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1.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613069

RESUMO

The present study investigated potential bioactive natural products from the EtOH extract of Salix chaenomeloides twigs using column chromatography, leading to the isolation of six compounds (1-6), which were characterized as two proanthocyanidins, procyanidin B2 (1) and procyanidin B1 (2), and four phenolic compounds, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ß-D-glucosyl ester (3), di-O-methylcrenatin (4), p-coumaric acid glucoside (5), and syringin (6) by the comparison of their NMR spectra with the reported data and high-resolution (HR)-electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) analysis. We investigated the potential of six compounds (1-6) to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which showed that the compounds (1-6) significantly reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without affecting cell proliferation. Notably, compound 1 demonstrated a remarkable 60% and 90% reduction in lipid levels with 50 and 100 µM treatments, respectively. Oil Red O staining results indicated that compound 1 significantly inhibits the formation of lipid droplets, comparable to the effect of T863, an inhibitor of triglyceride used as a positive control, in adipocytes. Compound 1 had no effect on the regulators PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBF1 of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but compound 1 activated the fatty acid oxidation regulator, PPARα, compared to the lipogenic-induced control. It also suppressed fatty acid synthesis by downregulating the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS). Finally, compound 1 induced the mRNA and protein levels of CPT1A, an initial marker of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1. This finding substantiates the anti-lipogenic and lipolytic effects of procyanidin B2 (1) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, emphasizing its pivotal role in modulating obesity-related markers.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Salix , Camundongos , Animais , Células 3T3-L1 , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos , Lipídeos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120691, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554452

RESUMO

Regions affected by heavy metal contamination frequently encounter phosphorus (P) deficiency. Numerous studies highlight crucial role of P in facilitating cadmium (Cd) accumulation in woody plants. However, the regulatory mechanism by which P affects Cd accumulation in roots remains ambiguous. This study aims to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) deficiency on Cd accumulation, Cd subcellular distribution, and cell wall components in the roots of Salix caprea under Cd stress. The results revealed that under P deficiency conditions, there was a 35.4% elevation in Cd content in roots, coupled with a 60.1% reduction in Cd content in shoots, compared to the P sufficiency conditions. Under deficient P conditions, the predominant response of roots to Cd exposure was the increased sequestration of Cd in root cell walls. The sequestration of Cd in root cell walls increased from 37.1% under sufficient P conditions to 66.7% under P deficiency, with pectin identified as the primary Cd binding site under both P conditions. Among cell wall components, P deficiency led to a significant 31.7% increase in Cd content within pectin compared to P sufficiency conditions, but did not change the pectin content. Notably, P deficiency significantly increased pectin methylesterase (PME) activity by regulating the expression of PME and PMEI genes, leading to a 10.4% reduction in the degree of pectin methylesterification. This may elucidate the absence of significant changes in pectin content under P deficiency conditions and the concurrent increase in Cd accumulation in pectin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated an increase in carboxyl groups in the root cell walls under P deficiency compared to sufficient P treatment. The results provide deep insights into the mechanisms of higher Cd accumulation in root mediated by P deficiency.


Assuntos
Pectinas , Salix , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Pectinas/farmacologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise
3.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 317, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth-regulating factor-interacting factor (GIF) gene family plays a vital role in regulating plant growth and development, particularly in controlling leaf, seed, and root meristem homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism of heteromorphic leaves by GIF genes in Populus euphratica as an important adaptative trait of heteromorphic leaves in response to desert environment remains unknown. RESULTS: This study aimed to identify and characterize the GIF genes in P. euphratica and other five Salicaceae species to investigate their role in regulating heteromorphic leaf development. A total of 27 GIF genes were identified and characterized across six Salicaceae species (P. euphratica, Populus pruinose, Populus deltoides, Populus trichocarpa, Salix sinopurpurea, and Salix suchowensis) at the genome-wide level. Comparative genomic analysis among these species suggested that the expansion of GIFs may be derived from the specific Salicaceae whole-genome duplication event after their divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, the expression data of PeGIFs in heteromorphic leaves, combined with functional information on GIF genes in Arabidopsis, indicated the role of PeGIFs in regulating the leaf development of P. euphratica, especially PeGIFs containing several cis-acting elements associated with plant growth and development. By heterologous expression of the PeGIF3 gene in wild-type plants (Col-0) and atgif1 mutant of A. thaliana, a significant difference in leaf expansion along the medial-lateral axis, and an increased number of leaf cells, were observed between the overexpressed plants and the wild type. CONCLUSION: PeGIF3 enhances leaf cell proliferation, thereby resulting in the expansion of the central-lateral region of the leaf. The findings not only provide global insights into the evolutionary features of Salicaceae GIFs but also reveal the regulatory mechanism of PeGIF3 in heteromorphic leaves of P. euphratica.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Populus , Salicaceae , Salix , Salicaceae/genética , Folhas de Planta , Salix/genética , Genômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
4.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 62, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551700

