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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 153, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report a case with bilateral Terson syndrome presented with a unique mushroom-like mass lesion on the optic disc along with proliferative vitreoretinopathy and tractional retinal detachment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man was injured during a traffic accident and had diffuse brain swelling and intraocular hemorrhage. Poor vision in both eyes was noted after the patient regained consciousness. B-scan ultrasonography showed extensive vitreous opacity with a posterior vitreous detachment and without obvious retinal detachment. Vitrectomy was performed in both eyes five months after the accident. After clearing up the vitreous opacity, a peculiar pigmented mushroom-like mass lesion was noted in the posterior pole and had severe adhesion to the underneath optic disc. Extensive multilayered peripapillary epiretinal membrane was found covering the posterior pole and led to tractional retinal detachment around the macula. The mass was presumed to be an organized vitreous hemorrhage originated from the optic disc. The extensive and adherent epiretinal membrane together with the mass lesion were removed as much as possible and silicon oil was injected for tamponade. However, in the right eye, the retina redetached under silicon oil, whereas in the left eye, his vision improved to 20/100. CONCLUSIONS: Terson syndrome usually has a favorable prognosis but may be complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy and tractional retinal detachment. Careful monitoring is warranted and early vitrectomy should be considered in cases suspecting additional pathologies.


Assuntos
Membrana Epirretiniana , Doenças Orbitárias , Descolamento Retiniano , Vitreorretinopatia Proliferativa , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Hemorragia Vítrea/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Vítrea/etiologia , Vitreorretinopatia Proliferativa/cirurgia , Membrana Epirretiniana/complicações , Membrana Epirretiniana/diagnóstico , Membrana Epirretiniana/cirurgia , Retina/patologia , Vitrectomia/efeitos adversos
2.
Arkh Patol ; 86(2): 42-50, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591906

RESUMO

Vasoproliferative retinal tumor (VPT) is a term proposed by ophthalmologists in relation to the totality of manifestations of an intraocular volumetric process with involvement of the inner lining of the eye, an integral part of which is the active growth of blood vessels. The available literature data on the morphology of this process are very contradictory and ambiguous. The article presents two clinical cases of vasoproliferative retinal tumor with own illustration of morphological studies.


Assuntos
Retina , Neoplasias da Retina , Humanos , Retina/patologia , Neoplasias da Retina/genética , Neoplasias da Retina/patologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6731, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509306

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) contribute to the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by regulating gene expression through alternative splicing events (ASEs). However, the RBPs differentially expressed in PDR and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes in the neovascular membranes (NVM) and retinas of patients with PDR. The public transcriptome dataset GSE102485 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and samples of PDR and normal retinas were analyzed. A mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy was used to confirm the results. The top 20 RBPs were screened for co-expression with alternative splicing genes (ASGs). A total of 403 RBPs were abnormally expressed in the NVM and retina samples. Functional analysis demonstrated that the ASGs were enriched in cell cycle pathways. Cell cycle-associated ASEs and an RBP-AS regulatory network, including 15 RBPs and their regulated ASGs, were extracted. Splicing factor proline/glutamine rich (SFPQ), microtubule-associated protein 1 B (MAP1B), heat-shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA1), microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1), and CyclinH (CCNH) expression remarkably differed in the mouse model. This study provides novel insights into the RBP-AS interaction network in PDR and for developing screening and treatment options to prevent diabetic retinopathy-related blindness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Processamento Alternativo , Retina/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/genética
4.
Int J Mol Med ; 53(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551157

