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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 238, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major complication affecting the survival rate and long-term outcomes of preterm infants. A large, prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted to evaluate early nutritional support during the first week of life for preterm infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks and to verify nutritional risk factors related to BPD development. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study of very preterm infants was conducted in 40 tertiary neonatal intensive care units across mainland China between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2021. Preterm infants who were born at a gestational age < 32 weeks, < 72 h after birth and had a respiratory score > 4 were enrolled. Antenatal and postnatal information focusing on nutritional parameters was collected through medical systems. Statistical analyses were also performed to identify BPD risk factors. RESULTS: The primary outcomes were BPD and severity at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. A total of 1410 preterm infants were enrolled in this study. After applying the exclusion criteria, the remaining 1286 infants were included in this analysis; 614 (47.7%) infants were in the BPD group, and 672 (52.3%) were in the non-BPD group. In multivariate logistic regression model, the following six factors were identified of BPD: birth weight (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-0.99; p = 0.039), day of full enteral nutrition (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04; p < 0.001), parenteral protein > 3.5 g/kg/d during the first week (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.25-2.17; p < 0.001), feeding type (formula: OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.21-5.49; p < 0.001, mixed feed: OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.36-2.70; p < 0.001; breast milk as reference), hsPDA (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.44-2.73; p < 0.001), and EUGR ats 36 weeks (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.91; p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: A longer duration to achieve full enteral nutrition in very preterm infants was associated with increased BPD development. Breastfeeding was demonstrated to have a protective effect against BPD. Early and rapidly progressive enteral nutrition and breastfeeding should be promoted in very preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR2000030125 on 24/02/2020) and in www.ncrcch.org (No. ISRCTN84167642 on 25/02/2020).


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Doenças do Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Idade Gestacional , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Nutrição Enteral
2.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23598, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581244

