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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(750): 1562-1566, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528419

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) variability appears to be a cardiovascular risk factor in its own right. Seasonal and temperature changes contribute to BP variations in the medium term with increased BP values in winter and lowered values in summer, and in the short term by influencing the circadian rhythm of BP. International societies have not issued specific recommendations on the detection of patients at risk of significant seasonal variations in BP, nor on the possible adaptation of antihypertensive treatments. This is a topical issue in the context of global warming, which will make these seasonal differences more significant in the future. Measuring BP outside the medical setting can be of great help in screening and monitoring these patients.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481429

RESUMO

Circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin production is paced by the thalamus suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) depending on the lighting conditions via signal transduction to pinealocytes beta-receptors. Melatonin is a natural regulator of many physiological processes, and the decrease of its synthesis leads to various diseases, in particular, insomnia and metabolic disorders. It is known that administration of beta-blockers reduces melatonin production, but the data showing clinical significance of melatonin reduction associated with beta-blockers administration are still contradictory. OBJECTIVE: The influence of long-term administration of beta-blockers to melatonin synthesis, sleep quality and vascular brain damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The main study group included 114 patients, aged 47-83, with cardiovascular diseases, who were under a complex therapy with long-term administration of beta-blockers. The comparison group included 110 patients with cardiovascular diseases, similar in age and sex, who did not receive beta-blockers in their complex therapy. The circadian dynamics of melatonin synthesis was observed by excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SM), the major metabolite of melatonin, in three urinary samples (day, evening, night). All the patients underwent night polysomnography to assess the severity of sleep disorders. The severity of vascular brain damage was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The analyses showed large variability in individual values of 6-SM circadian excretion of patients with cardiovascular diseases (from 0.9 to 133 µg/24h with a mid-point 16.8 µg/24h). A considerable decrease of 6-SM circadian excretion is detected in the group of patients taking beta-blockers comparing to those not Me [q 25; q 75]: 12.8 [6.2; 21.1] and 24.0 [12.5; 41.5] µg/24h, respectively (p<0.001), with no differences in sleep values and severity of vascular brain damage. Comparing subgroups of patients with 6-SM circadian excretion lower and higher than 16.8 µg/24h showed a significant increase of sleep latency, decrease of rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), increasing number of gliosis foci in white matter of the brain with higher values of leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio and glycohemoglobin in the group of patients with 6-SM circadian excretion ≤16.8 µg/24h. CONCLUSION: A low level of endogenous melatonin is a risk factor for development of sleep structure and quality disorders, vascular white matter brain damages with a higher risk for metabolic disorders. Long-term beta-blockers administration decrease endogenous melatonin synthesis to 50% increasing the risk for insomnia and vascular brain damage, mostly in patients with lower initial level of 6-SM circadian excretion.: melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, beta-blockers, insomnia, vascular white matter brain damage, leptin, adiponectin.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Sono , Núcleo Supraquiasmático
3.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 209: 106292, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cosinor analysis, developed by Franz Hallberg and colleagues in the 1960s, allows for the fitting of a cosine curve to data of a known period. Cosinor analysis is frequently used in the analysis of biological rhythm data. While software exists to perform these analyses, we are not aware of any published SAS procedures or macros which would facilitate them. METHODS: To meet this gap, we herein describe SAS macros which perform cosinor analyses that assume either normally or gamma distributed outcomes and fixed period. The macros can 1) produce datasets with cosinor parameters including acrophase, mesor, amplitude, nadir and test for rhythmicity 2) output datasets with fitted and observed values from the model, and 3) plot the resulting curve and underlying data. RESULTS: We demonstrate the use of these macros with data from our research on circadian rhythms of heart rate and sleep in critically ill patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cosinor analysis provides a parsimonious and intuitive set of estimates to summarize periodic data. We are hopeful that the publication of our macro will allow a wider spectrum of users to avail themselves of this technique.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Sono , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
4.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(5): 423-431, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396817

