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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 26, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681818

RESUMO

Malus sieversii (Ldb.) Roem. is the original species of modern cultivated apple and a key national essential conservation plant in China. In recent years, degradation and death of wild apple has been exacerbated by imbalances in the rhizosphere micro-ecosystems of wild apple forests due to soil nutrient loss, grazing, climate change and pest and disease outbreaks. However, the structure, diversity and response to environmental factors of wild apple rhizosphere microbial communities are so far unclear. In this study, the rhizosphere bacterial and eukaryotic communities of M. sieversii (Ldb.) Roem. in eight regions of the Yili River were analyzed using 16S/18S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology. The results indicated that the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Shannon index, and community composition were significantly lower in regions A, E, and F than in other regions. By contrast, the dominant eukaryotic communities in all regions were relatively similar in composition and differed less than the relative abundance of bacterial communities. Geographical and climatic distance were found to be key factors influencing the composition and diversity of wild apple rhizosphere microbial communities through mantel analysis. Moreover, these factors above were more correlated with bacterial diversity than with eukaryotes. This study identified the structure of wild apple rhizosphere microbial communities in Xinjiang and their interaction mechanisms under geographical and environmental gradients. It provides guidance for the sustainable management and ecological construction of wild apple forests in China.


Assuntos
Malus , Microbiota , Malus/química , Rizosfera , Bactérias/genética , Plantas , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 27, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631600

RESUMO

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) causes Fusarium wilt of banana (FWB), which devastates banana production worldwide. Biocontrol is considered to be the most efficient approach to reducing FWB. Here we introduce an approach that spatiotemporally applies Piriformospore indica and Streptomyces morookaensis strains according to their respective strength to increase biocontrol efficacy of FWB. P. indica successfully colonizes banana roots, promotes lateral root formation, inhibits Foc TR4 growth inside the banana plants and reduces FWB. S. morookaensis strain Sm4-1986 secretes different secondary compounds, of which xerucitrinin A (XcA) and 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-PP) show the strongest anti-Foc TR4 activity. XcA chelates iron, an essential nutrient in pathogen-plant interaction that determines the output of FWB. 6-PP, a volatile organic compound, inhibits Foc TR4 germination and promotes banana growth. Biocontrol trials in the field demonstrated that application of S. morookaensis lead to improvement of soil properties and increase of rhizosphere-associated microbes that are beneficial to banana growth, which significantly reduces disease incidence of FWB. Our study suggests that optimal utilization of the two biocontrol strains increases efficacy of biocontrol and that regulating iron accessibility in the rhizosphere is a promising strategy to control FWB.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Musa , Fusarium/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674632

RESUMO

This study of a legume's rhizosphere in tripartite symbiosis focused on the relationships between the symbionts and less on the overall rhizosphere microbiome. We used an experimental model with different garden pea genotypes inoculated with AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and with a mix of AM species) to study their influence on the population levels of main trophic groups of soil microorganisms as well as their structure and functional relationships in the rhizosphere microbial community. The experiments were carried out at two phenological cycles of the plants. Analyzes were performed according to classical methods: microbial population density defined as CUF/g a.d.s. and root colonization rate with AMF (%). We found a proven dominant effect of AMF on the densities of micromycetes and actinomycetes in the direction of reduction, suggesting antagonism, and on ammonifying, phosphate-solubilizing and free-living diazotrophic Azotobacter bacteria in the direction of stimulation, an indicator of mutualistic relationships. We determined that the genotype was decisive for the formation of populations of bacteria immobilizing mineral NH4+-N and bacteria Rhizobium. We reported significant two-way relationships between trophic groups related associated with soil nitrogen and phosphorus ions availability. The preserved proportions between trophic groups in the microbial communities were indicative of structural and functional stability.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/genética , Ervilhas , Rizosfera , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Fungos , Simbiose/genética , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias/genética , Solo/química , Genótipo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 35, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642722