RESUMO

The precise molecular mechanism behind fetal growth restriction (FGR) is still unclear, although there is a strong connection between placental dysfunction, inadequate trophoblast invasion, and its etiology and pathogenesis. As a new type of non-coding RNA, circRNA has been shown to play a crucial role in the development of FGR. This investigation identified the downregulation of hsa_circ_0034533 (circTHBS1) in FGR placentas through high-sequencing analysis and confirmed this finding in 25 clinical placenta samples using qRT-PCR. Subsequent in vitro functional assays demonstrated that silencing circTHBS1 inhibited trophoblast proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression and promoted apoptosis. Furthermore, when circTHBS1 was overexpressed, cell function experiments showed the opposite result. Analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that circTHBS1 was primarily found in the cytoplasmic region. Through bioinformatics analysis, we anticipated the involvement of miR-136-3p and IGF2R in downstream processes, which was subsequently validated through qRT-PCR and dual-luciferase assays. Moreover, the inhibition of miR-136-3p or the overexpression of IGF2R partially reinstated proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities following the silencing of circTHBS1. In summary, the circTHBS1/miR-136-3p/IGF2R axis plays a crucial role in the progression and development of FGR, offering potential avenues for the exploration of biological indicators and treatment targets.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Apoptose/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
3.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(4): e2334, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) occurs in approximately 70% of pregnant people, with varying severity and duration. Treatments include pharmacologic and herbal/natural medications. The associations between NVP and birth outcomes, including preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), and low birth weight are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether NVP and reported medications are associated with adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: We used data from the population-based, multisite National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011) to evaluate whether self-reported NVP according to timing, duration, and severity or its specific treatments were associated with preterm birth, SGA, and low birth weight among controls without birth defects. Odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for sociodemographic, reproductive, and medical factors. For any NVP, duration, treatment use, and severity score analyses, the comparison group was participants with no reported NVP. For timing analyses, the comparison group was women with no reported NVP in the same trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS: Among 6018 participants, 4339 (72.1%) reported any NVP. Among those with NVP, moderate or severe symptoms were more common than mild symptoms. Any versus no NVP was not associated with any of the outcomes of interest. NVP in months 4-6 (aOR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.47) and 7-9 (aOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.01) of pregnancy were associated with an increase in the risk of preterm birth. NVP lasting one trimester in duration was associated with decrease in risk of SGA (aOR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.95), and NVP present in every trimester of pregnancy had a 50% increase in risk of preterm birth (aOR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.05). For NVP in months 7-9 and preterm birth, ORs were elevated for moderate (aOR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.26, 2.63), and severe (aOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.19) symptoms. NVP was not significantly associated with low birth weight. Our analyses of medications were limited by small numbers, but none suggested increased risk of adverse outcomes associated with use of the medication. CONCLUSION: Mild NVP and NVP limited to early pregnancy appear to have no effect or a small protective effect on birth outcomes. Long-lasting NVP, severe NVP, and NVP later in pregnancy may increase risk of preterm birth and SGA.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Náusea , Vômito , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 262-268, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors influencing the occurrence of small for gestational age (SGA) at different degrees and provide a basis for early identification of severe SGA cases. METHODS: Neonatal and maternal prenatal information were retrospectively collected from January 2018 to December 2022 at Peking University People's Hospital. The neonates were divided into three groups: severe SGA group (birth weight below the 3rd percentile for gestational age and sex), mild SGA group (birth weight ≥3rd percentile and <10th percentile), and non-SGA group (birth weight ≥10th percentile). An ordered multinomial logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors influencing the occurrence of SGA at different degrees. RESULTS: A total of 14 821 neonates were included, including 258 cases (1.74%) in the severe SGA group, 902 cases (6.09%) in the mild SGA group, and 13 661 cases (92.17%) in the non-SGA group. The proportions of preterm births and stillbirths were higher in the severe SGA group compared to the mild SGA and non-SGA groups (P<0.0125). The proportion of neonatal asphyxia was higher in both the severe SGA and mild SGA groups compared to the non-SGA group (P<0.0125). Ordered multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pre-pregnancy underweight (OR=1.838), maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=3.024), in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (OR=2.649), preeclampsia (OR=1.743), connective tissue disease during pregnancy (OR=1.795), nuchal cord (OR=1.213), oligohydramnios (OR=1.848), and intrauterine growth restriction (OR=27.691) were all associated with a higher risk of severe SGA (P<0.05). Maternal parity as a multipara (OR=0.457) was associated with a lower likelihood of severe SGA (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal pre-pregnancy underweight, maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, preeclampsia, connective tissue disease during pregnancy, oligohydramnios, nuchal cord, and intrauterine growth restriction are closely related to the occurrence of more severe SGA. Maternal parity as a multipara acts as a protective factor against the occurrence of severe SGA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Cordão Nucal , Oligo-Hidrâmnio , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Magreza , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Obesidade
5.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 289-296, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), T1 mapping, and T2 mapping, in assessing the microstructural and perfusion changes in the kidneys of rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: An IUGR rat model was established through a low-protein diet during pregnancy. Offspring from pregnant rats on a low-protein diet were randomly divided into an IUGR 8-week group and an IUGR 12-week group, while offspring from pregnant rats on a normal diet were divided into a normal 8-week group and a normal 12-week group (n=8 for each group). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (Dt), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), T1 value, and T2 value of the renal cortex and medulla were compared, along with serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels among the groups. RESULTS: The Dt value in the renal medulla was higher in the IUGR 12-week group than in the IUGR 8-week group, and the D* value in the renal medulla was lower in the IUGR 12-week group than in both the normal 12-week group and the IUGR 8-week group (P<0.05). The T1 value in the renal medulla was higher than in the cortex in the IUGR 8-week group, and the T1 value in the renal medulla was higher in the IUGR 12-week group than in both the IUGR 8-week group and the normal 12-week group, with the cortical T1 value in the IUGR 12-week group also being higher than that in the normal 12-week group (P<0.05). The T2 values in the renal medulla were higher than those in the cortex across all groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the T2 values of either the cortex or medulla among the groups (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels among the groups (P>0.05). Glomerular hyperplasia and hypertrophy without significant fibrotic changes were observed in the IUGR 8-week group, whereas glomerular atrophy, cystic stenosis, and interstitial inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis were seen in the IUGR 12-week group. CONCLUSIONS: IVIM MRI can be used to assess and dynamically observe the microstructural and perfusion damage in the kidneys of IUGR rats. MRI T1 mapping can be used to evaluate kidney damage in IUGR rats, and the combination of MRI T1 mapping and T2 mapping can further differentiate renal fibrosis in IUGR rats.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Rim , Humanos , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Creatinina , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Perfusão
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1364234, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596219

