Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.372
Filtrar
1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 58, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032221

RESUMO

The nutritive value of the carob fruits harvested from ten different geographic regions of the North and the Center of Tunisia was assessed on the basis of chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation kinetic. Results showed that the chemical composition (ash, crude protein, fat, and sugar) of carob pods was highly influenced by geographic origin. Neutral detergent fiber varied from 24.37 to 35.58 g/100 g DM, acid detergent fiber from 13.24 to 25.15 g/100 g DM, and acid detergent lignin from 4.72 to 11.09 g/100 g DM. Total phenol, flavonoids, and condensed tannin contents varied from 2.55 to 6.84 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DM, from 74.89 to 276.51, and from 0.23 to 1.63 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DM, respectively. The samples varied widely in asymptotic gas production (66.6-86.34 ml/300 mg DM). The calculated metabolizable energy and digestible organic matter contents of carob pods ranged from 65.09 to 84.65% and 9.84 to 12.82 MJ/kg DM, respectively.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fermentação , Galactanos , Mananas , Gomas Vegetais , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes
2.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 28-29, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994428

RESUMO

This focus article has prepared by Rachael Collins and Amanda Carson of the APHA Small Ruminant Expert Group.


Assuntos
Doenças da Boca , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Doenças da Boca/veterinária , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico
3.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106139, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562431

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite known for its heavy toll on people and livestock. It can cause abortion and a variety of congenital diseases. The current study aimed to examine some seroprevalence and molecular attributes of T. gondii obtained from ruminants in the North-West of Egypt. Specimens were random selected from five different locations in Alexandria and Matrouh governorates. A total of 483 blood samples, collected from 96 mixed flocks, were screened for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seropositive results were then confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the B1 and P30 genes. Specific PCR products were selected for sequencing and alignment against the GenBank, where phylogeny has been examined using the maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining, and maximum parsimony in MEGA6. ELISA confirmed the presence of T. gondii in 188 of the investigated samples (38.92%), indicating a higher prevalence in camels (64.51%) and sheep (43.75%) as compared to goats (27.93 %) and cattle (13.46%). PCR confirmed the presence of T. gondii-specific sequences in 159 seropositive specimens, with homology between 98.3 and 100%. The genetic distances between the investigated variants ranged from 0.1 to 0.9, and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were identified in the examined T. gondii specimens. The camel T. gondii parasite, isolated from Matrouh, showed a 100% homology with the most dangerous reference strains of T. gondii-RH in the GenBank. Our results showed that B1 and P30-specific PCR could detect T. gondii in blood samples more accurately than ELISA. In addition, the statistical analysis of our data indicated that species, age, sex, and animal location were all risk factors for toxoplasmosis. These findings are likely to boost disease control and help contain the spread of T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Egito/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149935, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487900

RESUMO

Excreta deposition onto pasture, range and paddocks (PRP) by grazing ruminant constitute a source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). These emissions must be reported in national GHG inventories, and their estimation is based on the application of an emission factor, EF3PRP (proportion of nitrogen (N) deposited to the soil through ruminant excreta, which is emitted as N2O). Depending on local data available, countries use various EF3PRPs and approaches to estimate N2O emissions from grazing ruminant excreta. Based on ten case study countries, this review aims to highlight the uncertainties around the methods used to account for these emissions in their national GHG inventories, and to discuss the efforts undertaken for considering factors of variation in the calculation of emissions. Without any local experimental data, 2006 the IPCC default (Tier 1) EF3PRPs are still widely applied although the default values were revised in 2019. Some countries have developed country-specific (Tier 2) EF3PRP based on local field studies. The accuracy of estimation can be improved through the disaggregation of EF3PRP or the application of models; two approaches including factors of variation. While a disaggregation of EF3PRP by excreta type is already well adopted, a disaggregation by other factors such as season of excreta deposition is more difficult to implement. Empirical models are a potential method of considering factors of variation in the establishment of EF3PRP. Disaggregation and modelling requires availability of sufficient experimental and activity data, hence why only few countries have currently adopted such approaches. Replication of field studies under various conditions, combined with meta-analysis of experimental data, can help in the exploration of influencing factors, as long as appropriate metadata is recorded. Overall, despite standard IPCC methodologies for calculating GHG emissions, large uncertainties and differences between individual countries' accounting remain to be addressed.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Ruminantes , Estações do Ano , Solo
5.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106217, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751139

