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2.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 189-205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372375

RESUMO

Previous research has indicated that the sexual orientation of a sexual assault victim influences perceptions of blame. Although researchers have studied perceptions of blame toward straight and lesbian sexual assault victims, none have yet assessed perceptions of blame toward bisexual victims. The purpose of the current study is to examine perceptions of blame toward a female sexual assault victim and to determine whether the victim's sexual orientation impacts the level of attributed blame. Despite no previous research examining the impact of bisexuality on victim blaming, misconceptions that bisexual females are highly sexual, promiscuous, and untrustworthy make it likely that this population would be subject to greater levels of blame than either straight or lesbian victims. After random assignment to a vignette description of a sexual assault and completion of a victim-blaming questionnaire, results failed to support our hypotheses; participants did not blame the bisexual victim of sexual assault more than either the straight or lesbian victims. Further contrary to expected findings, males did not hold more blaming attitudes than females across conditions. Nonetheless, this study is important given the finding that attributions of blame influence whether sexual assault victims choose to disclose their assault, the failure of which can lead to negative mental health outcomes. Ultimately, the current study was a first step in understanding whether bisexual assault victims are evaluated differently than their straight and lesbian counterparts.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Revelação , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Humanos , Percepção Social , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Lancet ; 394(10214): 2119-2124, 2019 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785827

RESUMO

Corruption is embedded in health systems. Throughout my life-as a researcher, public health worker, and a Minister of Health-I have been able to see entrenched dishonesty and fraud. But despite being one of the most important barriers to implementing universal health coverage around the world, corruption is rarely openly discussed. In this Lecture, I outline the magnitude of the problem of corruption, how it started, and what is happening now. I also outline people's fears around the topic, what is needed to address corruption, and the responsibilities of the academic and research communities in all countries, irrespective of their level of economic development. Policy makers, researchers, and funders need to think about corruption as an important area of research in the same way we think about diseases. If we are really aiming to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and ensure healthy lives for all, corruption in global health must no longer be an open secret.


Assuntos
Fraude , Saúde Global , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Má Conduta Profissional , Pesquisa Biomédica , Crime , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Responsabilidade Social
4.
Rev. psicanal ; 26(3): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/464/483, dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049637

RESUMO

O artigo versa sobre o entrelaçamento da violência inerente aos diferentes âmbitos sociais com a violência presente na instituição escolar. É relatada uma situação de violência ocorrida em uma escola pública de Porto Alegre, com base na qual se discutem os vários níveis envolvidos no engendramento do episódio. Destaca-se neste o aspecto ético da violência. Discussões teóricas relacionadas ao tema promovem o embasamento e aprofundamento da visão dos autores sobre as vicissitudes do social na instituição escola (AU)


This paper presents the entanglement of violence concerning different social fields with violence at school. The authors describe a situation of violence occurred in a public school in Porto Alegre and, based on that, the several spheres involved in originating the episode are discussed. The ethical aspect of violence is also underlined. Furthermore, the authors' perspective concerning the social and its vicissitudes in teaching institutions is illustrated and deepened thanks to theoretical discussions related to the topic


El artículo aborda el entrelazamiento de la violencia inherente a las diferentes áreas sociales con la violencia presente en la institución escolar. Relatase una situación de violencia que ocurrió en una escuela pública en Porto Alegre, con base en la cual se discuten los diversos niveles involucrados en la generación del episodio. Resaltase en este el aspecto ético de la violencia. Las discusiones teóricas relacionadas con el tema promueven el embasamiento y la profundización de la opinión de los autores sobre las vicisitudes de lo social en la institución escolar


Assuntos
Violência , Responsabilidade Social , Segregação Social , Hostilidade
5.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(12): 746-755, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875625

