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1.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to maintain their primitive characters and long-term reconstitution abilities during transplantation. Therapeutic effects of MSCs mainly rely on paracrine mechanisms, including secretion of exosomes (Exos). The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cord blood plasma (CBP)-derived Exos (CBP Exos) and Placental MSCs-derived Exos (MSCs Exos) on the expansion of UCB HSCs to increase their numbers and keep their primitive characteristics. METHODS: CD34+ cells were isolated from UCB, cultured for 10 days, and the expanded HSCs were sub-cultured in semisolid methylcellulose media for primitive colony forming units (CFUs) assay. MSCs were cultured from placental chorionic plates. RESULTS: CBP Exos and MSCs Exos compared with the control group significantly increased the number of total nucleated cells (TNCs), invitro expansion of CD34+ cells, primitive subpopulations of CD34+38+ and CD34+38-Lin- cells (p < 0.001). The expanded cells showed a significantly higher number of total CFUs in the Exos groups (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CBP- and placental-derived exosomes are associated with significant ex vivo expansion of UCB HSCs, while maintaining their primitive characters and may eliminate the need for transplantation of an additional unit of UCB.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Sangue Fetal , Placenta , Proliferação de Células , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas
2.
Clin Transl Med ; 13(1): e1175, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from different sources show varied repopulating capacity, and HSCs lose their stemness after long-time ex vivo culture. A deep understanding of these phenomena may provide helpful insights for HSCs. METHODS: Here, we applied single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) to analyse the naïve and stimulated human CD34+ cells from cord blood (CB) and mobilised peripheral blood (mPB). RESULTS: We collected over 16 000 high-quality single-cell data to construct a comprehensive inference map and characterised the HSCs under a quiescent state on the hierarchy top. Then, we compared HSCs in CB with those in mPB and HSCs of naïve samples to those of cultured samples, and identified stemness-related genes (SRGs) associated with cell source (CS-SRGs) and culture time (CT-SRGs), respectively. Interestingly, CS-SRGs and CT-SRGs share genes enriched in the signalling pathways such as mRNA catabolic process, translational initiation, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis and cotranslational protein targeting to membrane, suggesting dynamic protein translation and processing may be a common requirement for stemness maintenance. Meanwhile, CT-SRGs are enriched in pathways involved in glucocorticoid and corticosteroid response that affect HSCs homing and engraftment. In contrast, CS-SRGs specifically contain genes related to purine and ATP metabolic process, which is crucial for HSC homeostasis in the stress settings. Particularly, when CT-SRGs are used as reference genes for the construction of the development trajectory of CD34+ cells, lymphoid and myeloid lineages are clearly separated after HSCs/MPPs. Finally, we presented an application through a small-scale drug screening using Connectivity Map (CMap) against CT-SRGs. A small molecule, cucurbitacin I, was found to efficiently expand HSCs ex vivo while maintaining its stemness. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new perspectives for understanding HSCs, and the strategy to identify candidate molecules through SRGs may be applicable to study other stem cells.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Antígenos CD34/genética , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo
3.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 17, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid postnatal growth may result from exposure in utero or early life to adverse conditions and has been associated with diseases later in life and, in particular, with childhood obesity. DNA methylation, interfacing early-life exposures and subsequent diseases, is a possible mechanism underlying early-life programming. METHODS: Here, a meta-analysis of Illumina HumanMethylation 450K/EPIC-array associations of cord blood DNA methylation at single CpG sites and CpG genomic regions with rapid weight growth at 1 year of age (defined with reference to WHO growth charts) was conducted in six European-based child cohorts (ALSPAC, ENVIRONAGE, Generation XXI, INMA, Piccolipiù, and RHEA, N = 2003). The association of gestational age acceleration (calculated using the Bohlin epigenetic clock) with rapid weight growth was also explored via meta-analysis. Follow-up analyses of identified DNA methylation signals included prediction of rapid weight growth, mediation of the effect of conventional risk factors on rapid weight growth, integration with transcriptomics and metabolomics, association with overweight in childhood (between 4 and 8 years), and comparison with previous findings. RESULTS: Forty-seven CpGs were associated with rapid weight growth at suggestive p-value <1e-05 and, among them, three CpGs (cg14459032, cg25953130 annotated to ARID5B, and cg00049440 annotated to KLF9) passed the genome-wide significance level (p-value <1.25e-07). Sixteen differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified as associated with rapid weight growth at false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted/Siddak p-values < 0.01. Gestational age acceleration was associated with decreasing risk of rapid weight growth (p-value = 9.75e-04). Identified DNA methylation signals slightly increased the prediction of rapid weight growth in addition to conventional risk factors. Among the identified signals, three CpGs partially mediated the effect of gestational age on rapid weight growth. Both CpGs (N=3) and DMRs (N=3) were associated with differential expression of transcripts (N=10 and 7, respectively), including long non-coding RNAs. An AURKC DMR was associated with childhood overweight. We observed enrichment of CpGs previously reported associated with birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence of the association between cord blood DNA methylation and rapid weight growth and suggest links with prenatal exposures and association with childhood obesity providing opportunities for early prevention.