RESUMO

Exogenous GAs have an indeterminate effect on root development. Our current study used female papaya to reveal how the roots and rhizosphere respond to the exogenous application of GA3 by investigating the transcriptome profile in roots, metabolic profile and microbial community in both roots and rhizosphere of GA3-treated and control female papaya. The results demonstrated that exogenous GA3 treatment enhanced female papaya lateral root development, which gave plants physical advantages of water and nutrient uptake. In addition, it was likely that GA3 spraying in papaya shoot apices increased the level of auxin, which was transported to roots by CpPIN1, where auxin upregulated CpLBD16 and repressed CpBP to promote the lateral root initiation and development. In papaya roots, corresponding transporters (CpTMT3, CpNRT1:2, CpPHT1;4, CpINT2, CpCOPT2, CpABCB11, CpNIP4;1) were upregulated and excretion transporters were downregulated such as CpNAXT1 for water and nutrients uptake with exogenous GA3 application. Moreover, in GA3-treated papaya roots, CpALS3 and CpMYB62 were downregulated, indicating a stronger abiotic resistance to aluminum toxic and phosphate starvation. On the other hand, BRs and JAs, which involve in defense responses, were enriched in the roots and rhizosphere of GA3-treated papayas. The upregulation of the two hormones might result in the reduction of pathogens in roots and rhizosphere such as Colletotrichum and Verticillium. GA3-treated female papaya increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria species including Mycobacterium, Mitsuaria, and Actinophytocola, but decreased that of the genera Candidatus and Bryobacter for that it required less nitrate. Overall, the roots and rhizosphere of female papaya positively respond to exogenous application of GA3 to promote development and stress tolerance. Treatment of female papaya with GA3 might result in the promotion of lateral root formation and development by upregulating CpLBD16 and downregulating CpBP. GA3-treated papaya roots exhibited feedback control of brassinolide and jasmonate signaling in root development and defense. These findings revealed complex response to a growth hormone treatment in papaya roots and rhizosphere and will lead to investigations on the impact of other plant hormones on belowground development in papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Verduras , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14621, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643649

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major source of calorific intake in its various forms and is considered one of the most important staple foods. Improved wheat productivity can contribute substantially to addressing food security in the coming decades. Soil salinity is the most serious limiting factor in crop production and fertilizer use efficiency. In this study, 11 bacteria were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and examined for salt tolerance ability. WGT1, WGT2, WGT3, WGT6, WGT8, and WGT11 were able to tolerate NaCl salinity up to 4%. Bacterial isolates were characterized in vitro for plant growth-promoting properties including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, zinc solubilization, biofilm formation, and cellulase-pectinase production. Six isolates, WGT1, WGT3, WGT4, WGT6, WGT8, and WGT9 showed IAA production ability ranging from 0.7-6 µg m/L. WGT8 displayed the highest IAA production. Five isolates, WGT1, WGT2, WGT5, WGT10, and WGT11, demonstrated phosphate solubilization ranging from 1.4-12.3 µg m/L. WGT2 showed the highest phosphate solubilization. Nitrogen fixation was shown by only two isolates, WGT1 and WGT8. Zinc solubilization was shown by WGT1 and WGT11 on minimal media. All isolates showed biofilm formation ability, where WGT4 exhibited maximum potential. Cellulase production ability was noticed in WGT1, WGT2, WGT4, and WGT5, while pectinase production was observed in WGT2 and WGT3. Phylogenetic identification of potential bacteria isolates confirmed their close relationship with various species of the genus Bacillus. WGT1, WGT2, and WGT3 showed the highest similarity with B. cereus, WGT6 with B. tianshenii, WGT8 with B. subtilis, and WGT11 with B. thuringiensis. Biofertilizer characteristics of salt-tolerant potential rhizospheric bacteria were evaluated by inoculating wheat plants under controlled conditions and field experiments. B. cereus WGT1 and B. thuringiensis WGT11 displayed the maximum potential to increase plant growth parameters and enhance grain yield by 37% and 31%, respectively. Potential bacteria of this study can tolerate salt stress, have the ability to produce plant growth promoting substances under salt stress and contribute significantly to enhance wheat grain yield. These bacterial isolates have the potential to be used as biofertilizers for improved wheat production under salinity conditions and contribute to the sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Rizosfera , Estresse Salino , Triticum , Celulases , Fosfatos , Filogenia , Poligalacturonase , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia , Zinco
6.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0270944, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634092

