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2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 282, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair (MMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) are independent biomarkers that complement each other for predicting immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) efficacy. Here we aim to establish a strategy that integrates MSI and TMB determination for colorectal cancer (CRC) in one single assay. METHODS: Surgical or biopsy specimens retrospectively collected from CRC patients were subjected to NGS analysis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were also used to determine MMR/MSI for those having enough tissues. The NGS-MSI method was validated against IHC and PCR. The MSI-high (MSI-H) or microsatellite stable (MSS) groups were further stratified based on tumor mutational burden, followed by validation using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) CRC dataset. Immune microenvironment was evaluated for each subgroup be profiling the expression of immune signatures. RESULTS: Tissues from 430 CRC patients were analyzed using a 381-gene NGS panel. Alterations in KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and HER2 occurred at a significantly higher incidence among MSI-H tumors than in MSS patients (83.6% vs. 58.4%, p = 0.0003). A subset comprising 98 tumors were tested for MSI/MMR using all three techniques, where NGS proved to be 99.0 and 93.9% concordant with PCR and IHC, respectively. Four of the 7 IHC-PCR discordant cases had low TMB (1.1-8.1 muts/Mb) and were confirmed to have been misdiagnosed by IHC. Intriguingly, 4 of the 66 MSS tumors (as determined by NGS) were defined as TMB-high (TMB-H) using a cut-off of 29 mut/Mb. Likewise, 15 of the 456 MSS tumors in the TCGA CRC cohort were also TMB-H with a cut-off of 9 muts/Mb. Expression of immune signatures across subgroups (MSS-TMB-H, MSI-H-TMB-H, and MSS-TMB-L) confirmed that the microenvironment of the MSS-TMB-H tumors was similar to that of the MSI-H-TMB-H tumors, but significantly more immune-responsive than that of the MSS-TMB-L tumors, indicating that MSI combined with TMB may be more precise than MSI alone for immune microenvironment prediction. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that NGS panel-based method is both robust and tissue-efficient for comprehensive molecular diagnosis of CRC. It also underscores the importance of combining MSI and TMB information for discerning patients with different microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Colo/patologia , Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1851, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767170

RESUMO

Radiographic imaging is routinely used to evaluate treatment response in solid tumors. Current imaging response metrics do not reliably predict the underlying biological response. Here, we present a multi-task deep learning approach that allows simultaneous tumor segmentation and response prediction. We design two Siamese subnetworks that are joined at multiple layers, which enables integration of multi-scale feature representations and in-depth comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment images. The network is trained using 2568 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 321 rectal cancer patients for predicting pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In multi-institution validation, the imaging-based model achieves AUC of 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.98) and 0.92 (0.87-0.96) in two independent cohorts of 160 and 141 patients, respectively. When combined with blood-based tumor markers, the integrated model further improves prediction accuracy with AUC 0.97 (0.93-0.99). Our approach to capturing dynamic information in longitudinal images may be broadly used for screening, treatment response evaluation, disease monitoring, and surveillance.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572915

RESUMO

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular phenotype due to a deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR). In colorectal cancer (CRC), dMMR/MSI is associated with several clinical and histopathological features, influences prognosis, and is a predictive factor of response to therapy. In daily practice, dMMR/MSI profiles are identified by immunohistochemistry and/or multiplex PCR. The Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen was previously found to be a potential single marker to identify MSI-high gastric cancers. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to disclose a possible association between TF expression and MSI status in CRC. Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship between TF expression and other clinicopathological features, including patient survival. We evaluated the expression of the TF antigen in a cohort of 25 MSI-high and 71 microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs. No association was observed between the expression of the TF antigen and MSI-high status in CRC. The survival analysis revealed that patients with MSI-high CRC showed improved survival when the TF antigen was expressed. This finding holds promise as it indicates the potential use of the TF antigen as a biomarker of better prognosis in MSI-high CRCs that should be validated in an independent and larger CRC cohort.


