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1.
Food Chem ; 399: 134000, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037689

RESUMO

A novel cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) catalyst was produced by precipitation and cross-linking sucrose isomerase (SIase) for isomaltulose production. The effects of precipitants and cross-linkers on the catalytic performance of the CLEAs were first evaluated. Then, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as additive and two immobilized enzymes, cross-linked SIase aggregates (CLSIAs) and CLSIAs-BSA were obtained. All the immobilized preparations exhibited superior thermal stability, pH tolerance, and storage stability compared to the soluble SIase, and showed excellent reusability. These samples still retained more than 61% of their initial activity after ten reuse cycles, with CLSIAs-BSA retaining up to 91.7%. The conversion ratios of sucrose into isomaltulose using CLSIAs-BSA reached 88.4 and 81.2% with sucrose and sugar cane juice as substrate, respectively. Therefore, CLSIAs are a highly effective biocatalyst for the preparation of isomaltulose with great potential for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases , Isomaltose , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Isomaltose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133951, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987009

RESUMO

In this paper, we developed a sensor for on-site measuring beverage sucrose level based on cascade enzyme particles and a blood glucose meter. The cascade enzyme particles with sucrose hydrolyzing capability were prepared by co-precipitation of manganese carbonate, in which the stability of the enzymes was substantially enhanced by the particle encapsulation effect. The quantitative measurement of glucose produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose was performed using a commercial glucose meter, a commonly owned electrochemical device in homes, greatly improving detection accuracy and expanding applications. Actual sample testing demonstrated the high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor, allowing for accurate detection of sucrose in beverages. This sensing strategy can also be further expanded to a variety of analytical assays, using blood glucose meters for portable quantitative testing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia , Bebidas , Catálise , Glucose , Sacarose
3.
Food Chem ; 400: 133996, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055140

RESUMO

24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) may act as a modulator for chilling injury in peach fruit during cold storage. In this study, we screened a EBR-induced GATA-type zinc finger protein PpGATA12. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential roles of EBR treatment and transcriptional regulation of PpGATA12 in regulating chilling resistance of peaches. In the current study, we found that EBR treatment promoted the activities and transcriptions of energy and sucrose metabolism-related enzymes, maintained higher ATP content and energy status, improved the accumulation of sucrose and hexose. Furthermore, molecular biology assays suggested that PpGATA12 up-regulated transcriptions of sucrose metabolism-related genes including PpSS and PpNI, and energy metabolism-related genes including PpCCO, PpSDH and PpH+-ATPase. These results provided a new insight that the enhancement of chilling resistance in peach fruit by EBR treatment might be closely related to the regulatory role of PpGATA12 on sucrose and energy metabolisms.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides , Temperatura Baixa , Metabolismo Energético , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos , Sacarose/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 400: 134007, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055149

RESUMO

On-site screening of biotoxins is of great importance for food safety. A new electrochemical-biosensing strategy was constructed for ochratoxin A (OTA) detection by direct using ready-made commercial portable-glucose-meter (PGM). Aptamer against OTA was adopted as the recognition probe and pre-immobilized onto the sensing interface. The complementary biotin-modified probe was further decorated by hybridization. Biotinylated invertase was further introduced onto the sensing system with streptavidin, which also acted as the signal amplification unit. The invertase, which was depended on the amount of OTA, produced the glucose from sucrose in the sensing solution. The glucose could be directly and conveniently measured with PGM. Quantitative analysis of OTA was achieved with a linear range from 0.5 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL and detection limit of 0.45 ng/mL. Of significance, it has been successfully applied for OTA analysis in rice with satisfied recoveries. This unique PGM-based electrochemical platform reveals prospective potential in food safety monitoring.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Ocratoxinas , Oryza , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Biotina , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Glucose , Limite de Detecção , Ocratoxinas/análise , Estreptavidina , Sacarose , beta-Frutofuranosidase
5.
Food Chem ; 400: 134069, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108445