RESUMO

Curtobacterium sp. strain WW7 is a Gram-positive, non-motile, orange rod-shaped bacterium isolated from branches of wild willow (Salix sitchensis) trees. The WW7T strain has optimum growth in the temperature range between 25 and 30 °C, a pH range of 6-7.7, and tolerates up to 5.5% (w/v) of NaCl. The genome sequencing of strain WW7T revealed a genome size of approximately 3.8 Mbp and a G + C content of 71.3 mol%. The phylogenomic analyses support the WW7T affiliation to a novel Curtobacterium lineage, with Curtobacterium herbarum being the closest type-strain. Chemotaxonomic analysis indicates that the carbon sources assimilation profile of strain WW7T was similar to the type strains, i.e. Curtobacterium luteum, Curtobacterium albidum, and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, while no assimilation of the organic acids succinate, alpha-ketobutyrate, mono methyl-succinate, and lactate was observed. Finally, fatty acid methyl ester analysis identifies anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 as major cellular fatty acids which is a common feature for members of the Curtobacterium genus. Based on the results of phylogenomic and chemotaxonomic analyses, strain WW7T represents a novel Curtobacterium lineage, for which the name Curtobacterium salicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WW7T (DSM 34805T-NRRL B-68078T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Salix , Árvores , Salix/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Washington , Ácidos Graxos/química , Succinatos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Fosfolipídeos/química
5.
Zootaxa ; 5410(2): 177-198, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480249

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Cameraria Chapman, 1902, Cameraria riparia sp. nov. and Cameraria corni sp. nov., are described from Japan. Larval setal maps, illustrations and/or photographs of wing patterns, wing venations and genitalia are provided for both species, and the systematic positions of the two species are discussed based on their morphologies. The larvae of C. riparia feed on Salix spp. and make blotch mines, whereas C. corni larvae feed on Cornus kousa subsp. kousa and make linear blotch mines. C. riparia was collected on Hokkaido and Honshu Islands, and considerable differences in the male genital characters were detected between the two populations. However, a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the COI barcode region indicated that there was no clear genetic differentiation between the two populations (maximum divergence, 1.41%). C. corni was collected on Honshu and Kyushu Islands, and this is the first record of the trophic association of Lithocolletinae with Cornaceae.


Assuntos
Cornus , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Salix , Masculino , Animais , Japão , Filogenia , Mariposas/genética , Larva/genética
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1360680, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476166

RESUMO

Background: Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are a class of small molecular weight soluble proteins. In the past few years, OBPs had been found to work as carriers of ligands and play a crucial role in olfaction and various other physiological processes, like immunity. A subset of insect OBPs had been found to be expressed differently and play a function in immunity of fungal infection. However, there are few studies on the role of OBPs in immunity of bacterial infection. Methods: To identify the immune-related OBPs of Plagiodera versicolora after infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we determined the mortality of P. versicolora to P. aeruginosa and selected the time point of 50% mortality of larvae to collect samples for RNA-seq. RNAi technology was used to investigate the function of immune-related OBPs after P. aeruginosa infection. Results: RNA-seq data shows that PverOBP18 gene significantly up-regulated by 1.8-fold and further RT-qPCR affirmed its expression. Developmental expression profile showed that the expression of PverOBP18 was highest in the pupae, followed by the female adults, and lower in the 1st-3rd larvae and male adults with lowest in eggs. Tissue expression profiling showed that PverOBP18 was dominantly expressed in the epidermis. RNAi knockdown of PverOBP18 significantly reduced the expression of bacterial recognition receptor gene PGRP and antibacterial peptide gene Attacin and reduced the resistance of P. versicolora to P. aeruginosa infection. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PverOBP18 gene increased the pathogen resistance of P. versicolora by cooperating with the immune genes and provided valuable insights into using OBPs as targets to design novel strategies for management of P. versicolora.