RESUMO

Informal livestock markets are an important source of animal-derived proteins for growing urban populations in countries such as Zambia. In parallel, they can also constitute pathways of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. This risk is aggravated by limited disease monitoring and poor control systems with regards to biosecurity and public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the risks for spread of zoonotic diseases in Zambia's two largest informal small ruminant markets, located in Lusaka and Kasumbalesa, through combining seroepidemiology with interviews and observations. In April, May and September 2018, serum samples (n = 237) were collected and analysed for antibodies for the zoonotic pathogens Brucella spp., Coxiella (C.) burnetii and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In addition, slaughterhouse activities were observed and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions held with slaughterhouse workers and small ruminant traders, focusing on the handling of animals and meat, and the perceptions of zoonotic disease risks at slaughter and consumption. The study found seropositivity rates of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.60-14.7) for Brucella spp., 5.9% (95% CI 3.27-9.71) for C. burnetii, and 0.8% (95% CI 0.10-3.01) for RVFV. Interviews with value chain members and observations at the slaughterhouse revealed unsanitary procedures and multiple occupational hazards for slaughterhouse workers. This study showed that the Zambian informal small ruminant trade system poses risks to public health, and that these risks are exacerbated by a lack of information about food-borne diseases and how associated risks can be mitigated amongst value chain actors. The results of this study can be used to formulate preventive measures to improve informal meat markets and reduce the risks to public health.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Animais , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 177-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807443

RESUMO

L-Arginine (Arg) plays a central role in the nitrogen metabolism (e.g., syntheses of protein, nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine), blood flow, nutrient utilization, and health of ruminants. This amino acid is produced by ruminal bacteria and is also synthesized from L-glutamine, L-glutamate, and L-proline via the formation of L-citrulline (Cit) in the enterocytes of young and adult ruminants. In pre-weaning ruminants, most of the Cit formed de novo by the enterocytes is used locally for Arg production. In post-weaning ruminants, the small intestine-derived Cit is converted into Arg primarily in the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, in endothelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Under normal feeding conditions, Arg synthesis contributes 65% and 68% of total Arg requirements for nonpregnant and late pregnany ewes fed a diet with ~12% crude protein, respectively, whereas creatine production requires 40% and 36% of Arg utilized by nonpregnant and late pregnant ewes, respectively. Arg has not traditionally been considered a limiting nutrient in diets for post-weaning, gestating, or lactating ruminants because it has been assumed that these animals can synthesize sufficient Arg to meet their nutritional and physiological needs. This lack of a full understanding of Arg nutrition and metabolism has contributed to suboptimal efficiencies for milk production, reproductive performance, and growth in ruminants. There is now considerable evidence that dietary supplementation with rumen-protected Arg (e.g., 0.25-0.5% of dietary dry matter) can improve all these production indices without adverse effects on metabolism or health. Because extracellular Cit is not degraded by microbes in the rumen due to the lack of uptake, Cit can be used without any encapsulation as an effective dietary source for the synthesis of Arg in ruminants, including dairy and beef cows, as well as sheep and goats. Thus, an adequate amount of supplemental rumen-protected Arg or unencapsulated Cit is necessary to support maximum survival, growth, lactation, reproductive performance, and feed efficiency, as well as optimum health and well-being in all ruminants.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Lactação , Animais , Arginina , Bovinos , Citrulina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Leite , Gravidez , Ruminantes , Ovinos
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 24, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957536

RESUMO

Ruminants, as well as other livestock, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver, and therefore, dietary requirements from exogenous supplementation are often ignored. However, metabolic demand may be exceeded, leading to a decreased endogenous synthetic capacity of VC following exposure to stressful conditions. Such conditions include high thermal load, limited water intake (induced by water scarcity), physiological status and infectious diseases. The obvious consequences are decreased performance, susceptibility to infections and increased mortality. This review discusses the potential role of vitamin C in ruminants' stress management and summarizes the in vitro and in vivo research to date. The different administration routes, comparative advantages and supplementation outcomes on growth, production parameters and physiological status were also identified. Also, areas where there was a lack of evidence or controversy, including critical literature research gaps, were identified, while the mechanism of VC's actions on significant outcomes was explained.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Ruminantes , Animais , Gado , Vitaminas
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 27, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958424