Assuntos
Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reto/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 116(1): 16-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638322

RESUMO

This review on recently published literature aims to summarize published data on pathologic complete response following neoadjuvant treatment in biopsy proven locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Published articles referring to pCR rectal cancer patients were identified using PubMed search. Eleven relevant articles were selected, based on tumor, treatment, and patient characteristics reporting. As a conclusion, rectal cancer patients with the highest chances of complete clinical or pathological response to neoadjuvant treatment are males, who are around 60 years, diagnosed with well or moderate differentiated locally advanced rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Biópsia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 82, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) has become a field of special interest for colorectal surgeons. Some researchers have reported transanal specimen extraction in the laparoscopic anterior rectal resection, including intersphincteric resection (ISR) and rectal eversion-resection. However, these surgical procedures have certain limitations. Based on the proven expertise in laparoscopic surgery, our center has developed a modified technique of transanal specimen extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of a modified technique of transanal specimen extraction in the laparoscopic anterior rectal resection. METHODS: From January 2011 to January 2014, the patients with upper rectal or lower sigmoid colon cancer who had undergone laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with specimen extraction by a modified transanal technique were enrolled in the observation group, and the patients who had undergone laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with specimen extraction via an abdominal incision by the same surgeons during the same period were enrolled in the control group. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were included in the observation group and 128 patients were included in the control group. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the two groups in terms of the mean operative time [144 ± 10 min vs. 141 ± 11 min], mean intraoperative blood loss [63 ± 6 ml vs. 61 ± 7 ml], and the mean time to anal exhaust [67 ± 7 h vs. 65 ± 8 h]. However, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two groups in terms of the mean postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores [3.4 ± 1.1 vs. 4.5 ± 1.2], mean postoperative hospital stay [6.0 ± 1.1 days ± vs. 7.2 ± 1.2 days], and incidence of postoperative complications (4/36 vs. 15/128). Long-term follow-up results showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the two groups in terms of the 3- or 5-year overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The modified technique of transanal specimen extraction in the laparoscopic anterior rectal resection fulfilled the principle of no-neoplasm touch technique, with advantages, such as minimal trauma, rapid recovery, and fewer complications. Long-term follow-up results also showed satisfactory oncological outcomes.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/patologia , Cirurgia Endoscópica Transanal
7.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 50, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal lymphomas like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are rare complications of ulcerative colitis (UC), and only a few studies have reported intestinal ulcers caused by DLBCL, which got perforated during the treatment of UC. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man with severe lower abdominal pain and an 8-year history of UC was admitted in our hospital. He was diagnosed UC since 8 years and received a maintenance oral dose of 5-aminosalicylic acid, and no other immunosuppressive drugs. A deep rectal ulcer was endoscopically diagnosed 10 months before admission, no malignancy or cytomegalovirus infection was detected on biopsy. After 7 months a further endoscopy with biopsies confirmed the finding and the absence of malignancy. Three months later the patient developed sudden abdominal pain and was admitted in our hospital. Rectal perforation was suspected on X-ray and computed tomography imaging, and an emergency surgery was performed. Surgical exploration revealed a perforation on the anterior wall of the rectum. A subtotal colectomy with temporary ileostomy was performed. Pathology examinations showed lymphocyte infiltration of all of the layers of the perforated site and an immunohistochemical evaluation revealed DLBCL. Clinical staging was stage IV, and the patient received a 6-months regimen of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy. Positron emission tomography restaging revealed disappearance of distant uptake and a slight uptake in the residual rectum, and completion proctectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed. No residual tumor in the specimen was found, and the patient was disease-free at 2 years follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: DLBCL may increase the frequency of perforation and is a poor prognostic risk factor for patients with UC. This case study emphasizes the importance of careful medical surveillance and repeated endoscopic biopsies during the treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Neoplasias Retais , Adulto , Colectomia , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ileostomia , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/cirurgia , Masculino , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/lesões , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
8.
Radiother Oncol ; 157: 70-77, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Neoadjuvant rectal (NAR) score is a new surrogate endpoint to be used in clinical trials for early determination of treatment response to different preoperative therapies. The aim is to further validate the NAR-score, primarily developed using chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with a delay to surgery 6-8 weeks, and explore its value using other schedules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included all 9978 patients diagnosed with non-metastasized RC in 2007-2015 that had undergone surgery and was registered in the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. The patients of interest had either short-course radiotherapy (scRT)/CRT + delayed surgery, long-course radiotherapy (RT) + delayed surgery, (C)RT + additional chemotherapy, primary surgery, or scRT + immediate surgery. The scRT/CRT + delayed surgery groups were further divided based on time to surgery. RESULTS: Mean NAR-score differed significantly (p < 0.0001) between different treatments. (C)RT + additional chemotherapy had the lowest mean score of 16.3 and CRT + delayed surgery had 17.7. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) of patients with a Low NAR-score (<8) compared to those with a High score (>16) for both CRT- and scRT, with a stronger correlation for CRT-patients. C-index for the NAR-score model (0.623) was not superior to when only pathological T- and N-stage was used (0.646). CONCLUSIONS: The NAR-score is prognostic, but it is not better than pT- and pN-stage. However, the NAR-score can still discriminate between two treatments that have different cell killing effect and may still be of value in clinical trials as an easier method than pT- and N-stage.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais , Quimiorradioterapia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/patologia
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431529