Assuntos
Besouros , Salix , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Odorantes , Larva , Insetos , Filogenia
7.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 182, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are plant-specific and play important roles in plant defense against environmental stresses. Identification and functional studies have been carried out in model plants such as rice, Arabidopsis thaliana, and poplar, but comprehensive analysis on the HD-Zip family of Salix suchowensis have not been reported. RESULTS: A total of 55 HD-Zip genes were identified in the willow genome, unevenly distributed on 18 chromosomes except for chromosome 19. And segmental duplication events containing SsHD-Zip were detected on all chromosomes except chromosomes 13 and 19. The SsHD-Zip were classified into 4 subfamilies subfamilies (I-IV) according to the evolutionary analysis, and members of each subfamily shared similar domain structure and gene structure. The combination of GO annotation and promoter analysis showed that SsHD-Zip genes responded to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the results of qPCR analysis showed that the SsHD-Zip I gene exhibited different degrees of expression under salt stress, PEG treatment and heat treatment. Moreover, there was a synergistic effect between SsHD-Zip I genes under stress conditions based on coregulatory networks analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, HD-Zip transcription factors were systematically identified and analyzed at the whole genome level. These results preliminarily clarified the structural characteristics and related functions of willow HD-Zip family members, and it was found that SsHox34, SsHox36 and SsHox51 genes were significantly involved in the response to various stresses. Together, these findings laid the foundation for further research on the resistance functions of willow HD-Zip genes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Salix , Zíper de Leucina/genética , Salix/genética , Genoma de Planta , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/química , Filogenia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338824

RESUMO

In nature, plants are exposed to a range of climatic conditions. Those negatively impacting plant growth and survival are called abiotic stresses. Although abiotic stresses have been extensively studied separately, little is known about their interactions. Here, we investigate the impact of long-term mild metal exposure on the cold acclimation of Salix viminalis roots using physiological, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches. We found that, while metal exposure significantly affected plant morphology and physiology, it did not impede cold acclimation. Cold acclimation alone increased glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity. It also resulted in the increase in transcripts and proteins belonging to the heat-shock proteins and related to the energy metabolism. Exposure to metals decreased antioxidant capacity but increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. It also resulted in the overexpression of transcripts and proteins related to metal homeostasis, protein folding, and the antioxidant machinery. The simultaneous exposure to both stressors resulted in effects that were not the simple addition of the effects of both stressors taken separately. At the antioxidant level, the response to both stressors was like the response to metals alone. While this should have led to a reduction of frost tolerance, this was not observed. The impact of the simultaneous exposure to metals and cold acclimation on the transcriptome was unique, while at the proteomic level the cold acclimation component seemed to be dominant. Some genes and proteins displayed positive interaction patterns. These genes and proteins were related to the mitigation and reparation of oxidative damage, sugar catabolism, and the production of lignans, trehalose, and raffinose. Interestingly, none of these genes and proteins belonged to the traditional ROS homeostasis system. These results highlight the importance of the under-studied role of lignans and the ROS damage repair and removal system in plants simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors.


Assuntos
Lignanas , Metais Pesados , Salix , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Salix/genética , Salix/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Lignanas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(14): 21326-21340, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386162