RESUMO

Daily rhythms of behavior and neurophysiology are integral to the circadian clocks of all animals. Examples of circadian clock regulation in the human brain include daily rhythms in sleep-wake, cognitive function, olfactory sensitivity, and risk for ischemic stroke, all of which overlap with symptoms displayed by many COVID-19 patients. Motivated by the relatively unexplored, yet pervasive, overlap between circadian functions and COVID-19 neurological symptoms, this perspective piece uses daily variations in the sense of smell and the timing of sleep and wakefulness as illustrative examples. We propose that time-stamping clinical data and testing may expand and refine diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Relógios Circadianos , Animais , Encéfalo , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono , Olfato , Vigília
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 107, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rest-activity rhythm (RAR), a manifestation of circadian rhythms, has been associated with morbidity and mortality risk. However, RAR patterns in the general population and specifically the role of demographic characteristics in RAR pattern have not been comprehensively assessed. Therefore, we aimed to describe RAR patterns among non-institutionalized US adults and age, sex, and race/ethnicity variation using accelerometry data from a nationally representative population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. Participants aged ≥20 years who were enrolled in the physical activity monitoring examination and had at least four 24-h periods of valid wrist accelerometer data were included in the present analysis. 24-h RAR metrics were generated using both extended cosinor model (amplitude, mesor, acrophase and pseudo-F statistic) and nonparametric methods (interdaily stability [IS] and intradaily variability [IV]). Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between RAR and age, sex, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Eight thousand two hundred participants (mean [SE] age, 49.1 [0.5] years) were included, of whom 52.2% were women and 67.3% Whites. Women had higher RAR amplitude and mesor, and also more robust (pseudo-F statistic), more stable (higher IS) and less fragmented (lower IV) RAR (all P trend < 0.001) than men. Compared with younger adults (20-39 years), older adults (≥ 60 years) exhibited reduced RAR amplitude and mesor, but more stable and less fragmented RAR, and also reached their peak activity earlier (advanced acrophase) (all P trend < 0.001). Relative to other racial/ethnic groups, Hispanics had the highest amplitude and mesor level, and most stable (highest IS) and least fragmented (lowest IV) RAR pattern (P trend < 0.001). Conversely, non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest peak activity level (lowest amplitude) and least stable (lowest IS) RAR pattern (all P trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the general adult population, RAR patterns vary significantly according to sex, age and race/ethnicity. These results may reflect demographic-dependent differences in intrinsic circadian rhythms and may have important implications for understanding racial, ethnic, sex and other disparities in morbidity and mortality risk.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Ritmo Circadiano , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Raciais , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 129: 296-306, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375675

RESUMO

The goal of this review is to provide a perspective on the nature and importance of the relationship between the circadian and pain systems. We provide: 1) An overview of the circadian and pain systems, 2) a review of direct and correlative evidence that demonstrates diurnal and circadian rhythms within the pain system; 3) a perspective highlighting the need to consider the role of a proposed feedback loop of circadian rhythm disruption and maladaptive pain; 4) a perspective on the nature of the relationship between circadian rhythms and pain. In summary, we propose that there is no single locus responsible for producing the circadian rhythms of the pain system. Instead, circadian rhythms of pain are a complex result of the distributed rhythms present throughout the pain system, especially those of the descending pain modulatory system, and the rhythms of the systems with which it interacts, including the opioid, endocrine, and immune systems.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Dor , Humanos
7.
Theriogenology ; 174: 9-19, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416563

RESUMO

The circadian clock system plays an important role in regulating testosterone synthesis in mammals. Male Bmal1-/- mice are infertile with low serum testosterone levels and decreased expression of testicular steroidogenic genes, suggesting that circadian clock genes regulate testosterone biosynthesis by activating steroidogenic gene transcription. However, whether the circadian clock regulates testosterone production via other genes remains unknown. Using Bmal1-/- mice and their wild-type (WT) siblings, we aimed to identify additional genes by which the circadian clock regulates testosterone synthesis. WT and Bmal1-/- mouse testes sections had similar normal morphologies, although there was a decrease in testicular spermatozoa in the Bmal1-/- mice. Low serum testosterone levels were detected in the Bmal1-/- mice. RNA sequencing identified 37 and 48 genes that were differentially expressed between WT and Bmal1-/- mouse testes at circadian time (CT2 and CT14), respectively. The cholesterol metabolism pathway was significantly enriched in the KEGG pathway analysis, and there was lower expression of three apolipoprotein genes (Apoa1, Apoa2, and Apoc3) at CT2 in the testes of Bmal1-/- mice than in those of WT mice. These decreases in Apoa1, Apoa2, and Apoc3 expression were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, which also revealed downregulation of the expression of the circadian clock (Per2, Dbp, and Nr1d1) and steroidogenic (StAR, Cyp11a1, and Hsd17b3) genes. The expression of circadian clock genes was relatively stable in WT mice over a 20-h period, whereas there was clear circadian rhythmic expression of Apoa1, Apoa2, Apoc3, StAR, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b2, and Hsd17b3. Bmal1-/- mice showed severely reduced expression of testicular circadian clock genes at three time points (CT4, CT12, and CT20), and a reduction in mRNA expression levels of Apo (Apoa1, Apoa2, and Apoc3) and steroidogenic (StAR, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b2, and Hsd17b3) genes. Oil Red O staining showed decreased lipid aggregation in the Leydig cells of Bmal1-/- mouse testes. Considering the vital role of Apo genes in high-density lipoprotein formation and cholesterol transport, the present data suggest that the circadian clock system regulates testosterone production by orchestrating the rhythmic expression of Apo genes. These data extend our understanding of the role of the circadian clock in regulating testosterone production in mammals.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Testosterona , Animais , Apolipoproteínas , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Ritmo Circadiano , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Testículo
8.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411349