RESUMO

Abdominoperineal excision of rectum (APER) is one of the widely used surgical procedures to treat low rectal cancer, benign conditions like Crohn's proctitis with anal involvement and as a salvage procedure for anal cancer. Perineal wound infection is a well-recognised complication following such major surgery. Occurrence of appendicitis in a few weeks' time following such a major surgery is uncommon. However, here we present a rare case report of perforated appendicitis presenting as persistent perineal discharge in an elderly man, following laparoscopic APER for a low rectal tumour. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a rare clinical presentation of appendicitis is reported in the history of medical literature. Through this case report, we aim to highlight the importance of considering such an uncommon presentation in patients with perineal discharge, following APER.


Assuntos
Abscesso/diagnóstico , Apendicite/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Perfuração Intestinal/diagnóstico , Infecção Pélvica/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Abscesso/etiologia , Abscesso/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Apendicectomia , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/etiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/cirurgia , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Infecção Pélvica/etiologia , Infecção Pélvica/cirurgia , Períneo/microbiologia , Períneo/patologia , Períneo/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111028, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378943

RESUMO

Aspirin is one of the most commonly prescribed medications. Evidence shows that it can even treat and prevent intestinal tumors. However, it has also caused a great deal of controversy due to its intestinal side effects. We therefore explored whether aspirin was beneficial or harmful to the intestines. We used aspirin continuously interfered with C57BL/6 J mice for 48 weeks, examining their intestinal tissues at 13, 26 and 48 weeks to determine the drug's effect on the intestines. In addition, we used flow cytometry (FCM) used to detect T cells and expression of T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin (Ig)- and tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT) on their surfaces to determine aspirin's immunomodulatory effects. The results showed that long-term aspirin intervention could reverse damage to the intestines, an effect related to the drug's significant inhibitory effect on TIGIT. The change in TIGIT level could regulate T-cell subsets, so that counts of Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4)+/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ T-helper 1 (Th1) cells and CD4+/interleukin-4 (IL-4)+ Th2 cells increased, while those of CD4+/C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)+ Th17 cells and CD4+/CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) decreased. In summary, we demonstrated that long-term aspirin intervention could inhibit TIGIT, regulating T cells to reverse damage to the intestines. Furthermore, aspirin is a potential therapy for diseases related to an increase in TIGIT.


Assuntos
Aspirina/toxicidade , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Reto/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Reto/imunologia , Reto/metabolismo , Reto/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318260

RESUMO

A 57-year-old man underwent emergency laparoscopic loop colostomy for acute recto-sigmoid obstruction. He was hospitalised 2 months previously, at another facility for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperkalaemia. He had no gastrointestinal symptoms prior to the hospitalisation. Both surgical exploration and intraoperative sigmoidoscopy showed ulcerations of sigmoid colon and proximal rectum with a pinhole stricture in mid-rectum. After ruling out all aetiologies, and due to persistence of the colonic ulcerations on a follow-up colonoscopy, a diagnosis of Crohn's colitis was made, and the patient was started on infliximab and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Six months later, on rereview of all the biopsies, it was noted that a key element of presence of crystals suggestive of Kayexalate on the initial colorectal biopsies was missed. It was later found out that the patient had received rectal Kayexalate for treatment of DKA at the other facility. Hence, infliximab and 6-MP were both discontinued. All the colonoscopies, following the discontinuation of the medications, showed complete resolution of colitis but persistence of the mid-rectum stricture. This was treated with a fully covered metal stent for 12 weeks with only partial improvement of the stricture. He was hence referred for ultra-low anterior resection of rectum and take down of colostomy.


