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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149835, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461468

RESUMO

Soil carbon supplementation is known to stimulate plant growth by improving soil fertility and plant nutrient uptake. However, the underlying process and chemical mechanism that could explain the interrelationship between soil carbon supplementation, soil micro-ecology, and the growth and quality of plant remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence and mechanism of soil carbon supplementation on the bacterial community, chemical cycling, mineral nutrition absorption, growth and properties of tobacco leaves. The soil carbon supplementation increased amino acid, carbohydrates, chemical energy metabolism, and bacterial richness in the soil. This led to increased content of sugar (23.75%), starch (13.25%), and chlorophyll (10.56%) in tobacco leaves. Linear discriminant analysis revealed 49 key phylotypes and significant increment of some of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) genera (Bacillus, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas) in the rhizosphere, which can influence the tobacco growth. Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM) showed that soil carbon supplementation positively affected the sugar and starch contents in tobacco leaves by possibly altering the photosynthesis pathway towards increasing the aroma of the leaves, thus contributing to enhanced tobacco flavor. These findings are useful for understanding the influence of soil carbon supplementation on bacterial community for improving the yields and quality of tobacco in industrial plantation.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Amido , Açúcares , Tabaco
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149788, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461479

RESUMO

In Mexico, millions of tons of mining wastes are deposited in the open pit. Their content in potentially toxic elements (PTE) represents an environmental risk. In the tailings, pioneer plant communities are established, associated with a determined diversity of fungi; plants, and fungi are fundamental in the natural rehabilitation of mining wastes. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the natural establishment of two plant species on the microbial activity, on the composition of the fungal community, and on the mitigation of the effect of PTE in a contaminated mine tailing. In a tailing, we selected three sites: one non-vegetated; one vegetated by Reseda luteola, and one vegetated by Asphodelus fistulosus. In the substrates, we conducted a physical and chemical characterization; we evaluated the enzymatic activity, the mineralization of the carbon, and the concentration of PTE. We also determined the fungal diversity in the substrates and in the interior of the roots, and estimated the accumulation of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and PTE in plant tissues. The tailings had a high percentage of sand; the non-vegetated site presented the highest electric conductivity, and the plant cover reduced the concentration of PTE in the substrates. Plants increased the carbon content in tailings. The enzymatic activities of ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase, and the mineralization of carbon were highest at the site vegetated with A. fistulosus. Both plant species accumulated PTE in their tissues and exhibited potential in the phytoremediation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu). Fungal diversity was more elevated at the vegetated sites than in the bare substrate. Ascomycota prevailed in the substrates; the substrates and the plants shared some fungal taxa, but other taxa were specific. The plant coverage and the rhizosphere promoted the natural attenuation and a rehabilitation of the extreme conditions of the mining wastes, modulated by the plant species.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Micobioma , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Plantas , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131648, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315079

RESUMO

Aquatic macrophytes have been widely employed for in-situ phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) polluted sediments. But, little is known about the responses of rhizosphere bacteria and their interspecific interactions to phytoremediation. In this study, the α-diversity, community composition, co-occurrence network and keystone species of sediment bacteria in rhizosphere zones of two typical macrophytes, Hydrilla verticillata and Elodea canadensis, were investigated using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that after fifty days of phytoremediation, a group of specialized sediment bacteria were assembled in the rhizosphere zones closely associated with different host macrophytes. Rhizosphere micro-environments, i.e., the increases of redox potential and organic matter and the decreases of pH, nitrogen and phosphorus, reduced bacterial α-diversity through niche-based species-sorting process, which in turn reduced interspecific mutualistic relationships. But meanwhile, benefiting from the nutrients supplied from macrophyte roots, more bacterial species survived in the highly Cd-contaminated sediments (50 mg kg-1). In addition, the co-occurrence network revealed that both macrophytes harbored two same keystone bacteria with the high betweenness centrality values, including the family Pedosphaeraceae (genus_unclassified) and genus Parasegetibacter. Their relative abundances were up to 28-fold and 25-fold higher than other keystone species, respectively. Furthermore, these two keystone bacteria were metabolic generalists with vital ecological functions, which posed significant potentials for promoting plant growth and tolerating Cd bio-toxicity. Therefore, the identified keystone rhizobacteria, Pedosphaeraceae and Parasegetibacter, would be potential microbial modulations applied for the future optimization of phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated sediment.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150131, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788940