RESUMO

Macrophages form a crucial component of the innate immune system, and their activation is indispensable for various aspects of immune and inflammatory processes, tissue repair, and maintenance of the balance of the body's state. Macrophages are found in all ocular tissues, spanning from the front surface, including the cornea, to the posterior pole, represented by the choroid/sclera. The neural retina is also populated by specialised resident macrophages called microglia. The plasticity of microglia/macrophages allows them to adopt different activation states in response to changes in the tissue microenvironment. When exposed to various factors, microglia/macrophages polarise into distinct phenotypes, each exhibiting unique characteristics and roles. Furthermore, extensive research has indicated a close association between microglia/macrophage polarisation and the development and reversal of various intraocular diseases. The present article provides a review of the recent findings on the association between microglia/macrophage polarisation and ocular pathological processes (including autoimmune uveitis, optic neuritis, sympathetic ophthalmia, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, subretinal fibrosis, uveal melanoma, ischaemic optic neuropathy, retinopathy of prematurity and choroidal neovascularization). The paradoxical role of microglia/macrophage polarisation in retinopathy of prematurity is also discussed. Several studies have shown that microglia/macrophages are involved in the pathology of ocular diseases. However, it is required to further explore the relevant mechanisms and regulatory processes. The relationship between the functional diversity displayed by microglia/macrophage polarisation and intraocular diseases may provide a new direction for the treatment of intraocular diseases.


Assuntos
Microglia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Microglia/patologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/patologia , Retina/patologia , Macrófagos , Fenótipo
5.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(3): 19, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517447

RESUMO

Purpose: The regulation of mitophagy by Sirt3 has rarely been studied in ocular diseases. In the present study, we determined the effects of Sirt3 on AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway-mediated mitophagy in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in a high glucose environment. Methods: The mRNA expression levels of Sirt3, AMPK, mTOR, ULK1, and LC3B in RPE cells under varying glucose conditions were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expressions of Sirt3, mitophagy protein, and AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blotting. Lentivirus (LV) transfection mediated the stable overexpression of Sirt3 in cell lines. The experimental groups were NG (5.5 mM glucose), hypertonic, HG (30 mM glucose), HG + LV-GFP, and HG + LV-Sirt3. Western blotting was performed to detect the expressions of mitophagy proteins and AMPK/mTOR/ULK1-related proteins in a high glucose environment during the overexpression of Sirt3. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a high glucose environment was measured by DCFH-DA staining. Mitophagy was detected by labeling mitochondria and lysosomes with MitoTracker and LysoTracker probes, respectively. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Sirt3 expression was reduced in the high glucose group, inhibiting the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway, with diminished mitophagy and increased intracellular ROS production. The overexpression of Sirt3, increased expression of p-AMPK/AMPK and p-ULK1/ULK1, and decreased expression of p-mTOR/mTOR inhibited cell apoptosis and enhanced mitophagy. Conclusions: Sirt3 protected RPE cells from high glucose-induced injury by activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway. Translational Relevance: By identifying new targets of action, we aimed to establish effective therapeutic targets for diabetic retinopathy treatment.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Mitofagia , Sirtuína 3 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Mitofagia/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Humanos
6.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1296178, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515755

RESUMO

Background: The neurodegenerative processes leading to glaucoma are complex. In addition to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), an involvement of immunological mechanisms is most likely. In the new multifactorial glaucoma model, a combination of high IOP and optic nerve antigen (ONA) immunization leads to an enhanced loss of retinal ganglion cells accompanied by a higher number of microglia/macrophages in the inner retina. Here, we aimed to evaluate the immune response in this new model, especially the complement activation and the number of T-cells, for the first time. Further, the microglia/macrophage response was examined in more detail. Methods: Six-week-old wildtype (WT+ONA) and ßB1-connective tissue growth factor high-pressure mice (CTGF+ONA) were immunized with 1 mg ONA. A wildtype control (WT) and a CTGF group (CTGF) received NaCl instead. Six weeks after immunization, retinae from all four groups were processed for immunohistology, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry, while serum was used for microarray analyses. Results: We noticed elevated numbers of C1q+ cells (classical complement pathway) in CTGF and CTGF+ONA retinae as well as an upregulation of C1qa, C1qb, and C1qc mRNA levels in these groups. While the complement C3 was only increased in CTGF and CTGF+ONA retinae, enhanced numbers of the terminal membrane attack complex were noted in all three glaucoma groups. Flow cytometry and RT-qPCR analyses revealed an enhancement of different microglia/macrophages markers, including CD11b, especially in CTGF and CTGF+ONA retinae. Interestingly, increased retinal mRNA as well as serum levels of the tumor necrosis factor α were found throughout the different glaucoma groups. Lastly, more T-cells could be observed in the ganglion cell layer of the new CTGF+ONA model. Conclusion: These results emphasize an involvement of the complement system, microglia/macrophages, and T-cells in glaucomatous disease. Moreover, in the new multifactorial glaucoma model, increased IOP in combination with autoimmune processes seem to enforce an additional T-cell response, leading to a more persistent pathology. Hence, this new model mimics the pathomechanisms occurring in human glaucoma more accurately and could therefore be a helpful tool to find new therapeutic approaches for patients in the future.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Imunidade , Antígenos/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
7.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 65, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454477

