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7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and peripapillary vessel density (VD) at the site of disc hemorrhage (DH) in nonglaucomatous eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included nonglaucomatous eyes diagnosed with unilateral DH. The change of DH was recorded using disc photography. Both anatomical data and functional visual field (VF) data were collected using optical coherence tomography angiography and Humphrey VF examination. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included with average follow-up duration of 95 months. Almost half of DH episodes was initially presented at the inferotemporal area of the optic disc. Pigment formation at the previous DH site after resolution was noted in 12.5% of eyes. Sectoral radial peripapillary VD at the DH site was significantly lower in DH eyes than in the control group; however, the sectoral RNFL thickness at the DH site was not significantly decreased. Progression of the VF defect corresponding to the DH site was found in 81.3% of eyes despite regular use of antiglaucoma agents. The mean change in the VF mean deviation was -0.64 dB/year in DH eyes. CONCLUSION: During long follow-up periods, decreased peripapillary VD at the DH site and progression of the VF defect corresponding to the DH site were detected in nonglaucomatous eyes. Retinal pigmentation with an RNFL defect is a clue for DH, although RNFL showed no significant change. Antiglaucoma treatment may not prevent the deterioration of visual function.


Assuntos
Doenças do Nervo Óptico/complicações , Hemorragia Retiniana/complicações , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Disco Óptico/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/fisiopatologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Hemorragia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Testes de Campo Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735610

RESUMO

The rabbit retinal vein occlusion (RVO) model is an experimental system that mimics retinal ischemic diseases in humans. The rabbit RVO model is widely used to assess the therapeutic efficacy of various experimental surgical procedures. In the present study, we measured temporal retinal expression of Vegfa, which is known as an ischemic response gene, in rabbit RVO. This analysis revealed that the retinal Vegfa transcriptional response began 7 days after generation of RVO, rather than immediately after induction of ischemia. Next, in order to analyze ischemia-induced changes in gene expression profiles, we performed microarray analysis of day 7 RVO retina versus control retina. The angiogenic regulators Dcn and Mmp1 and pro-inflammatory factors Mmp12 and Cxcl13 were significantly upregulated in RVO retinas. Further, we suggest that epigenetic regulation via the REST/cofactor-complex could contribute to RVO pathology. Among human homologous genes in rabbits, genes associated with hypoxia, angiogenesis, and inflammation were significantly upregulated in RVO retinas. Components of the Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, which play regulatory roles in angiogenesis and inflammation, were significantly upregulated in RVO, and the expression levels of downstream factors, such as the transcription factor AP-1 and chemokines, were increased. Further, connectivity map analyses suggested that inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway are potential therapeutic agents for retinal ischemic disease. The present study revealed new insights into the pathology of retinal ischemia using the rabbit RVO model, which accurately recapitulates human disease.


Assuntos
Isquemia/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Conectoma , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Angiofluoresceinografia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/metabolismo , Análise em Microsséries , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Coelhos , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/genética , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790713

RESUMO

Genome duplication leads to an emergence of gene paralogs that are essentially free to undergo the process of neofunctionalization, subfunctionalization or degeneration (gene loss). Onecut1 (Oc1) and Onecut2 (Oc2) transcription factors, encoded by paralogous genes in mammals, are expressed in precursors of horizontal cells (HCs), retinal ganglion cells and cone photoreceptors. Previous studies have shown that ablation of either Oc1 or Oc2 gene in the mouse retina results in a decreased number of HCs, while simultaneous deletion of Oc1 and Oc2 leads to a complete loss of HCs. Here we study the genetic redundancy between Oc1 and Oc2 paralogs and focus on how the dose of Onecut transcription factors influences abundance of individual retinal cell types and overall retina physiology. Our data show that reducing the number of functional Oc alleles in the developing retina leads to a gradual decrease in the number of HCs, progressive thinning of the outer plexiform layer and diminished electrophysiology responses. Taken together, these observations indicate that in the context of HC population, the alleles of Oc1/Oc2 paralogous genes are mutually interchangeable, function additively to support proper retinal function and their molecular evolution does not follow one of the typical routes after gene duplication.


