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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130663, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343810

RESUMO

Effects of high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) stabilized by egg yolk-modified starch complex on the gelling properties of chicken gels with or without sodium chloride (NaCl)/sodium tripolyphosphate (TP) were studied. The addition of 30 % HIPE increased the hardness from 376 g to 590 g. The NaCl addition further improved textural and viscoelastic properties compared with the gels without NaCl. 30 % HIPE-filled gels with salts (NaCl and TP) has the highest hardness (3562 g) and the lowest cooking loss (3.41 %). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) revealed that salts, especially TP, could promote the transition of α-helices to ß-sheets structure. Moreover, the chicken gels with TP had higher acyl chain disorder. In summary, the co-addition of HIPE and salt (NaCl/TP) has a positive effect on the formation of chicken gel, thereby providing potential applications in comminuted meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Emulsões , Géis , Produtos da Carne/análise , Sais
2.
Food Chem ; 369: 130952, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474283

RESUMO

l-glycine and l-serine are the building blocks of proteins and exhibit various biological activities. This work found that l-glycine and l-serine show low scavenging capacity for methylglyoxal at moderate conditions (pH 7.0, 37 °C). However, they efficiently eliminate methylglyoxal and formaldehyde when the two aldehydes co-exist, via generation of imidazole salt, a compound formed by one molecule of methylglyoxal and formaldehyde, and two molecules of amino acids. The imidazole salts were identified in biscuits and fried potato crisps. Moreover, the formation of imidazole salts greatly decreased the cytotoxicity of their precursors, methylglyoxal and formaldehydes. This finding suggests that glycine and serine can be used to scavenge these two harmful aldehydes both after intake and during food processing.


Assuntos
Glicina , Aldeído Pirúvico , Formaldeído , Imidazóis , Sais , Serina
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126536, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332484

RESUMO

To realize the thermal detoxification of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in a relatively mild environment, molten salts thermal treatment technology was proposed in our previous research, which showed good effects. To investigate the properties of molten salts (NaCl-CaCl2) during cycling reusing, the change of the main components and the physical properties of the used molten salts were estimated. Results showed that the salts in fly ash would dissolve into molten salts. During this process, the concentration of K+, SO42- kept increasing while Cl- was decreased. The changing trend of Na+ and Ca2+ was dependent on the ratio of Ca/Na in raw fly ash. Ca(OH)2 in fly ash would react with CaCl2 to form CaClOH. Moreover, the introduction of the salt components on the thermal properties of molten salts were also studied. The melting point hardly changed by NaCl, CaSO4, and SiO2. Nevertheless, it was lowered to 431 °C with 15% CaCO3 addition, while increased to 523 °C with 20% KCl. Besides, there were no significant influences on the viscosity, stability, and thermal diffusivity of molten salts. KCl had the greatest influence on the specific heat capacity of molten salt, with an increase of about 20%.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carbono , Cloretos , Cinza de Carvão , Incineração , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado , Sais , Dióxido de Silício , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
4.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2087-2093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To increase the treatment effectiveness of CHF patients after MI with stenting by using magnesium and potassium salts of gluconic acid, eplerenone, and rivaroxaban in complex therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The research was performed at the premises of Ivano-Frankivsk Regional Clinical Cardiology Centre, Ukraine. 84 patients with CHF after past MI were examined. RESULTS: Results and conclusions: A more pronounced anti-ischemic effect has been linked to the use of combination therapy with rivaroxaban on the background of basic therapy (BT) in patients with CHF after MI, compared with the use of magnesium and potassium salts of gluconic acid or eplerenone. The use of eplerenone in the complex treatment of these patients on the background of BT has been proven to provide a pronounced reverse remodeling of the left myocardium in the postinfarction period.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Eplerenona , Gluconatos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Magnésio , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio , Potássio , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Sais , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15435-15445, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739209