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the impact of sucrose treatment on the growth conditions, dietary nutritional quality, and biological activities of mung bean sprouts. Mung bean seeds were sprouted with solutions containing different sucrose concentrations (10, 20, and 30 g/L). The application of exogenous sucrose significantly decreased the height and fresh weight of mung bean sprouts. However, the sucrose-treated sprouts contained more polyphenols, flavonoids, γ-aminobutyric acid, phytosterols, and vitamins. The antioxidant capacities were also significantly higher in the sucrose-treated sprouts than in the control sprouts. The sprouts treated with 2-3 % sucrose showed markedly improved FFA-induced insulin resistance and alcohol-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. Taken together, the elicitor application of sucrose at 3 % during mung bean sprouting could be an effective strategy to improve the dietary phytochemical composition and provide potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Vigna , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis , Estresse Fisiológico , Sacarose , Vitaminas , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
6.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 164, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210545

RESUMO

Quantification of system dynamics is a central aim of mathematical modelling in biology. Defining experimentally supported functional relationships between molecular entities by mathematical terms enables the application of computational routines to simulate and analyse the underlying molecular system. In many fields of natural sciences and engineering, trigonometric functions are applied to describe oscillatory processes. As biochemical oscillations occur in many aspects of biochemistry and biophysics, Fourier analysis of metabolic functions promises to quantify, describe and analyse metabolism and its reaction towards environmental fluctuations. Here, Fourier polynomials were developed from experimental time-series data and combined with block diagram simulation of plant metabolism to study heat shock response of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Simulations predicted a stabilising effect of reduced sucrose biosynthesis capacity and increased capacity of starch biosynthesis on carbon assimilation under transient heat stress. Model predictions were experimentally validated by quantifying plant growth under such stress conditions. In conclusion, this suggests that Fourier polynomials represent a predictive mathematical approach to study dynamic plant-environment interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Sacarose/metabolismo , Temperatura
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 139-152, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087439

RESUMO

The role of calcium in fruit ripening has been established, however knowledge regarding the molecular analysis at fruit tissue-level is still lacking. To address this, we examined the impact of foliar-applied calcium (0.5% CaCl2) in the ripening metabolism in skin and flesh tissues of the sweet cherry 'Tragana Edessis' fruit at the harvest stage. Exogenously applied calcium increased endogenous calcium level in flesh tissue and reduced fruit respiration rate and cracking traits. Fruit metabolomic along with transcriptomic analysis unraveled common and tissue-specific metabolic pathways associated with calcium feeding. Treatment with calcium diminished several alcohols (arabitol, sorbitol), sugars (fructose, maltose), acids (glyceric acid, threonic acid) and increased ribose and proline in both fruit tissues. Moreover, numerous primary metabolites, such as proline and galacturonic acid, were differentially accumulated in calcium-exposed tissues. Calcium-affected genes that involved in ubiquitin/ubl conjugation and cell wall biogenesis/degradation were differentially expressed between skin and flesh samples. Notably, skin and flesh tissues shared common calcium-responsive genes and exhibited substantial similarity in their expression patterns. In both tissues, calcium activated gene expression, most strongly those involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signaling and MAPK signaling pathway, thus affecting related metabolic processes. By contrast, calcium depressed the expression of genes related to TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and starch/sucrose metabolism in both tissues. This work established both calcium-driven common and specialized metabolic suites in skin and flesh cherry tissues, demonstrating the utility of this approach to characterize fundamental aspects of calcium in fruit physiology.