Assuntos
Fator 6 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Retina/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Células Amácrinas/metabolismo , Células Amácrinas/patologia , Animais , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/patologia , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Fator 6 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Retina/citologia , Retina/patologia , Células Bipolares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Bipolares da Retina/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/citologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Nature ; 585(7823): 91-95, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788726

RESUMO

Signalling between cells of the neurovascular unit, or neurovascular coupling, is essential to match local blood flow with neuronal activity. Pericytes interact with endothelial cells and extend processes that wrap capillaries, covering up to 90% of their surface area1,2. Pericytes are candidates to regulate microcirculatory blood flow because they are strategically positioned along capillaries, contain contractile proteins and respond rapidly to neuronal stimulation3,4, but whether they synchronize microvascular dynamics and neurovascular coupling within a capillary network was unknown. Here we identify nanotube-like processes that connect two bona fide pericytes on separate capillary systems, forming a functional network in the mouse retina, which we named interpericyte tunnelling nanotubes (IP-TNTs). We provide evidence that these (i) have an open-ended proximal side and a closed-ended terminal (end-foot) that connects with distal pericyte processes via gap junctions, (ii) carry organelles including mitochondria, which can travel along these processes, and (iii) serve as a conduit for intercellular Ca2+ waves, thus mediating communication between pericytes. Using two-photon microscope live imaging, we demonstrate that retinal pericytes rely on IP-TNTs to control local neurovascular coupling and coordinate light-evoked responses between adjacent capillaries. IP-TNT damage following ablation or ischaemia disrupts intercellular Ca2+ waves, impairing blood flow regulation and neurovascular coupling. Notably, pharmacological blockade of Ca2+ influx preserves IP-TNTs, rescues light-evoked capillary responses and restores blood flow after reperfusion. Our study thus defines IP-TNTs and characterizes their critical role in regulating neurovascular coupling in the living retina under both physiological and pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Nanotubos , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Pericitos/metabolismo , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Capilares/efeitos da radiação , Comunicação Celular , Feminino , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Acoplamento Neurovascular/fisiologia , Pericitos/citologia , Pericitos/patologia , Retina/citologia , Retina/patologia
11.
Angiology ; 71(9): 817-824, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672103

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with clinically significant cerebral microembolism and cognitive status changes. There are no data on the impact of TAVR on retinal layers. We assessed the influence of TAVR on the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex (GCC), and macular thickness (MT) measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Elderly patients (n = 50) with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR were included in this study (mean age: 78.5 ± 6.9 years). Retinal nerve fiber layer, GCC, and MT were measured with SD-OCT by an ophthalmologist before and on the first day and in the first month after TAVR. The average MT was significantly increased on the first day after TAVR compared with the basal value (P = .04). Ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly thinner on the first day after TAVR than the basal value in the inner inferior quadrant and outer temporal quadrant of the left eye (P = .03 and .04, respectively). Postoperative changes observed on the first day compared with the preoperative period returned to basal values in the first month. In conclusion, TAVR did not cause permanent changes in retinal layers.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Retina/patologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628672

RESUMO

We developed a deep learning architecture based on Inception V3 to predict visual field using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and evaluated its performance. Two OCT images, macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thicknesses, were acquired and combined. A convolutional neural network architecture was constructed to predict visual field using this combined OCT image. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the actual and predicted visual fields was calculated to evaluate the performance. Globally (the entire visual field area), the RMSE for all patients was 4.79 ± 2.56 dB, with 3.27 dB and 5.27 dB for the normal and glaucoma groups, respectively. The RMSE of the macular region (4.40 dB) was higher than that of the peripheral region (4.29 dB) for all subjects. In normal subjects, the RMSE of the macular region (2.45 dB) was significantly lower than that of the peripheral region (3.11 dB), whereas in glaucoma subjects, the RMSE was higher (5.62 dB versus 5.03 dB, respectively). The deep learning method effectively predicted the visual field 24-2 using the combined OCT image. This method may help clinicians determine visual fields, particularly for patients who are unable to undergo a physical visual field exam.