RESUMO

Myeloid cells including microglia and macrophages play crucial roles in retinal homeostasis by clearing cellular debris and regulating inflammation. These cells are activated in several blinding ischemic retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy, where they may exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on neurovascular function and angiogenesis. Myeloid cells impact the progression of retinal pathologies and recent studies suggest that targeting myeloid cells is a promising therapeutic strategy to mitigate diabetic retinopathy and other ischemic retinal diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the role of microglia and macrophages in retinal diseases and focuses on the effects of myeloid cells on neurovascular injury and angiogenesis in ischemic retinopathies. We highlight gaps in knowledge and advocate for a more detailed understanding of the role of myeloid cells in retinal ischemic injury to fully unlock the potential of targeting myeloid cells as a therapeutic strategy for retinal ischemia.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Doenças Retinianas , Humanos , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Retina/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Isquemia/patologia
8.
J Integr Neurosci ; 23(3): 56, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensity (WMH) is suggested to cause stroke and dementia in older adults. Retinal structural thicknesses revealed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) are associated with structural changes in the brain. We aimed to explore the association between the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and cerebral microstructural changes in participants with white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: Seventy-four participants (37 controls, healthy control (HC), and 37 older adults with WMH) underwent retinal and brain imaging using OCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) respectively. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was assessed by the OCT. Gray matter volume (GMV) was assessed from a T1-weighted MRI. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) while WMH severity was assessed with the Fazekas scale. All participants underwent a neuropsychological examination (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE). RESULTS: Older adults with WMH showed thinner peripapillary RNFL (p = 0.004) thickness when compared with the control group after adjusting for age, hypertension and gender. In our older adults with WMH, RNFL thickness correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) (Rho = -0.331, p < 0.001). In older adults with WMH, RNFL was significantly associated with MMSE scores (Rho = 0.422, p < 0.001) and Fazekas scores (Rho = -0.381, p = 0.022) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest neurodegeneration of peripapillary RNFL in older adults with WMH was associated with cerebral microstructural volume, impaired cerebral axonal damage, and cognitive performances. OCT metrics may provide evidence of neurodegeneration that may underpin WMH and cerebral microstructural changes in the brain. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered online at the China Clinical Trial Registration Center (registration number: ChiCTR-ROC-17011819).


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Branca , Idoso , Humanos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300045, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536853