Assuntos
Prunus avium , Álcoois/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio , Frutose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Ácidos Glicéricos/metabolismo , Maltose/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Ribose/metabolismo , Sorbitol/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
8.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 659, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are intestinal commensal microorganisms that have been demonstrated to induce the innate and adaptive immune responses in mouse and rat hosts. SFB are Gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria that fail to grow optimally under in vitro conditions due to unique metabolic requirements. Recently, SFB have been implicated in improved health and growth outcomes in commercial turkey flocks. To assess the nature and variations in SFB of turkeys and how they may differ from mammalian-associated SFB, the genome of turkey-associated SFB was compared with six representative genomes from murine hosts using an in silico approach. RESULTS: The SFB-turkey genome is 1.6 Mb with a G + C content of 26.14% and contains 1,604 coding sequences (CDS). Comparative genome analyses revealed that all the seven SFB strain possesses a common set of metabolic deficiencies and auxotrophies. Specifically, the inability of all the SFB strains to synthesize most of the amino acids, nucleotides and cofactors, emphasizing the importance of metabolite acquisition from the host intestinal environment. Among the seven SFB genomes, the SFB-turkey genome is the largest and contains the highest number of 1,604 predicted CDS. The SFB-turkey genome possesses cellular metabolism genes that are absent in the rodent SFB strains, including catabolic pathways for sucrose, stachyose, raffinose and other complex glycans. Other unique genes associated with SFB-turkey genome is loci for the biosynthesis of biotin, and degradation enzymes to recycle primary bile acids, both of which may play an important role to help turkey associated SFB survive and secure mutualism with its avian host. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative genomic analysis of seven SFB genomes revealed that each strain have a core set of metabolic capabilities and deficiencies that make these bacteria challenging to culture under ex vivo conditions. When compared to the murine-associated strains, turkey-associated SFB serves as a phylogenetic outgroup and a unique member among all the sequenced strains of SFB. This turkey-associated SFB strain is the first reported non-mammalian SFB genome, and highlights the impact of host specificity and the evolution of metabolic capabilities.


Assuntos
Biotina , Simbiose , Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Bactérias , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Biotina/genética , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Nucleotídeos , Filogenia , Rafinose , Ratos , Sacarose
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 445, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a significant condition that restricts vegetation growth on the Tibetan Plateau. Artemisia wellbyi is a unique semi-shrub-like herb in the family Compositae, which distributed in northern and northwest of Tibetan Plateau. It is a dominant species in the community that can well adapt to virous environment stress, such as drought and low temperature. Therefore, A. wellbyi. has a potential ecological value for soil and water conservation of drought areas. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of A. wellbyi. that defense drought stress can acquire the key genes for drought resistance breeding of A. wellbyi. and provide a theoretical basis for vegetation restoration of desertification area. However, they remain unclear. Thus, our study compared the transcriptomic characteristics of drought-tolerant "11" and drought-sensitive "6" material of A. wellbyi under drought stress. RESULTS: A total of 4875 upregulated and 4381 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by drought in the tolerant material; however, only 1931 upregulated and 4174 downregulated DEGs were induced by drought in the sensitive material. The photosynthesis and transcriptional regulation differed significantly with respect to the DEGs number and expression level. We found that CDPKs (calmodulin-like domain protein kinases), SOS3 (salt overly sensitive3), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades), RLKs (receptor like kinase), and LRR-RLKs (repeat leucine-rich receptor kinase) were firstly involved in response to drought stress in drought tolerant A. wellbyi. Positive regulation of genes associated with the metabolism of ABA (abscisic acid), ET (ethylene), and IAA (indole acetic acid) could play a crucial role in the interaction with other transcriptional regulatory factors, such as MYBs (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog), AP2/EREBPs (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein family), WRKYs, and bHLHs (basic helix-loop-helix family members) and receptor kinases, and regulate downstream genes for defense against drought stress. In addition, HSP70 (heat shock protein70) and MYB73 were considered as the hub genes because of their strong association with other DEGs. CONCLUSIONS: Positive transcriptional regulation and negative regulation of photosynthesis could be associated with better growth performance under drought stress in the drought-tolerant material. In addition, the degradation of sucrose and starch in the tolerant A. wellbyi to alleviate osmotic stress and balance excess ROS. These results highlight the candidate genes that are involved in enhancing the performance of drought-tolerant A. wellbyi and provide a theoretical basis for improving the performance of drought-resistant A. wellbyi.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Transcriptoma , Ácido Abscísico , Artemisia/genética , Calmodulina/genética , Meios de Contraste , Secas , Etilenos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Leucina/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Solo , Amido , Sacarose
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15392, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100640