Assuntos
Previsões/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Glaucoma , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Disco Óptico , Curva ROC , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Campos Visuais
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18780-18787, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699144

RESUMO

Macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel), a late-onset macular degeneration, has been linked to a loss in the retina of Müller glial cells and the amino acid serine, synthesized by the Müller cells. The disease is confined mainly to a central retinal region called the MacTel zone. We have used electron microscopic connectomics techniques, optimized for disease analysis, to study the retina from a 48-y-old woman suffering from MacTel. The major observations made were specific changes in mitochondrial structure within and outside the MacTel zone that were present in all retinal cell types. We also identified an abrupt boundary of the MacTel zone that coincides with the loss of Müller cells and macular pigment. Since Müller cells synthesize retinal serine, we propose that a deficiency of serine, required for mitochondrial maintenance, causes mitochondrial changes that underlie MacTel development.


Assuntos
Conectoma/métodos , Retina , Doenças Retinianas , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/citologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/patologia
14.
Life Sci ; 257: 118072, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659367

RESUMO

AIMS: Sunitinib (Su), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is one of the most commonly used anti-angiogenic drugs. Some studies have described retinal detachment and photoreceptor damage following systemic exposure to Su, despite beneficial effects achieved with local treatment of ocular pathologies. The aim of this study was to explore the role of NADPH oxidase system and oxidative stress in eyes from Su-treated animals. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered 25 mg Su/kg body weight/day incorporated in the chow for 3 weeks. Upon treatment completion, NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels were measured in ocular tissue by chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining, respectively. The expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms (NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4), antioxidant enzymes and endothelial/inducible nitric oxidase isoforms (eNOS/iNOS) in the eyecup and/or retina were measured via immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and RT-qPCR. KEY FINDINGS: NADPH oxidase activity/expression increased in eyecup and retinas from Su-treated rats. Immunohistofluorescence studies in retinal layer confirmed a higher signal of NADPH oxidase isoforms after Su treatment. Treated animals also presented with reductions in NO levels and eNOS expression, whereas iNOS was upregulated. Finally, a significant depletion of antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase was measured in eyecups of rats following Su exposure, and the opposite pattern was seen for glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that Su treatment is associated with NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress in the eye. Long-term treatment of Su should be properly monitored to avoid retinotoxic effects that might result in ocular pathologies and sight-threatening conditions.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/toxicidade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sunitinibe/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Masculino , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Retina/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706833

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the anatomical and visual outcomes of inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique with the conventional ILM peeling for idiopathic large macular holes (MHs). METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) using online databases including NCBI PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ISI Web of Science was performed. Anatomic success and type 1 closure rates, the mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean change of BCVA from baseline were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 251 articles, four described clinical trials matching the inclusion criteria and were selected. They included 276 eyes (135 eyes in the inverted ILM flap group and 141 eyes in the ILM peeling group). All the studies used gas tamponade, with two studies having a follow-up duration of 3 months, while one study had a follow-up of 6 months and one study- 12 months. The meta-analysis demonstrated that anatomic success and type 1 closure rates (presence of neurosensory retina in MH) were better in the inverted ILM flap technique (odds ratio (OR) = 4.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.09-11.47; P = 0.0003 and OR = 5.23; 95% CI, 2.83-9.66; P<0.00001). Similarly, the inverted flap technique was superior in terms of postoperative logMAR BCVA and mean change of logMAR BCVA from baseline (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.17, 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.24, P<0.00001 and WMD = 0.08, 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Inverted ILM flap treatment resulted in better closure rates and visual acuity when compared to the standard ILM peeling for large MHs.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal/cirurgia , Retina/cirurgia , Perfurações Retinianas/cirurgia , Idoso , Membrana Basal/patologia , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retina/patologia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
16.
Gene ; 760: 144992, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetic retinopathy is a severe diabetic complication and a major cause of blindness. In this study, we explored the role of circ_0001879 in retinal vascular dysfunction under diabetic conditions. METHODS: Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) were divided into normal glucose group (NG, 5.5 mmol/L d-glucose), high glucose group (HG, 25 mmol/L d-glucose), and osmotic control group (5.5 mmol/L d-glucose + 19.5 mmol/L mannitol). The expression of circ_0001879 and miR-30-3p was assessed via qRT-PCR. The circ_0001879/miR-30-3p roles in retinal vascular dysfunction were investigated through Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assay. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays were applied to examine interactions between circ_0001879 and miR-30-3p in HRMECs. RESULTS: The relative circ_0001879 expression was remarkably increased in diabetic retinas group than that in the control group. Silencing circ_0001879 suppressed the proliferation and migration of HRMECs under high-glucose conditions. In addition, circ_0001879 acted as a binding platform and miRNA sponge for miR-30-3p. Circ_0001879 modulated the function of HRMECs via targeting miR-30-3p. CONCLUSION: Silencing circ_0001879 inhibited the proliferation and migration of HRMECs under high-glucose conditions via modulating miR-30-3p, which might shed new light on a novel potentially marker and molecular therapeutic target for diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , MicroRNAs/genética , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Vasos Retinianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo
18.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 626-632, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614314

