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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247237, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339386

RESUMO

Abstract Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely "SARS-CoV-2" is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the "SARS-CoV-2" although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among "SARS-CoV-2" and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that "SARS-CoV-2" has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.


Resumo O novo coronavírus (nCoV), nomeadamente "SARS-CoV-2", foi considerado responsável pela pandemia atual iniciada em Wuhan (China) desde dezembro de 2019 e foi descrito com ligação epidemiológica à China em cerca de 221 países e territórios até agora. Neste estudo, caracterizamos a linhagem genética do SARS-CoV-2 e relatamos a recombinação dentro do gênero e subgênero dos coronavírus. A relação filogenética de 39 coronavírus pertencentes a seus quatro gêneros e cinco subgêneros foi analisada usando o método de Neighbour-joining usando MEGA 6.0. Árvores filogenéticas do genoma de comprimento total, várias proteínas (espícula, envelope, membrana e nucleocapsídeo), sequências de nucleotídeos foram construídas separadamente. A recombinação putativa foi testada via RDP4. Nossa análise descreve que o "SARS-CoV-2", embora mostre grande semelhança com as sequências de Bat-SARS-CoVs em todo o genoma (dando semelhança de sequência de 89%), exibe agrupamento conflitante com as sequências de coronavírus do tipo Bat-SARS (MG772933 e MG772934) Além disso, sete eventos de recombinação foram observados em SARS-CoV-2 (NC045512) por RDP4. Mas nem um único evento de recombinação preenche o alto nível de certeza. A recombinação está alojada mais em genes de proteína de pico, principalmente, do que no resto do genoma, indicando que o cluster de ponto de interrupção surge além dos intervalos de densidade de ponto de interrupção de 95% e 99%. Os níveis de similaridade genética observados entre "SARS-CoV-2" e Bat-SARS-CoVs defendem que o último não exibe a variante específica que causa surto em humanos, sugerindo que "SARS-CoV-2" tenha se originado possivelmente de morcegos. Essas características genômicas e sua provável associação com as características do vírus, juntamente com a virulência em humanos, requerem uma consideração mais aprofundada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Quirópteros , COVID-19 , Filogenia , Simulação por Computador , Genoma Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247604, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339370

RESUMO

Abstract In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.


Resumo No presente relatório, estudamos os possíveis inibidores de Covid-19 de constituintes bioativos de Centaurea jacea usando uma abordagem tripla que consiste em técnicas de química quântica, docking molecular e dinâmica molecular. Centaurea jacea é uma erva perene frequentemente usada em remédios populares de doenças dermatológicas e febre. Além disso, as propriedades anticâncer, antioxidante, antibacteriana e antiviral de seus compostos bioativos também são relatadas. A Mpro (proteases principais) foi acoplada a diferentes compostos de Centaurea jacea por meio de docking molecular. Todos os compostos estudados, incluindo apigenina, axilarina, Centaureidina, Cirsiliol, Eupatorina e Isokaempferide, mostram afinidades de ligação adequadas ao sítio de ligação da protease principal SARS-CoV-2 com suas energias de ligação -6,7 kcal / mol, -7,4 kcal / mol, - 7,0 kcal / mol, -5,8 kcal / mol, -6,2 kcal / mol e -6,8 kcal / mol, respectivamente. Dentre todos os compostos estudados, a axilarina apresentou eficiência máxima de inibidor, seguida pela Centaureidina, Isokaempferida, Apigenina, Eupatorina e Cirsiliol. Nossos resultados sugeriram que a axilarina se liga aos resíduos catalíticos mais cruciais CYS145 e HIS41 do Mpro, além disso a axilarina mostra 5 interações de ligações de hidrogênio e 5 interações hidrofóbicas com vários resíduos de Mpro. Além disso, os cálculos de dinâmica molecular em uma escala de tempo de 60 ns (6 × 106 femtossegundos) também mostraram percepções significativas sobre os efeitos de ligação da axilarina com Mpro de SARS-CoV-2 por imitação de proteínas como o ambiente aquoso. A partir de cálculos de dinâmica molecular, os cálculos RMSD e RMSF indicam a estabilidade e dinâmica do melhor complexo ancorado em ambiente aquoso. As propriedades ADME e a análise de previsão de toxicidade da axilarina também a recomendaram como um candidato a medicamento seguro. Além disso, as investigações in vivo e in vitro são essenciais para garantir a atividade anti-SARS-CoV-2 de todos os compostos bioativos, particularmente a axilarina, para encorajar o uso preventivo de Centaurea jacea contra infecções por Covid-19.