RESUMO

Biological functions, including glycemic control and bone metabolism, are highly influenced by the body's internal clock. Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that run with a period close to 24 hours and receive input from environmental stimuli, such as the light/dark cycle. We investigated the effects of circadian rhythm disruption (CRD), through alteration of the light/dark schedule, on glycemic control and bone quality of mice. Ten-week-old male mice (C57/BL6, n = 48) were given a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and kept on a dayshift or altered schedule (RSS3) for 22 weeks. Mice were divided into four experimental groups (n = 12/group): Dayshift/LFD, Dayshift/HFD, RSS3/LFD, and RSS3/HFD. CRD in growing mice fed a HFD resulted in a diabetic state, with a 36.2% increase in fasting glucose levels compared to the Dayshift/LFD group. Micro-CT scans of femora revealed a reduction in inner and outer surface expansion for mice on a HFD and altered light schedule. Cancellous bone demonstrated deterioration of bone quality as trabecular number and thickness decreased while trabecular separation increased. While HFD increased cortical bone mineral density, its combination with CRD reduced this phenomenon. The growth of mineral crystals, determined by small angle X-ray scattering, showed HFD led to smaller crystals. Considering modifications of the organic matrix, regardless of diet, CRD exacerbated the accumulation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (fAGEs) in collagen. Strength testing of tibiae showed that CRD mitigated the higher strength in the HFD group and increased brittleness indicated by lower post-yield deflection and work-to-fracture. Consistent with accumulation of fAGEs, various measures of toughness were lowered with CRD, but combination of CRD with HFD protected against this decrease. Differences between strength and toughness results represent different contributions of structural and material properties of bone to energy dissipation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that combination of CRD with HFD impairs glycemic control and have complex effects on bone quality.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/fisiologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444128

RESUMO

Shift work can lead to circadian desynchronization due to temporary misalignment between working hours and physiological and behavioral functioning, resulting in compromised health, insomnia, worsening of sleep quality, reduced ability to work during waking hours, and increased cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the effects of shift work on the rest-activity circadian rhythm (RAR) and health status of Italian orthopaedic nurses. The study population was 59 nurses: 44 worked the night shift and 15 worked the day shift. All carried out continuous 5-day actigraphic monitoring to assess RAR, including both the working and the rest period. The rhythmometric analysis showed that, during the working period, the night shift nurses had a significantly lower amplitude than the day shift nurses (p < 0.001), and the acrophase was significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.01). When we stratified the two groups by median body mass index (<25 kg/m2 normal weight and ≥25 kg/m2 overweight), during the working period, we noted a significantly lower amplitude for both the normal weight and the overweight nurses who worked the night shift (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, normal weight and overweight respectively). The current findings suggest the need for further study of the relationship between activity levels and shift work.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Itália , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444144

