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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(9): 841-844, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the phenotype and genetic variant of a fetus with dysplasia of cerebellar vermis. METHODS: Gestational status and family history of the gravida was taken in combination with the imaging results of the fetus. Following elected abortion, fetal tissue and peripheral blood samples of the couple were collected for the extraction of genome DNA. Whole exome sequencing was carried out to screen potential variant associated with the phenotype of the proband. Specific PCR primers were designed to verify the results by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Prenatal ultrasound revealed that the fetal vermis cerebellum was poorly developed, which was similar to the previous pregnancy. Whole exome sequencing revealed that the fetus has carried compound heterozygous variants of the CPLANE1 gene, namely c.7978C>T and c.7169delT, which were respectively inherited from the husband and wife. CONCLUSION: The c.7978C>T and c.7169delT compound heterozygous variants of the CPLANE1 gene probably underlay the dysplasia of cerebellar vermis in the fetus, which has provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Anormalidades do Olho , Doenças Renais Císticas , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Retina/anormalidades
2.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 331, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate macular microstructure alterations in the parafoveal nonperfusion areas of eyes with branch retinal vein occlusions (BRVO), and to investigate their impact on retinal sensitivity. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including thirteen BRVO patients with parafoveal capillary nonperfusion areas (NPA). Multiple modalities including microperimetry, optical coherence tomography angiography, and optical coherence tomography were performed to measure retinal sensitivity and thickness, and to identify the microstructure changes and perfusion status. RESULTS: The retinal sensitivity and thickness in the NPA were significantly lower than those in the perfusion areas (PA) (P = 0.001, P = 0.003). Microstructure changes, including disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL), disruption of the outer retinal layers, and cysts were more frequently observed in NPA (P = 0.002, P = 0.018, P = 0.068). Within NPA, the retinal sensitivity of areas with DRIL, and outer retinal layers disruption was significantly lower than that of the areas without DRIL (P = 0.016), and with intact outer retinal layers (P < 0.001), respectively. 1dB increase in retinal sensitivity was correlated with 2.2 µm (95 % confidence interval, 1.71-2.7) increase of the thickness (P < 0.001). The retinal sensitivity was significantly lower at points with both DRIL and outer retinal layers disruption than at the points with DRIL or outer retina layers disruption alone (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the macular microstructure are associated with ischemia, especially DRIL. DRIL and outer retinal layers disruption are imaging features that have important implications for local retinal sensitivity in the ischemic areas, and where the microstructure of both inner and outer retinal layers is disrupted the function is further destructed.


Assuntos
Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Estudos Transversais , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual
3.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(233): 100-107, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508452

RESUMO

A case experience of initiating the ocular fundus photography (OFP) service in a diabetes outpatient clinic of a tertiary-care institution is presented. In the community and within the hospitals, the OFP helps to develop the three-tier diabetic retinopathy (DR) care system comprising: OFP-based DR screening and monitoring, an experienced ophthalmologist in laser therapy, and vitreo-retina specialist services. After three to six months of training, non-ophthalmic allied health professionals could also grade the DR. We also learned that such training program, however, requires broadening to encompass diabetes and major non-communicable diseases comprehensively to fulfill the need of the primary care nurses in health care settings and the full-time job and professional career for them. Medical students and residents now need to be 'directly' trained in the interpretation of OFP. The stakeholders involved in public health and medical education may recommend to the public hospitals and medical colleges for the provision of OFP service.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Fotografação , Retina
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443622

RESUMO

Orexins are two neuropeptides synthesised mainly in the brain lateral hypothalamic area. The orexinergic system provides arousal-dependent cues for a plethora of brain centres, playing a vital role in feeding behaviour, regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. Recently, orexins were found to be produced in the retina of an eye; however, their content in the vitreous body and possible daily pattern of expression have not yet been explored. In this manuscript, we describe the development and validation of a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method designed for quantitative bioanalysis of orexin in the rat vitreous body. Orexin was extracted from vitreous body samples with a water:acetonitrile:formic acid (80:20:0.1; v/v/v) mixture followed by vortexing and centrifuging. Separation was performed on a reverse-phase HPLC column under gradient conditions. Orexin was analysed via multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive electrospray mode. The total analysis time for each sample was less than 5.0 min. Once the method was fully optimised, it was then validated, following the 2018 FDA guidance on bioanalytical method validations. The calibration curves for orexin (1-500 ng/mL) were constructed using a linear regression with a 1/x2 weighting. The lower limit of quantitation for orexin was 1.0 pg/mL for the vitreous body. Intra-day and inter-day estimates of accuracy and precision were within 10% of their nominal values, indicating that the method is reliable for quantitation of orexin in the rat vitreous body. From the physiological perspective, our results are the first to show daily rhythm of orexin synthesis by the retina with possible implications on the circadian regulation of vision.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Ritmo Circadiano , Orexinas/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo , Animais , Calibragem , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos
5.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(4): 24-30, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410053