Assuntos
Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Centaurea , COVID-19 , Inibidores de Proteases , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMO

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

RESUMO

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esquizofrenia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Demografia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
7.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(3): 24-32, set.-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1381063

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar quais EPIs foram utilizados pelos cirurgiões-dentistas e a relação destes EPIs com a presença de dores osteomusculares em virtude do novo estilo de vida profissional ocasionado pelo SARS-CoV-2. Foram aplicados dois questionários com a temática por intermédio da plataforma Google Forms®. Os participantes da pesquisa (n= 110) tiveram acesso aos questionários via e-mail e através das redes sociais. A análise de dados foi realizada por meio de teste qui-quadrado com nível de confiança de 95%. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram predomínio de indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 21 a 29 anos, solteiros, entre 1 a 10 anos de formado, possuindo renda mensal de 1 a 5 salários-mínimos, especialistas, atuando em consultório particular, com atualizações para atendimento durante o período de pandemia. Observou-se relação estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) na utilização de gorro durante os atendimentos odontológicos para os profissionais que realizaram atualizações para atendimento durante o período de pandemia da COVID-19. Em relação aos demais EPIs não houve relação estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05). No que diz respeito às dores osteomusculares, observou-se relação estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) apenas entre a utilização de avental descartável e o relato de dores na região do pescoço, ombro e costas. Ademais, não foi possível observar relação estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05) entre EPIs e dores osteomusculares. Pôde-se concluir que uma grande parcela dos cirurgiões-dentistas adotou medidas de proteção contra o novo Coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2), utilizando os EPIs recomendados para executar atendimento durante o período pandêmico. Com relação às dores osteomusculares, os participantes relataram dor com ou sem a utilização de EPIs, porém ao utilizarem avental descartável, houve predominância de sintomatologia na região do pescoço, ombros e coluna(AU)


The aim of this study was to identify which PPE was used by Dental Surgeons and the relationship of this PPE with the presence of musculoskeletal pain due to the new professional lifestyle caused by SARS-CoV-2. Two questionnaires with the theme were applied through the Google Forms® platform. Research participants (n = 110) had access to the questionnaires via e-mail and through social networks. Data analysis was performed using a chi-square test with a 95% confidence level. The results showed a predominance of male individuals, aged between 21 and 29 years old, single, between 1 and 10 years since graduation, having a monthly income of 1 to 5 minimum wages, specialists, working in private practice, with updates for care during the pandemic period. There was a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) in the use of a cap during dental care for professionals who updated for care during the COVID-19 pandemic period. About the other PPE there was no statistically significant relationship (p>0.05). Regarding musculoskeletal pain, there was a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) only between the use of a disposable apron and the report of pain in the neck, shoulder, and back. Furthermore, it was not possible to observe a statistically significant relationship (p>0.05) between PPE and musculoskeletal pain. It was concluded that a large portion of dentists adopted protective measures against the new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), using the recommended PPE to perform care during the pandemic period. Regarding musculoskeletal pain, participants reported pain with or without the use of PPE, however, when using a disposable apron, there was a predominance of symptoms in the neck, shoulders, and back(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Odontólogos , Dor Musculoesquelética , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , COVID-19 , Ombro , Riscos Ocupacionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , SARS-CoV-2 , Ergonomia
8.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-12, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378476