Assuntos
Epigenoma , Obesidade Pediátrica , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Epigenoma/genética , Sangue Fetal , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 380, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611054

RESUMO

To determine association paths between prenatal androgens and cord blood androgens. The concentrations of T, FT, DHT, DHEA and SHBG in prenatal venous blood and cord blood were measured in 342 pregnant women and their neonates. The association paths between these hormones in prenatal and cord blood were revealed using Pearson correlation, multiple linear regression and path analysis. CB-T, CB-FT and CB-DHT in male neonates were higher than those in female neonates. In male and female neonates, P-FT was lower than CB-FT; however, P-DHT and P-SHBG were higher than CB-DHT and CB-SHBG, respectively. P-DHEA was lower than CB-DHEA in female newborns. In male neonates, there were association paths of P-T → CB-T → CB-FT → CB-DHT, P-T → CB-FT → CB-DHT, P-T → P-FT → CB-FT → CB-DHT, P-T → P-DHT, CB-DHEA → CB-DHT, CB-DHEA → P-DHT, and CB-DHEA → P-DHEA. In female neonates, there were association paths of P-T → CB-T → CB-FT → CB-DHT, P-T → P-FT → CB-FT → CB-DHT, P-T → P-FT → P-DHT, P-T → P-DHT, P-DHEA → P-DHT, CB-DHEA → P-DHEA, and CB-DHEA → CB-FT. There were differences in the T, FT and DHT concentrations in cord blood between male and female neonates and in the FT, DHT, DHEA, and SHBG concentrations between prenatal and cord blood. P-T and P-FT concentrations were positively associated with CB-T and CB-FT concentrations, while CB-DHEA concentration was positively associated with P-DHEA concentration.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Testosterona , Feminino , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Gravidez , Desidroepiandrosterona , Sangue Fetal
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 262, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609640

RESUMO

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation shows proangiogenic effects and contributes to symptom amelioration in animal models of cerebral infarction. However, the effect of specific cell types within a heterogeneous UCB population are still controversial. OP9 is a stromal cell line used as feeder cells to promote the hematoendothelial differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Hence, we investigated the changes in angiogenic properties, underlying mechanisms, and impact on behavioral deficiencies caused by cerebral infarction in UCB co-cultured with OP9 for up to 24 h. In the network formation assay, only OP9 pre-conditioned UCB formed network structures. Single-cell RNA sequencing and flow cytometry analysis showed a prominent phenotypic shift toward M2 in the monocytic fraction of OP9 pre-conditioned UCB. Further, OP9 pre-conditioned UCB transplantation in mice models of cerebral infarction facilitated angiogenesis in the peri-infarct lesions and ameliorated the associated symptoms. In this study, we developed a strong, fast, and feasible method to augment the M2, tissue-protecting, pro-angiogenic features of UCB using OP9. The ameliorative effect of OP9-pre-conditioned UCB in vivo could be partly due to promotion of innate angiogenesis in peri-infarct lesions.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal , Células Estromais , Camundongos , Animais , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Diferenciação Celular , Infarto Cerebral/terapia , Infarto Cerebral/metabolismo , Infarto
6.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 76: 127126, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623421