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate a 3-dimensional graphene oxide (3D GO) stalk that operates near the capillary wicking limit to achieve an evaporation flux of 34.7 kg m-2 h-1 under 1 sun conditions (1 kW/m2). This flux represents nearly a 100 times enhancement over a conventional solar evaporation pond. Interfacial solar evaporation traditionally uses 2D evaporators to vaporize water using sunlight, but their low evaporative water flux limits their practical applicability for desalination. Some recent studies using 3D evaporators demonstrate potential for more efficient water transfer, but the flux improvement has been marginal because of a low evaporation area index (EAI), which is defined as the ratio of the total evaporative surface area to the projected ground area. By using a 3D GO stalk with an ultrahigh EAI of 70, we achieved nearly a 20-fold enhancement over a 2D GO evaporator. The 3D GO stalk also exhibited additional advantages including omnidirectional sunlight utilization, a high evaporation flux under dark conditions from more efficient utilization of ambient heating, a dramatic increase of the evaporation rate by introducing wind, and scaling resistance in evaporating brines with a salt content of up to 17.5 wt %. This performance makes the 3D GO stalk well suited for the development of a low-cost, reduced footprint technology for zero liquid discharge in brine management applications.


Assuntos
Grafite , Purificação da Água , Sais , Luz Solar
6.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Nov. 2021. 106 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1344727

RESUMO

En la presente publicación se proporciona información útil sobre las iniciativas de disminución del consumo de sal y sodio en la Región de las Américas. Se cartografían las políticas y las iniciativas vigentes en los países de la Región de las Américas orientadas a disminuir el consumo de sal y sodio en los alimentos. También se reconocen las brechas que hay en las políticas en el marco de las "mejores inversiones" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, es decir, las recomendaciones más costo, eficaces para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles relacionadas con la alimentación. Además, se pone a disposición del público un repositorio de políticas, leyes y regulaciones orientadas a reducir la ingesta de sal y sodio en la Región de las Américas. Por último, se utiliza la información recopilada sobre las brechas en las políticas con el fin de analizar los aspectos que deben ser prioritarios para la labor que se llevará a cabo en la Región


Assuntos
Sais , Sódio , Medição de Consumo , Fatores de Risco , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Investimentos em Saúde
7.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48480

RESUMO

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) lançou novas metas para ajudar os países das Américas a reduzirem o consumo de sal na população por meio da reformulação de produtos processados ​​e ultraprocessados, de onde vem a maior parte do sódio consumido na dieta.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Sais
8.
Se Pu ; 39(11): 1151-1156, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677010

RESUMO

The existing miniature capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices use a tablet or a computer for data processing and analysis, which hinders their portability. In order to solve this problem, a smartphone-based CE device was proposed, which allowed for real portable quantitative analysis. The device integrated the functions of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) and Bluetooth communication. Furthermore, a Kotlin language-based application with a user-friendly interface was developed. The application could not only control the electrophoresis run in the CE device but also receive the data from the C4D detector in real time, display the electrophoretogram, and process the data. The peak areas could be calculated automatically on the smartphone, and the migration time could be obtained. The size of the developed device was 20 cm×20 cm×15 cm, and its weight was 2 kg. Quaternary ammonium salts (QAs) in disinfectors (dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium bromide (DDBAB) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB)) were used as the analytes to verify the performance of the developed device. The experimental data showed that the linear ranges of DDBAB and DTAB were from 20 to 1000 and from 30 to 1000 µmol/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients (R2) of DDBAB and DTAB were 0.9995 and 0.9989, respectively, indicating good linearity between the peak area and concentration. The limits of detection (LODs) of DDBAB and DTAB were 10 and 13 µmol/L, respectively. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) of DDBAB and DTAB were 1.9% and 2.7% respectively, revealing good repeatability. In addition, a mixture of DDBAB and DTAB was tested. Two QAs were separated within 8 min, showing good selectivity. Finally, QAs in a bromo geramine disinfector used in the field were tested to further validate the performance of the designed device. The recoveries of DDBAB and DTAB were 100.5%-101.5% and 96.2%-99.3%, respectively, indicating good accuracy. The developed device has the advantages of good linearity, low LOD, good repeatability, high accuracy, and real portability, and it can be used for the quantitative detection of QAs in disinfectors.