RESUMO

Objective: Analyze lysosomotropic agents and their action on COVID-19 targets using the molecular docking technique. Methods: Molecular docking analyses of these lysosomotropic agents were performed, namely of fluoxetine, imipramine, chloroquine, verapamil, tamoxifen, amitriptyline, and chlorpromazine against important targets for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The results revealed that the inhibitors bind to distinct regions of Mpro COVID-19, with variations in RMSD values from 1.325 to 1.962 Å and binding free energy of -5.2 to -4.3 kcal/mol. Furthermore, the analysis of the second target showed that all inhibitors bonded at the same site as the enzyme, and the interaction resulted in an RMSD variation of 0.735 to 1.562 Å and binding free energy ranging from -6.0 to -8.7 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Therefore, this study allows proposing the use of these lysosomotropic compounds. However, these computer simulations are just an initial step toward conceiving new projects for the development of antiviral molecules.


Objetivo: aAnalisar agentes lisossomotrópicos e sua ação em alvos de COVID-19 usando a técnica de docking molecular. Métodos: Foram realizadas análises de docagem molecular destes agentes lisossomotrópicos, nomeadamente de fluoxetina, imipramina, cloroquina, verapamil, tamoxifeno, amitriptilina e clorpromazina contra alvos importantes para a patogenia do SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram que os inibidores se ligam a regiões distintas do Mpro COVID-19, com variações nos valores de RMSD de 1.325 a 1.962 Å e energia livre de ligação de -5,2 a -4,3 kcal/mol. Além disso, a análise do segundo alvo mostrou que todos os inibidores se ligaram no mesmo sítio da enzima, e a interação resultante em uma variação de RMSD de 0,735 a 1.562 Å e energia livre de ligação variando de -6,0 a -8,7 kcal/mol. Conclusão: Portanto, este estudo permite propor o uso desses compostos lisossomotrópicos. No entanto, essas simulações em computador são apenas um passo inicial para a concepção de novos projetos para o desenvolvimento de moléculas antivirais.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Antivirais , Cloroquina , Programas de Rastreamento , Fluoxetina , Amitriptilina , Imipramina
9.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378456

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the interactions of di- and tri-terpenes from Stillingia loranthacea with the enzyme NSP16-NSP10 of SARS-CoV-2, important for viral replication. Methods: The molecular docking technique was used to evaluate this interaction. Results: The analysis showed that the evaluated compounds obtained RMSD values of 0.888 to 1.944 Å and free energy of -6.1 to -9.4 kcal/mol, with the observation of hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and pi-sulfur, pi-alkyl, and hydrophobic interactions. Conclusion: Thus, the results obtained show the potential of the compounds analyzed against the selected target. Since computer simulations are only an initial step in projects for the development of antiviral drugs, this study provides important data for future research.


Objetivo: avaliar as interações de di- e tri-terpenos de Stillingia loranthacea com a enzima NSP16-NSP10 de SARS-CoV-2, importante para a replicação viral. Métodos: A técnica de docking molecular foi utilizada para avaliar essa interação. Resultados: A análise mostrou que os compostos avaliados obtiveram valores de RMSD de 0,888 a 1,944 Å e energia livre de -6,1 a -9,4 kcal/mol, observando-se ligações de hidrogênio, pontes salinas e pi-enxofre, pi-alquil, e interações hidrofóbicas. Conclusão: Assim, os resultados obtidos mostram o potencial dos compostos analisados frente ao alvo selecionado. Como as simulações computacionais são apenas um passo inicial nos projetos de desenvolvimento de medicamentos antivirais, este estudo fornece dados importantes para pesquisas futuras.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirais , Terpenos , Replicação Viral , Enzimas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 264-268, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372367

RESUMO

Introducción. Durante el 2020, la circulación de otros virus respiratorios fue inferior a lo acostumbrado. Es probable que, almodificarse las medidas de mitigación para la infección por el coronavirus 2019, dicha prevalencia haya aumentado en 2021. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de virus respiratorioshabituales en pacientes de 0 a 5 años asistidos en Departamento de Urgencias de un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Métodos. Estudio transversal con 348 pacientes que consultaronpor sospecha de enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019(COVID-19), en quienes se descartó dicha enfermedad y se realizó la pesquisa sistemática de virus respiratorios habitualesResultados. En el 40 % de los pacientes se identificó el virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR), un virus respiratorio habitual. La edad menor de 2 años se mostró como predictor independiente de VSR (razón de momios [OR]: 4,15; intervalos de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 2,46-6,99). Conclusión. En la población estudiada, 40 % de los pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19 en quienes se descartó infección por SARS-CoV-2 presentaban infección por VSR.


