic with SCD over time leading to fewer DALYs. Across countries, VBPs ranged from $3.6 million (US) to $700 (Uganda). Our results indicate a wide range of GTx prices are required if it is to be made widely available and may inform burden and affordability for 'target product profiles' of GTx in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Humanos , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Cadeias de Markov , Renda , Países em Desenvolvimento , Análise Custo-Benefício
5.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297431, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306358

RESUMO

Financial inclusion is pivotal in supporting sustainable economic growth and social transformation. It is a key enabler for reducing poverty and uplifting prosperity. Improving financial inclusion has attracted significant attention from practitioners, academics, and governments. However, the asymmetric effect of institutional quality on financial inclusion contingent upon the income level has largely been neglected in the existing literature. As such, this study examines this asymmetric effect using the panel smooth transition regression for a sample of 110 countries globally from 2004 to 2020. Our empirical findings confirm the asymmetric effect of institutional quality on financial inclusion depending on the income level. Improved institutional quality is associated with extended financial inclusion in high-income and middle-income countries. However, low-income countries may not benefit from their institutional reform. Policy implications have emerged based on these empirical findings.


Assuntos
Renda , Pobreza , Instalações de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Políticas , Dióxido de Carbono
6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(2): 130-136, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313156

RESUMO

Colonialism, which involves the systemic domination of lands, markets, peoples, assets, cultures or political institutions to exploit, misappropriate and extract wealth and resources, affects health in many ways. In recent years, interest has grown in the decolonization of global health with a focus on correcting power imbalances between high-income and low-income countries and on challenging ideas and values of some wealthy countries that shape the practice of global health. We argue that decolonization of global health must also address the relationship between global health actors and contemporary forms of colonialism, in particular the current forms of corporate and financialized colonialism that operate through globalized systems of wealth extraction and profiteering. We present a three-part agenda for action that can be taken to decolonize global health. The first part relates to the power asymmetries that exist between global health actors from high-income and historically privileged countries and their counterparts in low-income and marginalized settings. The second part concerns the colonization of the structures and systems of global health governance itself. The third part addresses how colonialism occurs through the global health system. Addressing all forms of colonialism calls for a political and economic anticolonialism as well as social decolonization aimed at ensuring greater national, racial, cultural and knowledge diversity within the structures of global health.


Le colonialisme, qui implique la domination systémique de terres, de marchés, de peuples, de ressources, de cultures ou d'institutions politiques dans le but d'exploiter, de détourner et d'extraire des richesses et des ressources, affecte la santé de nombreuses manières. Ces dernières années, la décolonisation de la santé mondiale a suscité un intérêt croissant, l'accent étant mis sur la correction des déséquilibres de pouvoir entre les pays à revenu élevé et les pays à faible revenu, ainsi que sur la remise en question des idées et des valeurs de certains pays riches qui façonnent la pratique de la santé mondiale. Nous soutenons que la décolonisation de la santé mondiale doit également aborder la relation entre les acteurs de la santé mondiale et les formes contemporaines de colonialisme, en particulier les formes actuelles de colonialisme d'entreprise et de colonialisme financiarisé qui opèrent par des systèmes mondialisés d'extraction de richesses et de profits. Nous présentons un programme d'action en trois parties destiné à décoloniser la santé mondiale. La première partie porte sur les asymétries de pouvoir existant entre les acteurs de la santé mondiale des pays à hauts revenus et historiquement privilégiés et leurs homologues des pays à faibles revenus et marginalisés. La deuxième partie concerne la colonisation des structures et des systèmes de la gouvernance mondiale de la santé elle-même. La troisième partie traite de la manière dont le colonialisme se manifeste à travers le système de santé mondial. La lutte contre toutes les formes de colonialisme nécessite un anticolonialisme politique et économique ainsi qu'une décolonisation sociale visant à garantir une plus grande diversité nationale, raciale, culturelle et des connaissances au sein des structures de la santé mondiale.