RESUMO

Ultrasound (sonication) treatment can be used directly for dehydration or pre-treatment before the osmotic dehydration (OD) procedure of fruit or vegetable particles. The combination of this technique with the OD technique can further improve the dehydration process efficiencies by increasing the mass transfer rates and enhancing final product quality. In this study, apple slices were osmotically dehydrated in different hypertonic sucrose solutions and assisted with or without ultrasound. Sucrose concentrations (in three levels of 30, 40, and 50° Brix), sonication power (in three levels of 0, 75, and 150 W), and treatment time (in six time intervals: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min) were the factors investigated concerning weight reduction, soluble solids gain, water loss and rehydration. Also, mass transfer kinetics were modelled according to Page, Newton, Midilli, Logarithmic, Verma, and Two terms equations. Increased sucrose solution concentration resulted in higher weight reduction, soluble solids gain and water loss. Also, increased sonication power levels resulted in higher weight reduction, soluble solids gain and water loss. The average rehydration ratio of apple slices decreased from 237.7 to 177.5%, by increasing osmotic solution concentration from 30 to 50%. The Page equation showed the best fitting for water loss data. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of apple slices during OD calculated using Fick's second law applied to a slab geometry was found to be in the range of 1.48 × 10-10 and 4.62 × 10-10 m2s-1 for water loss.


Assuntos
Malus , Desidratação , Cinética , Sacarose , Água , Redução de Peso
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4655-4661, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096606

RESUMO

Due to its special physical and chemical properties, biochar is widely used as a multi-beneficial amendment to improve soil quality. Soil nutrient content and enzyme activities are important chemical and biological factors indicating soil quality. Despite increased interest and studies, a knowledge gap remains regarding the ability of biochar to assess soil nutrient content and enzyme activities due to differences in biochar application amount and soil texture. In the present study, the effects of different amounts of biochar application (CK:0 t·hm-2, B5:5 t·hm-2, B10:10 t·hm-2, B20:20 t·hm-2, and B50:50 t·hm-2) on soil nutrient content and enzyme activities were studied based on a field experiment on typical yellow soil in Guizhou province, southwest China. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to quantitatively evaluate the direct or indirect effects of biochar application on soil nutrient content and enzyme activities. The results showed that soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon (SOC), alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen (AHN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) increased with the applied amount of biochar. With the increase in biochar application amount, the activities of soil catalase and urease showed first an increasing and then a decreasing trend, and the activities of soil sucrase and phosphatase showed an almost constant increasing trend (P<0.05). The highest activities of soil catalase, urease, and phosphatase were recorded under treatment B10. A relatively high activity of soil sucrose was also observed under treatment B10. With the same amount of biochar application, soil pH and the content of soil AHN, AP, and AK in treatments after four months of biochar application were greater than those after 12 months. After 12 months of biochar application treatment, the contents of SOC and EC were greater than those at four months. Compared to those in treatments after four months of biochar application, activities of soil urease and phosphatase increased, activities of soil catalase decreased, and activities of soil sucrose did not obviously change after 12 months of biochar application. The results of SEM showed that biochar application directly decreased activities of soil catalase and indirectly promoted activities of soil sucrase and phosphatase by increasing soil pH, EC, AHN, AK, and AP. In conclusion, the amount and duration of biochar application significantly increased soil nutrient content, directly and indirectly affecting soil enzyme activities. Based on the results of the presents study, biochar application at 10 t·hm-2 was recommended for acidic yellow soil.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Catalase , Carvão Vegetal , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Fósforo , Solo/química , Sacarase , Sacarose , Urease
12.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(9): 781-795, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098080

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, improving the absorption and utilization of some other nutrients and controlling total plant development. Compost tea (CT) is an aqueous extract of compost that contains high organic matter levels necessary for plants and aerobic soil microorganisms. <i>Spirulina platensis</i> is a multi-cellular blue-green micro-alga that contains green pigments, high levels of nutrients and plant growth regulators. This work was designed to study the possibility of using CT and <i>S. platensis</i> algae culture filtrate (ACF) in improving plant growth, yield and quality of sugar beet grown under different nitrogen fertilizer levels. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Two field experiments were conducted at Ismailia Research Station, Ismailia Province, Egypt, during the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. The study involved two N levels (90 and 120 kg/fed), three CT rates (without, 30 and 60 l/fed) and three ACF levels (without, 1 and 2 l/fed) three times. A split-plot design was used. <b>Results:</b> Adding 120 kg N/fed increased crop growth rate (CGR), root yield/fed (RY) and sugar yield/fed (SY), while, sucrose (%) and quality index (QI) decreased. Soil drench with 60 l CT/fed incremented leaf area index (LAI), CGR, sucrose (%), RY and SY. Increasing ACF level up to 2 l/fed increased LAI, sucrose (%), QI, RY and SY. Root yield was positively correlated with SY and negatively with QI. <b>Conclusion:</b> Applying 90 kg N/fed combined with a soil drench of 60 l CT/fed and foliar spraying with 2 l ACF/fed thrice can be recommended to attain economical root and sugar yields.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Compostagem , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Spirulina , Sacarose , Açúcares , Chá , Verduras
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(36): 40569-40578, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048570

