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1.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 52(1): 481-490, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385526

RESUMO

Non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1) is one of the first proteins produced during coronaviral infections. It plays a pivotal role in hijacking and rendering the host gene expression under the service of the virus. With a focus on SARS-CoV-2, this review presents how Nsp1 selectively inhibits host protein synthesis and induces mRNA degradation of host but not viral mRNAs and blocks nuclear mRNA export. The clinical implications of this protein are highlighted by showcasing the pathogenic role of Nsp1 through the repression of interferon expression pathways and the features of viral variants with mutations in the Nsp1 coding sequence. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 to hinder host immune responses at an early step, the absence of homology to any human proteins, and the availability of structural information render this viral protein an ideal drug target with therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397016

RESUMO

The effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the coagulation system is not fully understood. SARS-CoV-2 penetrates cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, leading to its downregulation. Des-arginine9-bradykinin (DA9B) is degraded by ACE2 and causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Furthermore, DA9B is associated with impaired platelet function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DA9B on platelet function and coagulopathy in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In total, 29 polymerase-positive SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the University Hospital of Giessen and 29 healthy controls were included. Blood samples were taken, and platelet impedance aggregometry and rotational thromboelastometry were performed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays measured the concentrations of DA9B, bradykinin, and angiotensin 2. Significantly increased concentrations of DA9B and angiotensin 2 were found in the COVID-19 patients. A negative effect of DA9B on platelet function and intrinsic coagulation was also found. A sub-analysis of moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patients revealed a negative association between DA9B and platelet counts and fibrinogen levels. DA9B provokes inhibitory effects on the intrinsic coagulation system in COVID-19 patients. This negative feedback seems reasonable as bradykinin, which is transformed to DA9B, is released after contact activation. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Bradicinina/farmacologia , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Estado Terminal , Angiotensinas
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3711, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355695

RESUMO

The emergence of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting from Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has left an indelible mark on a global scale, causing countless infections and fatalities. This investigation delves into the role of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein within the HEK293 cells, shedding light on its influence over apoptosis, interferon signaling, and cytokines production. The N gene was amplified, inserted into the pAdTrack-CMV vector, and then transfected to the HEK293 cells. Changes in the expression of IRF3, IRF7, IFN-ß, BAK, BAX, and BCL-2 genes were evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines of IL-6, IL-12, IL-1ß, and TNF-α were also determined. The N protein exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect by modulating critical genes associated with apoptosis, including BAK, BAX, and BCL-2. This effect potentially prolonged the survival of infected cells. The N protein also played a role in immune evasion by suppressing the interferon pathway, evidenced by the downregulation of essential interferon regulatory factors of IRF3 and IRF7, and IFN-ß expression. The N protein expression led to a substantial increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines of IL-6, IL-12, IL-1ß, and TNF-α. The N protein emerged as a versatile factor and was exerted over apoptosis, interferon signaling, and cytokine production. These findings carry potential implications for the development of targeted therapies to combat COVID-19 and mitigate its global health impact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Células HEK293 , Interleucina-6 , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Citocinas , Interferons , Interleucina-12
4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 9(1): 39, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355690

RESUMO

Immunostaining in lungs of patients who died with COVID-19 infection showed increased intensity and distribution of chondroitin sulfate and decline in N-acetylgalactostamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B; ARSB). To explain these findings, human small airway epithelial cells were exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (SPRBD) and transcriptional mechanisms were investigated. Phospho-p38 MAPK and phospho-SMAD3 increased following exposure to the SPRBD, and their inhibition suppressed the promoter activation of the carbohydrate sulfotransferases CHST15 and CHST11, which contributed to chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. Decline in ARSB was mediated by phospho-38 MAPK-induced N-terminal Rb phosphorylation and an associated increase in Rb-E2F1 binding and decline in E2F1 binding to the ARSB promoter. The increases in chondroitin sulfotransferases were inhibited when treated with phospho-p38-MAPK inhibitors, SMAD3 (SIS3) inhibitors, as well as antihistamine desloratadine and antibiotic monensin. In the mouse model of carrageenan-induced systemic inflammation, increases in phospho-p38 MAPK and expression of CHST15 and CHST11 and declines in DNA-E2F binding and ARSB expression occurred in the lung, similar to the observed effects in this SPRBD model of COVID-19 infection. Since accumulation of chondroitin sulfates is associated with fibrotic lung conditions and diffuse alveolar damage, increased attention to p38-MAPK inhibition may be beneficial in ameliorating Covid-19 infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , N-Acetilgalactosamina-4-Sulfatase , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , N-Acetilgalactosamina-4-Sulfatase/metabolismo , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
5.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 2024: 3391054, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389521