RESUMO

Samples of scrub plants and soil were collected from May to October 2019 in the subalpine scrub zone of the Qilian Mountains. Based on measured oxygen isotope values (δ18O) in plant xylem water and soil water, the multivariate linear mixed model (IsoSource) and the proportional similarity index (PS index) were used to analyze the using proportion for each potential water source and the competition relationship for water use of scrub plants in different growing periods and habitats. The results showed that the soil water content gradually decreased with increasing depth of the soil layer, with the maximum value in the soil layer of 0-10 cm. Most of the scrub plants mainly used soil water in the soil layer of 0-30 cm during the different periods of growing season, but Salix sclerophylla Anderss. and Salix oritrepha Schneid. on the semi-sunny slope habitat mainly used soil water in the soil layer of 40-80 cm during the middle period of growing season (July-August), with the proportion of 59.5% and 52.1%, respectively; and Potentilla fruticosa Linn. and Salix cupularis Rehd. on the semi-shady slope habitat mainly used soil water in the soil layer of 30-60 cm during the early period of growing season (May-June), with the proportion of 61.1% and 49.7%, respectively. The competition relationships of scrub plants for water use varied during different periods of growing season (P < 0.05). On the semi-sunny slope habitat, they were fiercest for Salix cupularis Rehd. and Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim., Potentilla fruticosa Linn., and Salix sclerophylla Anderss. during the early period of growing season; Salix cupularis Rehd. and Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim. during the middle period of growing season, and Salix sclerophylla Anderss. and Salix oritrepha Schneid. during the end period of growing season (September-October). On the semi-shady slope habitat, they were fiercest for Salix oritrepha Schneid. and Caragana jubata (Pall.) Poir. during the early period of growing season; Rhododendron przewalskii Maxim. and Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim. during the middle period of growing season; and Salix cupularis Rehd. and Salix oritrepha Schneid. during the end period of growing season. This study reveals the competitive relationship of scrub plants for water use in the subalpine zone and their response to environmental changes, so as to provide theoretical references for the ecological conservation in the ecologically fragile areas of the Qilian Mountains.


Assuntos
Salix , Água , Água/análise , China , Plantas , Ecossistema , Solo
10.
J Environ Manage ; 354: 120153, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394868

RESUMO

Aggravated metal pollution in wetland and riparian zones has become a global environmental issue, necessitating the identification of sustainable remediation approaches. Salix exhibits great potential as a viable candidate for metal(loid) remediation. However, the underlying mechanisms for its effectiveness in different flooding regimes with Pb pollution have not been extensively studied. In this study, fast-growing Salix×jiangsuensis 'J172' was selected and planted in different Pb polluted soils (control, 400 and 800 mg ∙ kg-1) under non-flooded and flooded (CF: continuous flooding and IF: intermittent flooding) conditions for 60 days. This study aimed to explore the effects of flooding on Salix growth performance, physiological traits, and the relationship between Pb uptake/translocation and root Fe plaques. Salix×jiangsuensis 'J172' exhibited excellent tolerance and adaptation to Pb pollution with a tolerance index (TI) exceeding 0.6, even at the highest Pb levels. Moreover, the TIs under flooded conditions were higher than that under non-flooded conditions, suggesting that flooding could alleviate Pb toxicity under co-exposure to Pb and flooding. Leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) exhibited a dose-dependent response to Pb exposure; however, CF or IF mitigated the oxidative damage induced by Pb toxicity with decreased MDA content (2.2-11.9%). The superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were generally enhanced by flooding, but combined stress (flooding and Pb) significantly decreased catalase activity. Pb was predominantly accumulated in Salix roots, and flooding markedly increased root Pb accumulation by 19.2-173.0% compared to non-flooded condition. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was observed between the iron (Fe) content of the root plaque and root Pb accumulation, indicating that the formation of Fe plaque on the root surface could enhance the phytostabilization of Pb in Salix. The current findings highlight that fast-growing woody plants are suitable for phyto-management of metal-polluted wetlands and can potentially minimize the risk of metal mobility in soils.


Assuntos
Salix , Poluentes do Solo , Ferro , Chumbo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química
11.
J Tissue Viability ; 33(1): 135-143, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wound healing poses a challenging therapeutic scenario, requiring diverse clinical approaches. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the wound-healing potential of Salix aegyptiaca's flower ointment compared to phenytoin, considering the active constituents of S. aegyptiaca and its traditional usage. METHODS: Initially, the active components of S. aegyptiaca were isolated and identified through the GC-MS technique. Subsequently, for the experimental intervention, thirty-five rats were divided into five distinct groups: control (C), phenytoin (F), and three S. aegyptiaca ointment groups at different concentrations (5 % - S5, 25 % - S25, and 50 % - S50). Anesthesia was administered, and wounds were induced on the animals' necks following a standard procedure. These wounds were then treated for a duration of 21 days. Wound healing progress was quantified, and histopathological assessments were conducted using hematoxylin and eosin staining and Mason's trichrome staining. RESULTS: The main active compounds of S. aegyptiaca, namely n-hexadecanoic acid and oleic acid, were identified via GC-MS analysis. Although the initial group weights did not show a significant difference (P = 0.271), a significant variation was observed in the final weights (P = 0.003). The S50 group exhibited a lower wound healing rate than the S25 group on the 7th and 14th days but surpassed it on the 21st day (C < F < S5≈S25

