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1.
Appetite ; 168: 105704, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547347

RESUMO

U.S. children's frequent consumption of restaurant foods has been associated with low vegetable consumption. Use of choice architecture in restaurants has been shown to increase children's orders of healthy sides, but what children consume when healthy sides are included is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether altering the choice architecture of children's meals by restructuring the menu, using optimal defaults and vice-virtue bundles, would impact ordering of side dishes and consumption of a vegetable side dish during a restaurant meal. Families with a child between 4-8y attended three dinners at a university-based restaurant. Children's meals included choice of entree (macaroni-and-cheese or chicken tenders) and default side: all carrots (150 g; Menu-1), small fries (50 g)/large carrots (100 g; Menu-2), and small carrots (50 g)/large fries (100 g; Menu-3). Participants could opt-out of the default side for: only fries (Menu-1) or only fries or carrots (Menus-2/3). All foods were pre- and post-weighed to determine consumption. Descriptive statistics examined children's ordering behavior. Repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in consumption of study foods. A paired samples t-test examined differences in french fry consumption (Menus-2/3). Forty-eight children (6.2 ± 1.3 years; 25 male) participated. Most children remained with the default side (Meal-1: 90%; Meal-2: 88%; Meal-3: 85%). Significant differences were seen in children's consumption of french fries (t = -2.57, p = .014) where children ate more during meal 3 compared to meal 2. There were no significant differences in carrot consumption. Use of optimal defaults led to increased orders of healthy sides and steady consumption across the meal conditions. However, use of an optimal, vice-virtue bundle led to a decrease in consumption of french fries. Further investigation of optimal default use on children's menus is warranted.


Assuntos
Refeições , Restaurantes , Comportamento de Escolha , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Verduras
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925681

RESUMO

Introduction: training intervention for food handlers is necessary to increase their knowledge and awareness about food hygiene. Research in this area has been given low attention in Nigeria, especially in the Northern part of the country. Therefore, we assessed the effect of food hygiene training on the knowledge of food hygiene among food handlers in Sokoto metropolis. Methods: we conducted a quasi-experimental study between January and July 2019. We used a multistage sampling technique to select 360 food handlers randomized into intervention and control groups. We conducted a training intervention after the baseline data collection. Post-intervention data collection was conducted six months after the intervention. We estimated the proportion of respondents with good knowledge at baseline and post-intervention. We assessed the difference in pre-and post-intervention proportions using McNemars Marginal Homogeneity test at 5% level of significance. Results: in the intervention and control groups, 19 (10.6%) and 18 (10.0%) had primary education respectively, p = 0.231. At baseline, 23 (12.8%) and 22 (12.2%) in intervention and control groups respectively had good knowledge, p= 0.515. At post-intervention, the proportion of those with good knowledge in the intervention group increased to 56.7%, p < 0.001; while in the control group, there was no significant difference in the proportion of those with good knowledge, p = 0.248. Conclusion: the training intervention has significantly improved the knowledge of the food handlers. We recommend that the National Food and Drug Agency, in collaboration with restaurant owners, ensure regular on-the-job training of food handlers.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Higiene , Escolaridade , Nigéria , Restaurantes
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2141353, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967879