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a worldwide pandemic, activates signaling cascades and leads to innate immune responses and secretion of multiple chemokines and cytokines. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a crucial role in inflammatory pathways. Through our search on the PubMed database, we discovered that existing research has primarily focused on examining the regulatory impacts of five lncRNAs in the context of viral infections. However, their role in regulating other conditions, including SARS-CoV-2, has not been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of lncRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their potential roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Potentially significant competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks of these five lncRNAs were found using online in-silico techniques. Methods: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood samples of the control group consisted of 45 healthy people, and a total of 53 COVID-19-infected patients in case group, with a written informed consent, was collected. PBMCs were extracted, and then, the RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis was performed. The expression of five lncRNAs (lnc ISR, lnc ATV, lnc PAAN, lnc SG20, and lnc HEAL) was assessed by real-time PCR. In order to evaluate the biomarker roles of genes, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn. Results: Twenty-four (53.3%) and 29 (54.7%) of healthy and COVID-19-infected participants were male, respectively. The most prevalent symptoms were as follows: cough, general weakness, contusion, headache, and sore throat. The results showed that three lncRNAs, including lnc ISR, lnc ATV, and lnc HEAL, were expressed dramatically higher in the case group compared to healthy controls. According to ROC curve analysis, lnc ATV has a higher AUC and is a better biomarker to differentiate COVID-19 patients from the healthy controls. Then, using bioinformatics methods, the ceRNA network of these lncRNAs enabled the identification of mRNAs and miRNAs with crucial functions in COVID-19. Conclusion: The considerable higher expression of ISR, ATV, and HEAL lncRNAs and the significant area under curve (AUC) in ROC curve demonstrate that these RNAs probably have a potential role in controlling the host innate immune responses and regulate the viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. However, these assumptions need further in vitro and in vivo investigations to be confirmed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , COVID-19/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores
6.
J Med Virol ; 96(2): e29472, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373201

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) are critical for immune defense against pathogens. While type-I and -III IFNs have been reported to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication, the antiviral effect and mechanism of type-II IFN against SARS-CoV-2 remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the antiviral activity of type-II IFN (IFNγ) using human lung epithelial cells (Calu3) and ex vivo human lung tissues. In this study, we found that IFNγ suppresses SARS-CoV-2 replication in both Calu3 cells and ex vivo human lung tissues. Moreover, IFNγ treatment does not significantly modulate the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry-related factors and induces a similar level of pro-inflammatory response in human lung tissues when compared with IFNß treatment. Mechanistically, we show that overexpression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which is most profoundly induced by IFNγ, substantially restricts the replication of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha and Delta variants. Meanwhile, loss-of-function study reveals that IDO1 knockdown restores SARS-CoV-2 replication restricted by IFNγ in Calu3 cells. We further found that the treatment of l-tryptophan, a substrate of IDO1, partially rescues the IFNγ-mediated inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 replication in both Calu3 cells and ex vivo human lung tissues. Collectively, these results suggest that type-II IFN potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication through IDO1-mediated antiviral response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Replicação Viral , Pulmão , Interferons , Células Epiteliais , Antivirais/farmacologia
7.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334597