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that threatens the environment and human health. As a major producer, emitter and consumer of Hg, China is currently taking different measures to curb mercury pollution in accordance with the requirements of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. Blood Hg can reflect the human body's recent exposure to Hg. This review summarized the temporal changes in blood Hg concentrations in newborns and the general public in China from 1980 s to 2020 s. It was shown that the blood Hg concentrations of newborns showed the downward trend, although it was not significant. The general public Hg concentrations showed a trend of first increase and then decrease trend. Most of the cord blood Hg and venous blood Hg concentrations in China were lower than the USEPA reference concentration of 5.8 µg/L. Since low-dose prenatal Hg exposure can affect fetal and neonatal development, continuous attention needs to be paid to reduce maternal and neonatal Hg exposure. The information provided in this review may lay a basis for the effectiveness evaluation on the implementation of Minamata Convention on Mercury.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Mercúrio , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Sangue Fetal/química
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114337, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508835

RESUMO

The extent to which neurodevelopment is affected by prenatal lead exposure has not been conclusive. In addition, studies on the effects of sex on these relationships are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cord blood lead on neurodevelopment in children within sex subgroups. A total of 275 mother-child pairs from the Shanghai mother-child cohort were included. Umbilical cord blood lead was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Bayley Scales for Infant Development-III (BSID-III) was used to measure the neurodevelopment of infants at the age of 18 ± 1.5 months. The median and interquartile range of cord blood lead levels in the total participants, male, and female children were 44.0 (24.5) µg/L, 44.0 (24.3) µg/L, and 46.0 (24.0) µg/L, respectively. According to multiple linear regression, cord blood lead concentrations showed a negative association with fine motor scores in all models associated with female children (ß = -1.5; 95%confidence interval: -2.6, -0.4). However, prenatal lead levels were not associated with any of the BSID-III scores in male children. In addition, cord serum DHA was found positively related to fine motor scores in male children. Our findings suggest that prenatal lead exposure could lead to decreased motor function, although this phenomenon was only observed in female children. And DHA may be a protective factor against lead exposure in boys. Thus, further studies are needed to investigate the associations between prenatal lead exposure and neurobehavioral development, as well as the mechanism of sex differences.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Chumbo/toxicidade , Sangue Fetal , China , Relações Mãe-Filho
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 27(2): 222-231, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545841

RESUMO

Incidence of Malignant Melanoma has become the 5th in the UK. To date, the major anticancer therapeutics include cell therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy and nanotechnology-based strategies. Recently, extracellular vesicles, especially exosomes, have been highlighted for their therapeutic benefits in numerous chronic diseases. Exosomes display multifunctional properties, including inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and initiation of apoptosis. In the present in vitro study, the antitumour effect of cord blood stem cell (CBSC)-derived exosomes was confirmed by the CCK-8 assay (p < 0.05) on CHL-1 melanoma cells and improve the repair mechanism on lymphocytes from melanoma patients. Importantly, no significant effect was observed in healthy lymphocytes when treated with the exosome concentrations at 24, 48 and 72 h. Comet assay results (OTM and %Tail DNA) demonstrated that the optimal exosome concentration showed a significant impact (p < 0.05) in lymphocytes from melanoma patients whilst causing no significant DNA damage in lymphocytes of healthy volunteers was 300 µg/ml. Similarly, the Comet assay results depicted significant DNA damage in a melanoma cell line (CHL-1 cells) treated with CBSC-derived exosomes, both the cytotoxicity of CHL-1 cells treated with CBSC-derived exosomes exhibited a significant time-dependent decrease in cell survival. Sequencing analysis of CBSC exosomes showed the presence of the let-7 family of miRNAs, including let-7a-5p, let-7b-5p, let-7c-5p, let-7d-3p, let-7d-5p and two novel miRNAs. The potency of CBSC exosomes in inhibiting cancer progression in lymphocytes from melanoma patients and CHL-1 cells whilst causing no harm to the healthy lymphocytes makes it a potential candidate as an anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Vesículas Extracelulares , Melanoma , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
9.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(1): 112-122, 2023 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Umbilical cord blood gases (UBG) may be a critical element in the assessment of a depressed newborn infant but in some cases the arterial or venous UBG source is uncertain making clinical and/or medical-legal interpretation difficult. Objective: to estimate the probability of an arterial (ProbAS) or venous (ProbVS) UBG source depending on blood gas parameters in acidemic cases. METHODS: A total of 56,703 pairs of concomitant arterial and venous (CAV) UBG results assayed over an 8.8-year period were analyzed. Specimen pairs with preanalytical issues, duplicate source, or physiologically out-of-range or uninterpretable results were excluded. The 3,579 CAV-UBGs with an arterial and venous pH 6.70 to 7.25 were analyzed. Generalized additive model (gam)-based binomial logistic regressions were used to determine the ProbAS and ProbVS according to the blood gas parameters. RESULTS: The relative differences between arterial and venous medians were: pO2 ‒47%, pCO2 22%, pH -11%, and BD 4%. Below a median of 2.4 kPa, the lower the pO2, the higher the ProbAS. Above this value, the higher the pO2, the lower the ProbAS. An Excel worksheet is provided to calculate ProbAS and ProbVS from the regression model for different combinations of pH, pCO2, and pO2 values. Considering ProbAS and ProbVS above a cutoff 0.8, the model correctly identified the source in 56% of cases while 41% were indeterminant and 3% were erroneous. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of an arterial or venous source of an umbilical blood gas can be estimated based on the pH, pCO2, and pO2 in most acidemic specimens.