RESUMO

Microbial communities from rhizosphere (rhizomicrobiomes) have been significantly impacted by domestication as evidenced by a comparison of the rhizomicrobiomes of wild and related cultivated rice accessions. While there have been many published studies focusing on the structure of the rhizomicrobiome, studies comparing the functional traits of the microbial communities in the rhizospheres of wild rice and cultivated rice accessions are not yet available. In this study, we used metagenomic data from experimental rice plots to analyze the potential functional traits of the microbial communities in the rhizospheres of wild rice accessions originated from Africa and Asia in comparison with their related cultivated rice accessions. The functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities involved in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, methane metabolism, carbon fixation pathways, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), pyruvate metabolism and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathways were found to be enriched in the rhizomicrobiomes of wild rice accessions. Notably, methane metabolism in the rhizomicrobiomes of wild and cultivated rice accessions clearly differed. Key enzymes involved in methane production and utilization were overrepresented in the rhizomicrobiome samples obtained from wild rice accessions, suggesting that the rhizomicrobiomes of wild rice maintain a different ecological balance for methane production and utilization compared with those of the related cultivated rice accessions. A novel assessment of the impact of rice domestication on the primary metabolic pathways associated with microbial taxa in the rhizomicrobiomes was performed. Results indicated a strong impact of rice domestication on methane metabolism; a process that represents a critical function of the rhizosphere microbial community of rice. The findings of this study provide important information for future breeding of rice varieties with reduced methane emission during cultivation for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Oryza , Domesticação , Metano , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rizosfera
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118366, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653590

RESUMO

Bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) residues in soil threaten the rotation of BSM-sensitive crops. Microbial biofilms formed on crop roots could improve the ability of microbes to survive and protect crop roots. However, the research on biofilms with the purpose of mitigating or even eliminating BSM damage to sensitive crops is very limited. In this study, one BSM-degrading bacterium, Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae S113, colonized maize roots by forming a biofilm. Root exudates were associated with increased BSM degradation efficiency with strain S113 in rhizosphere soil relative to bulk soil, so the interactions among BSM degradation, root exudates, and biofilms may provide a new approach for the BSM-contaminated soil bioremediation. Root exudates and their constituent organic acids, including fumaric acid, tartaric acid, and l-malic acid, enhanced biofilm formation with 13.0-22.2% increases, owing to the regulation of genes encoding proteins responsible for cell motility/chemotaxis (fla/che cluster) and materials metabolism, thus promoting S113 population increases. Additionally, root exudates were also able to induce exopolysaccharide production to promote mature biofilm formation. Complete BSM degradation and healthy maize growth were found in BSM-contaminated rhizosphere soil treated with wild strain S113, compared to that treated with loss-of-function mutants ΔcheA-S113 (89.3%, without biofilm formation ability) and ΔsulE-S113 (22.1%, without degradation ability) or sterile water (10.7%, control). Furthermore, the biofilm mediated by organic acids, such as l-malic acid, exhibited a more favorable effect on BSM degradation and maize growth. These results showed that root exudates and their components (such as organic acids) can induce the biosynthesis of the biofilm to promote BSM degradation, emphasizing the contribution of root biofilm in reducing BSM damage to maize.


Assuntos
Methylocystaceae , Zea mays , Biofilmes , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150513, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571228