RESUMO

Importance: Calorie labeling on menus is required in US chain food establishments with 20 or more locations. This policy may encourage retailers to offer lower-calorie items, which could lead to a public health benefit by reducing customers' calorie intake from prepared foods. However, potential reformulation of restaurant menu items has not been examined since nationwide enforcement of this policy in 2018. Objective: To examine the calorie content of menu items at large chain restaurants before and after implementation of federally mandated menu calorie labels. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pre-post cohort study used restaurant menu data from MenuStat, a database of nutrition information for menu items offered in the largest chain restaurants in the US, collected annually from 2012 to 2019. The study comprised 35 354 menu items sold at 59 large chain restaurants in the US. Statistical analysis was conducted from February 4 to October 8, 2021. Intervention: Nationwide implementation of menu calorie labeling. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in menu items' calorie content after restaurant chains implemented calorie labels were estimated, adjusting for prelabeling trends. All menu items, continuously available items, items newly introduced to menus, and items removed from menus were examined separately. Results: Among the 59 restaurant chains included in the study, after labeling, there were no changes in mean calorie content for all menu items (change = -2.0 calories; 95% CI, -8.5 to 4.4 calories) or continuously available items (change = -2.3 calories; 95% CI, -11.5 to 6.3 calories). Items that were newly introduced after labeling, however, had a lower mean calorie content than items introduced before labeling (change = -112.9 calories; 95% CI, -208.6 to -25.2 calories), although there was heterogeneity by restaurant type. Items removed from menus after labeling had similar calorie content as items removed before labeling (change = 0.5 calories; 95% CI, -79.4 to 84.0 calories). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of large chain restaurants, implementing calorie labels on menus was associated with the introduction of lower-calorie items but no changes in continuously available or removed items.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Planejamento de Cardápio , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948908

RESUMO

This research paper aims to analyse how consumer emotions have evolved during the pandemic period in comparison with the pre-pandemic period in relation to restaurant demand in the Romanian fine-dining industry and uses valuable information based on social-media sentiment analysis and content analysis. Focusing on theories of consumer behaviour, the study aims to emphasize how, under the influence of an epidemic crisis caused by an infectious disease, individual behaviour adapts to the "new normal", embracing a series of changes in the preferences, attitudes, and cognitive choice-making processes. The article takes into account a comparative analysis of the consumer emotions between the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period (2010-2019) and the pandemic period (2020-present), based on the online reviews provided by customers for five fine-dining restaurants from Bucharest, the capital city of Romania: The Artist, Relais & Chateaux Le Bistrot Francais, Casa di David, Kaiamo, and L'Atelier. The research was based on two mining analyses-content analysis and sentiment analysis-and explored the emotional intent of words, with the data being collected from TripAdvisor through web-scrapping. The empirical results defined the fine-dining experience during the pandemic as being associated with the quality of the dishes and also with the quality of the service. The overall consumer sentiment in the direction of the restaurants analyzed is positive. The sentiment research found that throughout the epidemic, the consumers' attitudes about restaurants deteriorated. In this sense, consumers seem to be less satisfied with the restaurants' services than before the pandemic. This is another thing that the restaurants had difficulties in when adapting their operations for the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Restaurantes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Emoções , Humanos , Pandemias , Romênia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(12): 1482-1485, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963247

RESUMO

This study was conducted between November to December 2020, consisting of six representative cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen (with comprehensive smoke-free legislation), and Changsha, Chongqing, Shenyang (without comprehensive smoke-free legislation), 678 subjects were enrolled eventually, the mean age of the 678 subjects was (35.61±12.91)years old. Subjects from cities with comprehensive smoke-free legislation accounted for 49.71% of the total; male subjects accounted for 19.47%; meanwhile subjects from large, medium, and small restaurants accounted for 13.57% (92), 37.32% (253) and 49.11% (333) respectively. The analysis results indicate that the positive rate of restaurants staff of cotinine and 3'-hydroxynicotinine was lower in cities with comprehensive smoke-free legislation(34.12% vs 68.04%, χ²=78.01, P<0.001; 16.32% vs 41.94%, χ²=53.79, P<0.001), with staff from cities with comprehensive smoke-free legislation have lower concentrations of cotinine and 3'-hydroxynicotinine than their counterparts from cities without comprehensive smoke-free legislation(0.250 ng/ml vs 0.742 ng/ml, P<0.001; 0.250 ng/ml vs 0.250 ng/ml, P<0.001). No statistically significant difference in the concentration of cotinine and 3'-hydroxynicotinine in saliva between staff from restaurants of different sizes was detected (P>0.05).