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its main receptor for cell entry. We bioengineered a soluble ACE2 protein termed ACE2 618-DDC-ABD that has increased binding to SARS-CoV-2 and prolonged duration of action. Here, we investigated the protective effect of this protein when administered intranasally to k18-hACE2 mice infected with the aggressive SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. k18-hACE2 mice were infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant by inoculation of a lethal dose (2 × 104 PFU). ACE2 618-DDC-ABD (10 mg/kg) or PBS was administered intranasally six hours prior and 24 and 48 h post-viral inoculation. All animals in the PBS control group succumbed to the disease on day seven post-infection (0% survival), whereas, in contrast, there was only one casualty in the group that received ACE2 618-DDC-ABD (90% survival). Mice in the ACE2 618-DDC-ABD group had minimal disease as assessed using a clinical score and stable weight, and both brain and lung viral titers were markedly reduced. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a bioengineered soluble ACE2 decoy with an extended duration of action in protecting against the aggressive Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant. Together with previous work, these findings underline the universal protective potential against current and future emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Melfalan , gama-Globulinas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1332440, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375473

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third human coronavirus to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and contains four structural proteins: spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that all four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are capable of causing lung injury, even without the presence of intact virus. Therefore, the topic of SARS-CoV-2 structural protein-evoked lung injury warrants more attention. In the current article, we first synopsize the structural features of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. Second, we discuss the mechanisms for structural protein-induced inflammatory responses in vitro. Finally, we list the findings that indicate structural proteins themselves are toxic and sufficient to induce lung injury in vivo. Recognizing mechanisms of lung injury triggered by SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins may facilitate the development of targeted modalities in treating COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Lesão Pulmonar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
9.
Physiol Rep ; 12(3): e15945, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328863

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a complex network of 10-100 amino acid sequence molecules widely distributed in nature. While over 300 AMPs have been described in mammals, cathelicidins and defensins remain the most extensively studied. Some publications have explored the role of AMPs in COVID-19, but these findings are preliminary, and in vivo studies are still lacking. In this study, we report the plasma levels of five AMPs (LL-37, α-defensin 1, α-defensin 3, ß-defensin 1, and ß-defensin 3), using the ELISA technique (MyBioSource, San Diego, CA, United States, kits MBS2601339 (beta-defensin 1), MBS2602513 (beta-defensin 3), MBS703879 (alpha-defensin 1), MBS706289 (alpha-defensin 3), MBS7234921 (LL37)), and the measurement of six cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), through the magnetic bead immunoassay Milliplex® and the MAGPIX® System (MilliporeSigma, Darmstadt, Germany, kit HCYTOMAG-60 K (cytokines)), in 15 healthy volunteers, 36 COVID-19 patients without Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and 17 COVID-19 patients with AKI. We found increased levels of α-defensin 1, α-defensin 3 and ß-defensin 3, in our COVID-19 population, when compared to healthy controls, along with higher levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These findings suggest that these AMPs and cytokines may play a crucial role in the systemic inflammatory response and tissue damage characterizing severe COVID-19. The levels of α-defensin 1 and α-defensin 3 were significantly higher in COVID-19 AKI group in comparison to the non-AKI group. Furthermore, IL-10 and the product IL-10 × IL-1B showed excellent performance in discriminating AKI, with AUCs of 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. Among patients with COVID-19, AMPs may play a key role in the inflammation process and disease progression. Additionally, α-defensin 1 and α-defensin 3 may mediate the AKI process in these patients, representing an opportunity for further research and potential therapeutic alternatives in the future.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , alfa-Defensinas , beta-Defensinas , Animais , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-10 , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Interleucina-6 , Interferon gama , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Mamíferos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Med ; 53(3)2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299237