RESUMO

Biochar has been advocated as a sustainable and eco-friendly practice to improve soil fertility and crop productivity which could aid in the mitigation of climate change. Nonetheless, the combined effects of biochar and irrigation on tobacco growth and soil nutrients in diverse soil types have been incompletely explored. We applied a split-root experiment to investigate the impacts of amendment with 2% softwood- (WBC) and wheat-straw biochar (SBC) on growth responses and rhizosphere soil nutrients availability of tobacco plants grown in a Ferralsol and an Anthrosol. All plants within same soil type received same amount of water daily by either conventional deficit irrigation (CDI) or alternate wetting-drying cycles irrigation (AWD). Compared to the un-amended controls, SBC addition enhanced biomass, carbon (C)-, phosphorus (P)- and potassium (K)-pool in the aboveground organs especially in Anthrosol, despite a negative effect on aboveground nitrogen (N)-pool. Regardless of soil type, biochar combined with AWD lowered root diameter while increased root tissue mass density to engage the plant in an acquisitive strategy for resources, therefore altered leaves stoichiometry as exemplified by lowered N/K, C/P and N/P and increased C/N. The addition of SBC induced a liming effect by increasing Anthrosol soil pH which was further amplified by AWD, but was unaffected on Ferralsol. Moreover, compared to the controls, SBC and AWD increased available P and K, and total C, total N and C/N ratio in the rhizosphere soil which coincided with the lowered soil C and N isotope composition (δ13C and δ15N), though a slight reduction in C and N stocks under AWD. However, such effects were not evident with WBC might be associated with its natures. Thus, combined SBC/AWD application might be an effective strategy to synergistically overcome nutrients restriction and improve tobacco productivity by intensifying nutrients cycling and optimizing plant growth strategies.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Nutrientes , Tabaco
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150282, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798760

RESUMO

Phytoextraction is an in situ remediation technique that uses (hyper)accumulator plant species to extract metal(loid)s from contaminated soils. Field studies can help in selecting appropriate plants for phytoextraction and in better understanding their phytoextraction performance. Hence, a field study was conducted using six (hyper)accumulator species (Solanum nigrum L., Bidens pilosa L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helianthus annuus L., Lonicera japonica T. and Pennisetum sinese R.) over two years in Jiaoxi town, Liuyang city, Hunan Province, China, to determine the effect of the (hyper)accumulator rhizospheres on field soils contaminated with multiple metal(loid)s and to analyze the variations in rhizosphere soil microbial community diversity and composition. After two years of field experiments, compared to the other four (hyper)accumulators, Bidens pilosa L. and Xanthium strumarium L. exhibited not only better metal(loid) phytoextraction abilities but also higher shoot biomasses. The contents of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Pb, Cd and Zn decreased in the rhizosphere soils of all six (hyper)accumulators after repeated phytoextraction. Moreover, our findings illustrated that hyperaccumulator planting helps improve and rebuild the soil bacterial community composition and structure in contaminated soils by shifting the soil physiochemical properties. After repeated planting, the soil bacterial communities were reconstructed and dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Chloroflexi and Acidobacteriota at the phylum level. The soil fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota at the phylum level. The reconstruction of soil microbial communities may help (hyper)accumulators adapt to metal(loid)-contaminated environments and improve their phytoextraction abilities.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131714, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426125

RESUMO

In this study, a field-scale and pot experiment were performed to evaluate the remedial efficiency of Cd contaminated soil by tobacco and explore rhizosphere micro-characteristics under different cadmium levels, respectively. The results indicated that tobacco could remove 12.9 % of Cd from soil within a short growing period of 80 d. The pot experiment revealed that tobacco could tolerate soil Cd concentrations up to 5.8 mg kg-1 and bioaccumulate 68.1 and 40.8 mg kg-1 Cd in shoots and roots, respectively. The high Cd bioaccumulation in tobacco might be attributed to strong acidification in the rhizosphere soil and the increase in Cd bioavailability. Rhizobacteria did not appear to be involved in Cd mobilization. In contrast, tobacco tended to enrich sulfate-reducing bacteria (such as Desulfarculaceae) under high Cd treatment (5.8 mg kg-1) but enrich plant growth-promoting bacteria (such as Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Virgibacillus and Lysobacter) to improve growth under low Cd treatment (0.2 mg kg-1), suggesting that tobacco employed different microbes for responding to Cd stress. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using tobacco for bioremediating Cd contaminated soil and clarify the rhizosphere mechanisms underlying Cd mobilization and tolerance.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tabaco
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150006, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487902