RESUMO

Camels are the only animals bred to sustain the tradition of wrestling in Turkey and are reared within a limited set of geographic areas. Farmers of such animals may also be engaged in ruminant breeding. The current research was aimed at documenting bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), and bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infections in sera collected from dromedary camels in four different geographical regions of Turkey during the years 2019-2021. All samples were tested for BVDV, BHV-1 and BLV antibodies as well as BVDV antigen by ELISA. Antibodies against BVDV were found in 16.8% of the camel sera tested. However, none of the camels sampled were positive in terms of BHV-1 and BLV antibodies as well as BVDV antigen. The prevalence was observed higher in the herds in which ruminants were raised in addition to camels (OR = 4.583, 95% CI, 1.298-16.182), (p = 0.018), while the prevalence was observed lower in the herds in which only camels were raised. This study showed that BVDV infection was more prevalent than BHV-1 and BLV infections in Turkish dromedary camels. Herewith, the camels, being a susceptible species to numerous viral ruminant diseases, may also serve as an important source of BVDV infection for other ruminant animals in the same flock.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Herpesvirus Bovino 1 , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Camelus , Bovinos , Anticorpos Antideltaretrovirus , Ruminantes , Turquia/epidemiologia
9.
Parasite ; 28: 82, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907897

RESUMO

In this study, we present an optimised colourimetric and a lateral flow LAMP assay for the detection of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminant faecal samples. Using a previously published LAMP primer set, we made use of commercially available colourimetric LAMP and lateral flow kits and combined this into an optimised diagnostic assay which was then tested on field faecal samples from Eastern and South-Eastern Hungary as well as a pure H. contortus egg faecal sample from Kosice, Slovakia. Both assays showed no conflicts in visual detection of the results. Additionally, we modified and tested several centrifuge-free DNA extraction methods and one bead-beating egg lysis DNA extraction method to develop a true point of care protocol, as the source of the starting DNA is the main rate-limiting step in farm-level molecular diagnosis. Out of the various methods trialed, promising results were obtained with the magnetic bead extraction method. Sample solutions from the Fill-FLOTAC® technique were also utilised, which demonstrated that it could be efficiently adapted for field-level egg concentration to extract DNA. This proof of concept study showed that isothermal amplification technologies with a colourimetric detection or when combined with a lateral flow assay could be an important step for a true point of care molecular diagnostic assay for H. contortus.


Title: Dosage LAMP colorimétrique et à flux latéral pour la détection au point d'intervention d'Haemonchus contortus dans les échantillons de selles de ruminants. Abstract: Dans cette étude, nous présentons un test colorimétrique optimisé et un test LAMP à flux latéral pour la détection d'Haemonchus contortus dans des échantillons de selles de petits ruminants. À l'aide d'un ensemble d'amorces LAMP publié précédemment, nous avons utilisé des kits colorimétriques LAMP à flux latéral disponibles dans le commerce et les avons combinés dans un test de diagnostic optimisé qui a ensuite été testé sur des échantillons de matières fécales de terrain provenant de l'est et du sud-est de la Hongrie ainsi que d'un échantillon d'œufs de H. contortus provenant de selles de Kosice, Slovaquie. Les deux tests n'ont montré aucun conflit dans la détection visuelle des résultats. De plus, nous avons modifié et testé plusieurs méthodes d'extraction d'ADN sans centrifugation et une méthode d'extraction de l'ADN des œufs par lyse par billes pour développer un véritable protocole de point d'intervention, car la source d'ADN de départ est la principale étape limitante du diagnostic moléculaire au niveau de la ferme. Parmi les différentes méthodes testées, des résultats prometteurs ont été obtenus avec la méthode d'extraction par billes magnétiques. Des solutions d'échantillons de la technique Fill-FLOTAC® ont également été utilisées, ce qui a démontré qu'elle pouvait être efficacement adaptée à la concentration d'œufs sur le terrain pour extraire l'ADN. Cette étude de preuve de concept a montré que les technologies d'amplification isotherme avec une détection colorimétrique ou lorsqu'elles sont combinées avec un test de flux latéral pourraient être une étape importante pour un véritable test de diagnostic moléculaire au point d'intervention pour H. contortus.