Assuntos
Cotinina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , China , Cidades , Cotinina/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Restaurantes , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to clarify the transition to the implementation of smoking prohibition at eating and drinking establishments one year before and after April 2020, the time when they became "nonsmoking" in principle following the implementation of the amendment bill for the Health Promotion Act of Japan. METHODS: The total number of nonsmoking/smoking eating and drinking establishments by industry were obtained using the data from "Tabelog®." The number of people who tested positive for COVID-19 by the polymerase chain reaction test on the day of the survey nationwide and the bankruptcy status of the companies (eating and drinking establishments, etc.) for each month were ascertained. RESULTS: In 2020, a state of emergency was declared owing to the increase in the number of people positive for COVID-19, and many eating and drinking establishments went bankrupt. Despite these circumstances, the number of nonsmoking eating and drinking establishments exceeded that of smoking establishments in March 2020 and continued to increase thereafter. Additionally, the number of nonsmoking "restaurants" increased and exceeded that of smoking restaurants in June 2020. The number of nonsmoking "cafes" already exceeded that of smoking "cafes" at the beginning of this survey and continued to increase. The number of nonsmoking "bars" increased, but that of smoking "bars" remained high. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to promote measures against passive smoking while paying attention to the trends for different types of eating and drinking establishments, rather than considering all establishments together.


Assuntos
Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , COVID-19 , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Política Pública/tendências , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100967, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794712

RESUMO

It has been argued that older people living with dementia often experience stigma. Several media interventions have been designed to raise public awareness about dementia, as well as to de-stigmatise the condition and people living with it; however, few studies have investigated how media interventions may serve to reduce stigma. The present study focused on a Chinese reality show, Forget Me Not Café, which brought together five older people (aged 65 and older) living with dementia to run a pop-up restaurant and intended to reduce the stigma of dementia. The study aimed to explore how the reality show cast talk (or write) about dementia in older people. This study performed a thematic analysis on the written and spoken content about how the show presented dementia in older people. Four discursive themes were identified, including: age as a risk factor for dementia; early signs and symptoms of dementia in older people; the pressure on the family of people with dementia; and expectations of people living with dementia. The findings of this study show that the views of the reality show cast highlight the capability of older people with dementia to communicate effectively and live with the condition, their personal goals of sustaining a happy, meaningful, and sociable life, and the actions they took to positively influence personal circumstances. The findings also indicate that this reality show might help reduce the stigma of dementia and empower older people living with dementia, while it also tends to stress the responsibility for care on family carers and shift the responsibility of managing the dementia-related challenges to older people living with dementia. These suggest a neoliberal tenet of personal responsibility for health in China. Given the media's role in reflecting and shaping perceptions and attitudes towards dementia and people living with it, this study contributes to a greater understanding of the ways in which reality shows can be used to promote awareness and challenge the stigma of dementia and arguably other conditions.


Assuntos
Demência , Restaurantes , Idoso , Atitude , Cuidadores , Humanos , Estigma Social
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639678

RESUMO

The economic downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately impacted the food service industry-one of the largest workforce sectors in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the occupational stressors experienced by restaurant and food service workers during the COVID-19 pandemic through a detailed assessment of their lived experiences. Thematic analysis was used to identify patterns within data from sixteen semi-structured interviews with people employed or recently employed in the restaurant industry during July of 2020. Five themes were highlighted including fear of being exposed to the COVID-19 virus while working under inadequate safety policies, job insecurity, inconsistent pay and hours and a lack of health benefits and paid time off, all of which increased occupational stress and led to uncertainty if respondents would return to the restaurant industry. Hardships associated with the pandemic were mitigated by the support and connections fostered by the communities built within the restaurants. Results led to several recommendations to address the social and economic contributors to occupational stress at the structural and population levels which can be used in the current and post-pandemic workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estresse Ocupacional , Humanos , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Restaurantes , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682538