Assuntos
Sais , Smartphone , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletroforese Capilar , Limite de Detecção
9.
Water Res ; 205: 117692, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600229

RESUMO

Coagulation is a conventional method in water treatment. In recent decades, with the rapid development of membrane filtration, the use of coagulation is facing some new challenges. How to minimize the membrane fouling became a leading-edge topic in the study of coagulation. Here, the performances of three types of titanium coagulants were evaluated in terms of both the coagulation removal of toxic micropollutants and the alleviation of membrane fouling. Three oxysalts and two antibiotics were taken as representatives of inorganic and organic micropollutants. As compared with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polytitanium chloride (PTC), titanium xerogel (TXC) with a higher polymerization degree showed much better performances in direct coagulation removal of oxysalts and antibiotics and in pre-coagulation for mitigating membrane fouling in both coagulation-sedimentation-ultrafiltration (CSUF) and in-line coagulation-ultrafiltration (CUF) processes. In the CSUF system, the membrane permeate flux with TXC pre-coagulation (89.5%) was much higher than those of TiCl4 (56.1%) and PTC (57.4%). After a 5 day continuous operation, the transmembrane pressure in the CUF system with TXC coagulation was increased only to 4.9 kPa, while those of PTC and TiCl4 were 12.2 and 18.5 kPa, respectively. The results here demonstrate that TXC is a promising coagulant for pollutant removal and membrane fouling alleviation, due to the following merits: better floc properties, weaker pH-dependence, and higher resistance to coordination with organic pollutants. The observation shed new lights on the fabrication and application of coagulants in a wide variety of scenarios.


Assuntos
Titânio , Purificação da Água , Floculação , Membranas Artificiais , Sais , Ultrafiltração
10.
Water Res ; 205: 117728, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619606

RESUMO

Ion exchange (IX) using synthetic resins is a cost-efficient technology to cope with a wide range of contaminants in water treatment. However, implementing IX processes is constrained by the regeneration of IX resins that generates a highly concentrated brine (i.e., IX brine), the disposal of which is costly and detrimental to ecosystems. In an effort to make the application of IX resins more sustainable in water treatment, substantial research has been conducted on the optimization of IX resins operation and the management of IX brine. The present review critically evaluates the literature surrounding IX operational strategies and IX brine management which can be used to limit the negative impacts arising from IX brine. To this end, we first analyzed the physicochemical characteristics of brines from the regeneration of IX resins. Then, we critically evaluated IX operational strategies that facilitate brine management, including resin selection, contactor selection, operational modes, and regeneration strategies. Furthermore, we analyzed IX brine management strategies, including brine reuse and brine disposal (without or with treatment). Finally, a novel workflow for the IX water treatment plant design that integrates IX operational strategies and IX brine management is proposed, thereby highlighting the areas that make IX technology more sustainable for water treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Ecossistema , Troca Iônica , Nitratos , Sais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(42): 11732-11741, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643406

RESUMO

The growth of α-glycine crystals from aqueous solution is investigated at constant supersaturations by utilizing the constant chemical potential molecular dynamics method. The study considers two faces (010) and (011) that predominantly determine the α-glycine crystal morphology. The general Amber force field (GAFF) with two different charge sets derived from semi-empirical calculations using the complete neglect of differential overlap method (CNDO) and from density functional calculations using the double-numerical plus d- and p-polarization basis set (DNP) is applied to describe α-glycine. The extended simple point charge model is used to simulate water. It is observed that the GAFF/DNP set leads to a much slower integration of glycine molecules into the crystal structure than the GAFF/CNDO set. The GAFF/CNDO set, however, causes the growth even at concentrations well below the experimental solubility. For the GAFF/DNP set, the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on the face growth rates is investigated. The parameters recently proposed by Yagasaki et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2020, 16, 2460-2473] are used to describe salt ions, as standard GAFF parameters lead to the unexpected formation of salt clusters at a concentration lower than the experimental solubility value. According to our simulation results, both salts suppress the growth of the (011) and (010) faces. The inhibiting effect of NaCl is much stronger than that of KCl for the (011) face, while both salts have a similar inhibiting effect on the (010) face. The results are in line with the experimental observations of the impact of salt ions on the α-glycine growth rates for the (011) face reported in literature.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Sais , Cristalização , Glicina , Água
12.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618893