Assuntos
Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Animais , Colorimetria , Fezes , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ruminantes
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20191496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787167

RESUMO

It is well known that several of the swainsonine-containing plant species found widespread around the world have a negative economic impact in each country. In Argentina, most of the information on the poisonous plant species that produce α-mannosidosis is published in Spanish and thus not available to most English-speaking researchers interested in toxic plants. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the information about swainsonine-containing plants in Argentina, which are extensively distributed throughout different ecoregions of the country. To date, five species from three genera have been shown to induce α-mannosidosis in livestock in Argentina: Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea hieronymi subsp. calchaquina (Convolvulaceae), Astragalus garbancillo, Astragalus pehuenches (Fabaceae), and Sida rodrigoi (Malvaceae). These species contain the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, which inhibits the lysosomal enzyme α-mannosidase and consequently affects glycoprotein metabolism, resulting in partially metabolized sugars. The prolonged consumption of these poisonous plants produces progressive weight loss and clinical signs related to a nervous disorder, characterized by tremors of head and neck, abnormalities of gait, difficulty in standing, ataxia and wide-based stance. Histological lesions are mainly characterized by vacuolation of different cells, especially neurons of the central nervous system. The main animal model used to study α-mannosidosis is the guinea pig because, when experimentally poisoned, it exhibits many of the characteristics of naturally intoxicated livestock.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Plantas , alfa-Manosidose , Animais , Argentina , Cobaias , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas , Ruminantes
11.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(5): 465-471, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724765

RESUMO

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous arthropod vectors that transmit epizootic arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Arboviruses are recognized as causes of pregnancy loss, encephalomyelitis, and congenital malformations in ruminants. Therefore, continuous monitoring and control of Culicoides, which causes significant damage to industrial animals are necessary. We performed attraction and repellent tests in Culicoides using various essential oils, cow dung, and carbon dioxide (CO2). Culicoides tended to move more to cow dung (60.8%, P<0.0001) and CO2 (63.8%, P<0.01). To the essential oils as repellents, 26.1% (P<0.0001), 18.7% (P<0.001), and 25.5% (P<0.01) of the Culicoides moved to the lavender, lemongrass, and eucalyptus chamber, respectively. The Culicoides that moved to the 3 essential oils chambers showed markedly low activity. Collectively, it was showed that Culicoides tended to be attractive to cow dung and CO2, and repellent from the 3 essential oils.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Ceratopogonidae , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Bovinos , Feminino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ruminantes
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 197: 105525, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749158

RESUMO

Sheep farming has shown expressive growth, even in the Northeast region of Brazil, with rainfall below expectations in the last decade. This growth has been observed not only in the number of herds, but also in the number of properties involved in sheep farming. Although expressive, the production of small ruminants still presents low levels of performance, mainly due to the occurrence of diseases, which constitute an obstacle to this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the seroprevalence of leptospirosis in sheep in Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 3438 sheep in 190 herds from 48 municipalities, belonging to the states of Ceará, Paraíba, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe. Serological diagnosis was performed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In 76.3 % (95 % CI = 69.79-81.81) of the herds there was at least one animal seropositive for at least one of the Leptospira spp. serogroups and 14.94 % (95 %CI = 13.8-16.18) of the animals were seropositive. The state of Paraíba had the highest herd (95.7 %) and animal (26.6 %) prevalences, followed by Ceará (93.9 % and 23.7 %, respectively). The most frequent serogroups were Autumnalis (18.68 %), Australis (17.9 %) and Pyrogenes (15.18 %). There was no association between the studied variables and the herd-level prevalence of leptospirosis. High herd and animal-level seroprevalences was found for sheep leptospirosis in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, and there is a need to implement control and prevention measures, such as quarantine, serology, vaccination and adequate treatment, in addition to the introduction of proven healthy animals, mainly in the states of Paraíba and Ceará, aiming to reduce the prevalence of disease.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Prevalência , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 325, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma species have been associated with economically important diseases affecting ruminants worldwide and include contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious agalactia, listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The Mycoplasma Team at the Animal and Plant Health Agency provides an identification service for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species of veterinary importance to the United Kingdom (UK), supporting the detection of new and emerging pathogens, as well as contributing to the surveillance of endemic, and the OIE listed diseases exotic to the UK. Mycoplasma and other Mollicutes species were identified from diagnostic samples from farmed ruminants in England and Wales using a combination of culture and 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, submitted between 2005 and 2019. RESULTS: A total of 5578 mollicutes identifications, which include mycoplasmas and the related acholeoplasmas and ureaplasmas, were made from farmed ruminant animals during the study period. Throughout the study period, the pathogen Mycoplasma bovis was consistently the most frequently identified species, accounting for 1411 (32%) of 4447 molecular identifications in cattle, primarily detected in the lungs of pneumonic calves, followed by joints and milk of cattle showing signs of arthritis and mastitis, respectively. M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens, M. dispar, M. arginini and Ureaplasma diversum, were also common. Mixed species, principally M. bovis with M. alkalescens, M. arginini or M. bovirhinis were also prevalent, particularly from respiratory samples. The non-cultivable blood-borne haemoplasmas Candidatus 'Mycoplasma haemobos' and Mycoplasma wenyonii were identified from cattle, with the latter species most often associated with milk-drop. M. ovipneumoniae was the predominant species identified from sheep and goats experiencing respiratory disease, while M. conjunctivae preponderated in ocular samples. The UK remains free of the ruminant mycoplasmas listed by OIE. CONCLUSIONS: The continued high prevalence of M. bovis identifications confirms its ongoing dominance and importance as a significant pathogen of cattle in England and Wales, particularly in association with respiratory disease. M. ovipneumoniae has seen a general increase in prevalence in recent years, notably in coughing lambs and should therefore be considered as a primary differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in small ruminants.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tenericutes/classificação , Tenericutes/isolamento & purificação , País de Gales/epidemiologia
14.
Science ; 374(6564): 163, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618593
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 230: 108169, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627787