Assuntos
Resinas de Troca de Cátion/efeitos adversos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Constrição Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Poliestirenos/efeitos adversos , Reto/patologia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colonoscopia , Colostomia , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/terapia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/complicações , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reto/cirurgia , Stents
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) of colorectal cancer (CRC) complicates molecular tumor classification, such as transcriptional subtyping. Differences in cellular states, biopsy cell composition, and tumor microenvironment may all lead to ITH. Here we analyze ITH at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels to ascertain whether subtype discordance between multiregional biopsies reflects relevant biological ITH or lack of classifier robustness. Further, we study the impact of tumor location on ITH. METHODS: Multiregional biopsies from stage II and III CRC tumors were analyzed by RNA sequencing (41 biopsies, 14 tumors) and multiplex immune protein analysis (89 biopsies, 29 tumors). CRC subtyping was performed using consensus molecular subtypes (CMS), CRC intrinsic subtypes (CRIS), and TUMOR types. ITH-scores and network maps were defined to determine the origin of heterogeneity. A validation cohort was used with one biopsy per tumor (162 tumors). RESULTS: Overall, inter-tumor transcriptional variation exceeded ITH, and subtyping calls were frequently concordant between multiregional biopsies. Still, some tumors had high transcriptional ITH and were classified discordantly. Subtyping of proximal MSS tumors were discordant for 50% of the tumors, this ITH was related to differences in the microenvironment. Subtyping of distal MSS tumors were less discordant, here the ITH was more cancer-cell related. The subtype discordancy reflected actual molecular ITH within the tumors. The relevance of the subtypes was reflected at protein level where several inflammation markers were significantly increased in immune related transcriptional subtypes, which was verified in an independent cohort (Wilcoxon rank sum test; p<0.05). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the protein data identified large ITH at protein level; as the multiregional biopsies clustered together for only 9 out of 29 tumors. CONCLUSION: Our transcriptomic and proteomic analyses show that the tumor location along the colorectum influence the ITH of CRC, which again influence the concordance of subtyping.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica , RNA-Seq , Reto/metabolismo , Reto/patologia , Distribuição Tecidual
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370929

RESUMO

Syphilitic proctitis is a rare presentation of sexually transmitted infection that poses a diagnostic challenge as it mimics rectal cancer clinically, radiologically and endoscopically. We report a case of a 66-year-old male patient with a background of HIV infection presenting with obstructive bowel symptoms and initial diagnosis of rectal cancer on CT. Sigmoidoscopy and histopathology were non-diagnostic. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis was suspected after obtaining sexual history and diagnostic serology, avoiding planned surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Obstrução Intestinal , Penicilinas/administração & dosagem , Proctite/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Reto , Treponema pallidum , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Masculino , Proctite/etiologia , Proctite/fisiopatologia , Proctite/terapia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/microbiologia , Reto/patologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Sigmoidoscopia/métodos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação
15.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 45(3): 131-135, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901901

RESUMO

Retained products of conception (RPOC) refer to the persistence of placental or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery or miscarriage. RPOC may cause massive postpartum or post-abortion hemorrhage. Arterial embolization (AE) is an effective choice of management for postpartum hemorrhage including RPOC. We report a case of hemorrhagic RPOC, in which uterine artery embolization with transcervical resection did not achieve hemostasis, and laparotomy with uterine compression sutures was subsequently required. The RPOC was apparently fed by an aberrant branch derived from the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). AE of IMA was not performed because of possible necrosis of the descending colon and rectum. A physician should be aware that AE is not an all-encompassing hemostatic technique for postpartum bleeding, such as with RPOC, and should keep alternatives in mind.


Assuntos
Hemostasia Cirúrgica/métodos , Laparotomia/métodos , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/cirurgia , Placenta Retida/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/cirurgia , Técnicas de Sutura , Útero/cirurgia , Adulto , Colo/patologia , Contraindicações , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Necrose , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico por imagem , Placenta Retida/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Reto/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/efeitos adversos
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1183-1187, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913154