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water quality on water intake (WI), forage intake, diet digestibility, and blood constituents in beef cows and growing beef heifers. This was a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square with five drinking water treatments within each square: 1) fresh water (Control); 2) brackish water (100 BRW treatment) with approximately 6,000 mg/kg total dissolved solids (TDS); 3) same TDS level as 100 BRW achieved by addition of NaCl to fresh water (100 SLW); 4) 50% brackish water and 50% fresh water to achieve approximately 3,000 mg/kg TDS (50 BRW); and 5) same TDS level as 50 BRW achieved by addition of NaCl to fresh water (50 SLW). Each of the five 21-d periods consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 5 d of data collection. Animals were housed individually and fed mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grass hay cubes. Feed and WI were recorded daily. Data were analyzed with animal as the experimental unit. Age, treatment, and age × treatment were fixed effects, and animal ID within age was the random variable for intake, digestibility, and blood parameter data. Water and feed intake were greater than expected, regardless of age or water treatment. No treatment × age interactions were identified for WI (P = 0.71), WI expressed as g/kg body weight (BW; P = 0.70), or dry matter intake (DMI; P = 0.21). However, there was an age × treatment tendency for DMI when scaled to BW (P = 0.09) in cows consuming 100 BRW compared with fresh water. No differences were found for the other three treatments. Heifers provided 50 SLW water consumed less (P < 0.05) feed (g/kg BW) compared with heifers provided fresh water and 100 BRW. No differences (P > 0.05) in water, DMI, feed intake, or diet digestibility were found due to water quality treatment. In conclusion, under these conditions, neither absolute WI, absolute DMI, nor diet digestibility was influenced by the natural brackish or saline water used in this experiment. These results suggest that further research is necessary to determine thresholds for TDS or salinity concentration resulting in reduced water and/or feed intake and diet digestibility.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Sais , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Medicago sativa , Rúmen
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-19.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55056

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to map existing country policies and initiatives addressing population dietary sodium reduction in the Region of the Americas; to identify policy gaps following what is outlined in the World Health Organization (WHO) “Best Buys” most cost-effective recommendations for the prevention and control of diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs); and to discuss priorities for future work to reduce population salt/sodium intake. We analyzed data from 34 countries in the Region. A review of different databases informed the mapping. Databases included (1) responses from the online Survey on National Initiatives for Salt/Sodium Reduction in the Americas carried out by PAHO in 2016; (2) the databases from the 2017 and 2019 PAHO Country Capacity Surveys for NCDs and Risk Factors; and (3) the repositories of legislation of the PAHO REGULA initiative as of 2018. Research in these databases was complemented by electronic searches on official websites from the ministries of health, education, and agriculture and the library of the national congress in each country. Additionally, when available, government regulatory gazettes were reviewed. National policies that have adopted the most cost-effective interventions for preventing and controlling diet-related NCDs of WHO “Best Buys” included reformulating food products with both voluntary (n=11/34) and mandatory (n=2/34) targets; establishing a supportive environment in public institutions (n=13/34); consumer awareness programs (n=26/34) and behavior-change communication and mass media campaigns (n=(0/34); and implementing front-of-pack labeling (n=5/34). We also found that some countries have implemented regulations that restrict marketing of foods high in salt/sodium to children (n=5/34), or are using nutritional labeling that includes sodium content, either voluntary (n=9/34) or mandatory (n=10/34). However, no country in the Region has implemented taxes on high salt/sodium foods. Based on our review, we concluded that there has been a significant advance in policies to reduce sodium intake in the Region of the Americas in recent years. However, we identified that the level of implementation is quite varied and is challenging to assess. Despite the progress, there remains much work to do on this issue, especially in countries where there is limited or no action yet. Reducing sodium consumption is a cost-effective intervention that can save many lives by preventing and reducing the burden of diet-related NCDs. Therefore, a further call to action is needed for governments to accelerate efforts to meet the 2025 global target of a 30% relative reduction in mean population intake of sodium.