El colonialismo, que implica la dominación sistémica de tierras, mercados, pueblos, bienes, culturas o instituciones políticas para explotar, apropiarse indebidamente y extraer riqueza y recursos, afecta a la salud de muchas maneras. En los últimos años ha crecido el interés por descolonizar la salud mundial, en particular para corregir los desequilibrios de poder entre los países de ingresos altos y los de ingresos bajos, y para cuestionar las ideas y los valores de algunos países ricos que influyen en la práctica de la salud mundial. Sostenemos que la descolonización de la salud mundial también debe abordar la relación entre los actores de la salud mundial y las formas contemporáneas de colonialismo, en especial las formas actuales de colonialismo corporativo y financiarizado que operan a través de sistemas globalizados de extracción de riqueza y especulación. Presentamos un programa de acción dividido en tres partes para descolonizar la salud mundial. La primera parte se refiere a las asimetrías de poder que existen entre los actores de la salud mundial procedentes de países de ingresos altos e históricamente privilegiados y sus homólogos de entornos de ingresos bajos y marginados. La segunda parte se refiere a la colonización de las estructuras y sistemas de la propia gobernanza de la salud mundial. La tercera parte aborda cómo se produce el colonialismo a través del sistema sanitario mundial. Abordar todas las formas de colonialismo exige un anticolonialismo político y económico, así como una descolonización social destinada a garantizar una mayor diversidad nacional, racial, cultural y de conocimientos dentro de las estructuras de la salud mundial.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Renda , Pobreza , Organizações
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2311703121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315863

RESUMO

Global polls have shown that people in high-income countries generally report being more satisfied with their lives than people in low-income countries. The persistence of this correlation, and its similarity to correlations between income and life satisfaction within countries, could lead to the impression that high levels of life satisfaction can only be achieved in wealthy societies. However, global polls have typically overlooked small-scale, nonindustrialized societies, which can provide an alternative test of the consistency of this relationship. Here, we present results from a survey of 2,966 members of Indigenous Peoples and local communities among 19 globally distributed sites. We find that high average levels of life satisfaction, comparable to those of wealthy countries, are reported for numerous populations that have very low monetary incomes. Our results are consistent with the notion that human societies can support very satisfying lives for their members without necessarily requiring high degrees of monetary wealth.


Assuntos
Renda , Satisfação Pessoal , Humanos , Pobreza , Sociedades , Problemas Sociais
8.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 549, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The temporality of household income level with overweight/obesity in children has not been extensively studied. Little research has been conducted to determine the impact of household income on the risk of childhood overweight/obesity over time. This population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the impact of household income on the risk of overweight/obesity over time among preschool-aged children in Taiwan. METHODS: From 2009 to 2018, we recruited 1,482 preschool-aged children ( ≦ 7 y of age) from low-income households and selected age- and sex-matched controls from non-low-income households for comparison; All participants were selected from those who consistently participated in the Taipei Child Development Screening Program and were monitored for overweight/obesity using body mass index (BMI) until December 31, 2018. Low-income households were defined as those with an average monthly disposable income < 60% of the minimum standard of living expense in Taiwan. The primary outcome was childhood overweight or obesity in study participants, defined as BMI (kg/m2) ≥ 85th percentile or ≥ 95th percentile, respectively. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) model was used to determine the impact of low-income households on the risk of overweight/obesity in study participants. RESULTS: Over 21,450 person-years of follow-up, 1,782 participants developed overweight /obesity, including 452 (30.5%) and 1,330 (22.4%) children from low- and non-low-income households, respectively. The GEE model showed that the first group had a significantly higher risk of becoming overweight/obese than the other during the follow-up period (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29-1.60). Moreover, children of foreign mothers had a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese than those of Taiwanese mothers during the follow-up period (aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.24-1.8). The subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between low-income households and an increased risk of overweight/obesity in children aged 2-7 years (P =.01). However, this association was not observed in children aged 0-1 years (P >.999). CONCLUSIONS: During the follow-up period, there was a notable correlation between low-income households and an increased risk of preschool-aged children developing overweight or obesity. Implementing health promotion initiatives aimed at reducing overweight and obesity in this demographic is crucial.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mães , Renda
9.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606739, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384747

