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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045882, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of people with HIV, one of the most severe burdens of adverse birth outcomes globally and particular vulnerability to climate change. We examined associations between seasonality and adverse birth outcomes among women with and without HIV in a large geographically representative birth outcomes surveillance study in Botswana from 2015 to 2018. METHODS: We evaluated stillbirth, preterm delivery, very preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), very SGA, and combined endpoints of any adverse or severe birth outcome. We estimated the risk of each outcome by month and year of delivery, and adjusted risks ratios (ARRs) of outcomes during the early wet (1 November-15 January), late wet (16 January-31 March) and early dry (1 April-15 July) seasons, compared with the late dry (16 July-31 October) season. Analyses were conducted overall and separately by HIV status. RESULTS: Among 73 178 women (24% with HIV), the risk of all adverse birth outcomes peaked in November-January and reached low points in September. Compared with the late dry season, the ARRs for any adverse birth outcome were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.06) for the early dry season, 1.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.11) for the early wet season and 1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.10) for the late wet season. Comparing the early wet season to the late dry season, we found that ARRs for stillbirth and very preterm delivery were higher in women with HIV (1.23, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.59, and 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.62, respectively) than in women without HIV (1.07, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.26, and 1.19, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.36, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a modest association between seasonality and adverse birth outcomes in Botswana, which was greatest among women with HIV. Understanding seasonal patterns of adverse birth outcomes and the role of HIV status may allow for mitigation of their impact in the face of seasonal extremes related to climate change.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Nascimento Prematuro , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049376, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521667

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited knowledge on how the SARS-CoV-2 affects pregnancy outcomes. Studies investigating the impact of COVID-19 in early pregnancy are scarce and information on long-term follow-up is lacking.The purpose of this project is to study the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes and long-term maternal and child health by: (1) establishing a database and biobank from pregnant women with COVID-19 and presumably non-infected women and their infants and (2) examining how women and their partners experience pregnancy, childbirth and early parenthood in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a national, multicentre, prospective cohort study involving 27 Swedish maternity units accounting for over 86 000 deliveries/year. Pregnant women are included when they: (1) test positive for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 group) or (2) are non-infected and seek healthcare at one of their routine antenatal visits (screening group). Blood, as well as other biological samples, are collected at different time points during and after pregnancy. Child health up to 4 years of age and parent experience of pregnancy, delivery, early parenthood, healthcare and society in general will be examined using web-based questionnaires based on validated instruments. Short- and long-term health outcomes will be collected from Swedish health registers and the parents' experiences will be studied by performing qualitative interviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Confidentiality aspects such as data encryption and storage comply with the General Data Protection Regulation and with ethical committee requirements. This study has been granted national ethical approval by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority (dnr 2020-02189 and amendments 2020-02848, 2020-05016, 2020-06696 and 2021-00870) and national biobank approval by the Biobank Väst (dnr B2000526:970). Results from the project will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04433364.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pandemias , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048530, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal pregestational blood glucose level and adverse pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted in the Chongqing Municipality of China between April 2010 and December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60 222 women (60 360 pregnancies) from all 39 counties of Chongqing who participated in the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project and had pregnancy outcomes were included. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse pregnancy outcomes included spontaneous abortion, induced abortion or labour due to medical reasons, stillbirth, preterm birth (PTB), macrosomia, large for gestational age, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age. RESULTS: Of the 60 360 pregnancies, rates of hypoglycaemic, normoglycaemia, impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and diabetic hyperglycaemic before conception were 5.06%, 89.30%, 4.59% and 1.05%, respectively. Compared with women with normoglycaemia, women with pregestational glucose at the diabetic level (≥7.0 mmol/L) might have a higher rate of macrosomia (6.18% vs 4.16%), whereas pregestational IFG seemed to be associated with reduced risks of many adverse outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, induced abortion due to medical reasons, PTB and LBW. After adjusting for potential confounders, pregestational diabetic hyperglycaemic was remained to be significantly associated with an increased risk of macrosomia (adjusted risk ratio 1.49, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.09). Abnormal maternal glucose levels before pregnancy (either hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic) seemed to have no significant negative effect on spontaneous abortion or induced abortion due to medical reasons. CONCLUSION: Although without overt diabetes mellitus, women with once diabetic fasting glucose level during their preconception examinations could be associated with an increased risk for macrosomia. Uniform guidelines are needed for maternal blood glucose management during pre-pregnancy care to improve pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine the clinical features of NLE and to compare the neonatal outcomes between newborns born to pregnant women with SLE and healthy pregnant women. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis between 2007 and 2019 in a tertiary referral hospital in Thailand. A total of 118 pregnant women with SLE with 132 neonates compared with 264 randomly selected healthy pregnant women. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) gestational age and birth weight of 132 neonates born to women with SLE were 37 (35-38) weeks and 2687 g (2045-3160 g), respectively. The clinical features of NLE infants were hemolytic anemia (8%), thrombocytopenia (2.7%) and hyperbilirubinemia (5.3%). There was no neonate with a congenital complete heart block or skin lesion. Moreover, logistic regression analysis found that neonates born to women with SLE increased the risk of preterm birth [odd ratio (OR) 8.87, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.32-18.21, p < 0.001], low birth weight (OR 10.35, 95% CI 5.08-21.08, p < 0.001), birth asphyxia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.26-6.73, p = 0.011) and NICU admission (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.44-7.42, p < 0.001). SLE disease activity and corticosteroid and azathioprine usage were associated with preterm delivery in pregnant women with SLE. CONCLUSION: The major clinical features of NLE patients were hematologic and hepatobiliary abnormalities in our study. Pregnancies with SLE dramatically increased the risk of preterm delivery and neonatal complications. LAY SUMMARY: Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is the consequence of the transplacental passage of autoantibodies to newborns during pregnancy. The clinical features of NLE infants in our study were hemolytic anemia (8%), thrombocytopenia (2.7%) and hyperbilirubinemia (5.3%). There was no neonate with a congenital complete heart block or skin lesion. We also compared the neonatal outcomes between 118 pregnant women with SLE and 264 randomly selected healthy pregnant women. Our study found that the neonates born to women with SLE increased the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, birth asphyxia and NICU admission. Moreover, SLE disease activity and corticosteroid and azathioprine usage were associated with preterm delivery in pregnant women with SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441002