RESUMO

Sucrose is one of the most applied carbon sources in the fermentation process, and it directly determines the microbial metabolism with its concentration fluctuation. Meanwhile, sucrose also plays a key role of a protective agent in the production of biological vaccines, especially in the new mRNA vaccines for curing COVID-19. However, rapid and precise detection of sucrose is always desired but unrealized in industrial fermentation and synthetic biology research. In order to address the above issue, we proposed an ultrasensitive biosensor microchip achieving accurate sucrose recognition within only 12 s, relying on the construction of a Prussian blue analogue@Au edge-rich (PBA@AuER) microarchitecture. This special geometric structure was formed through exactly inducing the oriented PBA crystallization toward a certain plane to create more regular and continuous edge features. This composite was further transformed to a screen-printed ink to directly and large-scale fabricate an enzymatic biosensor microchip showing ultrahigh sensitivity, a wide detection range, and a low detection limit to the accurate sucrose recognition. As confirmed in a real alcohol fermentation reaction, the as-prepared microchip enabled us to accurately detect the sucrose and glucose concentrations with outstanding reusability (more than 300 times) during the whole process through proposing a novel analytical strategy for the binary mixture substrate system.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Eletrodos , Fermentação , Ferrocianetos , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Sacarose
14.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4244425, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072768

RESUMO

Background: Depression was a common life-threatening psychiatric disorder and occurs more frequently in women than in men. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), such as LINC00473, had been reported to be involved in the progression of depression. Methods: Chronic unpredictable moderate stress in mice (CUMS) was applied to construct a depression model. Subsequently, RT-qPCR was applied to check the level of LINC00473 and microRNA-497-5p (miR-497-5p) in the hippocampal region of the mice induced by CUMS. CUMS mice were injected with lentiviral vectors of LINC00473 (LV-LINC00473), miR-497-5p inhibitor, short hairpin- (sh-) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sh-BDNF), or miR-497-5p mimic to evaluate depressive behaviors, including sucrose preference test, forced swim test, elevated plus maze, and tail suspension test. Moreover, the production of hypothalamic neurotransmitters was assessed with the usage of ELISA kits. Dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA pull-down, and RIP analysis were performed to measure the relationship between miR-497-5p and LINC00473 or BDNF. Further, western blot was employed to determine the protein level of BDNF. Results: We discovered that LINC00473 level was downregulated in the female mice with depression, but not in male mice. Besides, the depressive behaviors induced by CUMS in mice, including the decrease of sucrose preference and time in open arm, as well as the increase of immobility time and swimming resting time were all ameliorated by LINC00473 overexpression. Moreover, the concentration of neurotransmitters was decreased in CUMS-induced mouse hypothalamus, which was blocked by LV-LINC00473 lentiviral vector administration. Mechanistically, LINC00473 directly targeted miR-497-5p. Absence of miR-497-5p revealed the antidepression effects on CUMS-induced mice, and miR-497-5p upregulation could counter the antidepressive impacts of LINC00473 upregulation on CUMS-induced mice. Furthermore, LINC00473 could target miR-497-5p to modulate BDNF level. Knockdown of BDNF could abrogate the improving influences of miR-497-5p suppression on CUMS-induced depression. Conclusions: LINC00473 ameliorated CUMS-caused depression by encouraging BDNF expression via binding to miR-497-5p, which might provide a potential therapeutic target for depression in females.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Sacarose
15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e265735, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102376