RESUMO

Public awareness of calories in food sold in retail establishments is a primary objective of the menu labeling law. This study explores the extent to which we can use social media and internet search queries to understand whether the federal calorie labeling law increased awareness of calories. To evaluate the association of the federal menu labeling law with tweeting about calories we retrieved tweets that contained the term "calorie(s)" from the CompEpi Geo Twitter Database from 1 January through 31 December in 2016 and 2018. Within the same time period, we also retrieved time-series data for search queries related to calories via Google Trends (GT). Interrupted time-series analysis was used to test whether the federal menu labeling law was associated with a change in mentions of "calorie(s)" on Twitter and relative search queries to calories on GT. Before the implementation of the federal calorie labeling law on 7 May 2018, there was a significant decrease in the baseline trend of 4.37 × 10-8 (SE = 1.25 × 10-8, p < 0.001) mean daily ratio of calorie(s) tweets. A significant increase in post-implementation slope of 3.19 × 10-8 (SE = 1.34 × 10-8 , p < 0.018) mean daily ratio of calorie(s) tweets was seen compared to the pre-implementation slope. An interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis showed a small, statistically significant upward trend of 0.0043 (SE = 0.036, p < 0.001) weekly search queries for calories pre-implementation, with no significant level change post-implementation. There was a decrease in trend of 1.22 (SE = 0.27, p < 0.001) in search queries for calories post-implementation. The federal calorie labeling law was associated with a 173% relative increase in the trend of mean daily ratio of tweets and a -28381% relative change in trend for search queries for calories. Twitter results demonstrate an increase in awareness of calories because of the addition of menu labels. Google Trends results imply that fewer people are searching for the calorie content of their meal, which may no longer be needed since calorie information is provided at point of purchase. Given our findings, discussions online about calories may provide a signal of an increased awareness in the implementation of calorie labels.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Restaurantes , Estados Unidos
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e233, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698006

RESUMO

School lockdowns have been widely used to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these lockdowns may have a significant negative impact on the lives of young people. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of closing lower secondary schools for COVID-19 incidence in 13-15-year-olds in Finland, in a situation where restrictions and recommendation of social distancing were implemented uniformly in the entire country. COVID-19 case numbers were obtained from the National Infectious Disease Registry (NIDR) of the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, in which clinical microbiology laboratories report all positive SARS-CoV-2 tests with unique identifiers in a timely manner. The NIDR is linked to population data registry, enabling calculation of incidences. We estimated the differences in trends between areas with both restaurant and lower secondary school closures and areas with only restaurant closures in different age groups by using joinpoint regression. We also estimated the differences in trends between age groups. Based on our analysis, closing lower secondary schools had no impact on COVID-19 incidence among 13-15-year-olds. No significant changes on COVID-19 incidence were observed in other age groups either.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Restaurantes , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574607

RESUMO

Restaurant delivery services have gained in popularity among college students; however, students participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) are not allowed to redeem their benefits via restaurant delivery services. This mixed-methods head-to-head crossover trial assessed whether college students experiencing marginal food security prefer benefits via a grocery store gift card (as a proxy for traditional SNAP benefits) or via a restaurant delivery service gift card of equivalent value, and which type of benefit is more effective at improving food security status. Thirty college students experiencing marginal food security were recruited to receive $80 in cash equivalent benefits to spend over a two-month period in the form of grocery store gift cards and restaurant delivery service gift cards. Participants completed surveys and interviews to measure their food security status and share their experiences with each benefit type. After four months of benefits, 48.3% of participants improved their food security status. However, neither type of benefit was statistically better at improving food security status. Most participants preferred grocery store benefits (89.7%) over restaurant delivery service benefits (10.3%). However, more research is needed to explore whether allowing SNAP recipients to redeem their benefits with restaurant delivery services is a viable mechanism to address food challenges among college students experiencing marginal food security.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Restaurantes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pobreza , Estudantes , Supermercados
12.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 25(4): 213-223, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468318