RESUMO

Soil contamination with trace metal(loid) elements (TME) is a global concern. This has focused interest on TME-tolerant plants, some of which can hyperaccumulate extraordinary amounts of TME into above-ground tissues, for potential treatment of these soils. However, intra-species variability in TME hyperaccumulation is not yet sufficiently understood to fully harness this potential. Particularly, little is known about the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with hyperaccumulating plants and whether or not they facilitate TME uptake. The aim of this study is to characterize the diversity and structure of Arabidopsis halleri rhizosphere-influenced and background (i.e., non-Arabidopsis) soil microbial communities in four plant populations with contrasting Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation traits, two each from contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Microbial community properties were assessed along with geographic location, climate, abiotic soil properties, and plant parameters to explain variation in Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation. Site type (TME-contaminated vs. uncontaminated) and location explained 44% of bacterial/archaeal and 28% of fungal community variability. A linear discriminant effect size (LEfSe) analysis identified a greater number of taxa defining rhizosphere microbial communities than associated background soils. Further, in TME-contaminated soils, the number of rhizosphere-defining taxa was 6-fold greater than in the background soils. In contrast, the corresponding ratio for uncontaminated sites, was 3 and 1.6 for bacteria/archaea and fungi, respectively. The variables analyzed explained 71% and 76% of the variance in Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation, respectively; however, each hyperaccumulation pattern was associated with different variables. A. halleri rhizosphere fungal richness and diversity associated most strongly with Zn hyperaccumulation, whereas soil Cd and Zn bioavailability had the strongest associations with Cd hyperaccumulation. Our results indicate strong associations between A. halleri TME hyperaccumulation and rhizosphere microbial community properties, a finding that needs to be further explored to optimize phytoremediation technology that is based on hyperaccumulation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150148, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520919

RESUMO

Root exudates play essential roles in shaping root-associated microbial communities in plant-soil systems. However, knowledge regarding the influence of root exudates on soil communities, particularly concerning their assembly processes and species coexistence patterns, remains limited. In this study, we performed a 20-month pot experiment using a nitrogen (N) addition gradient (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 g N m-2 yr-1), amplicon sequencing, and metabolomics to investigate the effect of short-term N addition on the assembly process and species coexistence of fungal communities, as well as their association with root exudates in the rhizosphere and bulk soils around Bothriochloa ischaemum. The results demonstrated that short-term N addition led to distinct differences in the diversity, composition, assembly process, and co-occurrence networks of fungal communities in the rhizosphere and bulk soils. The diversity of fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil increased with the rate of N input and peaked at N10 treatment; this could be correlated with the increased abundance in long-chain organic acids (LCOAs). However, above the threshold N rate of 10 g N m-2 yr-1, diversity decreased probably because of the high N-induced inhibitory effect on root exudates (i.e., LCOAs). N addition increased the relative abundance of Sordariomycetes in the rhizosphere and decreased the relative abundance of Mortierellomycetes in the bulk soil, while enhancing the abundance of pathotrophs in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The rhizosphere fungal community was dominated by a stochastic process at a low N input (N0 and N2.5) and by deterministic processes at a high N input (N10 and N15), which is opposite to the trends in the bulk soil. These fungal assembly processes determine the coexistence of fungal species; deterministic processes lead to less interconnected networks in rhizosphere soils that harbor a more complex network than the bulk soil. Associations between the assembly process and species coexistence in the rhizosphere of B. ischaemum were closely related to the changes in root exudates, such as amino acids, short-chain organic acids, and phenols, which were stimulated by N addition. Collectively, our study emphasizes the key roles of root exudates in the establishment of fungal communities in the plant-soil system and furthers our understanding of plant-microbe interactions.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Rizosfera , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126731, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339987

RESUMO

Citric acid (CA) is the major exudate of rice roots, yet the effects of CA on arsenic (As) transformation and microbial community in flooded paddy soil have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, microcosms were established by amending CA to As contaminated paddy soils, mimicking the rhizosphere environment. Results showed that 0.5% CA addition significantly enhanced As mobilization after one-hour incubation, increased total As in porewater by about 20-fold. CA addition induced arsenate release into porewater, and subsequently formed ternary complex of As, iron and organic matters, inhibiting further As transformation (including arsenate reduction and arsenite methylation). Furthermore, the results of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) and network analysis revealed that CA addition significantly enriched bacteria associated with arsenic and iron reductions, such as Clostridium (up to 35-fold) and Desulfitobacterium (up to 4-fold). Our results suggest that CA exhibits robust ability to mobilize As through both chemical and microbial processes, increasing the risk of As accumulation by rice. This study sheds light on our understanding of As mobilization and transformation in rhizosphere soil, potentially providing effective strategies to restrict As accumulation in food crops by screening or cultivating varieties with low CA exuding.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Ácido Cítrico , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150426, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818756