RESUMO

Photoreceptor cell death can cause progressive and irreversible visual impairments. Still, effective therapies on retinal neuroprotection are not available. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcriptional factors which strongly regulate angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, intracellular metabolism, and programed cell death under a hypoxic or an abnormal metabolic oxidative stress condition. Therefore, we aimed to unravel that inhibition of HIFs could prevent disease progression in photoreceptor cell death, as recent studies showed that HIFs might be pathologic factors in retinal diseases. Adult male balb/cAJcl (8 weeks old; BALB/c) were used to investigate preventive effects of a novel HIF inhibitor halofuginone (HF) on a murine model of light-induced retinopathy. After intraperitoneal injections of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or HF (0.4 mg/kg in PBS) for 5 days, male BALB/c mice were subjected to a dark-adaption to being exposed to a white LED light source at an intensity of 3,000 lux for 1 hour in order to induce light-induced retinal damage. After extensive light exposure, retinal damage was evaluated using electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and TUNEL assay. Light-induced retinal dysfunction was suppressed by HF administration. The amplitudes of scotopic a-wave and b-wave as well as that of photopic b-wave were preserved in the HF-administered retina. Outer retinal thinning after extensive light exposure was suppressed by HF administration. Based on the TUNEL assay, cell death in the outer retina was seen after light exposure. However, its cell death was not detected in the HF-administered retina. Halofuginone was found to exert preventive effects on light-induced outer retinal cell death.


Assuntos
Piperidinas , Quinazolinonas , Degeneração Retiniana , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retina/patologia , Eletrorretinografia
10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 55, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) are a group of rare genetic conditions affecting retina of the eye that range in prevalence from 1 in 2000 to 1 in 4000 people globally. This review is based on a retrospective analysis of research articles reporting IRDs associated genetic findings in Pakistani families between 1999 and April 2023. METHODS: Articles were retrieved through survey of online sources, notably, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Following a stringent selection criterion, a total of 126 research articles and conference abstracts were considered. All reported variants were cross-checked and validated for their correct genomic nomenclature using different online resources/databases, and their pathogenicity scores were explained as per ACMG guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 277 unique sequence variants in 87 distinct genes, previously known to cause IRDs, were uncovered. In around 70% cases, parents of the index patient were consanguineously married, and approximately 88.81% of the detected variants were found in a homozygous state. Overall, more than 95% of the IRDs cases were recessively inherited. Missense variants were predominant (41.88%), followed by Indels/frameshift (26.35%), nonsense (19.13%), splice site (12.27%) and synonymous change (0.36%). Non-syndromic IRDs were significantly higher than syndromic IRDs (77.32% vs. 22.68%). Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was the most frequently observed IRD followed by Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Altogether, mutations in PDE6A gene was the leading cause of IRDs in Pakistani families followed by mutations in TULP1 gene. CONCLUSION: In summary, Pakistani families are notable in expressing recessively inherited monogenic disorders including IRDs likely due to the highest prevalence of consanguinity in the country that leads to expression of rare pathogenic variants in homozygous state.


Assuntos
Distrofias Retinianas , Retinite Pigmentosa , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distrofias Retinianas/epidemiologia , Distrofias Retinianas/genética , Retina/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Mutação , Linhagem , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/genética
11.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 43, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317227