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The ongoing pandemic proved to be a tremendous challenge to all economic layers, healthcare, and people safety. As more than one year elapsed since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a multitude of medical studies involving the SARS-CoV-2 virus helped researchers and medical practitioners in understanding the effects it has on all sorts of patients until effective vaccines were finally developed and distributed for mass vaccination. Still, the SARS-CoV-2 and its new variants remain a potential threat towards all categories of patients, including a more delicate group represented by pregnant women. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the potential effects on obstetrical outcomes after a positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods: This single-center prospective cohort study investigated the pregnancy outcomes in a total of 1039 eligible pregnant women between 30 August 2020 and 30 January 2021. Multiple patient characteristics and obstetrical outcomes were tested and analyzed in a multivariate regression model to establish potential risks determined by a COVID-19-positive pregnancy towards the mother and the newborn. Results: In the study sample, there were 938 pregnancies included without COVID-19 and 101 pregnant women identified with a positive COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 was significantly associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of premature rupture of membranes and 1.5 times higher risk of preterm birth with emergency c-sections and lower APGAR scores. Also, significantly more newborns were given birth prematurely, with lower APGAR scores after the mothers were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: A third-trimester infection with SARS-CoV-2 is a significant risk factor for preterm birth via an emergency cesarean section, a premature rupture of membranes, and a lower APGAR score in newborns, as compared with pregnancies where COVID-19 was not identified.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254875, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351922