Assuntos
Acidose , Sangue Fetal , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Gases , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Gasometria , Acidose/diagnóstico , Probabilidade
10.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 4): 114828, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation programming is sensitive to prenatal life environmental influences, but the impact of maternal exposure to green space on newborns DNA methylation has not been studied yet. METHODS: We conducted a meta-epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of maternal exposure to green space during gestation with cord blood DNA methylation in two subsets of the ENVIRONAGE cohort (N = 538). Cord blood DNA methylation was measured by Illumina HumanMethylation 450K in one subset (N = 189) and EPICarray in another (N = 349). High (vegetation height>3 m (m)), low (vegetation height<3 m) and total (including both) high-resolution green space exposures during pregnancy were estimated within 100 m and 1000 m distance around maternal residence. In each subset, we sought cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites via linear mixed models adjusted on newborns' sex, ethnicity, gestational age, season at delivery, sampling day, maternal parity, age, smoking, education, and estimated blood cell proportions. EWASs results were meta-analysed via fixed-effects meta-analyses. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified via ENmix-combp and DMRcate algorithms. Sensitivity analyses were additionally adjusted on PM2.5, distance to major roads, urbanicity and neighborhood income. In the 450K subset, cord blood expression of differentially methylated genes was measured by Agilent microarrays and associated with green space. RESULTS: 147 DMRs were identified, 85 of which were still significant upon adjustment for PM2.5, distance to major roads, urbanicity and neighborhood income, including HLA-DRB5, RPTOR, KCNQ1DN, A1BG-AS1, HTR2A, ZNF274, COL11A1 and PRSS36 DMRs. One CpG reached genome-wide significance, while 54 CpGs were suggestive significant (p-values<1e-05). Among them, a CpG, hypermethylated with 100 m buffer total green space, was annotated to PAQR9, whose expression decreased with 1000 m buffer low green space (p-value = 1.45e-05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that maternal exposure to green space during pregnancy is associated with cord blood DNA methylation, mainly at loci organized in regions, in genes playing important roles in neurological development (e.g., HTR2A).


Assuntos
Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Epigenoma , Metilação de DNA , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Parques Recreativos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
11.
Ann Hematol ; 101(1): 165-175, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546409