RESUMO

The use of rotations is an effective strategy to control crop diseases and improve plant health. The soil bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are highly important for maintaining soil productivity. However, the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities in the rotations of vegetable crops remain unclear. In this study, we explored the bacterial diversity and community structure of the tomato rhizosphere, including enzyme activities, yield, and fruit quality, under three different cropping systems: tomato-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) continuous cropping (TY1), eggplant (Solanum melongena)-tomato rotation (TY2) and arrowhead (Sagittaria trifolia)-tomato rotation (TY3). The composition and diversity of the rhizosphere bacterial communities differed significantly. The diversity was more in the TY2 and TY3 treatments than those in the TY1 treatment. Chujaibacter and Rhodanobacter were two predominant and unique strains detected only in TY1, while the relative abundances of Curvibacter and Luteimonas were the highest in TY2 and TY3, respectively. Moreover, Lysobacter was a relatively abundant type of biocontrol bacterium found only in the TY3 treatment, which could contribute to alleviating the obstacle of tomato continuous cropping. Compared with the TY1 treatment, the activities of catalase were significantly higher in the TY2 and TY3 treatments. In addition, compared with TY1, the TY2 and TY3 plots increased the following parameters: tomato yields by 24-46%, total soluble solids by 37-93%, total organic acid by 10-15.7% and soluble protein by 10-21%, while the content of nitrate was significantly reduced by 23%. Altogether, compared with the tomato monoculture, the rotations of tomato with eggplant and arrowhead shifted the rhizosphere bacterial communities and improved the yield and quality of the tomato. Moreover, a tomato rotation, particularly with arrowhead, was an effective way to alleviate the obstacles of continuous cropping.


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae , Solanum melongena , Xanthomonadaceae , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 8, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The design of ecologically sustainable and plant-beneficial soil systems is a key goal in actively manipulating root-associated microbiomes. Community engineering efforts commonly seek to harness the potential of the indigenous microbiome through substrate-mediated recruitment of beneficial members. In most sustainable practices, microbial recruitment mechanisms rely on the application of complex organic mixtures where the resources/metabolites that act as direct stimulants of beneficial groups are not characterized. Outcomes of such indirect amendments are unpredictable regarding engineering the microbiome and achieving a plant-beneficial environment. RESULTS: This study applied network analysis of metagenomics data to explore amendment-derived transformations in the soil microbiome, which lead to the suppression of pathogens affecting apple root systems. Shotgun metagenomic analysis was conducted with data from 'sick' vs 'healthy/recovered' rhizosphere soil microbiomes. The data was then converted into community-level metabolic networks. Simulations examined the functional contribution of treatment-associated taxonomic groups and linked them with specific amendment-induced metabolites. This analysis enabled the selection of specific metabolites that were predicted to amplify or diminish the abundance of targeted microbes functional in the healthy soil system. Many of these predictions were corroborated by experimental evidence from the literature. The potential of two of these metabolites (dopamine and vitamin B12) to either stimulate or suppress targeted microbial groups was evaluated in a follow-up set of soil microcosm experiments. The results corroborated the stimulant's potential (but not the suppressor) to act as a modulator of plant beneficial bacteria, paving the way for future development of knowledge-based (rather than trial and error) metabolic-defined amendments. Our pipeline for generating predictions for the selective targeting of microbial groups based on processing assembled and annotated metagenomics data is available at https://github.com/ot483/NetCom2 . CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrates how genomic-based algorithms can be used to formulate testable hypotheses for strategically engineering the rhizosphere microbiome by identifying specific compounds, which may act as selective modulators of microbial communities. Applying this framework to reduce unpredictable elements in amendment-based solutions promotes the development of ecologically-sound methods for re-establishing a functional microbiome in agro and other ecosystems. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Bactérias/genética , Microbiota/genética , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
8.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 117069, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584512

RESUMO

The under-forest economy in the agroforestry system can improve land use efficiency, protect ecological environment, and promote arable land sustainable development. However, the effects of soil moisture in the forest and irrigation strategies on the healthy growth of intercropping crops are still incomplete. Here, considering the organic Panax notoginseng cultivated under pine forests (PPF) as the research object, we explored the effects of different soil moisture on the physiological state, yield, quality and disease occurrence of PPF. Our results suggested that 80-85% and 95-100% field capacity (FC) treatments were more conducive to increased photosynthetic rate and biomass accumulation of PPF, but 50-55% and 65-70% FC treatments were more conducive to the accumulation of saponins in PPF leaves. Notably, the root rot index of PPF was highest under 95-100% FC (19.51) treatment, significantly higher than that under 65-70% FC (8.44) and 80-85% FC (10.21) treatments. Further, the rhizosphere microorganisms of PPF under different soil moisture treatments were sequenced, and the sequencing data analysis revealed that high soil moisture (95-100% FC) could destroy the microbial diversity balance and cause the accumulation of pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum and Ilyonectria radicicola), leading to a high incidence of root rot. The incidence of PPF root rot was negatively correlated with rhizosphere microbial diversity. Overall, our results highlight that the quantitative irrigation (80-85% FC) is conducive to maintaining the balance between yield, saponin content and disease occurrence of PPF, providing a practical basis for PPF irrigation strategy and promoting the sustainable development of PPF agroforestry system.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Solo , Panax notoginseng/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas , Florestas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114407, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508786