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and optic nerve axons, leading to irreversible visual impairment. Despite its clinical significance, the underlying mechanisms of glaucoma pathogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to unravel the multifaceted nature of glaucoma by investigating the interaction between T cells and retinas. By utilizing clinical samples, murine glaucoma models, and T cell transfer models, we made several key findings. Firstly, we observed that CD4+ T cells from glaucoma patients displayed enhanced activation and a bias towards T helper (Th) 1 responses, which correlated with visual impairment. Secondly, we identified the infiltration of Th1 cells into the retina, where they targeted RGC and integrated into the pro-inflammatory glial network, contributing to progressive RGC loss. Thirdly, we discovered that circulating Th1 cells upregulated vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) on retinal microvessels, facilitating their entry into the neural retina. Lastly, we found that Th1 cells underwent functional reprogramming before reaching the retina, acquiring a phenotype associated with lymphocyte migration and neurodegenerative diseases. Our study provides novel insights into the role of peripheral CD4+ T cells in glaucoma pathogenesis, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying their infiltration into the retina and offering potential avenues for innovative therapeutic interventions in this sight-threatening disease.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Células Th1/patologia , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Transtornos da Visão/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
12.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 78, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have uncovered LCN2 as a marker of inflammation strongly related to obesity, insulin resistance, and abnormal glucose metabolism in humans, and is involved in vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, and neurological diseases. In recent years, studies have shown that elevated levels of LCN2 have a strong association with diabetic retinopathy (DR), but the pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we reviewed the relevant literature and compiled the pathogenesis associated with LCN2-induced DR. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases using "lipocalin-2, diabetic retinopathy, retinal degeneration, diabetic microangiopathies, diabetic neuropathy and inflammation" as subject terms. RESULTS: In diabetic retinal neuropathy, LCN2 causes impaired retinal photoreceptor function and retinal neurons; in retinal microangiopathy, LCN2 induces apoptosis of retinal vascular endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis; in retinal inflammation, increased secretion of LCN2 recruits inflammatory cells and induces pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, LCN2 has the potential as a biomarker for DR. Recent studies have shown that retinal damage can be attenuated by silencing LCN2, which may be associated with the inhibition of caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, and LCN2 may be a new target for the treatment of DR. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, LCN2, involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy, is a key factor in diabetic retinal microangiopathy, neurodegeneration, and retinal inflammation. LCN2 is likely to be a novel molecular target leading to DR, and a more in-depth study of the pathogenesis of DR caused by LCN2 may provide considerable benefits for clinical research and potential drug development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Humanos , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Retina/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3834, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360971

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a prevalent cause of blindness globally, characterized by the progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Among various factors, glutamate excitotoxicity stands out as a significant contributor of RGCs loss in glaucoma. Our study focused on Ripa-56 and its protective effect against NMDA-induced retinal damage in mice, aiming to delve into the potential underlying mechanism. The R28 cells were categorized into four groups: glutamate (Glu), Glu + Ripa-56, Ripa-56 and Control group. After 24 h of treatment, cell death was assessed by PI / Hoechst staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential changes, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were analyzed using flow cytometry. The alterations in the expression of RIP-1, p-MLKL, Bcl-2, BAX, Caspase-3, Gpx4 and SLC7A11 were examined using western blot analysis. C57BL/6j mice were randomly divided into NMDA, NMDA + Ripa-56, Ripa-56 and control groups. Histological changes in the retina were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. RGCs survival and the protein expression changes of RIP-1, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Gpx4 and SLC7A11 were observed using immunofluorescence. Ripa-56 exhibited a significant reduction in the levels of RIP-1, p-MLKL, Caspase-3, and BAX induced by glutamate, while promoting the expression of Bcl-2, Gpx-4, and SLC7A1 in the Ripa-56-treated group. In our study, using an NMDA-induced normal tension glaucoma mice model, we employed immunofluorescence and H&E staining to observe that Ripa-56 treatment effectively ameliorated retinal ganglion cell loss, mitigating the decrease in retinal ganglion cell layer and bipolar cell layer thickness caused by NMDA. In this study, we have observed that Ripa-56 possesses remarkable anti- necroptotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-ferroptosis properties. It demonstrates the ability to combat not only glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in R28 cells, but also NMDA-induced retinal excitotoxicity in mice. Therefore, Ripa-56 could be used as a potential retinal protective agent.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Animais , Camundongos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , N-Metilaspartato/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Retina/patologia , Apoptose , Glaucoma/patologia
14.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 39(3): 193-200, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imaging plays a pivotal role in eye assessment. With the introduction of advanced machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI), the focus has shifted to imaging datasets in ophthalmology. While disparities and health inequalities hidden within data are well-documented, the ophthalmology field faces specific challenges to the creation and maintenance of datasets. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of retinal pathologies, making it valuable for AI applications. This review aims to identify and compare the landscape of publicly available optical coherence tomography databases for AI applications. METHODS: We conducted a literature review on OCT and AI articles with publicly accessible datasets, using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. The review retrieved 183 articles, and after full-text analysis, 50 articles were included. From the included articles were identified 8 publicly available OCT datasets, focusing on patient demographics and clinical details for thorough assessment and comparison. RESULTS: The resulting datasets encompass 154,313 images collected from Spectralis, Cirrus HD, Topcon 3D, and Bioptigen devices. These datasets included normal exams, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic maculopathy, among others. Comprehensive demographic information is available in one dataset and the USA is the most represented population. DISCUSSION: Current publicly available OCT databases for AI applications exhibit limitations, stemming from their non-representative nature and the lack of comprehensive demographic information. Limited datasets hamper research and equitable AI development. To promote equitable AI algorithmic development in ophthalmology, there is a need for the creation and dissemination of more representative datasets.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Oftalmologia , Humanos , Oftalmologia/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Algoritmos , Retina/patologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338904