RESUMO

Today, sweet corn is considered an important vegetable due to its high sugar content and low starch content. Cluster analysis and variance analysis showed that hybrids had variations in yield indices. GB, DE and GS hybrids had similar performance on indices. SE hybrid that has significant performance on zeaxanthin. Biplot showed that fructose, glucose, sucrose and potassium had stability value on hybrids. All the hybrids had the best performance on fructose, glucose, sucrose and potassium factors. Factor biplot positively correlated with yield indices, including calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, α-Carotene, 9Z-ß-Carotene, phosphorus, and ß-carotene. On the other hand, there is a positive correlation with fructose, glucose, potassium, lutein, sucrose, ß-Cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. So, to evaluate or increase lutein and zeaxanthin, the other parameters like sugar content (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) are important factors and have an effect together. Factor analysis and biplot showed that ME hybrid had a maximum performance on the first factor of yield indices. Also, the second factor of yield indices had a maxi-mum effect on NO hybrids. SE hybrids had maximum performance in zeaxanthin and GS hybrid had maximum performance in zinc, phosphorus, and iron. The dry matter had stability on DB hybrid.


Assuntos
Luteína , Zea mays , Frutose , Glucose , Ferro , Fósforo , Potássio , Sacarose , Açúcares , Zeaxantinas , Zinco , beta Caroteno
16.
Mol Brain ; 15(1): 77, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068635

RESUMO

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are thought to be associated with a wide range of phenomena, such as movement, learning, memory, attention, and addiction. However, the causal relationship between nicotinic receptor activity and behavior remains unclear. Contrary to the studies that examined the functions of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, the role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on behavior has not been examined as extensively. Here, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal injection of mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, on the performance of male mice in a head-fixed temporal conditioning task and a free-moving open-field task. The head-fixed experimental setup allowed us to record and precisely quantify the licking response while the mice performed the behavioral task with no external cues. In addition, by combining the utility of the head-fixed experimental design with computer vision analysis based on deep learning algorithms, we succeeded in quantifying the eyelid size of awake mice. In the temporal conditioning task, we delivered a 10% sucrose solution every 10 s using a blunt-tipped needle placed within the licking distance of the mice. After the training, the mice showed increased anticipatory licking toward the timing of sucrose delivery, suggesting that the mice could predict the timing of the reward. Systemic injection of mecamylamine decreased licking behavior and caused eye closure but had no effect on learned conditioned predictive behavior in the head-fixed temporal conditioning task. In addition, the injection of mecamylamine decreased spontaneous locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner in the free-moving open-field task. The results in the open-field experiments further revealed that the effect of mecamylamine on fecal output and urination, suggesting the effects on autonomic activities. Our achievement of successful eyelid size recording has potential as a useful approach in initial screening for drug discovery. Our study paves a way forward to understanding the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on learning and behavior.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Nicotínicos , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pálpebras , Masculino , Mecamilamina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Sacarose
17.
Mol Brain ; 15(1): 78, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071471

RESUMO

Our world is full of uncertainty. Animals, including humans, need to behave flexibly to adjust to ever-changing environments. Reversal learning tasks have been used to assess behavioral flexibility in many species. However, there are some limitations in the traditional free-moving methodology, including (1) sessions to train the animals, (2) within-session number of trials associated with reversals, (3) factors of physical movement unrelated to the task in the maze or operant box, and (4) incompatibility with techniques, such as two-photon imaging. Therefore, to address these limitations, we established a novel spatiotemporal Pavlovian head-fixed reversal learning task for mice. Six experimentally naive adult C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. First, we trained head-fixed mice on a fixed-time schedule task. Sucrose solution was delivered every 10 s with a single drinking spout placed within the licking distance of the mice. After the mice showed anticipatory licking toward the timing of sucrose solution delivery, we began training the mice on the fixed-time schedule reversal learning task with two licking spouts. In this task, sucrose solution was delivered through one of the two drinking spouts. The rewarding spout was switched every 10 trials. Mice quickly learned to switch anticipatory licking to the rewarding side of the spouts, suggesting that they learned this head-fixed reversal learning task. Using the head-fixed experimental design, behavioral measures can be simplified by eliminating the complex behavioral sequences observed in free-moving animals. This novel head-fixed reversal learning task is a useful assay for studying the neurobiological mechanism of behavioral flexibility that is impaired in various psychopathological conditions.