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to map and synthesize evidence about social inequalities in long-term health effects after COVID-19 (LTHE), often referred to as "long COVID" or "post-COVID-19 conditions." Methods: We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed articles by searching the databases Embase and Scopus. According to predefined inclusion criteria, titles/abstracts and full texts were screened for eligibility. Additionally, reference lists of all included studies were hand-searched for eligible studies. This study followed the PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews. Results: Nineteen articles were included. LTHE were analysed according to ethnicity, education, income, employment and deprivation indices. The studies varied significantly in their definitions of LTHE. Eighty-two analyses showed no statistically significant associations. At least 12 studies had a high risk of type II errors. Only studies associating deprivation indices and long COVID tended to show a higher prevalence of LTHE in deprived areas. Conclusion: Although some studies indicated social inequalities in LTHE, evidence was generally weak and inconclusive. Further studies with larger sample sizes specifically designed to detect social inequalities regarding LTHE are needed to inform future healthcare planning and public health policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Renda , Emprego
10.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 13(1): 9, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: mRNA technology is currently being investigated for a range of oncology indications. We assessed the willingness to pay (WTP) of the general population in Israel for a hypothetical novel mRNA-based treatment for oncology indications. METHODS: We used a contingent valuation methodology to elicit WTP using a web-based questionnaire. A sample of adult participants were presented with a hypothetical scenario in which an mRNA-based intervention increased the likelihood of a cure for various cancer types from 20% to 40% (half of the sample), or 60% (the other half of the sample). RESULTS: 531 respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean, median and mode WTP for the proposed hypothetical treatment in both scenarios were ILS65,000 (± ILS114,000), ILS20,000 and ILS50,000, respectively (1USD = 3.4ILS). The WTP was skewed towards zero, and 9.6% of the respondents were not willing to pay any amount. WTP higher amounts was significantly associated with higher income (p < 0.01), self-reported good health (p < 0.05), supplementary health insurance (p < 0.05), Jews compared to other populations (p < 0.01), interest in technology (p < 0.001) and a tendency to adopt medical innovations (p < 0.001). No statistical difference between the 40% vs. the 60% potential cure scenarios was found. Logistic and OLS regressions indicated that age, religion, income, and interest in adopting medical innovations were the best predictors of respondents' WTP. CONCLUSION: Despite the scientific breakthroughs in oncology treatment over the last few decades, many types of cancer are still incurable. Given the expected development of innovative mRNA-based treatments for cancer, these results should inform policymakers, the pharmaceutical industry and other stakeholders on the future coverage and reimbursement of these technologies incorporating patients' and societal views. To date, WTP considerations have not been given much weight in prioritization of drug reimbursement processes, neither in Israel nor in other countries. As a pioneer in adoption of the mRNA technology, Israel can also lead the incorporation of WTP considerations in this field.


Assuntos
Renda , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , Israel , Neoplasias/terapia , Seguro Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3820, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360818

RESUMO

Somatic symptoms are common in a wide range of medical conditions. In severe cases, they are associated with high individual and economic burden. To explore social inequalities in somatic symptom severity (SSS) and to identify social groups with highest SSS, we applied an intersectional research approach. Analyses are based on cross-sectional data of the adult population living in Germany (N = 2413). SSS was assessed with the Somatic Symptom Scale-8. A multiple linear regression model with three-way interaction of gender, income and history of migration and post-hoc pairwise comparison of estimated marginal means was conducted. Analyses revealed intersectional inequalities in SSS along the axis of gender, income, and history of migration. Highest SSS was found in males with low income whose parent(s) immigrated, females with low income who immigrated themselves, and females with low income and no history of migration. Intersectional approaches contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of health disparities. To reduce disparities in SSS, proportionate universal interventions combining universal screening and targeted treatment seem promising.


Assuntos
Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Identidade de Gênero , Renda
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3851, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360925

RESUMO

There has been no systematic comparison of how the three most common measures to quantify household SES-income, consumption, and asset indices-could impact the magnitude of health inequalities. Microdata from 22 Living Standards Measurement Study surveys were compiled and concentration indices, relative indices of inequality, and slope indices of inequality were calculated for underweight, stunting, and child deaths using income, consumption, asset indices, and hybrid predicted income. Meta-analyses of survey year subgroups (pre-1995, 1995-2004, and post-2004), outcomes (child deaths, stunting, and underweight), and World Bank country-income status (low, low-middle, and upper-middle) were then conducted. Asset indices and the related hybrid income proxy result in the largest magnitudes of health inequalities for all 12 overall outcomes, as well as most country-income and survey year subgroupings. There is no clear trend of health inequality magnitudes changing over time, but magnitudes of health inequality may increase as country-income levels increase. There is no significant difference between relative and absolute inequality measures, but the hybrid predicted income measure behaves more similarly to asset indices than the household income it is supposed to model. Health inequality magnitudes may be affected by the choice of household SES measure and should be studied in further detail.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Criança , Humanos , Magreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Renda , Transtornos do Crescimento
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1323359, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371234