RESUMO

Various animal models of atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are created in order to study certain aspects of geographical atrophy in humans. To study the effects of new methods of therapy, it is necessary to determine the objective functional markers of structural changes in the retina. PURPOSE: To determine the alterations in activity of the retina that characterize its remodeling in induction of RPE atrophy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Full-field electroretinograms (ERG), pattern ERG, and multifocal ERG were recorded according to the ISCEV standards from the right eyes of twenty rabbits of the New Zealand albino breed 6-7 weeks after induction of RPE atrophy by subretinal administration of 0.9% sodium chloride or bevacizumab solution. RESULTS: Characteristic electroretinographic signs of RPE atrophy and retinal remodeling are described. Changes in ERG indicate a predominant inhibition of the functional activity of photoreceptors compared with bipolar cells, which objectively reflects an impairment of their metabolism associated with RPE pathology. With the injection of bevacizumab, a sharp weakening of the functional symbiosis of Mueller cells with bipolar cells was observed. According to pattern ERG, the function of the retinal ganglion cells was reduced. The reaction of the paired eyes after induction of RPE atrophy included a moderate decrease in the amplitude of b-wave of photopic ERG and activation of glia-neuronal relationships. CONCLUSION: Subretinal injections of 0.9% sodium chloride and bevacizumab trigger changes in the retina that reflect specific remodeling of retinal neurons of the second and third orders, which characterizes the used models of RPE atrophy.


Assuntos
Degeneração Retiniana , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Animais , Atrofia , Eletrorretinografia , Coelhos , Retina
6.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(4): 72-80, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410060

RESUMO

Outer retinal tubulation (ORT) develops in the later stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is associated with low visual acuity, severe loss of photoreceptors, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and geographic atrophy. Despite the frequent detection of ORTs by optical coherence tomography (OCT), their role in the process of outer retinal atrophy and degenerative changes in photoreceptors remains undetermined. PURPOSE: To investigate the evolution of ORT in patients with exudative and disciform-stage CNV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective study included 340 patients with AMD, among them 235 (69%) women and 105 (31%) men with mean age of 76±7.4 years; in all, the analysis involved 267 eyes with dry AMD and 174 eyes with CNV: 92 eyes - with exudative AMD, 82 eyes - with disciform-stage disease). In addition to standard OCT, all patients underwent OCT-angiography (OCTA). In 10 cases, patients with exudative AMD were followed up after intravitreal injections of Aflibercept. RESULTS: ORTs were detected in 37 eyes of 32 patients (26%), all of them with CNV: 13 eyes with exudative AMD (group 1) and 24 eyes with disciform scar (group 2; p=0.013).The groups were similar in the type and morphology of ORTs. The most common were closed, i.e. fully formed ORT (92% of cases in group 1, and 88% in group 2). Destruction of the ellipsoid zone associated with ORT was observed in both groups. In one case, there was an increase in the size of ORT corresponding to the volume of cystic macular edema. Disappearance of ORT was noted only in one of ten patients 3 months after intravitreal injection of Aflibercept, but was not accompanied by visual acuity improvement. CONCLUSION: Outer retinal tubulations are more common in the later stages of AMD, being an indicator of a deep destructive process in photoreceptors. In exudative AMD, ORTs serve as a predictive marker for poor functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide , Degeneração Macular , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Degeneração Macular/complicações , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Retina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/complicações , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404670

RESUMO

A family of three siblings affected with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is presented. Ultrawide field fundus imaging was used to monitor the progression of the disease objectively over 5 years.