Assuntos
Reversão de Aprendizagem , Recompensa , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sacarose
18.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080230

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant property of crocin (Crocetin digentiobiose ester) using a chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression model in experimental mice. The tail suspension test (TST) and the sucrose preference test were used to evaluate the antidepressant effect on albino mice of either sex after three weeks of CMS. The period of immobility in the TST and percentage preference for sucrose solution were recorded. By monitoring brain malondialdehyde (MDA) level, catalase (CAT) activity, and reduced glutathione (GSH) level, the antioxidant potential was assessed. Three dosages of crocin (4.84, 9.69, and 19.38 mg/kg) were evaluated. When compared to controls, animals that received crocin administration during three periods of CMS had considerably shorter immobility times during the TST. Crocin treatment also raised the percentage preference for sucrose solution in a dose-dependent manner, bringing it to parity with the conventional antidepressant, imipramine. Animals that received a high dose of crocin had a much greater spontaneous locomotor activity. Furthermore, a high dose of crocin remarkably lowered plasma corticosterone and nitrite levels brought on by CMS. Additionally, high doses of crocin given during CMS greatly enhanced reduced glutathione levels while considerably reducing the brain's MDA and catalase activities. In conclusion, high doses of crocin may have an antidepressant effect in an animal model through several mechanisms. However, further studies should be carried out to explore the role of neurotransmitters for their antidepressant property.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal , Carotenoides , Catalase/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Sacarose/farmacologia
19.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080466

RESUMO

This study reports curcumin as an efficient photolarvicide against Aedes aegypti larvae under natural light illumination. Larval mortality and pupal formation were monitored daily for 21 days under simulated field conditions. In a sucrose-containing formulation, a lethal time 50 (LT50) of 3 days was found using curcumin at 4.6 mg L-1. This formulation promoted no larval toxicity in the absence of illumination, and sucrose alone did not induce larval phototoxicity. The photodegradation byproducts (intermediates) of curcumin were determined and the photodegradation mechanisms proposed. Intermediates with m/z 194, 278, and 370 were found and characterized using LC-MS. The ecotoxicity of the byproducts on non-target organisms (Daphnia, fish, and green algae) indicates that the intermediates do not exhibit any destructive potential for aquatic organisms. The results of photodegradation and ecotoxicity suggest that curcumin is environmentally safe for non-target organisms and, therefore, can be considered for population control of Ae. aegypti.


Assuntos
Aedes , Curcumina , Inseticidas , Animais , Curcumina/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Fotólise , Sacarose , Luz Solar
20.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080475

RESUMO

The photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre is the critical supramolecular pigment-protein complex in the chloroplast which catalyses the light-induced transfer of electrons from water to plastoquinone. Structural studies have demonstrated the existence of an oligomeric PSII. We carried out radiation inactivation target analysis (RTA), together with sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation (SGU) of PSII, to study the functional size of PSII in diverse plant species under physiological and stress conditions. Two PSII populations, made of dimeric and monomeric core particles, were revealed in Pisum sativum, Spinacea oleracea, Phaseulus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Zea mais and Triticum durum. However, this core pattern was not ubiquitous in the higher plants since we found one monomeric core population in Vicia faba and a dimeric core in the Triticum durum yellow-green strain, respectively. The PSII functional sizes measured in the plant seedlings in vivo, as a decay of the maximum quantum yield of PSII for primary photochemistry, were in the range of 75-101 ± 18 kDa, 2 to 3 times lower than those determined in vitro. Two abiotic stresses, heat and drought, imposed individually on Pisum sativum, increased the content of the dimeric core in SGU and the minimum functional size determined by RTA in vivo. These data suggest that PSII can also function as a monomer in vivo, while under heat and drought stress conditions, the dimeric PSII structure is predominant.


Assuntos
Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Sacarose , Ervilhas , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Plastoquinona , Spinacia oleracea/química , Ultracentrifugação
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