RESUMO

Objectives Multinational R&D pharmaceutical companies operating in many countries and regions have deep ties with patient groups that are recipients of their corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR activities are diverse and range from direct funding (including donations and sponsorships) to indirect funding (such as expenses associated with company-sponsored lectures); there are rewards for CSR requests for patient groups (writing, supervision, and surveys), and labor is provided by company employees. In developing pharmaceutical products, R&D companies can provide greater benefits to patients by listening to them. It is therefore important for all stakeholders to ensure transparency regarding the relationship between companies and patient groups. This study aimed to identify trends in information disclosure toward ensuring transparency of relations between CSR activities and patient groups based on industry groups regulations in Japan, the United States, and Europe.Methods The contents described in regulations by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA), Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), and the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) concerning such transparency were qualitatively and inductively analyzed in terms of four concepts: transparency, equal partnership, mutual benefit, and independence.Results Most of the descriptions relate to transparency. The EFPIA regulation is the most detailed; it states that there should be no influence on patient groups' work or on events and activities organized by companies or patient groups. The rules of the three associations also impose the need to maintain records concerning the purpose and contents of financial support and activity items. However, information disclosure to secure transparency is not required in the PhRMA regulation. The JPMA regulation does not specify a clear update schedule; the EFPIA regulation requires disclosure information to be updated once a year. In terms of equal partnership, such terms as "mutual respect," "equal value," and "establishing a trust relationship" appeared in searches with all three regulations. None of the regulations referred to "mutual benefit." All the regulations either respected or validated the independence of patient groups.Conclusion Each pharmaceutical association set its own regulations and recommended voluntary information disclosure by member companies; however, the extent of such disclosure differed with each association. The regulations of industry associations form the basis for the policies of member companies; thus, it is desirable that the contents and regulations related to mutual information disclosure be established in great detail worldwide.


Assuntos
Revelação , Indústria Farmacêutica , Ética nos Negócios , Internacionalidade , Organizações , Pacientes , Responsabilidade Social , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Japão , Estados Unidos
6.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(100): 253-262, sept.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185239

RESUMO

El concepto de vulnerabilidad ha determinado múltiples actuaciones en el ámbito sanitario. En los últimos años este concepto ha originado diversos modelos holísticos que oscilan entre considerar la vulnerabilidad como un elemento descriptivo de una situación accidental hasta su consideración como principio orientador de la práctica médica. Se percibe la necesidad de profundizar en este fenómeno desde el punto de vista de la filosofía moral. La reflexión moral revela un desequilibrio en el binomio autonomía-dependencia, generando soluciones opuestas en la toma de decisiones. Aunque la autonomía ha fundamentado hasta ahora gran parte de la acción médica, la dependencia plantea una nueva óptica sobre la vulnerabilidad, ra-dicada en la ética del cuidado. Esta perspectiva permite superar la consideración de la vulnerabilidad como una característica, un accidente o un principio. La vulnerabilidad aparece como una dimensión intrínseca del ser humano que, lejos de alterar su dignidad o su autonomía, permite evidenciar la necesidad de los otros para alcanzar su plenitud


The concept of vulnerability has determined multiple actions in the health field. In recent years, this concept has originated various holistic models that oscillate between considering vulnerability as a descriptive element of an accidental situation until it is considered a guiding principle of medical practice. The need to deepen this phenomenon from the point of view of moral philosophy is perceived. The moral reflection reveals an imbalance in the binomial autonomy-dependence, generating opposite solutions in decision-making. Although autonomy has so far supported much of the medical action, the dependency raises a new perspective on vulnerability, rooted in the ethics of care. This perspective allows us to overcome the consideration of vulnerability as a characteristic, an accident or a principle. Vulnerability appears as an intrinsic dimension of the human being that, far from altering its dignity or autonomy, makes it possible to demonstrate the need of others to reach their fullness


Assuntos
Humanos , Vulnerabilidade Social , Bioética , Nível de Saúde , Grupos Minoritários , Saúde das Minorias/ética , Pobreza , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Populações Vulneráveis , Grupos de Risco , Autonomia Pessoal , Deambulação com Auxílio/ética , Indigência Médica , Responsabilidade Social
7.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(11): 668-671, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779293

RESUMO

Corruption in the health sector has been a "dirty secret" in the health policy and international development community, but recent global activities point to a day when it will no longer be neglected as a key determinant of health. To further explore next steps forward, this commentary applies the Kingdon's multiple-streams framework (MSF) to assess what opportunities are available to mobilize the global agenda to combat health corruption. Based on this analysis, it appears that Kingdon's problem, policy, and political streams are coalescing to create a policy window opportunity that can be leveraged based on recent developments in the global health and international development community around corruption. This includes the recent formation of the Global Network on Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability (GNACTA) led by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Fund, and the United Nations Development Programme in 2019. It also includes bridging shared goals of addressing corruption in order to make progress towards health-specific goals in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for achieving universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Nações Unidas , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
8.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 750-763, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682355