Introduction. During 2020, circulation of other respiratory viruses was lower than usual. Most likely, as mitigation measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were modified, their prevalence in 2021 may have increased. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of common respiratory viruses among patients aged 0­5 years seen at the Emergency Department of a children's hospital in the City of Buenos Aires. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 348 patients consulting for suspected COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out and routine screening for common respiratory viruses was performed. Results. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory virus, was identified in 40% of patients. Age younger than 2 years was an independent predictor of RSV (odds ratio [OR]: 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46­6.99). Conclusion. In the study population, 40% of patients suspected of COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out had RSV infection.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vírus , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 269-273, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372375

RESUMO

Introducción. Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, disminuyeron las notificaciones de infecciones respiratorias. El objetivo fue estimar la prevalencia de virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR) e influenza en niños escolarizados asistidos en un hospital pediátrico durante el retorno a la presencialidad. Métodos. Estudio transversal de casos sospechosos de COVID-19, de 3-18 años, con prueba negativa para SARSCoV-2, entre agosto y octubre de 2021. Se estratificó por nivel educativo. Se utilizó PCR para detectar VSR e influenza. Resultados. Se incluyeron 619 niños: 234 del nivel inicial, 224 del primario y 161 del secundario; 25,5 % (158) fueron positivos para VSR (36,3 % del nivel inicial versus 21 % del primario y 16 % del secundario); en adolescentes se asoció la infección al contacto escolar con caso sintomático (OR 2,5; IC95%: 1-6,80; p = 0,04). No se aisló virus influenza. Conclusión. VSR se aisló en un cuarto de la población estudiada, con mayor frecuencia en el nivel inicial; en adolescentes, se asoció con contacto escolar sintomático. No se detectaron casos de influenza


Introduction. Reporting of respiratory infections reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza in schoolchildren seen at a children's hospital during the return to school. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients aged 3­18 years suspected of COVID-19 with a negative test for SARS-CoV-2 between August and October 2021. Participants were stratified by level of education. PCR was used to detect RSV and influenza. Results. A total of 619 children were included: 234 in preschool, 224 in primary and 161 in secondary school; 25.5% (158) tested positive for RS (36.3% in the pre-school level versus 21% in primary and 16% in secondary school). Infection among adolescents was associated with school contact with symptomatic cases (OR 2.5; 95%CI 1­6.80; p = 0.04). No case of influenza was detected. Conclusion. RSV was isolated in one fourth of the study population, with a higher frequency in pre-school; among adolescents, it was associated with school contact with symptomatic cases. No case of influenza was detected.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitais Pediátricos
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): e183-e186, Agosto 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1379148

RESUMO

Las encefalitis son cuadros clínicos frecuentes en la edad pediátrica. Pueden dividirse en aquellas causadas por la infección del sistema nervioso central y en las de etiología inmunomediada (algunas de las cuales pueden ser para- o posinfecciosas). En marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la pandemia por el coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés). Los reportes pediátricos de enfermedad por dicho agente describen una amplia gama de manifestaciones clínicas: compromiso respiratorio, gastrointestinal, síntomas neurológicos, entre otros; y el síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico asociado a COVID-19 (SIM-C). Describimos el caso de un niño de 2 años con diagnóstico de encefalitis por anticuerpos antirreceptor N-metil-d-aspartato (anti-NMDAR), en quien se comprobó, mediante serología, una infección reciente por SARS-CoV-2. La presencia de marcadores serológicos positivos para SARS-CoV-2 en un paciente que presentó encefalitis por anticuerpos anti-NMDAR podría interpretarse como una asociación temporal, estableciéndose la posibilidad de que el virus haya actuado como gatillo de una enfermedad autoinmunitaria.