RESUMO

Modification of biochar, such as impregnation with minerals, can improve biochar's efficacy to mitigate heavy metal toxicity in plants. Biochar amendments can alter plant rhizosphere microbiome, which has profound effects on plant growth and fitness. Here, we tested whether rhizosphere microbiome is involved in the ability of silicon (Si)-modified biochar to mitigate cadmium toxicity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). We demonstrated that Si modification altered biochar's physico-chemical properties and enhanced its ability to mitigate cadmium toxicity in tomato. Particularly, the Si-modified biochar contained higher content of Si and increased plant-available Si content in the soil. The rhizosphere microbiome transplant experiment showed that changes in rhizosphere microbiome contributed to the mitigation of cadmium toxicity by biochar amendments. The raw biochar and Si-modified biochar differently altered tomato rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Both biochars, especially the Si-modified biochar, promoted specific bacterial taxa (e.g., Sphingomonas, Lysobacter and Pseudomonas spp.). Subsequent culturing found these promoted bacteria could mitigate cadmium toxicity in tomato. Moreover, both biochars stimulated tomato to recruit plant-beneficial bacteria with Si-modified biochar having stronger stimulatory effects, indicating that the positive effects of biochar on plant-beneficial bacteria was partially mediated via the host plant. Overall, Si modification enhanced biochar's ability to mitigate cadmium toxicity, which was linked to the stimulatory effects on plant-beneficial bacteria.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Silício/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/química , Bactérias , Rizosfera , Solo/química
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114403, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508785

RESUMO

Toxic metal-contaminated farmland from Cadmium (Cd) can enhance the accumulation of Cd and impair the absorption of mineral elements in brown rice. Although several studies have been conducted on Cd exposure on rice, little has been reported on the relationship between Cd and mineral elements in brown rice and the regulatory mechanism of rhizosphere microorganisms during element uptake. Thus, a field study was undertaken to screen japonica rice cultivars with low Cd and high mineral elements levels, analyze the quantitative relationship between Cd and seven mineral elements, and investigate the cultivar-specific response of rice rhizosphere bacterial communities to differences in Cd and mineral uptake in japonica rice. Results showed that Huaidao-9 and Xudao-7 had low Cd absorption and high amounts of mineral nutrient elements (Fe, Zn, Mg, and Ca, LCHM group), whereas Zhongdao-1 and Xinkedao-31 showed opposite accumulation characteristics (HCLM group). Stepwise regression analysis showed that zinc, iron, and potassium are the key minerals that affect Cd accumulation in japonica rice and zinc was the most important factor, accounting for 68.99 %. The accumulation of Cd and mineral elements is potentially associated with rhizosphere soil bacteria. Taxa enriched in the LCHM rhizosphere (phyla Acidobacteriota and MBNT15) indicated the high nutrient characteristics of the soil and reduced activity of Cd in soil. The HCLM rhizosphere was highly colonized by metal-activating bacteria (Actinobacteria), lignin-degrading bacteria (Actinobacteria and Chlorofexi), and bacteria scavenging nutrients and trace elements (Anaerolinea and Ketobacter). Moreover, the differences in the uptake of Cd and mineral elements affected predicted functions of microbial communities, including sulfur oxidation and sulfur derivative formation, human or plant pathogen, and functions related to the iron oxidation and nitrate reduction. The results indicate a potential association of Cd and mineral elements uptake and accumulation with rhizosphere bacteria in rice, thus providing theoretical basis and a new perspective on the maintenance of rice security and high quality simultaneously.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Rizosfera , Ferro/análise , Minerais , Solo , Bactérias , Zinco/análise , Enxofre , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114420, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521270