RESUMO

Aims: This study compared the analgesic effect of apical peri-prostatic block with that of intra-rectal xylocaine gel for trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PBx) in Nigeria. Methods: This is a prospective randomized comparative study carried out over one year in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria. The participants were randomized into two groups; Group A had 10 mls of intra-rectal xylocaine gel instillation while Group B had apical infiltration of 10 mls of 1% xylocaine all before TRUS-PBx. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean pain score during and one hour after TRUS-PBx between Group A and Group B of the study population respectively (p < 0.0001). Those that had intra-rectal xylocaine gel (Group A) had more pain during and after biopsy. There was no difference in the mean pain score during probe insertion between the two groups (p = 0.952). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the superiority of apical peri-prostatic nerve block over intra rectal xylocaine gel instillation during TRUS-PBx with respect to its anesthetic efficacy. Therefore, centers providing TRUS-PBx in Nigeria should consider apical peri-prostatic nerve block as their mode of anesthesia for the procedure due to its efficacy and high safety profile.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Administração Retal , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biópsia por Agulha/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/inervação , Reto/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
17.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(8): 1236-1245, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear how baseline endoscopic characteristics in Crohn's disease (CD) affect the ability to achieve endoscopic remission (ER). We aimed to determine the endoscopic prognostic factors that influence achieving ER in CD. DESIGN: This post hoc analysis of SONIC (NCT00094458; YODA #2019-3980) evaluated baseline and week 26 endoscopy indices in 172 patients using the CD Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) and the Simple Endoscopic Score for CD. The impact of baseline ulcer depth and size on achieving week 26 ER was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: The ER rate of ileal ulcers was significantly lower than ER rates throughout the colon (P < 0.0001). Ileal ulcers >2 cm were less likely to achieve ER compared with smaller ulcers {odds ratio (OR) 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.89), P = 0.03}. Similarly, rectal ulcers >2 cm were associated with reduced odds of week 26 ER (OR 0.26 [95% CI 0.08-0.80], P = 0.02). Ulcer size in other colonic segments did not affect the achievement of week 26 ER. Deep ileal and rectal ulcers >2 cm compared with smaller or superficial ulcers were even less likely to achieve week 26 ER (ileum: OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.68, P = 0.02; rectum: OR 0.12, 0.02-0.82, P = 0.03). High baseline Simple Endoscopic Score for CD (≥16) or CDEIS scores (≥12) did not affect achieving week 26 ER. DISCUSSION: Patients with larger and deep ulcers in the ileum or rectum may have difficulty achieving ER. Overall degree of endoscopic inflammation as measured numerically by endoscopic scores does not affect the likelihood of achieving week 26 ER.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Íleo/patologia , Reto/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Colonoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4308, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855399

RESUMO

Distant metastasis (DM) is the main cause of treatment failure in locally advanced rectal cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is usually used for distant control. However, not all patients can benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, and particularly, some patients may even get worse outcomes after the treatment. We develop and validate an MRI-based radiomic signature (RS) for prediction of DM within a multicenter dataset. The RS is proved to be an independent prognostic factor as it not only demonstrates good accuracy for discriminating patients into high and low risk of DM in all the four cohorts, but also outperforms clinical models. Within the stratified analysis, good chemotherapy efficacy is observed for patients with pN2 disease and low RS, whereas poor chemotherapy efficacy is detected in patients with pT1-2 or pN0 disease and high RS. The RS may help individualized treatment planning to select patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for distant control.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Nomogramas , Protectomia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Radioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
19.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 51(3): 800-804, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Today, the rapid outbreak of COVID-19 is the leading health issue. Patients with cancer are at high risk for the development of morbidities of COVID-19. Hence, oncology centers need to provide organ-based recommendations for optimal management of cancer in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: In this article, we have provided the recommendations on management of locally advanced rectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic based on our experience in Shohada-e Tajrish Hospital, Iran. RESULTS: We recommend that patients with locally advanced rectal cancer should be managed in an individualized manner in combination with local conditions related to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our recommendation may provide a guide for oncology centers of developing countries for better management of locally advanced rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Oncologia/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/normas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Oncologia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Protectomia/normas , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia
20.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(9): 1570-1580, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666388

RESUMO

Neo-adjuvant chemoradiation (NA-CRT) is the standard of management for the locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), achieving very low rates of local recurrence (LR). However, NA-CRT fails to control distant recurrence and improve survival, whilst it is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and increased acute and late toxicity. In recent years, neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACTx) appears in the literature as an alternative to NA-CRT in patients with LARC. In the present study, the authors review all current evidence on the specific subject. Following a systematic search of the literature, 25 studies were identified reporting on short- or long-term outcomes of NACTx for LARC. Seventeen studies were prospective or retrospective series, and 8 comparative. Of the comparative studies, one was a randomized control trial (RCT) comparing NACTx to NA-CRT and to the combination of NACTx/NA-CRT, and another a non-randomized study comparing NACTx to NA-CRT. Chemotherapeutic regimens were 5-fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin based. In some of them, irinotecan or/and bevacizumab was added. A pooled analysis showed that NACTx is associated with a mean anastomotic leak rate of 6.8%. In the RCT, postoperative morbidity and overall toxicity was significantly less in the NACTx group. Mean T downstaging (ypStage 0-I) was 49.6%, mean N downstaging 69.6% and mean pathologic complete response (pCR) 10.7%. The RCT showed an inferior pCR rate after NACTx than after NA-CRT, but similar rates of T downstaging. Mean LR was 8.6% and mean distant recurrence 17.2%. Satisfactory survival rates are reported by several studies. NACTx seems to be an alternative to NA-CRT for patients with LARC, associated with low anastomotic leak, adequate tumour downstaging, low LR and rather high survival rates. Further data deriving from high-quality studies are necessary to assess safety and efficacy of NACTx as a substitute to NA-CRT, for at least a subset of patients with LARC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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