Assuntos
Atrofia Girata , Atrofia/patologia , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Corioide/patologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Fundo de Olho , Atrofia Girata/complicações , Atrofia Girata/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ornitina , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine whether high glucose condition and dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification can promote the proliferation and migration of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and whether Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) could mediate the glucose and O-GlcNAc-driven proliferation and migration of HRMECs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Western blot analysis was used to detect the O-GlcNAc modification level and RUNX1 level in cells and retina tissues, cell growth was studied by cell counting kit-8 assay, cell proliferation was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Then, cell migration and tube formation were investigated by scratch-wound assay, Transwell assay, and tube-forming assay. The changes of retinal structure were detected by H&E staining. The O-GlcNAc modification of RUNX1 was detected by immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: High glucose increases pan-cellular O-GlcNAc modification and the proliferation and migration of HRMECs. Hence, O-GlcNAc modification is critical for the proliferation and migration of HRMECs. RUNX1 mediates the glucose and O-GlcNAc-driven proliferation and migration in HRMECs. RUNX1 can be modified by O-GlcNAc, and that the modification is enhanced in a high glucose environment. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that high glucose condition directly affects retinal endothelial cells (EC) function, and O-GlcNAc modification is critical for the proliferation and migration of HRMECs, RUNX1 may take part in this mechanism, and maybe the function of RUNX1 is related to its O-GlcNAc modification level, which provides a new perspective for studying the mechanism of RUNX1 in diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Glucose , Humanos , Retina/citologia
11.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(9): 10, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357383

RESUMO

Purpose: To establish methods to visualize depth-resolved perifoveal retinal vasculature in preterm infants using handheld optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods: In this exploratory study, eyes of preterm infants were imaged using an investigational noncontact, handheld swept-source OCT-A device as part of the prospective BabySTEPS infant retinal imaging study. We selected high-quality OCT-A volumes at two developmental stages for analysis. Customized MATLAB scripts were used to segment retinal layers, test offset parameters, and generate depth-resolved OCT-A slabs. The superficial (SCP), intermediate (ICP), and deep (DCP) capillary plexuses were visualized and qualitatively assessed by three image graders. Results: Six eyes from six preterm infants were included in this analysis. A three-layered perifoveal retinal vasculature was successfully visualized in all three eyes (three infants) in the 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) group (one of three eyes with treated type 1 retinopathy of prematurity [ROP]). No obvious ICP or DCP was found in good-quality scans of the three eyes (three infants) in the 35 weeks PMA group (three of three eyes developed type 1 ROP). Conclusions: Custom segmentation parameters are useful to visualize perifoveal retinal vasculature in preterm infants. At term age, a three-layered capillary structure is visible in most eyes, while prior to detectable flow within the ICP and DCP, the perifoveal vasculature may be better visualized in two layers. Translational Relevance: Development of segmentation parameters for depth-resolved OCT-A of perifoveal retinal vasculature in preterm infants facilitates the study of human retinal vascular development and vascular pathologies of ROP.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Angiografia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Prospectivos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(9): 2311-2316, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427208

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of combined microincision phacoemulsification with sutureless transpupillary silicone oil (SO) removal using an irrigation probe of bimanual irrigation/aspiration. Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective study, including patients who had undergone phacoemulsification with transpupillary removal of SO, which had been used for intraocular tamponade after a previous pars plana vitrectomy. Outcome measures were corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refractive error, intraocular pressure (IOP), and endothelial cell count (ECC) evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 3-month follow-up. Any intraoperative or postoperative complications, duration of surgery, and final retinal status at 3 months were also noted. Results: Seventy-four eyes (74 patients) were analyzed. The mean interval between SO placement and cataract surgery was 4.73 months (standard deviation [SD]: 1.02). CDVA improved in 66 (89.2%) eyes and remained the same in 8 (10.8%) eyes (P < 0.001). The mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.96D (SD: 0.75) at 3 months (P < 0.001). There was a significant drop in IOP from 15.08 mmHg (SD: 2.67) preoperatively to 11.64 mmHg (SD: 2.02) postoperatively (P < 0.001). The average ECC loss was only 5.7% at 3 months postoperatively. The mean surgical duration was 17.20 min (SD: 7.02). One patient had retinal redetachment and required resurgery. At 3 months, the retina was attached in all patients. Conclusion: Combined microincision phacoemulsification with transpupillary passive SO removal using irrigation probe of bimanual irrigation/aspiration is a safe, effective, and less invasive technique that offers the main advantage of reduced surgical trauma, and should be reserved for patients with a stable retina, not requiring additional surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Facoemulsificação , Descolamento Retiniano , Drenagem , Humanos , Retina , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Óleos de Silicone
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451078

