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1.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 73-76, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152190

RESUMO

Amid the global pandemic crisis, international concern has centered on the control and prevention measures aimed at reducing the speed of the virus transmission while a more radical sanitary measure, such as vaccines, is achieved. Governmental and social efforts have had great impact on various sectors of society and their consequences have exceeded the sphere of health. This essay discusses the scope of specific measures in the sense of the appropriation of risk control measures and proposes the epidemiological method as an alternative that goes beyond the quantification of risks and the attribution of responsibilities. To conclude, the emphasis is placed on the need to promote information about socialization processes to better understand the consequences of individual acts favoring alternatives other than pandemic control based on the use of coercive measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado , Mudança Social , Responsabilidade Social , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Global Health ; 16(1): 101, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081805

RESUMO

Corruption is recognized by the global community as a threat to development generally and to achieving health goals, such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal # 3: ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. As such, international organizations such as the World Health Organizations and the United Nations Development Program are creating an evidence base on how best to address corruption in health systems. At present, the risk of corruption is even more apparent, given the need for quick and nimble responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may include a relaxation of standards and the rapid mobilization of large funds. As international organizations and governments attempt to respond to the ever-changing demands of this pandemic, there is a need to acknowledge and address the increased opportunity for corruption.In order to explore how such risks of corruption are addressed in international organizations, this paper focuses on the question: How are international organizations implementing measures to promote accountability and transparency, and anti-corruption, in their own operations? The following international organizations were selected as the focus of this paper given their current involvement in anti-corruption, transparency, and accountability in the health sector: the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank Group, and the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Our findings demonstrate that there has been a clear increase in the volume and scope of anti-corruption, accountability, and transparency measures implemented by these international organizations in recent years. However, the efficacy of these measures remains unclear. Further research is needed to determine how these measures are achieving their transparency, accountability, and anti-corruption goals.


Assuntos
Revelação , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/economia , Responsabilidade Social , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
4.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 4-5, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023283

RESUMO

Human health is inextricably connected with the health of the environment. Our actions to reduce the threats of climate change and global warming are key to our well-being and survival.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Saúde , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Papel do Médico , Responsabilidade Social , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Texas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until a vaccine is developed, a test, trace and isolate strategy is the most effective method of controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. Contact tracing and case isolation are common methods for controlling infectious disease outbreaks. However, the effectiveness of any contact tracing system rests on public engagement. Numerous factors may influence an individual's willingness to engage with a contact tracing system. Understanding these factors has become urgent during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify facilitators and barriers to uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks. METHOD: A rapid systematic review was conducted to identify papers based on primary research, written in English, and that assessed facilitators, barriers, and other factors associated with the uptake of, and engagement with, a contact tracing system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four themes were identified as facilitators to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: collective responsibility; personal benefit; co-production of contact tracing systems; and the perception of the system as efficient, rigorous and reliable. Five themes were identified as barriers to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: privacy concerns; mistrust and/or apprehension; unmet need for more information and support; fear of stigmatization; and mode-specific challenges. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the factors that have been identified, contact tracing services are more likely to get people to engage with them, identify more potentially ill contacts, and reduce transmission.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Participação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Privacidade , Responsabilidade Social , Estereotipagem , Confiança
12.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e711-e720, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010243

RESUMO

Despite a large and growing body of literature on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV integration, the drivers of integration of SRH and HIV services, from a health systems perspective, are not well understood. These drivers include complex so-called hardware (structural and resource) and software (values and norms, and human relations and interactions) factors. Two groups of software factors emerge as essential enablers of effective integration of SRH and HIV services that often interact with systems hardware: (1) leadership, management, and governance processes and (2) provider motivation, agency, and relationships. Evidence suggests the potential for software elements that are essential enablers to overcome some of the obstacles posed by the non-integration of health system hardware elements (eg, financing, guidelines, and commodity supplies). These enabling factors include flexible decision making, inclusive management, and support in motivating frontline staff who can work with agency as a team. Improved software, even within constrained hardware (especially in low-income and middle-income countries), can directly contribute to improved SRH and HIV service delivery.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Análise Fatorial , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Responsabilidade Social
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035242