RESUMO

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS, OMIM, 180860) is a rare genetic disorder with a wide spectrum of symptoms. The most common features are intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), poor postnatal development, macrocephaly, triangular face, prominent forehead, body asymmetry, and feeding problems. The diagnosis of SRS is based on a combination of clinical features. Up to 60% of SRS patients have chromosome 7 or 11 abnormalities, and <1% show abnormalities in IGF2 signaling pathway genes (IGF2, HMGA2, PLAG1 and CDKN1C). The underlying genetic cause remains unknown in about 40% of cases (idiopathic SRS). We report a novel IGF2 variant c.[-6-2A>G] (NM_000612) in a child with severe IUGR and clinical features of SRS and confirm the utility of targeted exome sequencing in patients with negative results to common genetic analyses. In addition, we report that long-term growth hormone treatment improves height SDS in this patient.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Síndrome de Silver-Russell , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/diagnóstico , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Herança Paterna , Fenótipo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5579, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448721

RESUMO

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with aberrant placentation and accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal deaths. microRNAs have been shown to be dysregulated in FGR. The purpose of this study was to determine microRNA-regulated molecular pathways altered using a caloric restricted mouse model of FGR. Pregnant mice were subjected to a 50% caloric restricted diet beginning at E9. At E18.5, RNA sequencing of placental tissue was performed to identify differences in gene expression between caloric restricted and control placentas. Significant differences in gene expression between caloric restricted and control placentas were observed in 228 of the 1546 (14.7%) microRNAs. Functional analysis of microRNA-mRNA interactions demonstrated enrichment of several biological pathways with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy pathways upregulated and angiogenesis and signal transduction pathways downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis also suggested that ID1 signaling, a pathway integral for trophoblast differentiation, is also dysregulated in caloric restricted placentas. Thus, a maternal caloric restriction mouse model of FGR results in aberrant microRNA-regulated molecular pathways associated with angiogenesis, oxidative stress, signal transduction, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. As several of these pathways are dysregulated in human FGR, our findings suggest that this model may provide an excellent means to study placental microRNA derangements seen in FGR.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , MicroRNAs , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Placenta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473735

RESUMO

This Special Issue mainly focuses on preeclampsia (PE), haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), foetal growth restriction (FGR), small-for-gestational-age foetuses (SGA), miscarriage, stillbirth, first-episode psychosis (FEP) during pregnancy, and pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PR-AKI) [...].


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Natimorto , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473894

RESUMO

We aimed to explore the potential link of maternal age at menarche (mAAM) gene polymorphisms with risk of the fetal growth restriction (FGR). This case (FGR)-control (FGR free) study included 904 women (273 FGR and 631 control) in the third trimester of gestation examined/treated in the Departments of Obstetrics. For single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex genotyping, 50 candidate loci of mAAM were chosen. The relationship of mAAM SNPs and FGR was appreciated by regression procedures (logistic/model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction [MB-MDR]) with subsequent in silico assessment of the assumed functionality pithy of FGR-related loci. Three mAAM-appertain loci were FGR-linked to genes such as KISS1 (rs7538038) (effect allele G-odds ratio (OR)allelic = 0.63/pperm = 0.0003; ORadditive = 0.61/pperm = 0.001; ORdominant = 0.56/pperm = 0.001), NKX2-1 (rs999460) (effect allele A-ORallelic = 1.37/pperm = 0.003; ORadditive = 1.45/pperm = 0.002; ORrecessive = 2.41/pperm = 0.0002), GPRC5B (rs12444979) (effect allele T-ORallelic = 1.67/pperm = 0.0003; ORdominant = 1.59/pperm = 0.011; ORadditive = 1.56/pperm = 0.009). The haplotype ACA FSHB gene (rs555621*rs11031010*rs1782507) was FRG-correlated (OR = 0.71/pperm = 0.05). Ten FGR-implicated interworking models were founded for 13 SNPs (pperm ≤ 0.001). The rs999460 NKX2-1 and rs12444979 GPRC5B interplays significantly influenced the FGR risk (these SNPs were present in 50% of models). FGR-related mAAM-appertain 15 polymorphic variants and 350 linked SNPs were functionally momentous in relation to 39 genes participating in the regulation of hormone levels, the ovulation cycle process, male gonad development and vitamin D metabolism. Thus, this study showed, for the first time, that the mAAM-appertain genes determine FGR risk.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Menarca , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Menarca/genética , Reprodução , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6002, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472269