RESUMO

This paper introduces an ambient light rejection (ALR) circuit for the autonomous adaptation of a subretinal implant system. The sub-retinal implants, located beneath a bipolar cell layer, are known to have a significant advantage in spatial resolution by integrating more than a thousand pixels, compared to epi-retinal implants. However, challenges remain regarding current dispersion in high-density retinal implants, and ambient light induces pixel saturation. Thus, the technical issues of ambient light associated with a conventional image processing technique, which lead to high power consumption and area occupation, are still unresolved. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel image-processing unit to handle ambient light, considering constraints related to power and area. In this paper, we present an ALR circuit as an image-processing unit for sub-retinal implants. We first introduced an ALR algorithm to reduce the ambient light in conventional retinal implants; next, we implemented the ALR algorithm as an application-specific integrated chip (ASIC). The ALR circuit was fabricated using a standard 0.35-µm CMOS process along with an image-sensor-based stimulator, a sensor pixel, and digital blocks. As experimental results, the ALR circuit occupies an area of 190 µm2, consumes a power of 3.2 mW and shows a maximum response time of 1.6 s at a light intensity of 20,000 lux. The proposed ALR circuit also has a pixel loss rate of 0.3%. The experimental results show that the ALR circuit leads to a sensor pixel (SP) being autonomously adjusted, depending on the light intensity.


Assuntos
Próteses e Implantes , Retina , Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Luz
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1331: 265-273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453305

RESUMO

Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role in retinal disorders, as suggested by in vitro/in vivo models. The major effect embraces the neuroprotective activity on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergoing degeneration, as observed in experimental diabetic retinopathy, age-related and diabetic macular degeneration, and some vitreoretinal diseases. Focused experiments suggested that locally applied NGF (intravitreal delivery) not only allowed the counteraction of RGC degeneration but also provided data for a whole retina restoration. The currently available retinal microsurgery allows the collection of human aqueous and more interesting vitreous (vitreal reflux) humors. The recent biomolecular analysis highlights the possibility to identify disease-associated biomarkers and allow the monitoring of retinal impairments with sustain to the retinal imaging. Coupled to other soluble mediators, NGF has been quantified in aqueous (slightly expressed) from diabetic retinopathy-suffering patients (cataract surgery) and vitreal reflux (significantly impaired) of diabetic macular degeneration-suffering patients (intravitreal surgery). Although the reasons of these NGF impairments are not fully comprehended, some retinal cells (glial cells, bipolar neurons, and RGCs) have been recognized partially responsible for these local changes.Taken together, the recent progress in the ocular microsurgeries might be associated with sampling of small amount of ocular humors, allowing the collection of biochemical information about diseased retina and the monitoring of treatment. The chance to detect NGF and likewise other neuroprotective or pro-/anti-inflammatory factors in these fluids would open to the possibility to identify biomarkers of early diagnosis or monitoring of retinal disease evolution/therapy (precision medicine).


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Neural , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Neuroproteção , Retina , Células Ganglionares da Retina
15.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(17): 3167-3175, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375091

RESUMO

With the great success of graphene in the biomedical field, carbon nanotubes have attracted increasing attention for different applications in ophthalmology. Here, we report a novel retinal sheet composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that can enhance retinal cell therapy. By tuning our CNTs to regulate the mechanical characteristics of retina sheets, we were able to improve the in vitro viability of retinal ganglion cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells incorporated into CNTs. Engrafted retinal ganglion cells displayed signs of regenerating processes along the optic nerve. Compared with PLGA scaffolds, CNT-PLGA retinal sheet tissue has excellent electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and biodegradation. This new biomaterial offers new insight into retinal injury, repair, and regeneration.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Polímeros , Retina , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Engenharia Tecidual
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4934, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400638

RESUMO

Rhodopsin (RHO) gene mutations are a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). The need to suppress toxic protein expression together with mutational heterogeneity pose challenges for treatment development. Mirtrons are atypical RNA interference effectors that are spliced from transcripts as short introns. Here, we develop a novel mirtron-based knockdown/replacement gene therapy for the mutation-independent treatment of RHO-related ADRP, and demonstrate efficacy in a relevant mammalian model. Splicing and potency of rhodopsin-targeting candidate mirtrons are initially determined, and a mirtron-resistant codon-modified version of the rhodopsin coding sequence is validated in vitro. These elements are then combined within a single adeno-associated virus (AAV) and delivered subretinally in a RhoP23H knock-in mouse model of ADRP. This results in significant mouse-to-human rhodopsin RNA replacement and is associated with a slowing of retinal degeneration. This provides proof of principle that synthetic mirtrons delivered by AAV are capable of reducing disease severity in vivo.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , RNA/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/terapia , Animais , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Splicing de RNA , Retina , Degeneração Retiniana , Rodopsina/genética , Rodopsina/metabolismo
17.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 15-20, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422229