RESUMO

An important way to reduce urban-rural disparity lies in encouraging migrant workers to return to their hometowns for entrepreneurship. This paper examines the effect of the Integrated Medical Insurance System on the return-to-hometown entrepreneurship among migrant workers. Using microdata from the China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) spanning from 2013 to 2019, we find that the Integrated Medical Insurance System (IMIS) significantly increases the likelihood of migrant workers returning to their hometowns for entrepreneurship by 0.44%. This result remains stable after a series of robustness checks. Heterogeneity results indicate that this "pullback effect" is more pronounced for those who are male and with lower educational levels, higher income, larger social networks, and lower risk preferences. Finally, the interaction between the Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation policy (MEI) and IMIS can create a more significant combined effect in promoting the return of migrant workers to their hometowns for entrepreneurial activities.


Assuntos
Seguro , Migrantes , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Empreendedorismo , Renda , China
14.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0294333, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381749

RESUMO

China's rural revitalization strategy has expanded non-agricultural employment opportunities for rural residents. This has directly raised farmers' incomes and household expenditures, which in turn has contributed to the upgrading of industrial structure. Using provincial data for 2012-2021, our study investigates how this employment transition affects industrial development. The effect of rural residents' consumption expenditures on this relationship is also explored through a linkage model to help measure the extent of the impact. This study further explores the regional differences in this effect and its robustness. The findings suggest that non-farm employment significantly contributes to industrial structural upgrading. However, this effect is not consistent across regions. Moreover, rural residents' consumption plays a pivotal role in this relationship. Governments should therefore encourage more non-farm jobs, stimulate domestic demand and use rural consumption as a key growth catalyst, especially after the demographic dividend disappears. It is also important to take into account regional nuances in policy formulation and make adjustments to cater for these differences to prevent any potential imbalances.


Assuntos
Emprego , Renda , Humanos , Características da Família , População Rural , Fazendeiros , China
15.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1307, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346964

RESUMO

Living with extremely low-income is an important risk factor for HIV/AIDS and can be mitigated by conditional cash transfers. Using a cohort of 22.7 million low-income individuals during 9 years, we evaluated the effects of the world's largest conditional cash transfer, the Programa Bolsa Família, on HIV/AIDS-related outcomes. Exposure to Programa Bolsa Família was associated with reduced AIDS incidence by 41% (RR:0.59; 95%CI:0.57-0.61), mortality by 39% (RR:0.61; 95%CI:0.57-0.64), and case fatality rates by 25% (RR:0.75; 95%CI:0.66-0.85) in the cohort, and Programa Bolsa Família effects were considerably stronger among individuals of extremely low-income [reduction of 55% for incidence (RR:0.45, 95% CI:0.42-0.47), 54% mortality (RR:0.46, 95% CI:0.42-0.49), and 37% case-fatality (RR:0.63, 95% CI:0.51 -0.76)], decreasing gradually until having no effect in individuals with higher incomes. Similar effects were observed on HIV notification. Programa Bolsa Família impact was also stronger among women and adolescents. Several sensitivity and triangulation analyses demonstrated the robustness of the results. Conditional cash transfers can significantly reduce AIDS morbidity and mortality in extremely vulnerable populations and should be considered an essential intervention to achieve AIDS-related sustainable development goals by 2030.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , População da América do Sul , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Renda , Pobreza , Brasil/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296941, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association of nuptial/relationship factors, financial difficulties, and socio-demographic factors with the mental health status of Australian adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional quantitative study design. SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey wave 19, 6846 adults were included in the analysis. Mental health was measured using the mental component summary (MCS) subscale of the Short-Form Health Survey SF-36. Hierarchical multiple linear regressions were used to examine the predictors of mental health status. RESULTS: Overall, 7.1% of the participants reported poor mental health status. Individual financial difficulty factors explained 3.2% (p<0.001) of the variance in mental health scores. In addition, financial difficulties were negatively associated with mental health status. Nuptiality and relationship factors accounted for 9.8% (p<0.001) of the variance in mental health status. CONCLUSION: The study suggests negative marital or relationship perceptions and financial difficulties are significant factors accounting for poor mental health. This finding suggests the need for more policy attention toward the social determinants of poor mental health especially nuptiality or relationship perceptions which have received less policy and research attention in Australia.