RESUMO

Globally, increasing efforts have been made to hold duty-bearers to account for their commitments to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) over the past two decades, including via social accountability approaches: citizen-led, collective processes for holding duty-bearers to account. There have been many individual studies and several reviews of social accountability approaches but the implications of their findings to inform future accountability efforts are not clear. We addressed this gap by conducting a review of reviews in order to summarise the current evidence on social accountability for RMNCAH, identify factors contributing to intermediary outcomes and health impacts, and identify future research and implementation priorities. The review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO CRD42019134340). We searched eight databases and systematic review repositories and sought expert recommendations for published and unpublished reviews, with no date or language restrictions. Six reviews were analysed using narrative synthesis: four on accountability or social accountability approaches for RMNCAH, and two specifically examining perinatal mortality audits, from which we extracted information relating to community involvement in audits. Our findings confirmed that there is extensive and growing evidence for social accountability approaches, particularly community monitoring interventions. Few documented social accountability approaches to RMNCAH achieve transformational change by going beyond information-gathering and awareness-raising, and attention to marginalised and vulnerable groups, including adolescents, has not been well documented. Drawing generalisable conclusions about results was difficult, due to inconsistent nomenclature and gaps in reporting, particularly regarding objectives, contexts, and health impacts. Promising approaches for successful social accountability initiatives include careful tailoring to the social and political context, strategic planning, and multi-sectoral/multi-stakeholder approaches. Future primary research could advance the evidence by describing interventions and their results in detail and in their contexts, focusing on factors and processes affecting acceptability, adoption, and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Saúde , Responsabilidade Social , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Participação da Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872171

RESUMO

In revenue management practice, customers' perceived fairness is a critical issue. Prior research examined the effect of revenue management on customers' perceptions of fairness by implementing two different conditions: fencing and framing. In this study, the authors evaluated the role of a service firm's environmentally friendly reputation under the conditions of fencing and framing. Results indicated that an environmentally friendly reputation only moderated the effect of framing on perceived fairness. In particular, when the firm had a poor reputation, framing as a discount rather than framing as a surcharge increased customers' fairness perceptions. When the firm had a good reputation, however, customers' perception of fairness did not differ across two framing conditions. The findings of this study help firms to understand how customers perceive fairness in revenue management practice.


Assuntos
Comércio/organização & administração , Administração Financeira , Responsabilidade Social , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Renda , Investimentos em Saúde
18.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(5): 302-305, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948360

RESUMO

Following the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the alerts issued by the World Health Organization, for several months attention has been focused on Africa as a potentially severely endangered continent. A sizable number of African countries, mainly low and middle income, suffer from limited available resources, especially in critical care, and COVID-19 is liable to overwhelm their already fragile health systems. To effectively manage what is shaping up as a multidimensional crisis, the challenge unquestionably goes beyond the necessary upgrading of public health infrastructures. It is also a matter of anticipating and taking timely action with regard to factors that may mitigate the propagation of SARS-CoV2 and thereby cushion the shock of the pandemic on the African continent. While some of these factors are largely unmanageable (climate, geography…), several others (socio-cultural, religious, audio-visual, and potentially political…) could be more or less effectively dealt with by African governments and populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/história , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Áreas de Pobreza , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Responsabilidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
J Med Ethics ; 46(11): 732-735, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958693

RESUMO

A recent update to the Geneva Declaration's 'Physician Pledge' involves the ethical requirement of physicians to share medical knowledge for the benefit of patients and healthcare. With the spread of COVID-19, pockets exist in every country with different viral expressions. In the Chareidi ('ultra-orthodox') religious community, for example, rates of COVID-19 transmission and dissemination are above average compared with other communities within the same countries. While viral spread in densely populated communities is common during pandemics, several reasons have been suggested to explain the blatant flouting of public health regulations. It is easy to fault the Chareidi population for their proliferation of COVID-19, partly due to their avoidance of social media and internet aversion. However, the question remains: who is to blame for their community crisis? The ethical argument suggests that from a public health perspective, the physician needs to reach out and share medical knowledge with the community. The public's best interests are critical in a pandemic and should supersede any considerations of cultural differences. By all indications, therefore, the physician has an ethical obligation to promote population healthcare and share medical knowledge based on ethical concepts of beneficence, non-maleficence, utilitarian ethics as well as social, procedural and distributive justice. This includes the ethical duty to reduce health disparities and convey the message that individual responsibility for health has repercussions within the context of broader social accountability. Creative channels are clearly demanded for this ethical challenge, including measured medical paternalism with appropriate cultural sensitivity in physician community outreach.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/ética , Obrigações Morais , Pandemias/ética , Médicos/ética , Papel Profissional , Responsabilidade Social , Acesso à Informação , Beneficência , Betacoronavirus , Códigos de Ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Competência Cultural , Cultura , Teoria Ética , Equidade em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Paternalismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública/ética , Religião , Justiça Social
20.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 114, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944511

RESUMO

Solidarity in the general sense means unity or agreement of feeling or action, especially among individuals with a common interest; or mutual support within a group. There are different ways of standing in solidarity in different kinds of literatures. One of the most important ways is to advocate. Advocacy is a win-win strategy and a process of supporting and enabling people to express their views and concerns. In the end, I think sharing different types of solidarity can be one of the drivers that stimulate the solidarity itself, and I call on everyone to contribute to this sharing. I hope that this solidarity, which began in the world with the beginning of COVID-19, will not end with its end and will last forever because our world needs coexistence. This may be the only gift to the world from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Justiça Social , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/ética , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Justiça Social/ética , Justiça Social/tendências , Responsabilidade Social
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