RESUMO

Chemical fumigants and organic fertilizer are commonly used in facility agriculture to control soil-borne diseases and promote soil health. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effect of non-antibiotic fumigants on the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in plant rhizosphere soils. Here, the response of a wide spectrum of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) to dazomet fumigation practice in the rhizosphere soil of watermelon was investigated along its branching, flowering and fruiting growth stages in plastic shelters using high-throughput quantitative PCR approach. Our results indicated that soil fumigation combined with organic fertilizer application significantly increased the relative abundance of ARGs and MGEs in the rhizosphere soil of watermelon plant. The positive correlations between the relative abundance of ARGs and MGEs suggested that soil fumigation might increase the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) potential of ARGs. This result was further confirmed by the enhanced associations between ARG and MGE subtypes in the networks of fumigation treatments. Moreover, bipartite associations between ARGs/MGEs and microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) revealed a higher percentage of linkage between MGEs and microbial taxa in the fumigated soils. Structural equation model analysis further suggested that the increases in antibiotic resistance after fumigation and organic fertilizer application were mainly driven by MGEs and fungal community. Together, our results provide vital evidence that dazomet fumigation process combined with organic fertilizer in plastic shelters has the great potential to promote ARGs' dissemination in the rhizosphere, and raise cautions of the acquired resistance by soil-borne fungal pathogen and the potential spreading of ARGs along soil-plant continuum.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Solo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fertilizantes , Fumigação , Genes Bacterianos , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150400, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818769

RESUMO

Hyperaccumulating ecotypes of Sedum plants are promising Cd/Zn phytoextractors, with potential for leveraging its rhizospheric or endophytic microbiomes to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, research of bacteria associated with Sedum at field scale is still lacking. Here, we presented a detailed investigation of the bacterial microbiome of hyperaccumulating Sedum ecotypes (S. alfredii and S. plumbizincicola) and a non-hyperaccumulating S. alfredii ecotype, which grow at different soil environments. Moreover, we evaluated the heavy metal uptake and translocation potential of Sedum plants at different locations. The results showed that both HE ecotypes, contrary to the NHE, were efficient for phytoremediation in mine areas and farmlands. For NHE plants, rhizosphere co-occurrence networks were more complex than the networks of other compartments, while networks of HE plants were more complex in bulk soil and roots. The proportion of positive correlations within co-occurrence networks was higher for the HE plants, suggesting a greater potential for mutualistic interactions. Plant compartment and location predominantly shaped the microbiome assembly, and Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria dominated the bacterial communities of Sedum plants. Keystone taxa related to Zn hyperaccumulation are similar to those related to Cd hyperaccumulation, and nine bacterial genera had significantly positive correlation with Cd/Zn hyperaccumulation. Taxa, linked to phytoremediation in both mine and farmland (i.e. Actinospica and Streptomyces from Actinobacteria), could be targets for further investigation of their ability to promote metal phytoremediation of Sedum species.


Assuntos
Sedum , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Raízes de Plantas/química , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150136, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818799