RESUMO

Although the pharmaceutical industry is a multi-billion-dollar business, it fails to save the lives of millions. Astronomical drug prices are not just an economic problem that can be settled through clever marketing strategies but a significant ethical issue. This article delves into the ethical health care paradigm, which can supplant the present economistic paradigm. Grounded in the ethical-philosophical argument for recognising an individual's right to be healthy, it asserts the practical proposal of cost rationalisation and universal availability of essential and lifesaving drugs. This is achievable by supporting research and development funding for drug innovation by the business establishment, and as such falls within the scope of corporate social responsibility.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Responsabilidade Social
10.
Am J Law Med ; 45(2-3): 130-170, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722626

RESUMO

In many areas of innovation, the United States is a leader, but this characterization does not apply to the United States' position in assisted reproductive technology innovation and clinical use. This article uses a political science concept, the idea of the "democratic deficit" to examine the lack of American public discourse on innovations in ART. In doing so, the article focuses on America's missing public consultation in health care innovation. This missing discourse is significant, as political and ethical considerations may impact regulatory decisions. Thus, to the extent that these considerations are influencing the decisions of federal agency employees, namely those who work within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the public is unable to participate in the decision-making process. This lack of a public discourse undermines the goals of the administrative state, which include democratic participation, transparency, and accountability. The United Kingdom, on the other hand, has had a markedly divergent experience with assisted reproductive technology innovation. Instead of ignoring the various ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding assisted reproductive technology innovation, the United Kingdom engaged in a five-strand public consultation on the topic of mitochondrial transfer, a form of assisted reproductive technology that uses genetic modification in order to prevent disease transmission. This article argues that after a multi-decade standstill in terms of the public discourse related to ethical issues associated with assisted reproductive technology and germline modification, it is time for the United States to institute a more democratic inquiry into the scientific, ethical, and social implications of new forms of assisted reproductive technology and ultimately, forthcoming medical innovations that involve genetic modification.


Assuntos
Democracia , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação da Comunidade , Governo Federal , Fertilização In Vitro/ética , Fertilização In Vitro/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Participação dos Interessados , Governo Estadual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
Global Health ; 15(1): 55, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Who benefits from the commercial biomedical research and development (R&D)? Patients-consumers and investors-shareholders have traditionally been viewed as two distinct groups with conflicting interests: shareholders seek maximum profits, patients - maximum clinical benefit. However, what happens when patients are the shareholders? With billions of dollars of public risk capital channeled into the drug development industry, analysing the complex financial architecture and the market for corporate control is essential for understanding industry's characteristics, such as pricing strategies or R&D priorities. RESULTS: Adding investments by governmentally-mandated retirement schemes, central and promotional banks, and sovereign wealth funds to tax-derived governmental financing shows that the majority of biomedical R&D funding is public in origin. Despite this, even in the high-income countries patients can be denied access to effective treatments due to their high cost. Since these costs are set by the drug development firms that are owned in substantial part by the retirement accounts of said patients, the complex financial architecture of biomedical R&D may be inconsistent with the objectives of the ultimate beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: The divergence in economic and public health performance of the drug development industry is resultant from its financial underwriting by enormously expanded pension schemes, governmentally mandated to represent the interests of "captive" beneficiaries, as well as similar policymaker-designed funding flows, whose standards of transparency, accountability and representation are substantially lower than that of governments themselves. Strengthening those elements of institutional design and thus ensuring active responsible shareholding in the interest of the patients-savers is an under-utilised, but potentially high-impact opportunity for advancing public health.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Administração Financeira , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pensões , Pesquisa/economia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Responsabilidade Social
14.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 43-54, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184865

RESUMO

En este trabajo se plantean algunas reflexiones respecto de la edición genética y su impacto en la responsabilidad. Me centraré en la investigación y en las prácticas que se realizan en línea germinal, ya que son las que más preocupan a nuestra sociedad. Aunque estas tecnologías no generan problemas realmente novedosos, cuestionan el alcance de nuestra noción tradicional de responsabilidad y nos plantean nuevos desafíos respecto de cómo afrontarlas. Podemos pensar la responsabilidad de manera individual, en tanto progenitores, a la hora de decidir respecto de nuestra descendencia. Pero también se puede plantear una responsabilidad colectiva: por ejemplo, en tanto científicos a la hora de regular la ciencia, o en tanto sociedad. En este último sentido pareciera que deberíamos considerar cómo estas tecnologías puedan afectar el sistema público de acceso al cuidado de la salud así como también tener en cuenta si determinados grupos de pacientes corren el riesgo de ser postergados sin olvidar cuál pueda ser el impacto en las futuras generaciones