RESUMO

The accumulation of arsenic (As) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) has recently been a source of concern for a potential risk to human health. It is unknown whether natural variations of As accumulation in different genotypes of Chinese cabbage are related to rhizobacterial characteristics. Experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of rhizobacteria involving in As fates in a soil-Chinese cabbage system using various genotypes using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR. There were significant differences in As accumulation in cabbage leaves between 32 genotypes, and genotypes of low-As-accumulation (LSA) and high-As-accumulation (HSA) were identified. The As concentrations in the shoots of LSA were 23.25 %, 24.19 %, 15.05 %, and 70.69 % lower than those of HSA in seedling stage (SS), rosette stage (RS), heading stage (HS), and mature stage (MS), respectively. Meanwhile, the relative abundances of phyla Patescibacteria (in RS), Acidobacteria and Rokubacteria (in HS) in the rhizosphere of LSA were 60.18 %, 28.19 %, and 45.38 % less than those of HSA, respectively. Additionally, both shoot-As and As translocation factor had significantly positive or negative correlations with the relative abundances of Rokubacteria or Actinobacteria. In LSA rhizosphere, the relative abundances of genera Flavobacterium (in SS), Ellin6055 and Sphingomonas (in HS) were 128.12 %, 83.69 % and 79.50 % higher than those of HSA, respectively. This demonstrated that rhizobacteria contribute to the accumulation and translocation of As in HSA and LSA. Furthermore, the gene copies of aioA and arsM in LSA rhizosphere were 25.54 % and 16.13 % higher than those of HSA, respectively, whereas the gene copies of arsC in LSA rhizosphere were 26.36 % less than those of HSA in MS, indicating that rhizobacteria are involved in As biotransformation in the soil. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between characteristics of rhizobacterial communities and As variations in Chinese cabbage genotypes.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Brassica , Humanos , Arsênio/metabolismo , Solo , Rizosfera , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Plântula/genética
12.
Microbiol Res ; 268: 127280, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563631

RESUMO

Utilization of rhizosphere microorganisms to improve plant growth and salt tolerance has recently attracted widespread attention. The growth and salt tolerance of willows inoculated with Bacillus cereus JYZ-SD2 and Peniophora cinerea XC were studied under different salt stress conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content of willow cuttings inoculated with the XC strain increased significantly by 51.27%. After salt stress of willow cuttings inoculated with B. cereus JYZ-SD2 and P. cinerea XC (solely or in combination), the amount of sodium in the roots from the epidermis to the pericycle decreased and the content of sodium in the pericycle was significantly lower than that of the uninoculated willow, while the proportion of potassium increased. Willow cuttings inoculated with microorganisms showed increased activity of SOD and POD. At the salt concentration of 100 mmol/L, the highest SOD activity was found in B. cereus JYZ-SD2-inoculated willows, with 59.88% increase compared to uninoculated willows; the highest POD activity was found in P. cinerea XC and B. cereus JYZ-SD2 co-inoculated willows, with 51.05% increase compared to uninoculated willows. The Na-K-ATPase and Ca-Mg-ATPase activities of inoculated P. cinerea XC willow cuttings were also 59.38% and 60% higher than that of uninoculated willows, respectively. The qPCR analysis showed that the expression of vp2 gene in the microorganism-inoculated willow leaves was always higher than that in willow alone. The expression of vp2 gene in P. cinerea XC-inoculated willow cuttings was 270.81% higher than that in uninoculated willows. Further observation of the ultrastructure of root cells under salt stress revealed that most of the vesicles in the root tip cells of willow were intact and secreted phagocytic vesicles to absorb sodium ions in the cytoplasm. This study shows that the combined beneficial fungi and rhizosphere-promoting bacteria inoculation technology as a practical biotechnological approach to enhance the growth of willows in salt-affected soils.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Salix , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Salix/metabolismo , Salix/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Estresse Salino , Fungos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

RESUMO

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Micorrizas/química , Herbicidas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores , Brasil , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plântula , Rizosfera
15.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137556, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528153