RESUMO

In the United States the rate of stillbirth after 28 weeks' gestation (late stillbirth) is 2.7/1000 births. Fetuses that are small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA) are at increased risk of stillbirth. SGA and LGA are often categorized as growth or birthweight ≤ 10th and ≥ 90th centile, respectively; however, these cut-offs are arbitrary. We sought to characterize the relationship between birthweight and stillbirth risk in greater detail. Data on singleton births between 28- and 44-weeks' gestation from 2014 to 2015 were extracted from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention live birth and fetal death files. Growth was assessed using customized birthweight centiles (Gestation Related Optimal Weight; GROW). The analyses included logistic regression using SGA/LGA categories and a generalized additive model (GAM) using birthweight centile as a continuous exposure. Although the SGA and LGA categories identified infants at risk of stillbirth, categorical models provided poor fits to the data within the high-risk bins, and in particular markedly underestimated the risk for the extreme centiles. For example, for fetuses in the lowest GROW centile, the observed rate was 39.8/1000 births compared with a predicted rate of 11.7/1000 from the category-based analysis. In contrast, the model-predicted risk from the GAM tracked closely with the observed risk, with the GAM providing an accurate characterization of stillbirth risk across the entire birthweight continuum. This study provides stillbirth risk estimates for each GROW centile, which clinicians can use in conjunction with other clinical details to guide obstetric management.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Natimorto , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Idade Gestacional , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal
11.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 210, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in twin preterm infants. METHODS: The clinical data of 67 pairs of twin preterm infants admitted to the neonatal department of our hospital from January 2010 to December 2021 were retrospectively collected. One of the twins had NEC (Bell II and above) and the other twin without NEC. They were divided into NEC group and control group according to whether NEC occurred or not. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that NEC was associated with congenital heart disease, small for gestational age, mild asphyxia at birth and feeding intolerance (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Occurrence of NEC was associated with congenital heart disease, small for gestational age, and asphyxia at birth. For twin preterm infants with congenital heart disease, small for gestational age, or asphyxia at birth, special attention should be paid to the occurrence of NEC to minimize and avoid the occurrence of NEC.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Asfixia/complicações , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Risco , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal
12.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 40(1): 15, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451382

RESUMO

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy and can have significant impact on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Increasing evidence has shown that the inhibited mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in placenta is associated with FGR. However, interpretation of existing research is limited due to inconsistent methodologies and varying understanding of the mechanism by which mTOR activity contributes to FGR. Hereby, we have demonstrated that different anatomic regions of human and mouse placentas exhibited different levels of mTOR activity in normal compared to FGR pregnancies. When using the rapamycin-induced FGR mouse model, we found that placentas of FGR pregnancies exhibited abnormal morphological changes and reduced mTOR activity in the decidual-junctional layer. Using transcriptomics and lipidomics, we revealed that lipid and energy metabolism was significantly disrupted in the placentas of FGR mice. Finally, we demonstrated that maternal physical exercise during gestation in our FGR mouse model was associated with increased fetal and placental weight as well as increased placental mTOR activity and lipid metabolism. Collectively, our data indicate that the inhibited placental mTOR signaling contributes to FGR with altered lipid metabolism in mouse placentas, and maternal exercise could be an effective method to reduce the occurrence of FGR or alleviate the adverse outcomes associated with FGR.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Placenta , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sirolimo
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1266669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505758

RESUMO

Background: Serum albumin plays a pivotal role in regulating plasma oncotic pressure and modulating fluid distribution among various body compartments. Previous research examining the association between maternal serum albumin levels and fetal growth yielded limited and inconclusive findings. Therefore, the specific influence of serum albumin on fetal growth remains poorly understood and warrants further investigation. Methods: A retrospective study involved 39200 women who had a singleton live birth at a tertiary-care academic medical center during the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Women were categorized into four groups according to the quartile of albumin concentration during early pregnancy: Q1 group, ≤41.0 g/L; Q2 group, 41.1-42.6 g/L; Q3 group, 42.7-44.3 g/L and Q4 group, >44.3 g/L. The main outcome measures were mid-term estimated fetal weight, birthweight and gestational age. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis were performed to detect the independent effect of maternal serum albumin level on fetal growth after adjusting for important confounding variables. Results: In the crude analysis, a significant inverse correlation was found between early pregnancy maternal serum albumin levels and fetal growth status, including mid-term ultrasound measurements, mid-term estimated fetal weight, birthweight, and gestational age. After adjustment for a number of confounding factors, mid-term estimated fetal weight, birthweight, and birth height decreased significantly with increasing albumin levels. Compared to the Q2 group, the Q4 group had higher rates of preterm birth (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34), small-for-gestational-age (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.45) and low birthweight (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.18-1.69), and lower rate of large-for-gestational-age (aOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94). Moreover, to achieve the optimal neonatal outcome, women with higher early pregnancy albumin levels required a greater reduction in albumin levels in later pregnancy stages. Conclusions: A higher maternal serum albumin level during early pregnancy was associated with poor fetal growth, with the detrimental effects becoming apparent as early as the mid-gestation period. These findings provided vital information for clinicians to predict fetal growth status and identify cases with a high risk of adverse neonatal outcomes early on.