RESUMO

Arid zones contain a diverse set of microbes capable of survival under dry conditions, some of which can form relationships with plants under drought stress conditions to improve plant health. We studied squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) root microbiome under historically arid and humid sites, both in situ and performing a common garden experiment. Plants were grown in soils from sites with different drought levels, using in situ collected soils as the microbial source. We described and analyzed bacterial diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (N = 48) from the soil, rhizosphere, and endosphere. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum present in humid and arid samples, while Actinobacteriota abundance was higher in arid ones. The ß-diversity analyses showed split microbiomes between arid and humid microbiomes, and aridity and soil pH levels could explain it. These differences between humid and arid microbiomes were maintained in the common garden experiment, showing that it is possible to transplant in situ diversity to the greenhouse. We detected a total of 1009 bacterial genera; 199 exclusively associated with roots under arid conditions. By 16S and shotgun metagenomics, we identified dry-associated taxa such as Cellvibrio, Ensifer adhaerens, and Streptomyces flavovariabilis. With shotgun metagenomic sequencing of rhizospheres (N = 6), we identified 2969 protein families in the squash core metagenome and found an increased number of exclusively protein families from arid (924) than humid samples (158). We found arid conditions enriched genes involved in protein degradation and folding, oxidative stress, compatible solute synthesis, and ion pumps associated with osmotic regulation. Plant phenotyping allowed us to correlate bacterial communities with plant growth. Our study revealed that it is possible to evaluate microbiome diversity ex-situ and identify critical species and genes involved in plant-microbe interactions in historically arid locations.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Microbiota , Rhizobiaceae , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces
15.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132101, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523446

RESUMO

Soilless revegetation is a promising method for ecological restoration of nonferrous metallic tailings because of its low-cost and eco-friendliness. However, revegetation is difficult to construct in the tailings due to the high heavy metal concentration, poor water retention capacity and low fertility. In this study, soilless revegetation was successfully carried out by using peat and bentonite amendments. The results showed that amendment addition significantly increased the F.elata seed germination percentage, plant length and fresh biomass by 14.9%-24.3%, 48.9%-90.4% and 51.9%-88.1%, respectively. Such improvements probably referred to the variation of rhizosphere tailing microecological characteristics. Amendment addition dramatically improved tailing available NPK by 39.76-102.13%, 2.69-40.81% and 2.42-20.02%, respectively, and reduced pH from alkaline to relative neutral. Besides, heavy metal bioavailability was significantly decreased that the acid soluble fraction decreased by 1.7%-11.5%, resulting in the reduction of heavy metal concentration in F.elata plant. Amendments also increased the rhizosphere tailing microbial species richness and the relative abundance of ecologically beneficial genera including Arthrobacter, Altererythrobacter and Bacillus. This study not only provided a green and efficient method for remediation of oligotrophic and high heavy metal contaminated nonferrous metallic tailing, but also demonstrated relevant mechanisms of amendment on promoting soilless revegetation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bentonita , Metais Pesados/análise , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 179: 104970, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802520

RESUMO

The widespread use of herbicides has raised considerable concern with regard to their harmful consequences on plant growth, crop yield and the soil ecological environment. It has been well documented that colonization of rhizobacteria in the plant root system has a positive effect on activation of plant defenses to protect the plant from damage. Using the platform of high-throughput analysis with tandem mass spectrometry and Illumina sequencing, we identified the specific activated rhizobacteria, the key growth stimulating substances and the metabolic pathways involved in seedling stage tolerance to mefenacet stress in rice. The relative abundance of beneficial rhizospheremicrobes such as Acidobacteria and Firmicutes increased with mefenacet treatment, indicating that the rhizosphere recruited some beneficial microbes to resist mefenacet stress. Mefenacet treatment induced alterations in several interlinked metabolic pathways, many of which were related to activation of defense response signaling, especially the indole-3-pyruvate pathway. Indole-3-acetaldehyde and indole-3-ethanol from this pathway may act as flexible storage pools for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Our findings also suggest that a significant increase of IAA produced by the enrichment of beneficial rhizospheremicrobes, for example genus Bacillus, alleviated the dwarfing phenomenon observed in hydroponic medium following mefenacet exposure, which may be a key signaling molecule primarily for phytostimulation and phytotolerance in microbe-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Oryza , Rizosfera , Acetanilidas , Benzotiazóis , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2939-2948, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664468