RESUMO

Evidence for the real impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on preterm birth is unclear, as available series report composite pregnancy outcomes and/or do not stratify patients according to disease severity. The purpose of the research was to determine the real impact of asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection on preterm birth not due to maternal respiratory failure. This case-control study involved women admitted to Sant Anna Hospital, Turin, for delivery between 20 September 2020 and 9 January 2021. The cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 was compared between preterm birth (case group, n = 102) and full-term delivery (control group, n = 127). Only women with spontaneous or medically-indicated preterm birth because of placental vascular malperfusion (pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications) were included. Current or past SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nasopharyngeal swab testing and detection of IgM/IgG antibodies in blood samples. A significant difference in the cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 between the case (21/102, 20.5%) and the control group (32/127, 25.1%) (P= 0.50) was not observed, although the case group was burdened by a higher prevalence of three known risk factors (body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension) for severe Coronavirus disease-19. Logistic regression analysis showed that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection was not an independent predictor of spontaneous and medically-indicated preterm birth due to pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications (0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.43). Pregnant patients without comorbidities need to be reassured that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Preterm birth and severe Coronavirus disease-19 share common risk factors (i.e., body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension), which may explain the high rate of indicated preterm birth due to maternal conditions reported in the literature.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Nascimento Prematuro/imunologia , Aborto Espontâneo , Adulto , Portador Sadio/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444266

RESUMO

Adolescent pregnancy remains a health issue worldwide also in developed countries, since it has been associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Some data suggest that very young adolescents have higher risk, likely due to immaturity. Therefore, we aimed to assess the influence of maternal age on complications during gestation and labor in pregnant women between 13 and 19 years of age. In particular, we evaluated the possible association between maternal age and obstetric, fetal and labor complications. This is a retrospective, observational and exploratory study conducted at Hospital Universitario La Paz (HULP, Madrid, Spain). The clinical history of 279 women who delivered between 2013 and 2018 was analyzed. Maternal age and the presence of maternal, fetal and labor complications, as well as risk of postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, were recorded. General regression models were used to analyze the contribution of maternal age on each complication. The percentage of adolescent pregnancies at HULP between 2013 and 2018 was 0.9%. The risk of all the maternal complications analyzed decreased significantly with every year of age of the mother (hyperemesis, lower back pain, anemia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and threat of premature labor and premature rupture of membranes). Every year of maternal age decreased 0.8-fold [0.8; 0.9] the prevalence of fetal complications and also reduced the risk of C-section, postpartum hemorrhage and obstetrical hysterectomy. Furthermore, higher maternal age increased 1.1-fold [1.0; 1.2] the breastfeeding intention. In conclusion, young adolescents are at higher risk of complications during pregnancy and labor.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Nascimento Prematuro , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 76(8): 504-513, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449853

RESUMO

Importance: There is great concern about the impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with prior coronavirus infections. Objective: The objective of this review is to summarize the current literature on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and their newborns. Evidence Acquisition: The search terms COVID-19 and pregnancy were used in Medline and Clinical Key databases. Only articles written in English with outcome data on both mothers and their newborns were incorporated. Results: Pregnant women generally experience COVID-19 as a mild-moderate illness. However, approximately 5% become critically ill. Women with underlying comorbidities seem more likely to experience severe morbidity. Newborns also generally have a favorable course. Vertical transmission in the intrauterine period is possible but rare. Infection control measures need to be taken to prevent transmission during the peripartum period. There is a paucity of data on infections in the first and second trimesters, but research from those infected in the third trimester indicates a possible link with preterm birth. There is a significant percentage of asymptomatic cases. Racial disparities are also being noted with disproportionate numbers of racial/ethnic minorities being affected. Conclusions: COVID-19 is generally experienced by pregnant women and their newborns as a mild to moderate illness, although a minority become critically ill and mortality does occur. This is more likely among those with underlying comorbidities, as in the general population. Asymptomatic cases heighten the need for increased testing and infection control measures. Racial disparities highlight underlying vulnerabilities and the need for increased research and policy changes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27063, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449499