RESUMO

Epidemiological and observational studies converge to suspect today a risk of contracting Covid-19 around shared meals and drinks. Contamination of table objects (plates, cutlery, glasses) or food and beverages put in the mouth is possible through droplets projected during speech or through direct contacts by dirty hands. This contamination could involve employees in the food chain, restaurant or bar staff and diners among themselves. Biopersistence on hands and cold food supports the hypothesis of contamination by the food route. The oral-digestive route is also supported by the clinical presentation of the patients, the presence of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors and the SARS-CoV-2 virus found in the entire digestive tract. In addition, the reproduction of the disease via the oral route in experimental animal models confirms this hypothesis. Prevention around the food chain and around the meal by strict hygiene measures, especially hand hygiene, is essential and may be extended to other fields of application of everyday life.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Humanos , Higiene , Refeições , Restaurantes , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Big Data ; 9(5): 358-372, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582700

RESUMO

With the development of modern information and communication technologies, such as the internet of things and big data analytics, businesses and users have become more adaptable to rapid changes. Both consumers and merchants have obtained great convenience. Meanwhile, a huge amount of data is generated. However, many businesses lack the ability to process these data, which contain critical business values. Therefore, this article uses data from the Dianping website to show how to use big data analytics techniques to exploit the valuable information from these raw data. First, descriptive analysis is conducted by using kernel density estimation. Then, multilinear regression analysis, Naive Bayes, and J48 are used to predict the level of restaurants. We found that flavor, environment, and service score are essential factors to the restaurant level. Moreover, J48 performs best among the three models with an accuracy of 88.89%.


Assuntos
Big Data , Restaurantes , Teorema de Bayes , Ciência de Dados
14.
Waste Manag ; 135: 256-266, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555687

RESUMO

The circular economy approach imposes the complete recovery of components, materials and energy from waste. Many active compounds with biomedical and nutraceutical applications can be extracted by Fish Waste (FW), but few are the operating industrial plants. Quantification and mapping of the potential FW availability along the entire fish value-chain is crucial in fostering its actual valorisation. Apart at industrial processing, in the distribution segment the estimation of FW availability is absent. This paper aimed to quantify and locate FW generated by point sources such as supermarkets, fishmongers and restaurants as well as to establish the diffuse domestic FW production in a 4,5M inhabitants region. The study provides an exportable method and indications for comparable worldwide areas. A simplified valorisation scenario for equivalent biomethane production is also presented. Direct interviews and indirect approach based on fish consumption have been adopted and compared. Large supermarkets and medium-large restaurants are the main FW producers (239 and 125 kg/week, respectively) followed medium-large fishmongers and medium supermarkets (63 and 86 kg/week, respectively). In the investigated region the larger FW point sources are supermarkets (average 3000 Mg/y), while fishmongers are the smaller (average 750 Mg/y). Restaurants (average 1400 Mg/y) show the wider range of variability between 460 and 8000 Mg/y. The indirect methodology reveals that domestic FW production ranges from 2376 to 3961 Mg/y. Per capita estimations of FW ranged from 0.5 - 3 kg/y. The economic value of FW (biomethanation route) is 68 EUR/Mg. A qualification as "highly potential waste" would promote FW valorization.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Alimentos , Itália , Restaurantes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501924

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity among preschool children has risen dramatically due to the influx of Western fast food in China. In this study, we aimed to provide clear evidence on the associations between fast-food restaurants and childhood obesity. We collected and combined three unique cross-sectional datasets: physical fitness data, geographic information, and the financial data of each kindergarten. The two-stage least squares were used for empirical analyses. The final data including 75,730 children were from 785 kindergartens in 82 cities and 23 provinces in China in 2018. The mean age of participants was 4.94 ± 0.87; 34,249 (45.2%) females and 41,481 (54.8%) males. The number of fast-food restaurants within 1, 2, and 3 km radii had a significant and positive correlation with obesity, and this correlation decreased as the radius increased. Furthermore, the distance to the nearest fast-food restaurant had a significant and negative correlation with obesity. Western fast-food restaurants contributed more to obesity than the broader definition of fast-food restaurants. There was marked heterogeneity between urban and rural areas. Our findings documented that fast-food restaurants had a significant and positive association with childhood obesity, thus the restriction of fast-food restaurants surrounding kindergartens might be considered.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Restaurantes , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Características de Residência
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256896, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469489