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19), a systemic illness caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome 2 (SARS­CoV­2), has triggered a worldwide pandemic with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to chronic, affecting practically every organ. Melatonin, an ancient antioxidant found in all living organisms, has been suggested as a safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of SARS­CoV­2 infection due to its good safety characteristics and broad­spectrum antiviral medication properties. Melatonin is essential in various metabolic pathways and governs physiological processes, such as the sleep­wake cycle and circadian rhythms. It exhibits oncostatic, anti­inflammatory, antioxidant and anti­aging properties, exhibiting promise for use in the treatment of numerous disorders, including COVID­19. The preventive and therapeutic effects of melatonin have been widely explored in a number of conditions and have been well­established in experimental ischemia/reperfusion investigations, particularly in coronary heart disease and stroke. Clinical research evaluating the use of melatonin in COVID­19 has shown various improved outcomes, including reduced hospitalization durations; however, the trials are small. Melatonin can alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction in COVID­19, improve immune cell function and provide antioxidant properties. However, its therapeutic potential remains underexplored due to funding limitations and thus further investigations are required.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Melatonina , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/metabolismo , Pandemias , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
11.
Lupus Sci Med ; 11(1)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To illuminate the poorly understood aetiology of SLE by comparing the gene expression profile of SLE neutrophils with that of neutrophils from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, a disease (COVID-19) with well-defined antigens and a similar type I interferon response. METHODS: RNA sequencing of neutrophils from patients with SLE (n=15) and healthy controls (n=12) was analysed for differential gene expression and modulated pathways. The same analyses were performed on a similar neutrophil dataset from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=30) and healthy controls (n=8). Next, we carried out comparative analyses to identify common and unique transcriptional changes between the two disease contexts, emphasising genes regulated in opposite directions. RESULTS: We identified 372 differentially expressed genes in SLE neutrophils compared with healthy donor neutrophils (≥2 fold, p<0.05), 181 of which were concordant with transcriptional changes in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals compared with their respective healthy controls. In contrast, 118 genes demonstrated statistically significant alterations exclusive to SLE, including 28 genes that were differentially expressed in opposite directions in the two diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial overlap between neutrophil responses in SLE and COVID-19 suggests that the unknown cause of SLE is functionally similar to a viral infection and drives a similar immune activation and type I interferon response. Conversely, the genes regulated in the opposite direction represent responses unique to SLE. These include tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1 and nucleic acid deaminases of the APOBEC family, which can catalyse cytosine-to-uridine editing of both RNA and DNA, and other RNA-modifying enzymes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Interferon Tipo I , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Neutrófilos , Transcriptoma , COVID-19/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/genética
12.
Elife ; 132024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375778

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a major cell entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The induction of ACE2 expression may serve as a strategy by SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate its propagation. However, the regulatory mechanisms of ACE2 expression after viral infection remain largely unknown. Using 45 different luciferase reporters, the transcription factors SP1 and HNF4α were found to positively and negatively regulate ACE2 expression, respectively, at the transcriptional level in human lung epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the transcriptional activity of SP1 while inhibiting that of HNF4α. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, activated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, served as a crucial regulatory node, inducing ACE2 expression by enhancing SP1 phosphorylation-a marker of its activity-and reducing the nuclear localization of HNF4α. However, colchicine treatment inhibited the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, thereby suppressing ACE2 expression. In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with SARS-CoV-2, inhibition of SP1 by either mithramycin A or colchicine resulted in reduced viral replication and tissue injury. In summary, our study uncovers a novel function of SP1 in the regulation of ACE2 expression and identifies SP1 as a potential target to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Colchicina
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1357866, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375361

RESUMO

Following virus recognition of host cell receptors and viral particle/genome internalization, viruses replicate in the host via hijacking essential host cell machinery components to evade the provoked antiviral innate immunity against the invading pathogen. Respiratory viral infections are usually acute with the ability to activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in/on host cells, resulting in the production and release of interferons (IFNs), proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) to reduce virus fitness and mitigate infection. Nevertheless, the game between viruses and the host is a complicated and dynamic process, in which they restrict each other via specific factors to maintain their own advantages and win this game. The primary role of the non-structural protein 1 (NS1 and Nsp1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) and the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), respectively, is to control antiviral host-induced innate immune responses. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the genesis, spatial structure, viral and cellular interactors, and the mechanisms underlying the unique biological functions of IAV NS1 and SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 in infected host cells. We also highlight the role of both non-structural proteins in modulating viral replication and pathogenicity. Eventually, and because of their important role during viral infection, we also describe their promising potential as targets for antiviral therapy and the development of live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Conclusively, both IAV NS1 and SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 play an important role in virus-host interactions, viral replication, and pathogenesis, and pave the way to develop novel prophylactic and/or therapeutic interventions for the treatment of these important human respiratory viral pathogens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Interferons/farmacologia , Imunidade Inata , Replicação Viral , Antivirais/farmacologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4328, 2024 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383841