Assuntos
Salix , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Ratos , Animais , Fenitoína/farmacologia , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Pomadas/farmacologia , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Pele/lesões , Cicatrização , Modelos Animais
12.
Poult Sci ; 103(3): 103386, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176372

RESUMO

The investigation examined the use of willow leaf extract (WLE) on broiler chickens, examining carcass characteristics, cecal microbiota, antioxidants, and blood parameters. In 4 groups of 300 chicks, a basal diet was given for 5 wk, and the first treatment was basal diet (C). The diets for the remaining 3 treatments (WLE150, WLE300, and WLE450) contained 150, 300, and 450 mg of willow leaf extract /kg, respectively. The study found that birds fed willow leaf extract supplements had significantly greater body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), and enhanced feed conversion ratio (FCR) vs. the control group. Birds fed at 450 mg/kg food showed the greatest growth features, carcass weight, liver weight, lower abdominal fat, better low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations, and highest hematological characteristics. Chickens fed diets supplemented with varied doses of willow leaf extract showed significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activity, with higher amounts of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and lower malondialdehyde (MDA). However, in the study, birds fed a diet supplemented with 450 mg of willow leaf extract per kg meal showed a significant drop of 13.02%, which found no significant variations in hazardous bacteria (Escherichia coli) across 2 treatments (WLE150 and WLE300). In addition, the study discovered that birds fed with varied doses of willow leaf extract had fewer cecum infections (Staphylococci aureus). We conclude that using willow at a level of 450 mg/kg diet can significantly enhance the BWG, FCR, antioxidant levels and beneficial bacteria activity besides the condition of broiler chicken's general health.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Salix , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peso Corporal
13.
Tree Physiol ; 44(2)2024 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263488

RESUMO

Mongolian willow (Salix linearistipularis) is a naturally occurring woody dioecious plant in the saline soils of north-eastern China, which has a high tolerance to alkaline salts. Although transcriptomics studies have identified a large number of salinity-responsive genes, the mechanism of salt tolerance in Mongolian willow is not clear. Here, we found that in response to Na2CO3 stress, Mongolian willow regulates osmotic homeostasis by accumulating proline and soluble sugars and scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) by antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Our quantitative proteomics study identified 154 salt-sensitive proteins mainly involved in maintaining the stability of the photosynthetic system and ROS homeostasis to cope with Na2CO3 stress. Among them, Na2CO3-induced rubredoxin (RUB) was predicted to be associated with 122 proteins for the modulation of these processes. The chloroplast-localized S. linearistipularis rubredoxin (SlRUB) was highly expressed in leaves and was significantly induced under Na2CO3 stress. Phenotypic analysis of overexpression, mutation and complementation materials of RUB in Arabidopsis suggests that SlRUB is critical for the regulation of photosynthesis, ROS scavenging and other metabolisms in the seedlings of Mongolian willow to cope with Na2CO3 stress. This provides more clues to better understand the alkali-responsive mechanism and RUB functions in the woody Mongolian willow.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Salix , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Salix/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Rubredoxinas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 206: 108216, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016370

RESUMO

Trace metals have relatively high density and high toxicity at low concentrations. Willow (Salix genus) is an excellent phytoremediation species for soil contaminated by trace metal ions. This study identified a cell number regulator (CNR) gene family member in Salix linearistipularis exhibiting strong metal ion resistance: SlCNR8. SlCNR8 expression was affected by various metal ions, including cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). SlCNR8 overexpression enhanced Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe resistance in transgenic poplar seedlings (84K) compared with the wild-type (WT). Moreover, transgenic poplar seedlings showed lower root Cd uptake and less Cd accumulation than WT under Cd stress. SlCNR8 was primarily localized to the nucleus and the plasma membrane-like cell periphery. Furthermore, SlCNR8 had transcriptional activation activity in yeast. The transcript levels of multiple metal ion transporters were altered in the roots of transgenic poplar seedlings compared to WT roots under Cd stress. These results suggest that SlCNR8 may enhance Cd resistance in transgenic poplar by reducing Cd uptake and accumulation. This may be related to altered transcription levels of other transporters or to itself. Our study suggests that SlCNR8 can be used as a candidate gene for genetic improvement of phytostabilisation of trace metals by genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Salix , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Salix/genética , Salix/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plântula/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Íons/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Environ Pollut ; 341: 123019, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38008255

