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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(866): 611-613, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506465

RESUMO

The medical world brings together the divergent interests of healthcare professionals and patients, and a balance between the two is always necessary to establish and maintain a relationship of trust and to ensure that the healthcare system functions properly. Conflicts do arise, however, particularly when patients feel that their rights have not been respected by health professionals, in which case the latter may be held liable, particularly under criminal law. However, there are justifications that practitioners can use to avoid any liability : in particular, the patient's consent, and it is up to the professional to prove this.


Le monde médical mêle les intérêts parfois divergents des professionnels de la santé et des patients, un équilibre entre les deux étant toujours nécessaire à la création et au maintien d'une relation de confiance ainsi qu'au bon fonctionnement du système de santé. Il arrive toutefois qu'un conflit apparaisse, notamment lorsque le patient estime que ses droits n'ont pas été respectés par le praticien, auquel cas la responsabilité ­ en particulier pénale ­ de ce dernier peut être engagée. Or, il existe des faits justificatifs que le professionnel de la santé peut invoquer, pouvant lui permettre de se libérer de tout chef de responsabilité : c'est le cas notamment du consentement du patient, à charge pour le praticien d'en apporter la preuve.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Responsabilidade Legal , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido
2.
BMJ ; 384: q401, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355147
4.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1682024 02 06.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319311

RESUMO

It regularly occurs that a physicians is abused by a patient. For physicians this may be a reason to consider to end the relationship with such patients, particularly if patients become violent. But is this permitted? The Dutch law and professional standards restrict physicians from doing so, unless there are 'serious reasons' to do so and only after having investigated all possibilities to restore the treatment relationship, including a discussion with the patient. We argue that these restrictions are too strict. Physicians should be able the end the relationship with patients that fail to respect the physical or mental integrity of physicians or their colleagues.


Assuntos
Pacientes , Médicos , Humanos , Etnicidade , Responsabilidade Legal , Exame Físico
6.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 42(1): 33-40, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278590

RESUMO

In 1985, the American Society of Anesthesiologists initiated a quality improvement closed claims analysis project for anesthetic injury to elevate patient safety. To date, there have been a total of 8954 documented claims, describing injuries contracted under sedation, regional anesthesia, or failure to attend to a patient's post-operative needs. The Closed Claims database reveals that the most highly documented health care complications were a loss of life at 2%, nerve injuries at 2%, and damage to the brain at 9%. The highest documented cases of damage from anesthesia involved regional-block-related events at 20%, followed by respiratory-related adverse effects at 17%, cardiovascular-related events at 13%, together with apparatus-linked events at 10%. Injury may result from several causes. First, multiple techniques and interventions are used during surgery, and all have potential adverse effects. Additionally, many patients scheduled for surgery have extensive past medical histories and medical comorbidities, thereby increasing their baseline risk for injury. From the Closed Claims database, improved evaluation of clinical-related implications linked to injuries within the handling of airway, sedation, non-operational room locales, obstetric anesthesia, along with chronic pain management. In summary, anesthesia departments should review outcomes of their patients on a routine basis. Assessing factors when an adverse outcome occurs may allow for changes in techniques or other anesthesia considerations to help lessen or prevent future complications.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica , Anestesiologia , Imperícia , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Responsabilidade Legal , Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos
7.
J Healthc Risk Manag ; 43(3): 39-46, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180389
8.
JAMA ; 331(7): 559-560, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252432

RESUMO

This Viewpoint evaluates Texas' proposals to define the scope of the life exception for the state's abortion ban and argues that these approaches do not allow physicians to follow the national standards of care, avoid criminal liability, or have sufficient notice of what the law permits.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Responsabilidade Legal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Responsabilidade Social
9.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(3): 1173-1178, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172326

RESUMO

Technology has greatly influenced and radically changed human life, from communication to creativity and from productivity to entertainment. The authors, starting from considerations concerning the implementation of new technologies with a strong impact on people's everyday lives, take up Collingridge's dilemma and relate it to the application of AI in healthcare. Collingridge's dilemma is an ethical and epistemological problem concerning the relationship between technology and society which involves two approaches. The proactive approach and socio-technological experimentation taken into account in the dilemma are discussed, the former taking health technology assessment (HTA) processes as a reference and the latter the AI studies conducted so far. As a possible prevention of the critical issues raised, the use of the medico-legal method is proposed, which classically lies between the prevention of possible adverse events and the reconstruction of how these occurred.The authors believe that this methodology, adopted as a European guideline in the medico-legal field for the assessment of medical liability, can be adapted to AI applied to the healthcare scenario and used for the assessment of liability issues. The topic deserves further investigation and will certainly be taken into consideration as a possible key to future scenarios.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Responsabilidade Legal
11.
Nervenarzt ; 95(3): 242-246, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38085285