RESUMO

Thus far, there have been no large cohort studies on total body irradiation (TBI)-containing conditioning regimens without antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in adults with aplastic anemia (AA) undergoing umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation (UCBT). We retrospectively analyzed 115 adults with idiopathic AA undergoing UCBT using TBI-containing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens without ATG between 2000 and 2018 on behalf of the Adult Aplastic Anemia Working Group of the Japanese Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. We then compared transplantation outcomes between a fludarabine (Flu)- and melphalan (Mel)-based regimen (FM) and a Flu- and cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based regimen (FC). The median patient age at UCBT was 41 years. The median total nucleated cell and total CD34+ cell doses in a UCB unit at cryopreservation were 2.5 × 107/kg and 0.7 × 105/kg, respectively. The median follow-up period for survivors was 47 months. The cumulative incidence rate of neutrophil engraftment was 76.5%, and the 4-year overall survival (OS) rate was 64.3%. In multivariate analysis, the covariates that were significantly associated with a higher neutrophil engraftment were total CD34+ cell dose in an UCB unit (≥ 0.7 × 105/kg; hazard ratio, 0.57, P = 0.01) and total dose of TBI (4 Gy of TBI; hazard ratio, 0.32, P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment and the 4-year OS between the FM and FC groups. In conclusion, TBI-containing RIC regimens without ATG are suitable for adults with AA undergoing UCBT. There were no significant differences in transplantation outcomes between the FM and FC groups.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Sangue Fetal/transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento , Irradiação Corporal Total , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(12): e968-e976, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic climate change has caused extreme temperatures worldwide, with data showing that sub-Saharan Africa is especially vulnerable to these changes. In sub-Saharan Africa, women comprise 50% of the agricultural workforce, often working throughout pregnancy despite heat exposure increasing the risk of adverse birth outcomes. In this study, we aimed to improve understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the adverse health outcomes resulting from environmental heat stress in pregnant subsistence farmers. We also aimed to provide data to establish whether environmental heat stress also has physiological effects on the fetus. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study in West Kiang, The Gambia, at the field station for the Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (named the MRC Keneba field station). Pregnant women who were aged 16 years or older and who were at <36 weeks' gestation of any gravida or parity were invited to participate in the study. Participants were eligible if they were involved in agricultural or related manual daily tasks of living. Participants were ineligible if they refused to provide consent, had multiple pregnancies (eg, if they had twins), were acutely unwell, or were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Heat stress was measured by wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and by using the universal thermal climate index (UTCI), and maternal heat strain was directly measured by modified physiological strain index calculated from heart rate and skin temperature. Outcome measures of fetal heart rate (FHR) and fetal strain (defined as a FHR >160 beats per min [bpm] or <115 bpm, or increase in umbilical artery resistance index) were measured at rest and during the working period. Multivariable repeated measure models (linear regression for FHR, and logistic regression for fetal strain) were used to evaluate the association of heat stress and heat strain with acute fetal strain. FINDINGS: Between Aug 26, 2019, and March 27, 2020, 92 eligible participants were recruited to the study. Extreme heat exposure was frequent, with average exposures of WBGT of 27·2°C (SD 3·6°C) and UTCI equivalent temperature of 34·0°C (SD 3·7°C). The total effect of UTCI on fetal strain resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 1·17 (95% CI 1·09-1·29; p<0·0001), with an adjusted direct effect of OR of 1·12 (1·03-1·21; p=0·010) with each 1°C increase in UTCI. The adjusted OR of maternal heat strain on fetal strain was 1·20 (1·01-1·43; p=0·038), using the UTCI model, with each unit increase. INTERPRETATION: Data from our study show that decreasing maternal exposure to heat stress and heat strain is likely to reduce fetal strain, with the potential to reduce adverse birth outcomes. Further work that explores the association between heat stress and pregnancy outcomes in a variety of settings and populations is urgently needed to develop effective interventions. FUNDING: The Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Complicações na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos de Coortes , Sangue Fetal , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1395: 379-384, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527666

RESUMO

Reliable measurements using modern techniques and consensus in experimental design have enabled the assessment of novel data sets for normal maternal and foetal respiratory physiology at term. These data sets include (a) principal factors affecting placental gas transfer, e.g., maternal blood flow through the intervillous space (IVS) (500 mL/min) and foeto-placental blood flow (480 mL/min), and (b) O2, CO2 and pH levels in the materno-placental and foeto-placental circulation. According to these data, the foetus is adapted to hypoxaemic hypoxia. Despite flat oxygen partial pressure (pO2) gradients between the blood of the IVS and the umbilical arteries of the foetus, adequate O2 delivery to the foetus is maintained by the higher O2 affinity of the foetal blood, high foetal haemoglobin (HbF) concentrations, the Bohr effect, the double-Bohr effect, and high foeto-placental (=umbilical) blood flow. Again, despite flat gradients, adequate CO2 removal from the foetus is maintained by a high diffusion capacity, high foeto-placental blood flow, the Haldane effect, and the double-Haldane effect. Placental respiratory gas exchange is perfusion-limited, rather than diffusion-limited, i.e., O2 uptake depends on O2 delivery.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Feto , Troca Materno-Fetal , Oxigênio , Placenta , Circulação Placentária , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Dióxido de Carbono/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/fisiologia , Hemoglobina Fetal/fisiologia , Feto/fisiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Oxiemoglobinas/fisiologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/fisiologia , Circulação Placentária/fisiologia , Nascimento a Termo/fisiologia
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(12)2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557003