RESUMO

The work of flight attendants is associated with exposure to long-term stress, which may cause increased secretion of cortisol. The aim of the study is to determine the circadian rhythm of cortisol and to seek factors of potential influence on the secretion of cortisol in female flight attendants working within one time zone as well as on long-distance flights. The prospective study covers 103 women aged 23-46. The study group (I) was divided into two subgroups: group Ia, comprising female flight attendants flying within one flight zone, and group Ib, comprising female flight attendants working on long-distance flights. The control group (II) are women of reproductive age who sought medical assistance due to marital infertility in whom the male factor was found to be responsible for problems with conception in the course of the diagnostic process. The assessment included: age, BMI, menstrual cycle regularity, the length of service, the frequency of flying, diurnal profile of the secretion of cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, 17-OH progesterone, SHBG, androstenedione, and progesterone concentration. Descriptive methods and inferential statistics methods were used to compile the data. Comparing the profile of flight attendants from groups Ia and Ib shows that the curve flattened among women flying within one time zone. The secretion curve is also more flattened in women with less years worked and in flight attendants working less than 60 h per month. Due to the character of work, the female flights attendants do not have hypersecretion of cortisol. Frequency of flying and length of work affect the dysregulation of HPA axis.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Hidrocortisona , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443622

RESUMO

Orexins are two neuropeptides synthesised mainly in the brain lateral hypothalamic area. The orexinergic system provides arousal-dependent cues for a plethora of brain centres, playing a vital role in feeding behaviour, regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. Recently, orexins were found to be produced in the retina of an eye; however, their content in the vitreous body and possible daily pattern of expression have not yet been explored. In this manuscript, we describe the development and validation of a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method designed for quantitative bioanalysis of orexin in the rat vitreous body. Orexin was extracted from vitreous body samples with a water:acetonitrile:formic acid (80:20:0.1; v/v/v) mixture followed by vortexing and centrifuging. Separation was performed on a reverse-phase HPLC column under gradient conditions. Orexin was analysed via multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive electrospray mode. The total analysis time for each sample was less than 5.0 min. Once the method was fully optimised, it was then validated, following the 2018 FDA guidance on bioanalytical method validations. The calibration curves for orexin (1-500 ng/mL) were constructed using a linear regression with a 1/x2 weighting. The lower limit of quantitation for orexin was 1.0 pg/mL for the vitreous body. Intra-day and inter-day estimates of accuracy and precision were within 10% of their nominal values, indicating that the method is reliable for quantitation of orexin in the rat vitreous body. From the physiological perspective, our results are the first to show daily rhythm of orexin synthesis by the retina with possible implications on the circadian regulation of vision.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Ritmo Circadiano , Orexinas/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo , Animais , Calibragem , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371807

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological and cognitive processes. While the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) have been found in breast milk, their role(s) have yet to be determined. This study determined the normal concentration ranges of endocannabinoids (2-AG and AEA) in breast milk and the influences, if any, of obesity and diurnal rhythms on their levels. Milk samples were collected from 36 breastfeeding mothers at 4-8 weeks postpartum at each feed over a 24-h period, and further stratified into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). The samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. AEA was below the limit of detection and 2-AG levels averaged 59.3 ± 18.3 ng/mL (± SD) in women with normal BMI. Wide-ranging 2-AG concentrations in the overweight (65.5 ± 41.9 ng/mL) /obese (66.1 ± 40.6 ng/mL) groups suggest BMI may be a contributing factor influencing its levels. Following a diurnal pattern, there was a significantly higher 2-AG concentration observed during the day, as compared to night time samples. In conclusion, our study clearly suggests that appropriate milk collection and storage conditions are critical. Further, body weight and diurnal rhythm appear to influence levels of 2-AG. Based on these results, future studies are underway to determine what specific roles endocannabinoids may play in human milk and how elevated levels of 2-AG may modulate infant appetite and health.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos/análise , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Endocanabinoides/análise , Glicerídeos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Obesidade/metabolismo , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/análise , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia
13.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21846, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405458