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has greatly affected global health. Emerging evidence suggests a complex interplay between Alzheimer's disease (AD), diabetes (DM), and COVID-19. Given COVID-19's involvement in the increased risk of other diseases, there is an urgent need to identify novel targets and drugs to combat these interconnected health challenges. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs), belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family, have been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation. In this regard, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of LPARs (specifically LPAR1, 3, 6) in the tri-directional relationship between AD, DM, and COVID-19 through network analysis, as well as explore the therapeutic potential of selected anti-AD, anti-DM drugs as LPAR, SPIKE antagonists. We used the Coremine Medical database to identify genes related to DM, AD, and COVID-19. Furthermore, STRING analysis was used to identify the interacting partners of LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6. Additionally, a literature search revealed 78 drugs on the market or in clinical studies that were used for treating either AD or DM. We carried out docking analysis of these drugs against the LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6. Furthermore, we modeled the LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6 in a complex with the COVID-19 spike protein and performed a docking study of selected drugs with the LPAR-Spike complex. The analysis revealed 177 common genes implicated in AD, DM, and COVID-19. Protein-protein docking analysis demonstrated that LPAR (1,3 & 6) efficiently binds with the viral SPIKE protein, suggesting them as targets for viral infection. Furthermore, docking analysis of the anti-AD and anti-DM drugs against LPARs, SPIKE protein, and the LPARs-SPIKE complex revealed promising candidates, including lupron, neflamapimod, and nilotinib, stating the importance of drug repurposing in the drug discovery process. These drugs exhibited the ability to bind and inhibit the LPAR receptor activity and the SPIKE protein and interfere with LPAR-SPIKE protein interaction. Through a combined network and targeted-based therapeutic intervention approach, this study has identified several drugs that could be repurposed for treating COVID-19 due to their expected interference with LPAR(1, 3, and 6) and spike protein complexes. In addition, it can also be hypothesized that the co-administration of these identified drugs during COVID-19 infection may not only help mitigate the impact of the virus but also potentially contribute to the prevention or management of post-COVID complications related to AD and DM.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/genética , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo
15.
Mol Immunol ; 167: 53-61, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359646

RESUMO

The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 as well as its receptor binding domain (RBD) has been demonstrated to be capable of activating the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in endothelial cells and immune cells such as monocytes. However, the effects of spike protein or its RBD on airway epithelial cells and mechanisms underlying these effects have not been adequately characterized. Here, we show that the RBD of spike protein alone can induce bronchial epithelial inflammation in a manner of ATP/P2Y2 dependence. Incubation of human bronchial epithelia with RBD induced IL-6 and IL-8 release, which could be inhibited by antibody. The incubation of RBD also up-regulated the expression of inflammatory indicators such as ho-1 and mkp-1. Furthermore, ATP secretion was observed after RBD treatment, P2Y2 receptor knock down by siRNA significantly suppressed the IL-6 and IL-8 release evoked by RBD. Additionally, S-RBD elevated the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2, and the effect that PD98059 can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine release suggested the participation of ERK1/2. These novel findings provide new evidence of SARS-CoV-2 on airway inflammation and introduce purinergic signaling as promising treatment target.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(8): 6582-6589, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329233

RESUMO

Allosteric regulation is common in protein-protein interactions and is thus promising in drug design. Previous experimental and simulation work supported the presence of allosteric regulation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Here the route of allosteric regulation in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is examined by all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations, contrastive machine learning, and the Ohm approach. It was found that peptide binding to the polybasic cleavage sites, especially the one at the first subunit of the trimeric spike protein, activates the fluctuation of the spike protein's backbone, which eventually propagates to the receptor-binding domain on the third subunit that binds to ACE2. Remarkably, the allosteric regulation routes starting from the polybasic cleavage sites share a high fraction (39-67%) of the critical amino acids with the routes starting from the nitrogen-terminal domains, suggesting the presence of an allosteric regulation network in the spike protein. Our study paves the way for the rational design of allosteric antibody inhibitors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Proteica , Regulação Alostérica , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1142, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326301