RESUMO

More than 50 years after anthelmintic resistance was first identified, its prevalence and impact on the animal production industry continues to increase across the world. The term "anthelmintic resistance" (AR) can be briefly defined as the reduction in efficacy of a certain dose of anthelmintic drugs (AH) in eliminating the presence of a parasite population that was previously susceptible. The main aim of this study is to examine anthelmintic resistance in domestic herbivores. There are numerous factors playing a role in the development of AR, but the most important is livestock management. The price of AH and the need to treat a high number of animals mean that farmers face significant costs in this regard, yet, since 1981, little progress has been made in the discovery of new molecules and the time and cost required to bring a new AH to market has increased dramatically in recent decades. Furthermore, resistance has also emerged for new AH, such as monepantel or derquantel. Consequently, ruminant parasitism cannot be controlled solely by using synthetic chemicals. A change in approach is needed, using a range of preventive measures in order to achieve a sustainable control programme. The use of nematophagous fungi or of plant extracts rich in compounds with anthelmintic properties, such as terpenes, condensed tannins, or flavonoids, represent potential alternatives. Nevertheless, although new approaches are showing promising results, there is still much to do. More research focused on the control of AR is needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Fungos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico
16.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641380

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are recognised factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Evidence suggests that intake of industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) promotes endothelial dysfunction, while ruminant TFAs may have the opposite effect. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of elaidic acid (EA (18:1n-9t); an industrially produced TFA) and trans vaccenic acid (TVA (18:1n-7t); a natural TFA found in ruminant milk and meat) on inflammatory responses of endothelial cells (ECs). ECs (EA.hy926 cells) were cultured under standard conditions and exposed to TFAs (1 to 50 µM) for 48 h. Then, the cells were cultured for a further 6 or 24 h with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 1 ng/mL) as an inflammatory stimulant. ECs remained viable after treatments. TFAs were incorporated into ECs in a dose-dependent manner. Preincubation with EA (50 µM) increased production of MCP-1, RANTES, and IL-8 in response to TNF-α, while preincubation with TVA (1 µM) decreased production of ICAM-1 and RANTES in response to TNF-α. Preincubation with EA (50 µM) upregulated toll-like receptor 4 and cyclooxygenase 2 gene expression in response to TNF-α. In contrast, preincubation with TVA (1 µM) downregulated TNF-α induced nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 gene expression. Preincubation of ECs with EA (50 µM) increased THP-1 monocyte adhesion. In contrast, preincubation of ECs with TVA (1 µM) reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion, while preincubation of ECs with TVA (50 µM) decreased the level of surface expression of ICAM-1 seen following TNF-α stimulation. The results suggest that TVA has some anti-inflammatory properties, while EA enhances the response to an inflammatory stimulus. These findings suggest differential effects induced by the TFAs tested, fitting with the idea that industrial TFAs and ruminant TFAs can have different and perhaps opposing biological actions in an inflammatory context.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Ácidos Oleicos/farmacologia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos trans/farmacologia , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248978, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669799

RESUMO

The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Fezes , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
18.
Parasite ; 28: 64, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468311