Assuntos
Programas de Nutrição , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio , Sais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , América
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-26. (PAHO/NMH/RF/21-0016).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54658

RESUMO

This publication presents the set of new and revised Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Regional Sodium Reduction Targets 2021–2025 adopted by the PAHO Technical Advisory Group on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention through Population-wide Dietary Salt Reduction. It also provides an overview of the methodological approaches taken to expand the number of food categories and to generate the revised targets. PAHO and the World Health Organization have called on countries to strive for a 30% relative reduction in mean population intake of salt/sodium by 2025. Although there have been significant advances in policies or interventions in the Region of the Americas, more accelerated action is needed to reduce cardiovascular disease and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) by reducing sodium intake. Member States have demonstrated that it is feasible to reduce sodium levels in food products by setting national or regional sodium targets. These updated harmonized sodium reduction targets are a tool for governments to boost progress towards achieving a reduction in the NCD burden. They are designed to complement existing and ongoing national efforts and initiatives, and are intended to serve as a regional reference, and for the monitoring of sodium content in food products.


Assuntos
Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Programas de Nutrição , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Sódio , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sais
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1658: 462595, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662825

RESUMO

By using novel oxonium salts in "Sandwich" mode, an improved approach of targeted enrichment through a pressurized solvent-free extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV) analysis was developed for main bioactive flavonoids in bamboo leaves. As solid extractants, these salts have the same structural nucleus with analytes. By comparison, the yield of this new method was higher than that of reported ways, and the highest enrichment factor reached 394.22. The whole process was more consistent with pseudo-second order model (R2=0.9994) with the rate constant of 0.0537 (g/mg·min). Moreover, ideal selectivity, linearity, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery were all achieved.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sais , Solventes
16.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 42(22): e2100443, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599788

RESUMO

Chemical doping is a vital tool for tuning electronic properties of conjugated polymers. Most single electron acceptors used for p-doping necessitate high dopant concentrations to achieve good electrical conductivity. However, high-molar doping ratios hamper doping efficiency. Here a new concept of using multielectron acceptor (MEA) salts as dopants for conjugated polymers is presented. Two novel MEA salts are synthesized and their doping efficiency towards two polymers differing in their dielectric properties are compared with two single electron acceptors such as NOPF6 and magic blue. Cutting-edge methods such as ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), impedance spectroscopy, and density of states analysis in addition to UV-vis-NIR absorption, spectroelectrochemistry, and Raman spectroscopy methods are used to characterize the doped systems. The tetracation salt improves the conductivity by two orders of magnitude and quadruples the charge carrier concentration compared to single electron acceptors for the same molar ratio. The differences in charge carrier density and activation energy on doping are delineated. Further, a strong dependency of the carrier release on the polymer polarity is observed. High carrier densities at reduced dopant loadings and improved doping efficacies using MEA dopants offer a highly efficient doping strategy for conjugated polymers.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Sais , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Condutividade Elétrica , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica
17.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641340