Assuntos
Peso Fetal , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Albumina Sérica
14.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at risk of impaired growth and developmental outcomes, even for those who were born at full term. The growth trajectory of full-term SGA infants remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the growth trajectory of full-term SGA infants from birth to 3 years old in East China. METHODS: Full-term SGA infants were followed up from birth to 3 years old. The weight and length were measured at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months. Rate of catch-up growth and rates of growth deviations including short stature, emaciation, underweight, overweight and obesity, were calculated at different time points. Latent class analysis was applied to describe growth trajectories from birth to 36 months. RESULTS: A total of 816 full-term SGA infants were enrolled in this study and 303 had complete follow-up data at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months. At 24 months, the rate of catch-up growth was 42.4% in girls and 48.6% in boys; while at 36 months, this rate was 43.3% in girls and 52.1% in boys. The latent class analysis identified two trajectories of weight and length in boys and girls. Girls showed different growth trajectories of weight since 12 months compared with boys. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a relatively low rate of catch-up growth in full-term SGA infants and has identified different growth trajectories of length and weight in boys and girls. We call for attention from health professionals on the growth trajectory of full-term SGA infants to eventually promote their health potentials.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , China/epidemiologia , Obesidade
15.
Cells ; 13(6)2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534344

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and being small for gestational age (SGA) are two distinct conditions with different implications for short- and long-term child development. SGA is present if the estimated fetal or birth weight is below the tenth percentile. IUGR can be identified by additional abnormalities (pathological Doppler sonography, oligohydramnion, lack of growth in the interval, estimated weight below the third percentile) and can also be present in fetuses and neonates with weights above the tenth percentile. There is a need to differentiate between IUGR and SGA whenever possible, as IUGR in particular is associated with greater perinatal morbidity, prematurity and mortality, as well as an increased risk for diseases in later life. Recognizing fetuses and newborns being "at risk" in order to monitor them accordingly and deliver them in good time, as well as to provide adequate follow up care to ameliorate adverse sequelae is still challenging. This review article discusses approaches to differentiate IUGR from SGA and further increase diagnostic accuracy. Since adverse prenatal influences increase but individually optimized further child development decreases the risk of later diseases, we also discuss the need for interdisciplinary follow-up strategies during childhood. Moreover, we present current concepts of pathophysiology, with a focus on oxidative stress and consecutive inflammatory and metabolic changes as key molecular mechanisms of adverse sequelae, and look at future scientific opportunities and challenges. Most importantly, awareness needs to be raised that pre- and postnatal care of IUGR neonates should be regarded as a continuum.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Feto , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1374897, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544688