Encephalitis are frequent clinical pictures in pediatric age. They can be divided into those caused by infection of the central nervous system and those of immune-mediated etiology (some of which may be para- or post-infectious). In March 2020, the WHO declared a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Pediatric reports of disease caused by this agent describe a wide range of clinical manifestations: respiratory and gastrointestinal compromise, neurological symptoms, among others; and a multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C).We describe the case of a 2-year-old boy with a diagnosis of anti-NMDAR antibody encephalitis, in whom a recent SARSCoV-2 infection was serologically proven. The presence of positive serological markers for SARS-CoV-2 in a patient who presented encephalitis due to anti-NMDAR antibodies could be interpreted as a temporal association; establishing the possibility that the virus has acted as a trigger for an autoimmune disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-08-04.
em Inglês, Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56217

RESUMO

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity decreased in the subregion while SARS-CoV-2 continued elevated. In Mexico, influenza activity with A(H3N2) virus predominance decreased, while SARS-CoV-2 positivity continued to increase. SARI activity remained at moderate-intensity levels, whereas ILI activity rose to high-intensity levels, driven by the SARS-CoV-2 circulation. In the United States, influenza activity was low, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominance. In addition, RSV activity remained stable compared to previous weeks, while SARS-CoV-2 activity increased with higher COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained low, with the predominance of the influenza A(H3N2) virus. Belize and the Dominican Republic, reported increased SARS-CoV-2 activity, with increased SARI cases, although below the epidemic thresholds, except in Haiti, with levels above average for this time of year. In the Dominican Republic, RSV activity remained elevated at levels seen in the pre-pandemic period with SARS-CoV-2 cocirculation. Central America: Influenza activity continued to decrease in the subregion, with influenza A(H3N2) virus predominance. In Nicaragua, influenza activity increased to moderate-intensity levels, with the A(H3N2) virus predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity rose across the subregion, with increased levels in Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Influenza and SARS-CoV-2-associated ILI counts remained at moderate levels in Guatemala. Andean Countries: Influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance, except in Bolivia and Peru where circulation increased above epidemic levels.SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to increase in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza activity remained at low levels with influenza A(H3N2) predominance and driven by its circulation in Chile and Uruguay. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to increase throughout the subregion. Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay reported SARI activity elevated above epidemic levels for the period, with RSV and SARS-CoV-2 predominance in Chile and Uruguay, while SARS-CoV-2 predominated in Paraguay.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó en la subregión, mientras que el SARS-CoV-2 continuó elevado. En México disminuyó la actividad de influenza con predominio del virus A(H3N2) mientras que la positividad del SARS-CoV-2 siguió aumentando. La actividad de la ETI se mantuvo en niveles de intensidad moderada mientras que la actividad de la IRAG ascendió a niveles de intensidad altos, en ambos casos a expensas de la circulación de SARS-CoV-2. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza fue baja, predominando los virus influenza A(H3N2). La actividad del VRS se mantuvo estable respecto a las semanas previas mientras que la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en aumento con un mayor número de hospitalizaciones asociadas a la COVID-19. Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo muy baja, con predominio del virus influenza A(H3N2). Belice y la República Dominicana notificaron un aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, con un aumento de los casos de IRAG, sin superar los umbrales epidémicos, excepto en Haití donde los niveles se sitúan por encima del promedio para esta época del año. En la República Dominicana, la actividad del VRS se mantuvo elevada en niveles observados en el período previo a la pandemia con circulación concurrente de SARS-CoV-2. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó en descenso en la subregión, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2). En Nicaragua la actividad de la influenza ascendió en niveles de intensidad moderados con predominio del virus A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS CoV-2 continuó en aumento en toda la subregión con niveles elevados en Costa Rica, Honduras y Guatemala. Los recuentos de casos de ETI asociados con influenza y SARS-CoV-2 se mantuvieron en niveles moderados en Guatemala. Países Andinos: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja con predominio de A(H3N2), excepto en Bolivia y Perú donde la circulación aumentó por encima de los niveles epidémicos. La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 siguió aumentando en Bolivia, Colombia y Perú, Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y a expensas de la circulación en Chile y Uruguay. La actividad del SARS-CoV‑2 siguió en aumento en niveles moderados en toda la subregión. Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay reportaron actividad de la IRAG elevada sobre los niveles epidémicos para el periodo, con predominio de VRS y SARS-CoV-2 en Chile y Uruguay, mientras que predominó el SARS-CoV-2 en Paraguay.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , América , Região do Caribe , Influenza Humana , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , América , Região do Caribe
15.
Cell Rep ; 40(5): 111160, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921835