RESUMO

The persistence of the stabilization effect of amendments on heavy metals (HMs) is of great concern when they are used for remediating HM-contaminated soil. Here, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two consecutive seasons of vegetable cultivation on the mobilization of HMs (Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd) immobilized by different application ratios (0, 20, 40, and 80 g kg-1, labelled C0, C2, C4, and C8) of a combined amendments (lime: sepiolite: biochar: humic acid = 2:2:1:1). The results showed that HM bioavailability decreased with increasing application ratios of the combined amendments in control (CK) treatments. The DOC contents, HM bioavailability, and HM contents in the leaves of vegetables increased, but the pH decreased during two consecutive seasons of vegetable cultivation; however, the HM bioavailability in the C2, C4, and C8 treatments was lower than that in the C0 treatments with vegetables. Catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, and dehydrogenase activities in the combined amendment treatments with and without vegetables were decreased compared to those in the C0 treatments. The relative abundances of the dominant bacterial phyla in the different treatments were Actinobacteria > Proteobacteria > Chloroflexi > Acidobacteria > Gemmatimonadetes > Bacteroidetes for the first season and Proteobacteria > Actinobacteria > Chloroflexi > Acidobacteria > Bacteroidetes > Gemmatimonadetes for the second season. Correlations showed that the pH and DOM properties during two consecutive seasons of vegetable cultivation were important factors influencing HM bioavailability, enzyme activity, and bacterial community composition. The bacterial community composition shift indirectly influenced the mobilization of HMs immobilized by the combined amendments. Thus, rhizosphere activity induced the mobilization of HMs immobilized by combined amendments during two consecutive seasons of vegetable cultivation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Zinco/análise , Chumbo , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Bactérias , Verduras , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cádmio/análise
16.
Environ Int ; 171: 107690, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516673

RESUMO

Complex interactions between plants and microorganisms form the basis of constructed wetlands (CWs) for pollutant removal. In the rhizosphere, radial oxygen loss (ROL) plays a key role in the activity and abundance of functional microorganisms. However, little has been done to explore how ROL would influence the niche differentiation of microbial communities at different vertical spatial scales. We demonstrate that ROL decreases with depth, promoting an oxidation-reduction rhizosphere microecosystem in CWs. The high level of ROL in the upper layer could support the oxygen supply for aerobic bacteria (Haliangium), facilitating the COD (60%) and NH4+-N (50%) removal, whereas the enrichment of denitrifiers (e.g., Hydrogenophaga and Ralstonia) and methanotrophs (Methanobaterium) in the lower layer could stimulate denitrification. The function prediction results further certified that the abundance of genes catalyzing nitrifying and denitrification processes were significantly enhanced in the upper and bottom layers, respectively, which was attributed to the oxygen concentration gradient in the rhizosphere. This study contributes to further unraveling the rhizosphere effect and enables an improved understanding of the decontamination mechanisms of CWs.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Microbiota , Áreas Alagadas , Rizosfera , Oxigênio , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160736, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493821

RESUMO

Cadmium is highly toxic and one of the most dangerous metal pollutants in soil, and poses a serious threat to human health through soil-crop-food chain transmission. Polyaspartic acid (PASP) is a biodegradable additive that is environment-friendly compared to traditional chelating agents. Current studies have explored its effect on auxiliary phytoextraction at a laboratory scale; however, the method is still rarely reported at the field scale. Therefore, this study used two ecotypes of Pennisetum sinese in a field experiment for 3 years in Jiaoxi Township, Liuyang City, Hunan Province, China, to understand the effect of PASP on the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil and soil quality through long-term field studies. Moreover, because the soil microbial community responds well to the phytoremediation effect of heavy metal (including Cd)-contaminated soil, the changes in rhizosphere soil microbial community diversity and composition were analyzed. After 2 years of PASP-enhanced phytoremediation, the PASP application increased the total Cd reduction in soil by 237 % and 255 %, and the soil DTPA-extractable Cd content decreased to 0.092 and 0.087 mg kg-1. When the application of PASP ceased in the third year, the two ecotypes of P. sinese obtained after harvest could achieve feed safety. Our study showed that the application of PASP could significantly increase the Cd extraction capacity and shoot biomass of P. sinese, and maintain soil health by optimizing the composition and structure of rhizosphere bacterial communities. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was improved and dominated by Acidobacteriota, Proteobacteria, and Chloroflexi at the phylum level, and the increased abundance of Acetobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas at the genus level may promote heavy metal detoxification in soil, plant growth, and phytoremediation. Long-term field monitoring demonstrated that the low-cost and eco-friendly features of PASP made it a good candidate for enhancing phytoextraction efficiency and regulating soil microbial communities for remediation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Cádmio/análise , Solo/química , Fazendas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130119, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265386