Assuntos
Renda , Casamento , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde
17.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295403, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354180

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 epidemic, national innovation faced the challenges of high-risk research and development and intensified trade competition. How to allocate resources reasonably to promote national innovation has become a problem that must be solved. Based on the global innovation index (GII) framework, this study analyzes the influence of national innovation input elements (such as human capital resources, infrastructure, business maturity, etc.) on innovation output from the perspective of configuration, combining with the necessary condition analysis (NCA) and fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis (FSQCA). The research results show that:(1) A single innovation input constitutes the necessary condition and serves as a bottleneck for high innovation output;(2) ITT, HCR, IFT, MS and BS are all "multiple concurrent" and form different configurations, namely, two high-innovation and four nonhigh innovation configurations, that drive national innovation governance is characterized by "different roads leading to the same goals." (3) As innovation is limited by the income levels of various countries, there are obvious differences in innovation drive paths between high- and low-income countries. Moreover, the configuration of asymmetric relationships with low-innovation output that occurs in high-income countries has unique characteristics. In this study, the influence of the coupling of national innovation input elements on innovation output is explored.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comércio , Cabeça , Renda
18.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 443, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, women in (peri-)urban areas are commonly engaged in small trade, which allows them to meet the basic needs of their families. Microsaving approaches are a low-risk option to obtain financing for economic activities. A project combining men's sensitization on gender equity and women's empowerment through village savings and loan associations were implemented in North and South Kivu to raise the household economic level. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed how involving men in gender equity affects women's health and socio-economic outcomes, including food security. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted with 1812 women at the baseline; out of them 1055 were retrieved at the follow-up. Baseline data collection took place from May to December 2017 and the follow-up from July 2018 to January 2019. To identify socio-economic changes and changes of gender relations, linear and logistic regressions were run. RESULTS: Results showed that the household income improved with intervention (coefficient = 0.327; p = 0.002), while the capacity to pay high bills without contracting debts decreased (coefficient = 0.927; p = 0.001). We did not find enough statistically significant evidence of the influence of the intervention on skilled birth attendance (coefficient = 0.943; p = 0.135), or family planning use (coefficient = 0.216; p = 0.435) nor women's participation in the decision-making (coefficient = 0.033; p = 0.227) nor on couple's cohesion (coefficient = 0.024; p = 0.431). Food insecurity levels decreased over time regardless of being in the intervention or control area. CONCLUSION: Empowering women while sensitizing men on gender aspects improves financial well-being (income). Time, security, and strong politics of government recognizing and framing the approach are still needed to maximize the benefit of such projects on social factors such as women's participation in decision-making and social cohesion.


Assuntos
Renda , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , República Democrática do Congo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Longitudinais
19.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297779, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasing in Kenya, especially in urban settings, and prevention interventions based on local evidence and context are urgently needed. Therefore, this study aimed to explore diabetes risk and co-create a diabetes prevention theory of change in two socioeconomically distinct communities to inform future diabetes prevention interventions. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with middle-aged residents in two communities in Nairobi (one low-income (n = 15), one middle-income (n = 14)), and thematically analysed. The theory of change for diabetes prevention was informed by analysis of the in-depth interviews and the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, and reviewed by a sub-set (n = 13) of interviewees. RESULTS: The key factors that influenced diabetes preventive practices in both communities included knowledge and skills for diabetes prevention, understanding of the benefits/consequences of (un)healthy lifestyle, social influences (e.g., upbringing, societal perceptions), and environmental contexts (e.g., access to (un)healthy foods and physical activity facilities). The proposed strategies for diabetes prevention included: increasing knowledge and understanding about diabetes risk and preventive measures particularly in the low-income community; supporting lifestyle modification (e.g., upskilling, goal setting, action planning) in both communities; identifying people at high risk of diabetes through screening in both communities; and creating social and physical environments for lifestyle modification (e.g., positive social influences on healthy living, access to healthy foods and physical activity infrastructure) particularly in the low-income community. Residents from both communities agreed that the strategies were broadly feasible for diabetes prevention but proposed the addition of door-to-door campaigns and community theatre for health education. However, residents from the low-income community were concerned about the lack of government prioritisation for implementing population-level interventions, e.g., improving access to healthy foods and physical activity facilities/infrastructure. CONCLUSION: Diabetes prevention initiatives in Kenya should involve multicomponent interventions for lifestyle modification including increasing education and upskilling at individual level; promoting social and physical environments that support healthy living at population level; and are particularly needed in low-income communities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Quênia/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Renda
20.
Lancet ; 403(10427): 615, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368008
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...