RESUMO

The ability of some artificial intelligence (AI) systems to autonomously evolve and the sometimes very limited possibilities to comprehend their decision-making processes present new challenges to our legal system. At a European level this has led to reform efforts, of which the proposal for a European AI regulation promises to close regulatory gaps in existing product safety law through cross-sectoral AI-specific safety requirements. A prerequisite, however, would be that the EU legislator does not only avoid duplications and contradictions with existing safety requirements but also refrains from imposing exaggerated and unattainable demands. If this were to be taken into consideration, the new safety requirements could also be used to specify the undefined standard of care in liability law. Nevertheless, challenges in the context of provability continue to remain unresolved, posing a risk of rendering the legal protection efforts of the aggrieved party ineffective. It remains to be seen whether the EU legislator will address this need for reform with the recently proposed reform of product liability law by the Commission.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(11)2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38003977

RESUMO

Background: Defensive medicine is characterized by medical decisions made primarily as a precaution against potential malpractice claims. For psychiatrists, professional responsibility encompasses not only the appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment but also the effects of their interventions on patients and their behaviors. Objective: To investigate the socio-demographic, educational, and occupational characteristics and work-related attitudes that may serve as predictors of defensive medicine among Italian psychiatrists. This research extends the results of a previous analysis based on a national survey. Methods: A secondary analysis of the database of a national survey on attitudes and behaviors of Italian psychiatrists regarding defensive medicine and professional liability was performed for this study. Results: Among 254 surveyed psychiatrists, 153 admitted to practicing defensive medicine, while 101 had this attitude with less than half of their patients. The first group was predominantly comprised of women (p = 0.014), who were younger in age (43.34 y 9.89 vs. 48.81 y 11.66, p < 0.001) and had fewer years of professional experience (12.09 y ± 9.8 vs. 17.46 y ± 11.2, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in prior involvement in complaints (p = 0.876) or the usual place of work (p = 0.818). The most prominent predictors for practicing defensive medicine were (1) considering guidelines and good clinical practices not only for their clinical efficacy but also or exclusively for reducing the risk of legal complaints for professional liability (OR = 3.62; 95%CI, 1.75-7.49), and (2) hospitalizing patients with violent intentions even if not warranted according to their mental state (OR = 2.28; 95%CI, 1.50-3.46, p < 0.001). Prioritizing protection from professional liability over patients' actual needs in prescribing or adjusting drug dosages and in involuntary hospitalization, as well as prescribing lower dosages than recommended for pregnant patients, were identified as additional predictors. Finally, years of professional experience exhibited a protective function against defensive practices. Conclusions: Psychiatrists advocate the need to implement a 'risk management culture' and the provision of more balanced duties in order to ensure ethical and evidence-based care to their patients. A particular source of concern stems from their professional responsibility towards not only the health of patients but also their behavior. However, these aspects conflict with a limited potential for assessment and intervention based on effective clinical tools. A reform of professional liability that considers the specificities of patients cared for by mental health services could contribute to reducing the risk of defensive medicine.


Assuntos
Imperícia , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Feminino , Medicina Defensiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Responsabilidade Legal
13.
JAMA Health Forum ; 4(11): e233899, 2023 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991781

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses the feasibility of developing safe harbors that account for the role of medical malpractice liability and go beyond generic guidelines discouraging the overuse of health care resources.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Imperícia , Responsabilidade Legal , Instalações de Saúde
14.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 64(11): 1044-1050, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861724

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) opens up new opportunities to improve medical care in internal medicine; however, legal uncertainties in the application of AI impede its integration into the daily practice of internal medicine. To clarify the situation this paper gives an overview of the legal aspects related to AI and shows which frameworks must be adhered to in order to exploit the benefits of AI without neglecting the rights and protection of patients. The paper first addresses data protection issues which arise when sensitive health data are processed by AI. This is followed by a discussion of the key regulatory requirements for the use of AI in internal medicine. As the establishment of AI in practice also depends on sufficient funding, legal issues of reimbursement are additionally examined. Finally, the specific features that need to be considered when using AI to avoid medical liability consequences are highlighted.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Responsabilidade Legal , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Segurança Computacional
15.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 39(4): 329-336, 2023 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37859470