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe retinal disease that causes irreversible visual loss and blindness in elderly populations worldwide. The pathological mechanism of AMD is complex, involving the interactions of multiple environmental and genetic factors. A poor understanding of the disease leads to limited treatment options and few effective prevention methods. The discovery of autoantibodies in AMD patients provides an opportunity to explore the pathogenesis and treatment direction of the disease. This review focuses on the mitochondria-associated autoantibodies and summarizes the functional roles of mitochondria under physiological conditions and their alterations during the pathological states. Additionally, it discusses the crosstalk between mitochondria and other organelles, as well as the mitochondria-related therapeutic strategies in AMD.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Doenças Retinianas , Humanos , Idoso , Degeneração Macular/terapia , Degeneração Macular/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338908

RESUMO

Neurons build vast gap junction-coupled networks (GJ-nets) that are permeable to ions or small molecules, enabling lateral signaling. Herein, we investigate (1) the effect of blinding diseases on GJ-nets in mouse retinas and (2) the impact of electrical stimulation on GJ permeability. GJ permeability was traced in the acute retinal explants of blind retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mice using the GJ tracer neurobiotin. The tracer was introduced via the edge cut method into the GJ-net, and its spread was visualized in histological preparations (fluorescent tagged) using microscopy. Sustained stimulation was applied to modulate GJ permeability using a single large electrode. Our findings are: (1) The blind rd1 retinas displayed extensive intercellular coupling via open GJs. Three GJ-nets were identified: horizontal, amacrine, and ganglion cell networks. (2) Sustained stimulation significantly diminished the tracer spread through the GJs in all the cell layers, as occurs with pharmaceutical inhibition with carbenoxolone. We concluded that the GJ-nets of rd1 retinas remain coupled and functional after blinding disease and that their permeability is regulatable by sustained stimulation. These findings are essential for understanding molecular signaling in diseases over coupled networks and therapeutic approaches using electrical implants, such as eliciting visual sensations or suppressing cortical seizures.


Assuntos
Degeneração Retiniana , Animais , Camundongos , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Retina/patologia , Junções Comunicantes , Estimulação Elétrica , Permeabilidade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338966

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases are an increasingly common group of diseases that occur late in life with a significant impact on personal, family, and economic life. Among these, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the major disorders that lead to mild to severe cognitive and physical impairment and dementia. Interestingly, those diseases may show onset of prodromal symptoms early after middle age. Commonly, the evaluation of these neurodegenerative diseases is based on the detection of biomarkers, where functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have shown a central role in revealing early or prodromal phases, although it can be expensive, time-consuming, and not always available. The aforementioned diseases have a common impact on the visual system due to the pathophysiological mechanisms shared between the eye and the brain. In Parkinson's disease, α-synuclein deposition in the retinal cells, as well as in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, alters the visual cortex and retinal function, resulting in modifications to the visual field. Similarly, the visual cortex is modified by the neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic amyloid ß plaques typically seen in the Alzheimer's disease brain, and this may reflect the accumulation of these biomarkers in the retina during the early stages of the disease, as seen in postmortem retinas of AD patients. In this light, the ophthalmic evaluation of retinal neurodegeneration could become a cost-effective method for the early diagnosis of those diseases, overcoming the limitations of functional and structural imaging of the deep brain. This analysis is commonly used in ophthalmic practice, and interest in it has risen in recent years. This review will discuss the relationship between Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with retinal degeneration, highlighting how retinal analysis may represent a noninvasive and straightforward method for the early diagnosis of these neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Biomarcadores
18.
Theranostics ; 14(4): 1631-1646, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389842