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Age above 35 years at the time of birth is generally referred to as advanced maternal age (AMA), and it could be a risk factor for various complications besides genetic changes in the fetus. The primary outcome of this study was to determine if AMA is associated with emergent cesarean delivery (CD) following induction of labor (IOL). The secondary outcomes were a composite of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes following IOL.This retrospective observational study included women with singleton, live-born, cephalic, non-anomalous pregnancies undergoing IOL from 38 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Mode of delivery and other maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women aged ≥35 (AMA) and <35 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.A total of 307 nulliparous women underwent IOL (≥35 years n = 73, 23.8%; <35 years n = 234, 76.2%) and among them, 252 (82.1%) delivered vaginally. The rate of CD was significantly higher in women of AMA (31.5% vs 13.7%, P = .001). Multivariable analysis showed that AMA was independently associated with CD (odds ratio 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.96, P = .001). The rate of instrumental deliveries was higher in the AMA group (19.6% vs 8.2%, P = .043) and hemoglobin decrease during delivery was similar between the 2 groups (1.90 ±â€Š1.25 vs 2.02 ±â€Š1.27 mg/dL, all P > .05). Regarding neonatal outcomes, there was no difference between the 2 groups in the neonatal intensive care unit admission rate and Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes (30.3% vs 30.1% and 6.0% vs 8.2%, respectively, all P > .05). Neonatal intubation rate and severe respiratory problems were non-significantly higher in AMA (3.8% vs 2.7% and 3.4% vs 1.4%, respectively, all P > .05).AMA was associated with an approximately three-fold increased likelihood of birth by CD and operative vaginal delivery in uncomplicated nulliparous women following IOL. However, we found no evidence that IOL in primigravid women of AMA increases adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes as compared with women aged <35 years except the high prevalence of CD and operative vaginal delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 126, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404413

RESUMO

In late December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic caused a great threat to people's lives worldwide. As a special category of the population, pregnant women are vulnerable during emergencies. This study was designed to explore whether or not the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced maternal and infant outcomes. We collected maternal characteristics, laboratory results, condition in the third trimester, maternal outcome, fetal or neonatal outcomes, and characteristics of amniotic fluid, umbilical cord and placenta from pregnant women and fetals or newborns in the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from 24 January to 31 March 2020 (peak period), chose the same types of data at the hospital during the same period in 2019 and 1 January-23 January 2020 (prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020) as a control. Our study focused on uncomplicated singleton pregnancies among women not infected by COVID-19. The results demonstrated that there was not an increase in adverse outcomes of pregnant women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic; This might be associated with the updated design of major epidemic prevention and control systems in Guangzhou, and the extension of pregnant women's rest time during the third trimester of pregnancy. Nevertheless, the survey showed an increased incidence rate of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and zinc deficiency in newborns during the epidemic, implying that pregnant women should participate in appropriate physical exercise, increase their exposure to outdoor sunlight and improve nutrition intake to ensure healthy newborns during the quarantine period. Our study has provided some guidance for maternal management during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(7): 1780-1784, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of Factor V Leiden / prothrombin gene mutation in Pakistani women with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Method: The prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 1 to December 31, 2016, and comprised females > 40 years having history of two or more foetal losses with no apparent aetiology. Restriction fragment length polymorphism- Polymerase chain reaction was performed using MnlI and HindIII restriction enzymes for factor V Leiden G1691A and prothrombin gene mutation G20210A. Females with two or more consecutive normal pregnancies were enrolled as the control group. Data was analysed using SPSS 19. RESULTS: Of the 172 participants with a mean age of 29.3±5.9 years (range: 19-38 years). 86(50%) each were healthy controls and those with recurrent pregnancy loss. There were 238 livebirths among the controls compared to 13 in the other group. Factor V Leiden G1691A was identified in 2(2.3%) women, and prothrombin gene mutation G20210A in 1(1.2%) woman in the patient group, while no mutation was identified in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Factor V Leiden / prothrombin gene mutation in women with recurrent pregnancy loss was found to be very low.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Protrombina , Adulto , Fator V/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Protrombina/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1150-1158, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397023

RESUMO

Background: The association between conventional folic acid supplement (FAS) in pregnancy and the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, newborn defects has been proven. However, recent researches have reported a weakened association. Based on the different maternal metabolism capability of folic acid, it's beneficial for clinicians to provide pregnant women with different doses of FAS, that's individualized FAS. Subjects and Methods: A total of 2,677 pregnant women in Dazu, Chongqing, China were recruited in this cohort study. 1,539 women volunteered to receive individualized FAS, in which FAS dose increased with the risk level of maternal genotype? specify MTHFR and MTRR (write in full then abbreviate bracket open and close) while 1,138 women received conventional FAS with unified FAS dose. Additionally, 1,964 pregnant women without FAS were retrospectively analyzed as the control. Finally, the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and newborn defects were recorded. Results: Based on the genotype of MTHFR and MTRR, women were identified as five risk levels of folic acid metabolism. The distributions of genotype and risk levels were not significantly different between FAS-individualized supplement group and FAS-unified supplement group. However, compared with control or FAS-unified supplement group, the incidence of spontaneous abortion, prolonged pregnancy, premature labor, fetal macrosomia and congenital heart disease were significantly decreased in FAS-individualized supplement group. In subgroup analysis, individualized FAS significantly improved pregnancy outcomes for women between 20-40 years old and inhibited the occurrence of newborn defects in both women of the first gestation and women of ≥2 gestations. Conclusions: The application of individualized FAS based on gene polymorphisms was more effective in preventing adverse outcomes in the mother and child.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 39(2): 183-188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341239