RESUMO

In the personal injury compensation system, the protection and relief of the injured people's rights to life, rights to health, and body rights are generally based on the results of disability assessment. Over the years, with the increased number of personal injury compensation cases, the practice of disability assessment have been greatly developed, and the development of disability assessment standards tends to be mature. However, the lack of basic theories for disability assessment has seriously affected the construction and unification of standards. Starting from the tort legal system of personal injury compensation, this article systematically analyzes the legal theories of disability assessment, and holds that the loss of labor ability is the legal basis for disability assessment in China, and the essence of disability assessment should be understood as the quantitative assessment of an individual's permanent loss of labor ability. This article combines the international disability assessment models and the primary concepts of American Medical Association's Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment to refine the basic concepts of disability assessment in China, such as impairment, disability, handicap, disabled people and self-care ability, etc. At the same time, it sorts out the critical issues of identification time, promotion principles and compound calculation of multiple injuries in disability assessment. It is expected to be beneficial to the theory and practice of disability assessment in personal injury compensation.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Responsabilidade Legal , Humanos , China
17.
J Healthc Risk Manag ; 43(2): 48-56, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37653678
18.
Pathologica ; 115(4): 217-220, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37711037

RESUMO

The Cartabia Reform modifies the standard used by the Public Prosecutor for the submission of requests for filing or referral for trial. The standard has shifted to the "reasonable prediction of conviction" by moving the principle of in dubio pro reo to the investigation phase. The scope of the legislative amendment is focused on protecting the rights of investigated individuals, who are too often brought to trial without adequate supporting evidence. The implications that this reform has on legal proceedings concerning the criminal liability of healthcare professionals, including pathologists, is discussed.


Assuntos
Responsabilidade Legal , Patologistas , Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde
19.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 65: 102319, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37696211

RESUMO

Medical liability has become a challenge in every physician's modern practice with the consequent loss of the physician's autonomy and an increase in "defensive medicine". From this perspective, the role of Legal Medicine in assessing medical liability has become increasingly specific and a homogenization of the methods of ascertainment is increasingly necessary, since such a process can contribute to strengthening the guarantees in professional liability procedures. Focusing on malpractice claims in the field of cardiology, the complexity of the management of cardiac pathologies and the frequency of severe adverse events implies the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach, together with the application of a shared ascertainment methodology. In particular, it is essential for the forensic pathologist to collaborate with experts in cardio-pathology, cardiology and/or cardiac surgery in cases of alleged medical liability in the cardiologic field and to follow the guidelines which have been produced to assist the expert dealing with deaths reflecting cardiac disease, in order to prevent criticism of case analysis in medico-legal environments and to promote the standardization of the structure of the juridical-legislative medical malpractice lawsuits.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiologia , Imperícia , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal , Medicina Legal
20.
J Law Health ; 36(2): 113-138, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37585549

RESUMO

Can individuals with a highly sensitive temperament recover in tort for intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED)? In 2019, an article in the University of Memphis Law Review raised this question, referring to the "Highly Sensitive Person" (HSP) construct in psychology and asking whether the IIED tort's 'reasonable person' standard discriminates against highly sensitive plaintiffs. Following up on that discussion, the present article considers how the law of IIED has historically treated plaintiffs with diagnosed psychiatric vulnerabilities that are either known or unknown to the defendant. The article also extends this discussion to the law's treatment of temperaments, such as high sensitivity, which are distinct from diagnosed psychiatric disorders; presents hypothetical scenarios with respect to undiagnosed but inferred or predicted vulnerabilities; and explores the history of the dignitary IIED tort and the origins of its reasonableness requirement. This discussion acknowledges that scientific advances can allow uniquely vulnerable plaintiffs to assert harm in new ways--while also (1) pointing out that scientific uncertainties regarding the mind and temperamental sensitivity persist today and (2) touching on clinical and criminal law approaches to intentionally inflicted harms, which can emphasize the defendant's conduct as opposed to the plaintiff's subjective traits or experience for victim-protecting reasons. The purpose of raising these considerations is not to suggest particular reforms or strategies but, rather, to encourage readers to consider the potential impact of focusing on the plaintiff's biology on the one hand, or the defendant's conduct on the other, when deciding how to remedy intentionally inflicted mental harms.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Angústia Psicológica , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal , Emoções , Transtornos do Humor
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