RESUMO

Myopia (short-sightedness), usually caused by excessive elongation of the eye during development, has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. In animal systems including the chicken model, several treatments have been shown to inhibit ocular elongation and experimental myopia. Although diverse in their apparent mechanism of action, each one leads to a reduction in the rate of ocular growth. We hypothesize that a defined set of retinal molecular changes may underlie growth inhibition, irrespective of the treatment agent used. Accordingly, across five well-established but diverse methods of inhibiting myopia, significant overlap is seen in the retinal transcriptome profile (transcript levels and alternative splicing events) in chicks when analyzed by RNA-seq. Within the two major pathway networks enriched during growth inhibition, that of cell signaling and circadian entrainment, transcription factors form the largest functional grouping. Importantly, a large percentage of those genes forming the defined retinal response are downstream targets of the transcription factor EGR1 which itself shows a universal response to all five growth-inhibitory treatments. This supports EGR1's previously implicated role in ocular growth regulation. Finally, by contrasting our data with human linkage and GWAS studies on refractive error, we confirm the applicability of our study to the human condition. Together, these findings suggest that a universal set of transcriptome changes, which sit within a well-defined retinal network that cannot be bypassed, is fundamental to growth regulation, thus paving a way for designing novel targets for myopia therapies.


Assuntos
Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Miopia/genética , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Transcriptoma , Processamento Alternativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Galinhas , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Ácidos Fosfínicos/farmacologia , Pirenzepina/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 2997-3004, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378692

RESUMO

Blood pressure measurements taken in a clinical setting are subject to errors, therefore there are advantages to monitoring blood pressure at home, especially in in patients diagnosed with hypertension. The study describes the feasibility of home monitoring to assess blood pressure in primary care and compares blood pressure measured at home and during a medical consultation. This cross-sectional study was carried out with patients whose used home blood pressure in the morning and evening, thrice for seven consecutive day sat home. Participants included patients older than 18 years with suspected whitecoat hypertension, taking antihypertensives, or those intolerant of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and excluded patients who did not follow the protocol, suffered from an irregular heart rate, and pregnant women. Of the 134 patients who participated in the study, 63.3% had altered blood pressure when measured at health facilities and 48% had higher blood pressure at home. The mean difference between the methods was 10.1 mmHg for systolic and 4.3 mmHg for diastolic. The prevalence of whitecoat hypertension was 19.4%. Blood pressure monitoring at home is a practicable strategy in the Brazilian healthcare system.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1509, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light at night (LAN) as a circadian disruption factor may affect the human immune system and consequently increase an individual's susceptibility to the severity of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. COVID-19 infections spread differently in each state in the United States (US). The current analysis aimed to test whether there is an association between LAN and COVID-19 cases in 4 selected US states: Connecticut, New York, California, and Texas. METHODS: We analyzed clustering patterns of COVID-19 cases in ArcMap and performed a multiple linear regression model using data of LAN and COVID-19 incidence with adjustment for confounding variables including population density, percent below poverty, and racial factors. RESULTS: Hotspots of LAN and COVID-19 cases are located in large cities or metro-centers for all 4 states. LAN intensity is associated with cases/1 k for overall and lockdown durations in New York and Connecticut (P < 0.001), but not in Texas and California. The overall case rates are significantly associated with LAN in New York (P < 0.001) and Connecticut (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant positive correlation between LAN intensity and COVID-19 cases-rate/1 k, suggesting that circadian disruption of ambient light may increase the COVID-19 infection rate possibly by affecting an individual's immune functions. Furthermore, differences in the demographic structure and lockdown policies in different states play an important role in COVID-19 infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ritmo Circadiano , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360399

RESUMO

The purpose of this intervention study is to compare sleep, alertness, and work ability among aircraft inspectors working under two different shift schedules. The original schedule was forward rotating: MMM - - EEE - NNN - - - (M = morning, E = evening, N = night, - = day off). The new schedule was fast forward rotating: MEN - - with 10-h shifts. The baseline data were collected before the schedule changed, and the follow-up data 12 months (n = 10, Group A) or 5 months (n = 13, Group B) after the change. Three of subjects were women and average age was 46.6 years (range 31-58). The surveys included questions on sleep quantity, sleep quality, severe sleepiness, alertness, perceived stress, current work ability, and satisfaction with the shift schedule. The results indicated that in the new schedule, the sleeping times were longer and sleep loss was less. Moreover, shift specific severe sleepiness decreased, and alertness during shifts improved. Compared to baseline, perceived stress was lower and work ability was better. Satisfaction with the shift system had also improved. To conclude, the quickly forward rotating shift system might be beneficial in terms of increased sleep length and improved alertness and overall well-being especially among older aircraft inspectors.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Aeronaves , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rotação , Sono
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360562