RESUMO

Bone biochar (BC) has a high capacity for the immobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs); however, its effect on dendroremediation efficiency remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 wt%) of BC, ball-milled BC (MBC), and Fe-Mn oxide-modified BC (FMBC) on soil properties, plant growth, and metal accumulation in Salix jiangsuensis "172" (SJ-172) grown in cadmium (Cd)- and zinc (Zn)-contaminated soil. BC and MBC promoted the photosynthetic rate, mineral element absorption, and plant growth of SJ-172, whereas FMBC inhibited the growth of SJ-172. Different biochars greatly influenced the concentrations of Cd and Zn in tissues of SJ-172. BC and MBC elevated the Cd levels, whereas FMBC decreased the Cd content in the leaves, stems, and cuttings of SJ-172. Unlikely, BC, MBC and FMBC show no evident change to the Zn concentration in the aboveground tissues of SJ-172, while decreased root Cd and Zn content compared with the control. MBC, at a 2.0% application rate, significantly increased the translocation factors of Cd (55.0%) and Zn (40.87%), whereas BC and FMBC demonstrated no significant effects compared with the control (P > 0.05). Moreover, 2.0% BC and MBC increased Cd and Zn accumulation in SJ-172 by 28.40 and 41.14, and 25.89 and 36.16%, respectively, whereas 2.0% FMBC reduced Cd and Zn accumulation by 53.20% and 13.18 %, respectively, compared with the control. The phytoremediation potential of SJ-172 for Cd- and Zn-contaminated soils was enhanced by MBC and BC, whereas it was lowered by FMBC compared to the control. These results provide novel insights for the application of fast-growing trees assisted by biochar amendments in the dendroremediation of severely PTEs-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Salix , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Zinco/toxicidade , Zinco/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Compostos Orgânicos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 270: 115875, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142593

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of native and invasive plant species for the uptake and accumulation of lithium (Li) and strontium (Sr) along the Sava River, focusing on their bioindication and phytoremediation capabilities. Sampling was carried out in riparian zones exposed to different pollution sources in Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia. Plant samples of native (Salix alba, Populus alba, Populus nigra, Ulmus glabra, Juglans regia) and invasive (Amorpha fruticosa, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, Impatiens glandulifera) species were collected. The content of Li and Sr was analyzed in the soils, roots, and leaves of the selected plants, as well as physical and chemical soil properties. Both Li and Sr content in the soils increased from the source to the mouth of the Sava River. The native species showed significant potential for Li and Sr accumulation based on the metal accumulation index. The highest Sr accumulation was measured in the leaves of Salix alba and the roots of Juglans regia, while the highest Li accumulation was measured in Ulmus glabra. Native species, especially Salix alba, proved to be better bioindicators of Li and Sr. Invasive species, especially Amorpha fruticosa and Impatiens glandulifera, showed a remarkable ability to translocate Sr and Li, respectively, to leaves. These results provide valuable insight into the suitability of plants for biomonitoring soil contamination and potential applications in phytoremediation strategies. In summary, the study shows the importance of native species in the context of the accumulation and bioindication of soil pollution.