RESUMO

Context: The impact of periodontal disease during pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes is seen in the literature. When it comes to the link of disease related to periodontium to that of adverse pregnancy outcomes, a need can arise if a significant cause-effect relationship does exist or not between them. Aim: The study was aimed to determine the association of periodontal health status in pregnant women with the occurrence of preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants in Vadodara, Gujarat. Settings and Design: An interventional study with 100 patients was conducted, of which 67 participants were included in the control group and 33 participants were included in the intervention group. A total of 12 participants dropped out from the study and 88 were analyzed for the outcome. Subjects and Methods: The Community periodontal Index of Treatment needs index was taken for all enrolled participants and then were divided into interventional group and control group. Participants in the interventional group underwent scaling and root planning. Data related to the time of delivery and weight of the baby was taken from the hospital records. Statistical Analysis: A comparison of baseline characteristics was made using unpaired t-test. Chi-square test was used for the analysis of intergroup comparison. The odds ratio and the relative risk calculation were also done. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: The odds ratio for both preterm and LBW were 3.86 times and 2.96, respectively. The Chi-square statistical test analysis was statistically significant for both preterm and LBW infants on the intergroup comparison. Conclusion: Periodontal disease can be considered as one of the risk factors for preterm LBW babies as not only the presence of disease condition causes an increase in inflammatory mediator but also the elimination of the disease condition reduces the adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Índice Periodontal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 577, 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic response is influencing maternal and neonatal health care services especially in developing countries. However, the indirect effects of Covid-19 on pregnancy outcomes remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare pregnancy outcomes before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,503 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, admitted to the maternity department of a women's hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2019) and the intra-Covid- 19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2020) period. RESULTS: We included 2,503 women admitted to the hospital; 1,287 (51.4 %) were admitted before the Covid-19 lockdown and 1,216 (48.6 %) during the Covid-19 lockdown. There were no significant differences in stillbirth rates (p = 0.584) or pregnancy complications (including preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes) (p = 0.115) between pregnant women in the pre- and intra-pandemic periods. However, decreases in preterm births (p = 0.001), and low birth weight (p = 0.005) were observed in the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. No significant difference in the mode of delivery, and no maternal deaths were observed during the two time periods. CONCLUSIONS: In our study we observed a decrease in preterm births and low birth weight, no change in stillbirths, and a rise in the admission rates of mothers to the ICU during the initial Covid-19 lockdown period compared to pre-Covid-19 lockdown period. Further research will be needed to devise plan for immediate post-pandemic care and future health care crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(3): 164-172, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: a high body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. OBJECTIVES: to analyse the main adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with maternal excess weight and obesity. DESIGN: retrospective epidemiological study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: data extrapolated from the Birth Attendance Certificate information flow of the Autonomous Province of Trento (Northern Italy) between 2015 and 2019. A total of 20,756 women with data regarding maternal height and weight at the start of pregnancy were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: gestational outcome variables studied were gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, premature birth, and still births. Outcomes considered during labour and delivery were type of delivery, induction, episiotomy and post-partum haemorrhage. Neonatal outcomes were birth weight, Apgar score, need for resuscitation, and hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Lastly, exclusive breastfeeding at discharge was analysed. RESULTS: considering the population of pregnant women, 68.3% of women were classified as normal-weight, 9.5% as underweight, 16.0% as overweight, and 6.3% as obese. Maternal excess weight and obesity were seen to be associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, caesarean section, induction, post-partum bleeding, foetal macrosomia, and the need for neonatal resuscitation and hospitalisation in the NICU. Infants born to overweight and obese mothers were also less likely to be breastfed. CONCLUSIONS: excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for health and contribute to the onset of complications during pregnancy and adverse perinatal and long-term outcomes. Programming and implementing public health promotion schemes aimed at preventing excessive weight gain in the reproductive age could significantly improve maternal and foetal health.