RESUMO

Determining the level of customer satisfaction in cleanliness regarding a product or service is a significant aspect of businesses. However, the availability of feedback tools for consumers to evaluate the cleanliness of a restaurant is a crucial issue as several aspects of cleanliness need to be evaluated collectively. To overcome this issue, this study designed a survey instrument based on the standard form used for grading the food premises and transformed it into a seven Likert scale questionnaire and consists of seven questions. This study employed fuzzy conjoint analysis to measure the level of satisfaction in cleanliness in food premises. This pilot study recruited 30 students in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Seremban 3. The student's perception was represented by the scores calculated based on their degree of similarities and corresponding levels of satisfaction, whereby, only scores with the highest degree of similarity were selected. Furthermore, this study identified the aspects of hygiene that assessed based on the customers' satisfaction upon visiting the premises. The results indicated that the fuzzy conjoint analysis produced a similar outcome as the statistical mean, thus, was useful for the evaluation of customer satisfaction on the cleanliness of food premises.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Retroalimentação , Satisfação Pessoal , Controle de Qualidade , Restaurantes/organização & administração , Adolescente , Feminino , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(33): 1109-1113, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411074

RESUMO

In 2018, Michigan public health officials determined that a single restaurant in southwest Michigan was the source for a protracted, intermittent outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka infections occurring since 2008. Isolates from 36 infected persons shared two highly related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and highly related whole genome sequencing (WGS) subtypes. The initial focus of the local public health investigation on food items rather than food sources (i.e., restaurants) through a questionnaire, difficulty in food history recollection among ill persons, and sporadic case identification over periods from months to years contributed to delayed source identification. The Kalamazoo County Health and Community Services Department (KHCSD) and the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) collected clinical specimens, performed multiple rounds of environmental testing, and conducted multiple regulatory visits, and based on accumulated findings over 10 years, identified the restaurant source. A 2018 investigation by KCHCSD and MDHHS found that environmental samples and stool specimens from asymptomatic restaurant employees tested positive for the Salmonella Mbandaka outbreak strain. A complex association between the restaurant environment and employees resulted in patron illnesses. Environmental health interventions, facility renovation, asymptomatic employee exclusions, employee health monitoring, and recurrent facility environmental sampling measures were implemented. As a result of ongoing cases and environmental persistence of Salmonella Mbandaka, the restaurant closed permanently in 2018. Restaurant employee stool testing and environmental sampling for Salmonella early during the investigation of confirmed Salmonella cases linked to a restaurant enhances source identification. Exclusion or restriction of asymptomatic food workers with stool-positive nontyphoidal Salmonella should be considered part of restaurant outbreak mitigation.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Restaurantes , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15586, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341422

RESUMO

Ultrafine particles have been increasingly linked to adverse health effects in restaurant workers. This study aimed to clarify the exposure characteristics and risks of ultrafine particles during the cooking process, and to provide a reasonable standard for protecting the workers in the Chinese restaurant. The temporal variations in particle concentrations (number concentration (NC), mass concentration (MC), surface area concentration (SAC), and personal NC), and size distributions by number were measured by real-time system. The hazard, exposure, and risk levels of ultrafine particles were analyzed using the control banding tools. The NC, MC, and SAC increased during the cooking period and decreased gradually to background levels post-operation. The concentration ratios of MC, total NC, SAC, and personal NC ranged from 3.82 to 9.35. The ultrafine particles were mainly gathered at 10.4 and 100 nm during cooking. The exposure, hazard and risk levels of the ultrafine particles were high. These findings indicated that the workers during cooking were at high risk due to exposure to high levels of ultrafine particles associated with working activity and with a bimodal size distribution. The existing control strategies, including engineering control, management control, and personal protection equipment need to be improved to reduce the risk.


Assuntos
Culinária , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Restaurantes , Medição de Risco , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Fatores de Tempo
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