En aquest treball es plantegen algunes reflexions respecte de l'edició genètica i el seu impacte en la responsabilitat. Em centraré en la recerca i en les pràctiques que es realitzen en la línia germinal, ja que són les que més preocupen la nostra societat. Encara que aquestes tecnologies no generen problemes realment nous, qüestionen l'abast de la nostra noció tradicional de responsabilitat i ens plantegen nous desafiaments respecte de com afrontar-les. Podem pensar la responsabilitat de manera individual, en tant progenitors, a l'hora de decidir respecte de la nostra descendència. Però també es pot plantejar una responsabilitat col•lectiva: per exemple, en tant que científics a l'hora de regular la ciència, o en tant que societat. En aquest últim sentit hauríem de considerar com aquestes tecnologies poden afectar el sistema públic d'accés a la salut així com també tenir en compte si determinats grups de pacients corren el risc de ser postergats sense oblidar quin pugui ser l'impacte en les futures generacions


In this article I would like to examine gene editing and its impact on responsibility. I will focus on germ line’ research and practice. Though these technologies do not raise novel issues, they make us re-think the scope of traditional responsibility. I will examine responsibility from an individual perspective: for example our role as parents and the impact of our decisions on our descendants. I will also examine responsibility from a collective perspective: scientists should examine how to regulate these technologies. In addition, as a society we should address how these technologies may affect public access to health care, or if groups of patients might be overlooked. We should also think the impact gene editing may have on future generations


Assuntos
Humanos , Edição de Genes/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Células Germinativas , Sistemas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(9): 563-566, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657180

RESUMO

In this commentary, I argue that corruption in health systems is a critical and legitimate area for research in order to strengthen health policy goals. This rationale is based partly on citizen demand for more accountable and transparent health systems, along with the fact that the poor and vulnerable suffer the most from the presence of corruption in health systems. What is more, there is a growing body of literature on the impact of corruption in the health system and best practices in terms of anti-corruption, transparency and accountability (ACTA) strategies and tactics within the health system. Still, we need to support ACTA integration into the health system by having a common definition of corruption that is meaningful for health systems and ensure that ACTA strategies and tactics are transparent themselves. The 2019 Consultation on a proposed Global Network on ACTA in Health Systems is promising for these efforts.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos
16.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1670015, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587621

RESUMO

Child health is taking the back seat in development strategies. In summarising a newly released collaborative report, this paper calls for a novel conceptual model where child health takes centre stage in relation to the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. It lays out five principles by which renewed effort and focus would yield the most benefit for children and adolescents. These include: re-defining global child health in the post-2015 era by placing children and adolescents at the centre of the Sustainable Development Goals; striving for equity; realising the rights of the child to thrive throughout the life-course; facilitating evidence informed policy-making and implementation; and capitalising on interlinkages within the SDGs to galvanise multisectoral action. These five principles offer models that together have the potential of improving design, return and quality of global child health programs while re-energising the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Saúde Global , Metas , Formulação de Políticas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
20.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 227-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour towards another person who does not or cannot consent to it causes serious harm to its victims. Understandable tendencies towards isolating or shaming the offenders, however, may actually increase risks of recidivism and further such harms. AIM: The study aims to consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for sex offenders, mainly in a U.K. context, across four areas: criminal justice system programmes, medication, interventions for sex offenders with personality disorder and a community-based model for the reintegration-Circles of Support and Accountability, and identify key evidence gaps. METHODS: We searched for reviews in the following four strands of work-psychosocial programmes, medication, personality focused therapies, and Circles of Support and Accountability-and identified gaps in knowledge. FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials in this field are rare but have been achieved. Findings from more naturalistic outcome studies of sex offender treatment programmes are disappointing, but recidivism rates among released sex offender prisoners are low, regardless. Medication relying on substantial physiological change raises substantial ethical concerns. Not all sex offenders have a mental disorder but up to half have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, which may need specific treatment. Evidence is growing that lay work such as Circles of Support and Accountability is a valuable adjunct to other interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: In this field, where tensions between attributions swing between "madness" and "badness," there is growing evidence for optimism that complexity of history and presentation can be met through cooperation between the many disciplines, integrative strategies, and wider community engagement. The need now is for large, prospective controlled trials of interventions, with long periods of follow-up. Perhaps, the most exciting developments have come from the wider public. More research into the qualities of these volunteers might inform public education and health strategies supporting wider safety.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Criminosos/psicologia , Libido/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Grupos de Autoajuda , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Responsabilidade Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Prisioneiros , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
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