Assuntos
Populus , Salix , Poluentes do Solo , Estrôncio , Biodegradação Ambiental , Lítio , Rios , Plantas , Solo/química , Populus/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 676, 2023 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poplar (Populus cathayana)and willow (Salix rehderiana) are important fast-growing trees in China. Grafting plays an important role in improving plant stress resistance and construction of ornamental plants. It is found that willow scions grafted onto poplar rootstocks can form ornamental plants. However, this grafted combination has a low survival rate. Many studies have reported that the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family plays an important role in the healing process of grafts. RESULTS: A total of 38 PtrXTHs and 32 SpuXTHs were identified in poplar and willow respectively, and were classified into three subfamilies. Tandem duplication was the main reason for the expansion of the PtrXTHs. Grafting treatment and Quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that five XTH genes differentially expressed between self-grafted and reciprocal grafted combinations. Specifically, the high expression levels of SrXTH16, SrXTH17, SrXTH25, PcXTH22 and PcXTH17 may contribute to the high survival rate of the grafted combination with willow scion and poplar rootstock. Subcellular localization identified that the SrXTH16, SrXTH17, SrXTH25, PcXTH17 and PcXTH22 proteins were located on the cell walls. Transcription factors (NAC, MYB and DOF) may regulate the five XTH genes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a new understanding of the roles of PcXTH and SrXTH genes and their roles in grafting. Our results will give some hints to explore the molecular mechanisms of PcXTH and SrXTH genes involved in grafting in the future.


Assuntos
Populus , Salicaceae , Salix , Salicaceae/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Salix/genética , Hidrolases
18.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 25(12): 55-64, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947064

RESUMO

This research aimed to use a novel and effective ultrasound (US) approach for obtaining high bio-compound production, hence proposing strategies for boosting active ingredient biosynthesis. Furthermore, the US promotes several physiological effects on the relevant organelles in the cell, morphological effects on the structure of Phellinus igniarius mycelium, and increases the transfer of nutrients and metabolites. One suitable US condition for flavonoid fermentation was determined as once per day for 7-9 days at a frequency 22 + 40 kHz, power density 120 W/L, treated 10 min, treatment off time 7 s. The flavonoid content and production increased about 47.51% and 101.81%, respectively, compared with the untreated fermentation (P < 0.05). SEM showed that sonication changes the morphology and structure of Ph. igniarius mycelium; TEM reveals the ultrasonic treatment causes organelle aggregation. The ultrasound could affect the metabolism of the biosynthesis of the active ingredients.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Salix , Agaricales/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fermentação , Basidiomycota/química , Micélio/química
19.
Molecules ; 28(22)2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005279

RESUMO

Salix babylonica L. is a species of willow tree that is widely cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant, but its medicinal resources have not yet been reasonably developed or utilized. Herein, we extracted and purified the total flavonoids from willow buds (PTFW) for component analysis in order to evaluate their in vitro anti-tumor and hypoglycemic activities. Through Q-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS analysis, a total of 10 flavonoid compounds were identified (including flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols). The inhibitory effects of PTFW on the proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells, colon cancer HT-29 cells, and breast cancer MCF7 cells were evaluated using an MTT assay. Moreover, the hypoglycemic activity of PTFW was determined by investigating the inhibitory effects of PTFW on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The results indicated that PTFW significantly suppressed the proliferation of HeLa cells, HT-29 cells, and MCF7 cells, with IC50 values of 1.432, 0.3476, and 2.297 mg/mL, respectively. PTFW, at different concentrations, had certain inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with IC50 values of 2.94 mg/mL and 1.87 mg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, PTFW at different doses exhibits anti-proliferation effects on all three types of cancer cells, particularly on HT-29 cells, and also shows significant hypoglycemic effects. Willow buds have the potential to be used in functional food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Salix , Humanos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Células HeLa , alfa-Glucosidases , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Amilases
20.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7144, 2023 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932261

RESUMO

Transitions in the heterogamety of sex chromosomes (e.g., XY to ZW or vice versa) fundamentally alter the genetic basis of sex determination, however the details of these changes have been studied in only a few cases. In an XY to ZW transition, the X is likely to give rise to the W because they both carry feminizing genes and the X is expected to harbour less genetic load than the Y. Here, using a new reference genome for Salix exigua, we trace the X, Y, Z, and W sex determination regions during the homologous transition from an XY system to a ZW system in willow (Salix). We show that both the W and the Z arose from the Y chromosome. We find that the new Z chromosome shares multiple homologous putative masculinizing factors with the ancestral Y, whereas the new W lost these masculinizing factors and gained feminizing factors. The origination of both the W and Z from the Y was permitted by an unexpectedly low genetic load on the Y and this indicates that the origins of sex chromosomes during homologous transitions may be more flexible than previously considered.


Assuntos
Salix , Salix/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Cromossomo Y , Genoma , Evolução Molecular , Processos de Determinação Sexual
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