RESUMO

The lasting threat of viral pandemics necessitates the development of tailorable first-response antivirals with specific but adaptive architectures for treatment of novel viral infections. Here, such an antiviral platform has been developed based on a mixture of hetero-peptides self-assembled into functionalized ß-sheets capable of specific multivalent binding to viral protein complexes. One domain of each hetero-peptide is designed to specifically bind to certain viral proteins, while another domain self-assembles into fibrils with epitope binding characteristics determined by the types of peptides and their molar fractions. The self-assembled fibrils maintain enhanced binding to viral protein complexes and retain high resilience to viral mutations. This method is experimentally and computationally tested using short peptides that specifically bind to Spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. This platform is efficacious, inexpensive, and stable with excellent tolerability.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteínas Virais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396843

RESUMO

The ORF6 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus plays a crucial role in blocking the innate immune response of the infected cells by inhibiting interferon pathways. Additionally, it binds to and immobilises the RAE1 protein on the cytoplasmic membranes, thereby blocking mRNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In all these cases, the host cell proteins are tethered by the flexible C-terminus of ORF6. A possible strategy to inhibit the biological activity of ORF6 is to bind its C-terminus with suitable ligands. Our in silico experiments suggest that hIFNγ binds the ORF6 protein with high affinity, thus impairing its interactions with RAE1 and, consequently, its activity in viral invasion. The in vitro studies reported here reveal a shift of the localisation of RAE1 in ORF6 overexpressing cells upon treatment with hIFNγ from predominantly cytoplasmic to mainly nuclear, resulting in the restoration of the export of mRNA from the nucleus. We also explored the expression of GFP in transfected-with-ORF6 cells by means of fluorescence microscopy and qRT-PCR, finding that treatment with hIFNγ unblocks the mRNA trafficking and reinstates the GFP expression level. The ability of the cytokine to block ORF6 is also reflected in minimising its negative effects on DNA replication by reducing accumulated RNA-DNA hybrids. Our results, therefore, suggest hIFNγ as a promising inhibitor of the most toxic SARS-CoV-2 protein.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interferons/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397027

RESUMO

A feature of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BF.5 and BF.7 that recently circulated mainly in China and Japan was the high prevalence of the ORF7a: H47Y mutation, in which the 47th residue of ORF7a has been mutated from a histidine (H) to a tyrosine (Y). Here, we evaluated the effect of this mutation on the three main functions ascribed to the SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a protein. Our findings show that H47Y mutation impairs the ability of SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a to antagonize the type I interferon (IFN-I) response and to downregulate major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) cell surface levels, but had no effect in its anti-SERINC5 function. Overall, our results suggest that the H47Y mutation of ORF7a affects important functions of this protein, resulting in changes in virus pathogenesis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Interferon Tipo I , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , COVID-19/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Mutação , China
20.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399993

RESUMO

Although the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 viruses is officially over, the search for new effective agents with activity against a wide range of coronaviruses is still an important task for medical chemists and virologists. We synthesized a series of thiazolo-thiophenes based on (+)- and (-)-usnic acid and studied their ability to inhibit the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Substances containing unsubstituted thiophene groups or methyl- or bromo-substituted thiophene moieties showed moderate activity. Derivatives containing nitro substituents in the thiophene heterocycle-just as pure (+)- and (-)-usnic acids-showed no anti-3CLpro activity. Kinetic parameters of the most active compound, (+)-3e, were investigated, and molecular modeling of the possible interaction of the new thiazolo-thiophenes with the active site of the main protease was carried out. We evaluated the binding energies of the ligand and protein in a ligand-protein complex. Active compound (+)-3e was found to bind with minimum free energy; the binding of inactive compound (+)-3g is characterized by higher values of minimum free energy; the positioning of pure (+)-usnic acid proved to be unstable and is accompanied by the formation of intermolecular contacts with many amino acids of the catalytic binding site. Thus, the molecular dynamics results were consistent with the experimental data. In an in vitro antiviral assay against six strains (Wuhan, Delta, and four Omicron sublineages) of SARS-CoV-2, (+)-3e demonstrated pronounced antiviral activity against all the strains.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Pandemias , Ligantes , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
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