RESUMO

Introduction: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication, caused by placental insufficiency, with serious adverse consequences for development in utero and postnatal wellbeing. There are no antenatal treatments to improve growth or organ development in FGR, and animal models are essential to mimic the physiological adaptations in FGR and to assess potential interventions. This study aimed to identify the temporal nature of reduced developmental trajectory in fetuses with FGR, and to examine the effects of common factors that may mediate differential growth such as glucocorticoid treatment. We hypothesised that the trajectory of growth would be adversely impacted by FGR. Methods: FGR was induced via surgical placental insufficiency in fetal sheep (89 days gestation/0.6 gestation; n=135) and compared to age-matched controls over the last third of gestation and into neonatal life (n=153). Results: Body weight of FGR fetuses/lambs was significantly reduced compared to controls (p<0.0001) from 127 days of gestation (term is 148 days), with increased brain:body weight ratio (p<0.0001) indicative of brain sparing. All biometric measures of body size were reduced in the FGR group with the exception of biparietal (head) diameter. The trajectory of body growth in the last trimester of sheep pregnancy was significantly reduced in the FGR group compared to controls, and stillbirth rate increased with longer gestation. Discussion: This work provides a well characterised FGR animal model that mimics the known physiological adaptations in human pregnancy and can be used to determine the efficacy of potential interventions.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Insuficiência Placentária , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Placenta , Fenótipo , Peso Corporal
17.
Placenta ; 149: 29-36, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To longitudinally and cross-sectionally study the differences in the uterine artery pulsatility index (UTPI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UAPI) and placental vascularization indices (PVIs, derived from 3-dimensional power Doppler) between normal and placental insufficiency pregnancies throughout gestation. METHODS: UTPI, UAPI and PVI were measured 6 times at 4- to 5- week intervals from 11 to 13+6 weeks-36 weeks. Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) were defined as placental insufficiency. Comparisons of UTPI, UAPI and PVI between normal and insufficiency groups were performed by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 125 women were included: monitored regularly from the first trimester to 36 weeks of gestation: 109 with normal pregnancies and 16 with placental insufficiency. Longitudinal study of the normal pregnancy group showed that UTPI and UAPI decreased significantly every 4 weeks, while PVIs increased significantly every 8 weeks until term. In the placental insufficiency group however, this decrease occurred slower at 8 weeks intervals and UTPI stabilized after 24 weeks. No significant difference was noted in PVIs throughout pregnancy. Cross-sectional study from different stages of gestation showed that UTPI was higher in the insufficiency group from 15 weeks onward and PVIs were lower after 32 weeks. DISCUSSION: Compared to high-risk pregnancies with normal outcome, UTPI and UAPI needed a longer time to reach a significant change in those with clinical confirmation of placental insufficiency pregnancies and no significant change was found in PVI throughout gestation. UTPI was the earliest factor in detecting adverse outcome pregnancies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Placentária , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Placentária , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Longitudinais , Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
18.
Placenta ; 149: 37-43, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492471

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported that neonates less than the 25th BWC especially if they were male, were more likely to be associated with birth complications suggesting small neonates often identified as appropriately grown are at risk of adverse outcomes. We have questioned whether smaller neonates not typically categorized as "small for gestational age" may not reach their genetically determined growth due to placental insufficiency. METHODS: RNA-Seq was performed on the Illumina NovaSeq 600 using term placentae from neonates that were less than the 10th birthweight centile (BWC) (n = 39), between the 10th and the 30th BWC (n = 15) or greater than the 30th BWC (n = 23). Bioinformatic analyses were conducted and statistical significance was assessed at a level of P < 0.05 for single comparisons or FDR <0.05 unless otherwise noted. RESULTS: Gene set enrichment analysis revealed differences between BWC groups and in relation to the sex of the placenta. Genes associated with hypoxia, inflammatory responses, estrogen responsive genes, and androgen responsive genes were enriched (FDR <0.1) for in placentae of neonates <10th BWC regardless of sex and also in male placentae of neonates between the 10th-30th BWC. Female placenta of neonates between the 10th-30th BWC were comparable to placentae of neonates >30th BWC. DISCUSSION: These findings provide evidence that small male neonates may be at a greater risk of an adverse outcome than females due to changes in gene expression that are associated with placental dysfunction. The current data raises questions of whether placental pathology for smaller appropriately grown neonates should be scientifically and clinically examined in more depth.


Assuntos
Placenta , Insuficiência Placentária , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Insuficiência Placentária/patologia , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 707: 149617, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520942

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy, suggesting that the preeclamptic intrauterine environment may affect the growth and health of the offspring. This study aimed to how maternal hypertension affects male offspring growth, focusing on lipid metabolism and blood pressure in mice. Female mice were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) on gestational day 12. Dysregulation and accumulation of lipid were observed in the placenta of Ang II-induced maternal hypertensive dams, associating with fetal growth restriction. Ang II-offspring showed lower birth weight than in the control-offspring. Isolated and differentiated adipocyte from neonatal mice of Ang II-dams showed higher Pparγ mRNA expression compared with the control group. Lower body weight tendency had continued in Ang II-offspring during long period, body weight of Ang II-offspring caught up the control-offspring at 16 weeks of age. The adipose tissue of Ang II-offspring in adult also showed higher Pparγ mRNA expression with the accumulation of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes than in those control. In addition, Ang II-offspring had higher basal blood pressure and higher sensitivity to hypertensive stimuli than in the control-offspring. Taken together, maternal hypertension induced by Ang II changes placental function, causing a lower birth weight. These changes in the intrauterine environment may affect adipocyte function and blood pressure of offspring after growth.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
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