RESUMO

Generation of retinal organoids from pluripotent stem cells represents an important advance in the study of retinal development and offer new perspectives for the study of retinal diseases missing suitable animal models. Understanding the key stages of retinal development in vertebrates enabled to design protocols to generate self-organized three-dimensional structures derived from pluripotent stem cells and containing all retinal cell types. In addition to their application in basic research, such as the characterization of molecular and cellular mechanisms in retinal pathophysiology, these miniature organs also open up encouraging prospects in the field of cell therapy or the screening of therapeutic molecules, although some obstacles remain to be overcome.


Assuntos
Organoides/citologia , Retina/citologia , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/terapia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Organoides/fisiologia , Retina/patologia , Retina/fisiologia , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/tendências
19.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 616-625, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614313

RESUMO

Iron has a fundamental role for cell physiology and especially in retina as a cofactor of many pathways of the visual transduction. A tightly regulated homeostasis avoids the accumulation of prooxidant and proinflammatory free iron. A dysfunction of iron retinal homeostasis is associated with many genetic or age-related degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we describe various mechanisms reported during AMD, enhanced by iron accumulation and its homeostasis dysregulation. We have investigated a local treatment with transferrin, the natural iron carrier, to control these pathological pathways and iron dysfunction, without side effects. Iron has a central role in pathogenesis of AMD and is a target for futures therapies.


Assuntos
Ferro/fisiologia , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/genética , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/terapia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências , Transferrina/genética , Transferrina/fisiologia
20.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(1): 89-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479015

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and inflammation are regarded as prime reasons for the progression and development of diabetic retinopathy. Currently, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways are under increasing focus in research on oxidative stress and inflammation-related diseases. On the other hand, tilianin (TN) has received much attention because of its various pharmacological properties. Based on results of these studies, this investigation was performed to inspect the therapeutic efficiency of TN on the retina in diabetic rats. Rats were arbitrarily assigned to three groups: control group, diabetic group, and diabetic plus TN (20 mg/ kg body weight for 42 days, orally) group. TN supplementation in diabetic rats, their food intake, fasting blood glucose status, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were drastically reduced, and there was a marked augmentation in serum insulin status. TN treatment of diabetic rats increased mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, HO-1, and noticeably decreased the malondialdehyde status. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GPX) were increased relative to diabetic rats. Furthermore, administering TN to the diabetic rats resulted in decreased expression of TXNIP, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, and IL-1ß proteins and decreased distribution of TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 proteins in retinas. In addition, TN treatment ameliorated morphological and morphometric changes in the retinas of diabetic rats. Together, all of these findings provide clear evidence that TN treatment of diabetic rats attenuated diabetic retinal changes through its hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic retinas occur at least in part through the modulation of Nrf2/TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathways, which may have remedial benefits in the healing of diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Retina/patologia
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