RESUMO

Although COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, multiple pathogenic coronavirus species exist, urging on development of multispecies coronavirus vaccines. Here we develop prototype lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-mRNA vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 Delta, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, and we test how multiplexing LNP-mRNAs can induce effective immune responses in animal models. Triplex and duplex LNP-mRNA vaccinations induce antigen-specific antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Single-cell RNA sequencing profiles the global systemic immune repertoires and respective transcriptome signatures of vaccinated animals, revealing a systemic increase in activated B cells and differential gene expression across major adaptive immune cells. Sequential vaccination shows potent antibody responses against all three species, significantly stronger than simultaneous vaccination in mixture. These data demonstrate the feasibility, antibody responses, and single-cell immune profiles of multispecies coronavirus vaccination. The direct comparison between simultaneous and sequential vaccination offers insights into optimization of vaccination schedules to provide broad and potent antibody immunity against three major pathogenic coronavirus species.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Lipossomos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Nanopartículas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de mRNA
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e063935, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of messenger RNA (mRNA) booster doses during the period of Delta and Omicron variant dominance. DESIGN: We conducted a matched test-negative case-control study to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of three and two doses of mRNA vaccines against infection (regardless of symptoms) and against COVID-19-related hospitalisation and death. SETTING: Veterans Health Administration. PARTICIPANTS: We used electronic health record data from 114 640 veterans who had a SARS-CoV-2 test during November 2021-January 2022. Patients were largely 65 years or older (52%), male (88%) and non-Hispanic white (59%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First positive result for a SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test. RESULTS: Against infection, booster doses had higher estimated VE (64%, 95% CI 63 to 65) than two-dose vaccination (12%, 95% CI 10 to 15) during the Omicron period. For the Delta period, the VE against infection was 90% (95% CI 88 to 92) among boosted vaccinees, higher than the VE among two-dose vaccinees (54%, 95% CI 50 to 57). Against hospitalisation, booster dose VE was 89% (95% CI 88 to 91) during Omicron and 94% (95% CI 90 to 96) during Delta; two-dose VE was 63% (95% CI 58 to 67) during Omicron and 75% (95% CI 69 to 80) during Delta. Against death, the VE with a booster dose was 94% (95% CI 90 to 96) during Omicron and 96% (95% CI 87 to 99) during Delta. CONCLUSIONS: Among an older, mostly male, population with comorbidities, we found that an mRNA vaccine booster was highly effective against infection, hospitalisation and death. Although the effectiveness of booster vaccination against infection was moderately higher against Delta than against the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant, effectiveness against severe disease and death was similarly high against both variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Veteranos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de mRNA
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e059111, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identifying patients with a possible SARS-CoV-2 infection in the emergency department (ED) is challenging. Symptoms differ, incidence rates vary and test capacity may be limited. As PCR-testing all ED patients is neither feasible nor effective in most centres, a rapid, objective, low-cost early warning score to triage ED patients for a possible infection is developed. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The study included patients presenting to the ED with venous blood sampling from July 2019 to July 2020 (n=10 417, 279 SARS-CoV-2-positive). The temporal validation cohort covered the period from July 2020 to October 2021 (n=14 080, 1093 SARS-CoV-2-positive). The external validation cohort consisted of patients presenting to the ED of three hospitals in the Netherlands (n=12 061, 652 SARS-CoV-2-positive). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was one or more positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results within 1 day prior to or 1 week after ED presentation. RESULTS: The resulting 'CoLab-score' consists of 10 routine laboratory measurements and age. The score showed good discriminative ability (AUC: 0.930, 95% CI 0.909 to 0.945). The lowest CoLab-score had high sensitivity for COVID-19 (0.984, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.991; specificity: 0.411, 95% CI 0.285 to 0.520). Conversely, the highest score had high specificity (0.978, 95% CI 0.973 to 0.983; sensitivity: 0.608, 95% CI 0.522 to 0.685). The results were confirmed in temporal and external validation. CONCLUSIONS: The CoLab-score is based on routine laboratory measurements and is available within 1 hour after presentation. Depending on the prevalence, COVID-19 may be safely ruled out in over one-third of ED presentations. Highly suspect cases can be identified regardless of presenting symptoms. The CoLab-score is continuous, in contrast to the binary outcome of lateral flow testing, and can guide PCR testing and triage ED patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Escore de Alerta Precoce , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e063279, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the working environment, how we think of it and how it stands to develop into the future. Knowledge about how people have continued to work on-site and adjusted to working from home during the COVID-19 lockdown will be vital for planning work arrangements in the post-pandemic period. Our primary objective was to investigate experiences of working from home or having colleagues working from home during a late stage of the COVID-19 lockdown among researchers and healthcare providers in a hospital research setting. Second, we aimed to investigate researchers' productivity through changes in various proxy measures during lockdown as compared with pre-lockdown. DESIGN: Mixed-method participatory Group Concept Mapping (GCM). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: GCM, based on a mixed-method participatory approach, was applied involving researchers' and healthcare providers' online sorting and rating experiences working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. At a face-to-face meeting, participants achieved consensus on the number and labelling of domains-the basis for developing a conceptual model. RESULTS: Through the GCM approach, 47 participants generated 125 unique statements of experiences related to working from home, which were organised into seven clusters. Using these clusters, we developed a conceptual model that illustrated the pros and cons of working from home. CONCLUSION: The future work setting, the role of the office and the overall work environment need to respond to workers' increased wish for flexible work arrangements and co-decision.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisadores , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dinamarca , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0267505, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial and ethnic differences in mortality among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after adjusting for baseline characteristics and comorbidities. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study at 13 acute care facilities in the New York City metropolitan area included sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 27, 2020. Last day of follow up was July 31, 2020. Patient demographic information, including race/ethnicity and comorbidities, were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 10 869 patients were included in the study (median age, 65 years [interquartile range (IQR) 54-77; range, 18-107 years]; 40.5% female). In adjusted time-to-event analysis, increased age, male sex, insurance type (Medicare and Self-Pay), unknown smoking status, and a higher score on the Charlson Comorbidity Index were significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Adjusted risk of hospital mortality for Black, Asian, Hispanic, multiracial/other, and unknown race/ethnicity patients were similar to risk for White patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a large diverse cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, patients from racial/ethnic minorities experienced similar mortality risk as White patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Idoso , Etnicidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/etnologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Brancos
20.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(12)2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926873

RESUMO

Human milk is important for antimicrobial defense in infants and has well demonstrated antiviral activity. We evaluated the protective ability of human milk against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a human fetal intestinal cell culture model. We found that, in this model, human milk blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication, irrespective of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies. Complete inhibition of both enveloped Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human respiratory syncytial virus infections was also observed, whereas no inhibition of non-enveloped enterovirus A71 infection was seen. Transcriptome analysis after 24 h of the intestinal monolayers treated with human milk showed large transcriptomic changes from human milk treatment, and subsequent analysis suggested that ATP1A1 down-regulation by milk might be of importance. Inhibition of ATP1A1 blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection in our intestinal model, whereas no effect on EV-A71 infection was seen. Our data indicate that human milk has potent antiviral activity against particular (enveloped) viruses by potentially blocking the ATP1A1-mediated endocytic process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Leite Humano
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