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a complex complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is a leading cause of adult blindness. Hyperglycemia triggers DR, resulting in microvascular damage, glial apoptosis, and neuronal degeneration. Inflammation and oxidative stress play crucial roles during this process. Current clinical treatments for DR primarily target the advanced retinal disorder but offer limited benefits with inevitable side effects. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) exhibit unique morphological features, contents, and biological properties and can be found in cell culture supernatants, various body fluids, and tissues. In DR, EVs with specific cargo composition would induce the reaction of receptor cell once internalized, mediating cellular communication and disease progression. Increasing evidence indicates that monitoring changes in EV quantity and content in DR can aid in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, extensive research is investigating the potential of these nanoparticles as effective therapeutic agents in preclinical models of DR. This review explores the current understanding of the pathological effects of EVs in DR development, discusses their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic strategies, and paves the way for further research and therapeutic advancements.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Vesículas Extracelulares , Hiperglicemia , Humanos , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/complicações , Retina/patologia , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3010, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321224

RESUMO

Activated microglia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, and other neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders, but our understanding of the mechanisms behind their activation is in infant stages. With the goal of identifying novel genes associated with microglial activation in the retina, we applied a semiquantitative fundus spot scoring scale to an unbiased, state-of-the-science mouse forward genetics pipeline. A mutation in the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Herc3 led to prominent accumulation of fundus spots. CRISPR mutagenesis was used to generate Herc3-/- mice, which developed prominent accumulation of fundus spots and corresponding activated Iba1 + /CD16 + subretinal microglia, retinal thinning on OCT and histology, and functional deficits by Optomotory and electrophysiology. Bulk RNA sequencing identified activation of inflammatory pathways and differentially expressed genes involved in the modulation of microglial activation. Thus, despite the known expression of multiple E3 ubiquitin ligases in the retina, we identified a non-redundant role for Herc3 in retinal homeostasis. Our findings are significant given that a dysregulated ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is important in prevalent retinal diseases, in which activated microglia appear to play a role. This association between Herc3 deficiency, retinal microglial activation and retinal degeneration merits further study.


Assuntos
Microglia , Degeneração Retiniana , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
20.
Exp Eye Res ; 240: 109826, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340947

RESUMO

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal disorder characterized by the degeneration of photoreceptors. RhoP23H/+ mice, which carry a Pro23His mutation in the RHODOPSIN (Rho) gene, are one of the most studied animal models for RP. However, except for the photoreceptors, other retinal neural cells have not been fully investigated in this model. Here, we record the temporal changes of the retina by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the RhoP23H/+ mice, from early to mid-phase of retinal degeneration. Based on thickness analysis, we identified a natural retinal thickness adaption in wild-type mice during early adulthood and observed morphological compensation of the inner retina layer to photoreceptor degeneration in the RhoP23H/+ mice, primarily on the inner nuclear layer (INL). RhoP23H/+ mice findings were further validated via: histology showing the negative correlation of INL and ONL thicknesses; as well as electroretinogram (ERG) showing an increased b-wave to a-wave ratio. These results unravel the sequential morphologic events in this model and suggest a better understanding of retinal degeneration of RP for future studies.


Assuntos
Degeneração Retiniana , Retinite Pigmentosa , Camundongos , Animais , Degeneração Retiniana/diagnóstico , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Rodopsina/genética , Retina/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Eletrorretinografia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
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