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients living with glaucoma and receiving care in a tertiary eye center in Zimbabwe. Method: A hospital-based retrospective study of clinical records of glaucoma patients from January 2014 to December 2018. The study involved collating demographic information of patients, visual acuities, (VA) intraocular pressure, (IOP), cup-to-disc ratios, (CDRs), average retinal nerve fibers thickness, (RNFL), cup volume, cup-to-disc area, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, (VCDR), rim area, disc area, glaucoma hemifield test, visual field indices and the management of glaucoma. Results: Nine thousand one hundred and eighty-five (9,185) folders were retrieved. Out of these, 432 (4.7%) qualified for the study and were analyzed. There were 267 (61.8%) males and 165 (38.2%) females. The mean age (± Standard deviation, SD) of the patients was 62.66 ± 15.94 years, (range 10 - 110 years). The means visual acuity (VA): OD =1.30 ± 1.06 Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution, (logMAR), OS = 1.33 ± 1.06 logMAR; IOP: OD = 29.51 ± 12.89 mmHg, OS: 29.17 ± 12.59 mmHg; CDRs: OD = 0.91 ± 0.14 D, OS = 0.92 ± 0.14 D; and the average RNFL thickness was 72.76 ± 18.26 µm and 71.24 ± 23.17 µm in the right and left eye respectively. The mainstay of treatment was medication only. Conclusion: There were more males than females receiving glaucoma care at the tertiary level. Glaucoma cases included juveniles but the mean age was mostly the elderly. It was characterized by high IOPs, large CDRs, and thin RNFL suggestive of late presentation.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Glaucoma/terapia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
18.
Science ; 373(6553)2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437090

RESUMO

The ability to perceive and respond to environmental stimuli emerges in the absence of sensory experience. Spontaneous retinal activity prior to eye opening guides the refinement of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in mammals, but its role in the development of higher-order visual response properties remains unclear. Here, we describe a transient window in neonatal mouse development during which the spatial propagation of spontaneous retinal waves resembles the optic flow pattern generated by forward self-motion. We show that wave directionality requires the same circuit components that form the adult direction-selective retinal circuit and that chronic disruption of wave directionality alters the development of direction-selective responses of superior colliculus neurons. These data demonstrate how the developing visual system patterns spontaneous activity to simulate ethologically relevant features of the external world and thereby instruct self-organization.


Assuntos
Fluxo Óptico , Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Vias Visuais , Potenciais de Ação , Células Amácrinas/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Axônios/fisiologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Camundongos , Movimento (Física) , Mutação , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia
19.
Methods Enzymol ; 657: 443-480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353498

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) targeting contrast agents have been investigated as great photoabsorbers to improve photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), OCT, and fluorescence imaging contrast for visualization of various diseases. In ophthalmology, a limited number of NIR contrast agents have been approved for clinical use. Recently, gold nanoparticles with different size and shapes have been developed for molecular imaging. This chapter provides the principles of multimodality PAM, OCT, and fluorescence imaging as well as a brief overview of contrast agents for optical imaging. A detailed protocol for the fabrication of discrete colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs), synthesis of functionalized RGD-conjugated chain-like GNP (CGNP) clusters labeled with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence dye (ICG@CGNP clusters-RGD), and validation of the synthesized nanoparticles to evaluate newly developed blood vessels in the retina, named choroidal neovascularization (CNV), is described. Using RGD peptide, ICG@CGNPs clusters-RGD can bind integrin which is expressed on activated endothelial cells and newly developed CNV. The targeting efficiency of nanoparticles is monitored by multimodality PAM, OCT, and fluorescence imaging longitudinally.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Meios de Contraste , Células Endoteliais , Ouro , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Retina
20.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21802, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383984

RESUMO

Mutations in transcription factors often exhibit pleiotropic effects related to their complex expression patterns and multiple regulatory targets. One such mutation in the zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) transcription factor, short circuit (Sci, Zfhx3Sci/+ ), is associated with significant circadian deficits in mice. However, given evidence of its retinal expression, we set out to establish the effects of the mutation on retinal function using molecular, cellular, behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Immunohistochemistry confirms the expression of ZFHX3 in multiple retinal cell types, including GABAergic amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells including intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Zfhx3Sci/+ mutants display reduced light responsiveness in locomotor activity and circadian entrainment, relatively normal electroretinogram and optomotor responses but exhibit an unexpected pupillary reflex phenotype with markedly increased sensitivity. Furthermore, multiple electrode array recordings of Zfhx3Sci/+ retina show an increased sensitivity of ipRGC light responses.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Células Amácrinas/metabolismo , Animais , Luz , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
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