RESUMO

It has been proposed that carbon monoxide (CO) is a chemical light carrier that is transferred by the humoral pathway from the retina to the brain. Here, we aimed to study how deeply CO is involved in regulating the expression of Period2 gene (PER2), one of the genes maintaining the intrinsic biological clock. In our in vivo experiment, we studied whether CO may be a chemical signal and is also equivalent to natural light in three groups of pigs: Normal: housed in natural conditions without any procedures, Control: adapted and kept in constant darkness, infused with blank plasma, and CO treated: adapted and kept in constant darkness infused with CO-enriched plasma. After the experiment, the animals were slaughtered at two times of day: 12 p.m. and 12 a.m. Next, hypothalamus samples were collected. Quantitative PCR, the DNA methylation of the promoter sequence containing enhancers (E-box) and a functional analysis of the PER2 promoter was performed. qPCR showed a differential pattern of PER2 mRNA expression at daytime oscillation in the examined groups. Pyrosequencing revealed daytime changes in the methylation level of regulatory sites of the examined sequence. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that E-boxes (CANNTG) drive the expression of the porcine PER2 in vitro. In conclusion, changes in methylation over 24 h may regulate the oscillatory manner of PER2 expression.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Animais , Antimetabólitos/farmacologia , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Suínos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360576

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs have been known to contribute to a variety of fundamental life processes, such as development, metabolism, and circadian rhythms. However, much remains unrevealed in the huge noncoding RNA datasets, which require further bioinformatic analysis and experimental investigation-and in particular, the coding potential of lncRNAs and the functions of lncRNA-encoded peptides have not been comprehensively studied to date. Through integrating the time-course experimentation with state-of-the-art computational techniques, we studied tens of thousands of zebrafish lncRNAs from our own experiments and from a published study including time-series transcriptome analyses of the testis and the pineal gland. Rhythmicity analysis of these data revealed approximately 700 rhythmically expressed lncRNAs from the pineal gland and the testis, and their GO, COG, and KEGG pathway functions were analyzed. Comparative and conservative analyses determined 14 rhythmically expressed lncRNAs shared between both the pineal gland and the testis, and 15 pineal gland lncRNAs as well as 3 testis lncRNAs conserved among zebrafish, mice, and humans. Further, we computationally analyzed the conserved lncRNA-encoded peptides, and revealed three pineal gland and one testis lncRNA-encoded peptides conserved among these three species, which were further investigated for their three-dimensional (3D) structures and potential functions. Our computational findings provided novel annotations and regulatory mechanisms for hundreds of rhythmically expressed pineal gland and testis lncRNAs in zebrafish, and set the stage for their experimental studies in the near future.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Testículo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/química , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4672, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344864

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms have natural relative variations among humans known as chronotype. Chronotype or being a morning or evening person, has a specific physiological, behavioural, and also genetic manifestation. Whether and how chronotype modulates human brain physiology and cognition is, however, not well understood. Here we examine how cortical excitability, neuroplasticity, and cognition are associated with chronotype in early and late chronotype individuals. We monitor motor cortical excitability, brain stimulation-induced neuroplasticity, and examine motor learning and cognitive functions at circadian-preferred and non-preferred times of day in 32 individuals. Motor learning and cognitive performance (working memory, and attention) along with their electrophysiological components are significantly enhanced at the circadian-preferred, compared to the non-preferred time. This outperformance is associated with enhanced cortical excitability (prominent cortical facilitation, diminished cortical inhibition), and long-term potentiation/depression-like plasticity. Our data show convergent findings of how chronotype can modulate human brain functions from basic physiological mechanisms to behaviour and higher-order cognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Excitabilidade Cortical , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Sono/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3240-3248, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396743

RESUMO

Circadian rhythm disorder is a common society issue caused by jet lag,shift work,sleep disruption and changes in food consumption. Light is the major factor affecting the circadian rhythm system. Disruption of the circadian rhythm system can cause damage to the body,leading to some diseases. Maintaining a normal circadian system is of great importance for good health. Ideal therapeutic effect can not only alleviate symptoms of the diseases,but also recovery the disturbed circadian rhythm to normal. The paper summarizes the modeling methods of animal circadian rhythm disorder,diseases of circadian rhythm abnormality,regulation of circadian clock genes and medicine which are related to circadian rhythm to diseases of circadian rhythm disorder.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Humanos , Síndrome do Jet Lag/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Jet Lag/genética , Sono
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