Assuntos
Obesidade Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Obesidade Materna/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 247-251, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Twin pregnancies have been shown to be associated with numerous maternal and perinatal complications. Published data shows conflicting reports on whether assisted conception influences these risks. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of mode of conception on maternal and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: This was a large retrospective study of 497 women with dichorionic diamniotic twins that were conceived spontaneously or with assisted conception in a single centre over a 10-year period. RESULTS: This study showed no significant difference in mode of delivery (OR 1.40 95% CI 0.88 - 2.24), need for admission to neonatal unit (OR 1.56 95% CI 0.88-2.77), or preterm births between dichorionic twin pregnancies conceived following assisted conception when compared to spontaneously conceived dichorionic twin pregnancies. Women who conceived twins by assisted conception that did not have an elective caesarean section were more likely to go into spontaneous labour than have an induction of labour (OR 0.54 95% CI 0.3 - 0.99). They also had a higher chance of having an estimated blood loss of more than 1L than women who conceived naturally (OR 1.70 95% CI 1.06 - 2.73). CONCLUSIONS: In the case of dichorionic twins, this study showed that assisted conception does not seem to be associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes when compared with spontaneous conception. These results should be considered reassuring to women undergoing assisted conception, and may assist clinicians when counselling patients for assisted conception treatment. Further research is needed to assess the impact of assisted conception on postpartum blood loss.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Resultado da Gravidez , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Seizure ; 91: 311-315, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal data suggest teratogenic effects with zonisamide use and risk of pregnancy losses. Human data following zonisamide exposure are presently limited, but suggest low risk of malformation with elevated risk of low birth weight. OBJECTIVE: To calculate the major congenital malformation (MCM) rate of zonisamide in human pregnancy and assess for a signal of any specific malformation pattern and associations with birth weight. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data were obtained from the UK and Ireland Epilepsy and Pregnancy register (UKIEPR) which is an observational, registration, and follow up study from December 1996 to July 2020. Eligibility criteria were use of zonisamide and to have been referred to the UKIEPR before the outcome of the pregnancy was known. Primary outcome was evidence of MCM. RESULTS: From December 1996 through July 2020 there were 112 cases of first trimester exposure to zonisamide, including 26 monotherapy cases. There were 3 MCM for monotherapy cases (MCM rate 13.0% (95% confidence interval 4.5-32.1)), and 5 MCM for polytherapy cases (MCM rate 6.9% (95% confidence interval 3.0-15.2)). While the median birth weight was on 71st and 44th centile for monotherapy and polytherapy cases respectively, there was a high rate of infants born small for gestational age (21% for both). CONCLUSION: These data raise concerns about a signal for potential teratogenicity with zonisamide in human pregnancy. Given the low numbers reported, further data will be required to adequately counsel women who use zonisamide in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Complicações na Gravidez , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 171: 105786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314858

RESUMO

Women of childbearing age are largely affected by several autoimmune disorders (the estimates range between 1.5 and 10 per 10,000). The increasing number of effective biological agents has dramatically revolutionized the treatment of these clinical conditions, ameliorating the patient's quality of life. The use of these agents by women during pregnancy is growing to ensure the disease activity control and avoid adverse health outcomes. However, for many newer biological agents, the degree of information concerning their use in pregnancy is often incomplete to perform a conclusive risk assessment on fetal and maternal health given the exclusion of this specific population from pharmacological clinical trials. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has confirmed the unacceptable inequities of pharmacological research and medical treatment for pregnant and lactating women, exacerbating the need for filling the gaps of quantitative and qualitative pharmacology data in this sensitive population. ere we summarize (i) what is already known about safety and effectiveness of biological agents in this understudied population (with specific focus on pregnancy-related health outcomes), and what we are going to learn from the on-going studies among pregnant women treated with biological agents; (ii) the methodological and ethical considerations that characterize the pharmacological research in pregnancy, also discussing emerging evidence on the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in this clinical setting.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
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