RESUMO

With a pot experiment, the Biolog microplate and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) technology were used to explore whether the application of bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (YB706) and Burkholderia (BK8), could improve the soil nutrient, microbial community and growth of Casuarina equisetifolia. The results showed that the concentrations of soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen and available phosphorus of C. equisetifolia treated with YB706 and BK8 increased significantly compared with the control (CK), but the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and available potassium changed little, plant height increased by 59.1% and 63.9%, respectively, and the chlorophyll content of plant treated with BK8 increased by 81.9%. The average well color development values showed a pattern of YB706>CK>BK8. The utilization rate of different carbon sources showed the same trend except the amino acids. Both YB706 and BK8 treatments significantly increased the richness and quantity of soil microorganisms. The PLFA of all kinds of microorganisms was BK8>YB706>CK except actinomycetes. The ratio of soil fungi to bacteria was increased compared with CK. The Simpson, Shannon, Brillouin and McIntosh indices of rhizosphere soil microbial community in YB706 and BK8 treatments were significantly increased. Our results suggested that application of YB706 and BK8 could improve the growth rate of C. equisetifolia seedlings, effectively increase the contents of soil available nutrients, increase soil microbial diversity, and improve soil microbial environment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Rizosfera , Plântula , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633383

RESUMO

The root microbiome plays an important role in plant growth and environmental adaptation. Network analysis is an important tool for studying communities, which can effectively explore the interaction relationship or co-occurrence model of different microbial species in different environments. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide details on how to use the weighted correlation network algorithm to analyze different co-occurrence networks that may occur in microbial communities due to different ecological environments. All analysis of the experiment is performed in the WGCNA package. WGCNA is an R package for weighted correlation network analysis. The experimental data used to demonstrate these methods were microbial community data from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database for three niches of the rice (Oryza sativa) root system. We used the weighted correlation network algorithm to construct co-abundance networks of microbial community in each of the three niches. Then, differential co-abundance networks among endosphere, rhizoplane and rhizosphere soil were identified. In addition, the core genera in network were obtained by the "WGCNA" package, which plays an important regulated role in network functions. These methods enable researchers to analyze the response of microbial network to environmental disturbance and verify different microbial ecological response theories. The results of these methods show that the significant differential microbial networks identified in the endosphere, rhizoplane and rhizosphere soil of rice.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672916

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterial strain, isolated from the rhizosphere of Zea mays, was studied for its detailed taxonomic allocation. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain JJ-447T was shown to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus, most closely related to the type strain of Paenibacillus solanacearum (97.8 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values to all other Paenibacillus species were below 97.0 %. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values with the type strain of P. solanacearum were 35.9 % (reciprocal 27%), respectively. The average nucleotide identity and in silico DDH values with the type strain of P. solanacearum were 84.86 and 28.9 %, respectively. The quinone system of strain JJ-447T consisted exclusively of menaquinones and the major component was MK-7 (96.4 %) but minor amounts of MK-6 (3.6 %) were detected as well. The polar lipid profile consisted of the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid. Major fatty acids were iso- and anteiso-branched with the major compounds anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. Physiological and biochemical characteristics allowed a further phenotypic differentiation of strain JJ-447T from the most closely related species on the basis of d-glucose, l-arabinose and d-mannose assimilation and other physiological tests. Thus, JJ-447T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus allorhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed, with JJ-447T (=LMG 31601T=CCM 9021T=CIP 111802T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Paenibacillus , Rizosfera , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Paenibacillus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Zea mays
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638728

RESUMO

Soil health and fertility issues are constantly addressed in the agricultural industry. Through the continuous and prolonged use of chemical heavy agricultural systems, most agricultural lands have been impacted, resulting in plateaued or reduced productivity. As such, to invigorate the agricultural industry, we would have to resort to alternative practices that will restore soil health and fertility. Therefore, in recent decades, studies have been directed towards taking a Magellan voyage of the soil rhizosphere region, to identify the diversity, density, and microbial population structure of the soil, and predict possible ways to restore soil health. Microbes that inhabit this region possess niche functions, such as the stimulation or promotion of plant growth, disease suppression, management of toxicity, and the cycling and utilization of nutrients. Therefore, studies should be conducted to identify microbes or groups of organisms that have assigned niche functions. Based on the above, this article reviews the aboveground and below-ground microbiomes, their roles in plant immunity, physiological functions, and challenges and tools available in studying these organisms. The information collected over the years may contribute toward future applications, and in designing sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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