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate (F-53B) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are used and emitted as fog inhibitors in the chromium plating industry, and they are widely detected worldwide. To study the effects of F-53B and PFOS on the rhizosphere defense system, they were added at two levels (0.1 and 50 mg L-1) to the soil where different plants (Lythrum salicaria and Phragmites communis) were grown. In bulk soils, high concentrations of F-53B/PFOS resulted in significant increases in soil pH, NH4+-N, and NO3--N (the effect of PFOS on NO3--N was not significant). Moreover, the extent of the effects of PFOS and F-53B on the physicochemical properties of bulk soils were different (e.g., PFOS caused an increase of NH4+-N by 8.94%-45.97% compared to 1.63%-25.20% for F-53B). Root exudates and PFASs together influenced the physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soils (e.g., TOC increased significantly in contaminated rhizosphere soils but did not change in non-bulk soils). Under the influence of F-53B/PFOS, the root exudates regulated by plants were changed and weakened the effect of F-53B/PFOS on microbial community of rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere defense systems of different plants have both similarities and differences in response to different substances and concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Rizosfera , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Solo
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 161048, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563760

RESUMO

Both soil properties and plant root traits are pivotal factors affecting microbial communities. However, there is still limited information about their importance in shaping rhizosphere soil microbial communities, particularly in less-studied alpine shrub ecosystems. To investigate the effects of altitude (3300, 3600, 3900, and 4200 m) on the diversity and composition of rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal communities, as well as the factors shaping rhizosphere soil microbial communities, we conducted this study in alpine Rhododendron nitidulum shrub ecosystems from the Zheduo mountain of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Results demonstrated that bacterial community diversity and richness decreased to the lowest value at 3600 m and then increased at higher altitudes compared with 3300 m; whereas fungal richness at 3300 m was much lower than at other altitudes, and was closely related to soil properties and root traits. The composition of rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal communities at the low altitude (3300 m) was different from that at high altitudes. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and redundancy analysis indicated that soil properties (soil water content, pH, NO3--N, and available phosphorus) and root traits (surface area, and maximum depth) were the major factors explaining the variations of rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal communities. Specific bacterial and fungal taxa along altitudes were identified. The bacterial taxa Planctomycetota was dominant at 3300 and 3600 m with low soil nutrient availability and high root surface area, whereas the fungal taxa Mortierellomycota was abundant at 3900 and 4200 m with high soil nutrient availability and low root surface area. These results suggested that different soil microbes can respond differently to altitude. This study provides a novel insight into factors driving rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal community variations, which could improve our understanding of microbial ecology in alpine R. nitidulum shrub ecosystems along altitude.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Rhododendron , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos , Bactérias
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150610, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597578

RESUMO

Thousands of unlined landfills and open dumpsites seriously threatened the safety of soil and groundwater due to leachate leakage with a mass of pollutants, particularly heavy metals, organic contaminants and ammonia. Phytoremediation is widely used in the treatment of cocontaminated soils because it is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. However, the extent to which phytoremediation efficiency and plant physiological responses are affected by the high nitrogen (N) content in such cocontaminated soil is still uncertain. Here, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of N addition on the applicability of legume alfalfa remediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon­cadmium (PAHCd) co-/contaminated soil and the corresponding microbial regulation mechanism. The results showed that the PAH dissipation rates and Cd removal rates in the high-contamination groups increased with the external N supply, among which the pyrene dissipation rates in the cocontaminated soil was elevated most significantly, from 78.10% to 87.25%. However, the phytoremediation efficiency weakened in low cocontaminated soil, possibly because the excessive N content had inhibitory effects on the rhizobium Ensifer and restrained alfalfa growth. Furthermore, the relative abundance of PAH-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere dominated PAH dissipation. As reflected by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis and hierarchical dendrograms, the microbial community composition changed with N addition, and a more pronounced shift was found in the rhizosphere relative to the endosphere or shoots of alfalfa. This study will provide a theoretical basis for legume plant remediation of dumpsites as well as soil contaminated with multiple pollutants.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Medicago sativa , Nitrogênio , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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