RESUMO

Salt concentrations in brine and temperature are the major environmental factors that affect activity of microorganisms and, thus may affect formation of biogenic amines (BAs) during the fermentation process. A model system to ferment cucumbers with low salt (0.5%, 1.5% or 5.0% NaCl) at two temperatures (11 or 23 °C) was used to study the ability of indigenous microbiota to produce biogenic amines and metabolize amino acid precursors. Colony counts for presumptive Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae increased by 4 and up to 2 log of CFU∙mL-1, respectively, and remained viable for more than 10 days. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that Lactobacillus and Enterobacter were dominant in fermented cucumbers with 0.5% and 1.5% salt concentrations after storage. The initial content of BAs in raw material of 25.44 ± 4.03 mg∙kg-1 fluctuated throughout experiment, but after 6 months there were no significant differences between tested variants. The most abundant BA was putrescine, that reached a maximum concentration of 158.02 ± 25.11 mg∙kg-1. The Biogenic Amines Index (BAI) calculated for all samples was significantly below that needed to induce undesirable effects upon consumption. The highest value was calculated for the 23 °C/5.0% NaCl brine variant after 192 h of fermentation (223.93 ± 54.40). Results presented in this work indicate that possibilities to control spontaneous fermentation by changing salt concentration and temperature to inhibit the formation of BAs are very limited.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Sais/química , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cucumis sativus/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Temperatura
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639095

RESUMO

A 4-nitro-L-phenylalanine scaffold was used to construct effective ion pair receptors capable of binding anions in an enhanced manner with the assistance of alkali metal cations. A benzocrown ether was linked to a receptor platform via the amide function so as to support the squaramide function in anion binding and to allow all three NHs to act simultaneously. The binding properties of the receptors were determined using UV-vis, 1H NMR, 2D NMR, and DOSY spectroscopy in MeCN and in the solid state by X-ray measurements. Ion pair receptor 2 was found to interact with the most strongly with salts, and the removal of its key structural elements was shown to hinder the receptor action. The amide proton was recognized to switch from having involvement in an intramolecular hydrogen bond to interacting with anions upon complexation. Apart from carboxylates, which promote deprotonation, and other monovalent salts creating 1:1 complexes with the receptor, more complex equilibria were established upon the complexation of 2 with sulfates. Receptor 2 was shown to be capable of the extraction of ion pairs from the aqueous to organic phase and of the cation-enhanced transport chloride and sulfate anions across a bulk chloroform membrane. These features may open the door for its use in regulating ion concertation under interfacial conditions and acting as a potential drug to treat channelopathies.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ânions/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Sais/metabolismo , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Ânions/química , Cátions/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Sais/química , Sulfatos/química
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13164-13172, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709813

RESUMO

Copper-sulfhydryl complexes in wine can be disrupted by addition of brine to release free hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and the resulting "brine-releasable H2S" is reported to correlate with formation of H2S during bottle storage. However, both the mechanism of the brine-release assay and factors affecting the stability of copper sulfhydryls under brine-release conditions are not well understood. By varying brine composition and concentration, it is shown that release of copper-complexed H2S requires the presence of a halide (Cl- and Br-) and is not due to a general "salting-out" effect. Release of copper-complexed H2S by the brine dilution assay is highly temperature-dependent. When H2S and Cu(II) are added to a model wine, brine-releasable H2S decreases markedly (∼10-fold) after a 20 min incubation period prior to performing the brine-release assay. In commercial wines, the fraction of added H2S recovered through the brine-release assay was correlated with the initial glutathione (GSH) concentration (r2 = 0.58) but not with initial Cu. Negligible additional release of H2S from organopolysulfanes was observed following addition of a disulfide-reducing agent (tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine). As previous studies have reported a correlation between H2S formed under brine-release conditions and normal storage, these results suggest that the susceptibility of a wine to form latent copper-sulfhydryl precursors of H2S following copper addition is dependent on the concentration of sulfhydryls like GSH.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Vinho , Cobre , Glutationa , Sais , Vinho/análise
20.
Soft Matter ; 17(35): 8022-8026, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525157

RESUMO

Are aluminium ions unavoidable in antiperspirants? To answer this question, we present confocal microscopy images of dendritic plugs appearing in sweat flowing across a microfluidic channel in the presence of aluminium salts. By comparing with numerical simulations, we identify the mechanisms forming this structured protein gel inside the pore.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Suor , Antiperspirantes , Sais , Sudorese
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