RESUMO

This study evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of a liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root aqueous extract and of glycyrrhetinic acid at 30, 10, 5, 1, and 0.5 mg/mL against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), using the egg hatch test (EHT), the larval development test (LDT), and the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT). The compounds were applied on a mixture of GIN eggs and larvae, mainly Trichostrongylus spp. and Teladorsagia/Ostertagia spp. Cytotoxicity assays were also performed. In the EHT, both candidates showed significant concentration-dependent efficacy and were significantly more effective (p < 0.001) at the highest concentrations (30 and 10 mg/mL) than the lowest ones. In the LDT, only G. glabra showed a concentration-dependent effect (R2 = 0.924), but glycyrrhetinic acid (R2 = 0.910) had significantly higher efficacy than G. glabra root extract. Moreover, the efficacy of glycyrrhetinic acid at 30, 10, and 5 mg/mL was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than at lower concentrations. In the LMIT, G. glabra showed concentration-dependent efficacy (R2 = 0.971), while considerably reduced efficacy was observed for glycyrrhetinic acid (R2 = 0.855) at the lowest concentrations. These data suggest that the two compounds may have different mechanisms of action. In the LMIT, the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of glycyrrhetinic acid (~5.12 mg/mL) was > 2.0-fold lower when compared to G. glabra (12.25 mg/mL). Analysis and previous findings indicated low toxicity for both compounds. The results obtained encourage in vivo studies aimed at evaluating the potential use of the tested compounds as natural de-wormers in ruminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Ácido Glicirretínico , Glycyrrhiza , Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirretínico/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586400

RESUMO

Ruminant supply chains contribute 5.7 gigatons of CO2-eq per annum, which represents approximately 80% of the livestock sector emissions. One of the largest sources of emission in the ruminant sector is methane (CH4), accounting for approximately 40% of the sectors total emissions. With climate change being a growing concern, emphasis is being put on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including those from ruminant production. Various genetic and environmental factors influence cattle CH4 production, such as breed, genetic makeup, diet, management practices, and physiological status of the host. The influence of genetic variability on CH4 yield in ruminants indicates that genomic selection for reduced CH4 emissions is possible. Although the microbiology of CH4 production has been studied, further research is needed to identify key differences in the host and microbiome genomes and how they interact with one another. The advancement of "-omics" technologies, such as metabolomics and metagenomics, may provide valuable information in this regard. Improved understanding of genetic mechanisms associated with CH4 production and the interaction between the microbiome profile and host genetics will increase the rate of genetic progress for reduced CH4 emissions. Through a systems biology approach, various "-omics" technologies can be combined to unravel genomic regions and genetic markers associated with CH4 production, which can then be used in selective breeding programs. This comprehensive review discusses current challenges in applying genomic selection for reduced CH4 emissions, and the potential for "-omics" technologies, especially metabolomics and metagenomics, to minimize such challenges. The integration and evaluation of different levels of biological information using a systems biology approach is also discussed, which can assist in understanding the underlying genetic mechanisms and biology of CH4 production traits in ruminants and aid in reducing agriculture's overall environmental footprint.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Metano , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Metabolômica , Metagenômica , Metano/análise , Ruminantes/genética
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 733811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568096

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) infections in sheep have significant implications for animal health, welfare and productivity, as well as being a source of zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between pathogens and epithelial cells at the mucosal surface play a key role in determining the outcome of GI infections; however, the inaccessibility of the GI tract in vivo significantly limits the ability to study such interactions in detail. We therefore developed ovine epithelial organoids representing physiologically important gastric and intestinal sites of infection, specifically the abomasum (analogous to the stomach in monogastrics) and ileum. We show that both abomasal and ileal organoids form self-organising three-dimensional structures with a single epithelial layer and a central lumen that are stable in culture over serial passage. We performed RNA-seq analysis on abomasal and ileal tissue from multiple animals and on organoids across multiple passages and show the transcript profile of both abomasal and ileal organoids cultured under identical conditions are reflective of the tissue from which they were derived and that the transcript profile in organoids is stable over at least five serial passages. In addition, we demonstrate that the organoids can be successfully cryopreserved and resuscitated, allowing long-term storage of organoid lines, thereby reducing the number of animals required as a source of tissue. We also report the first published observations of a helminth infecting gastric and intestinal organoids by challenge with the sheep parasitic nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta, demonstrating the utility of these organoids for pathogen co-culture experiments. Finally, the polarity in the abomasal and ileal organoids can be inverted to make the apical surface directly accessible to pathogens or their products, here shown by infection of apical-out organoids with the zoonotic enteric bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In summary, we report a simple and reliable in vitro culture system for generation and maintenance of small ruminant intestinal and gastric organoids. In line with 3Rs principals, use of such organoids will reduce and replace animals in host-pathogen research.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Organoides , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Estômago
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...