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Human umbilical-cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have recently been used in clinical cartilage regeneration procedures with the expectation of improved regeneration capacity. However, the number of studies using hUCB-MSCs is still insufficient, and long-term follow-up results after use are insufficient, indicating the need for additional data and research. We have attempted to prove the efficacy and safety of hUCB-MSC treatment in a comprehensive analysis by including all subjects with knee articular cartilage defect or osteoarthritis who have undergone cartilage repair surgery using hUCB-MSCs. We conducted a meta-analysis and demonstrated efficacy and safety based on a systematic review. Materials and Methods: This systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. For this study, we searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library literature databases up to June 2022. A total of seven studies were included, and quality assessment was performed for each included study using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Statistical analysis was performed on the extracted pooled clinical outcome data, and subgroup analyses were completed. Results: A total of 570 patients were included in the analysis. In pooled analysis, the final follow-up International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score showed a significant increase (mean difference (MD), -32.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), -38.32 to -27.32; p < 0.00001) with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 93%, p < 0.00001) compared to the preoperative score. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores at final follow-up were significantly decreased (MD, 30.73; 95% CI, 24.10-37.36; p < 0.00001) compared to the preoperative scores, with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 95%, p < 0.00001). The visual analog scale (VAS) score at final follow-up was significantly decreased (MD, 4.81; 95% CI, 3.17-6.46; p < 0.00001) compared to the preoperative score, with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 98%, p < 0.00001). Two studies evaluated the modified Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (M-MOCART) score and confirmed sufficient improvement. In a study analyzing a group treated with bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC), there was no significant difference in clinical outcome or M-MOCART score, and the post-treatment International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade increased. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrated the safety, efficacy, and quality of repaired cartilage following hUCB-MSC therapy. However, there was no clear difference in the comparison with BMAC. In the future, comparative studies with other stem cell therapies or cartilage repair procedures should be published to support the superior effect of hUCB-MSC therapy to improve treatment of cartilage defect or osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Sangue Fetal , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Artroscopia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36560707

RESUMO

Only a few qualitative studies of neutralizing antibody titers (NATs) against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have focused on epitope-specific antibody (ESA) levels. Here, NATs against RSV in sera were measured using the blood of 412 mothers and cord blood (CB) of 95 of the 412 mother-child pairs. ESA levels against sites zero (Ø) and IIa of the F protein of RSV were measured in 87 of the 95 mother-child pairs. The median gestational age was 39 weeks. The NATs and ESA levels in CB were slightly higher than those in maternal blood (MB). The NATs for RSV subtype A (RSV-A) in MB and CB showed a positive correlation (r = 0.75). The ESA levels against sites Ø and IIa in MB and CB showed positive correlations, r = 0.76 and r = 0.69, respectively. In MB, the NATs and ESA levels against RSV were positively correlated, more significantly against site Ø (RSV-A: r = 0.70, RSV-B: r = 0.48) than against site IIa (RSV-A: r = 0.19, RSV-B: r = 0.31). Sufficient amounts of ESAs against sites Ø and IIa of RSV were transferred from mothers to term infants. ESA levels against site Ø contribute to NATs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Lactente , Humanos , Epitopos , Sangue Fetal , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e064122, 2022 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the independent association of maternal lipid levels with birth weight and cord blood insulin (CBI) level. SETTING: The Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: Women who delivered between January 2015 and June 2016 and with umbilical cord blood retained were eligible for this study. Those with prepregnancy health conditions, without an available fasting blood sample in the second trimester, or without demographic and glycaemic information were excluded. After random selection, data from 1522 mother-child pairs were used in this study. EXPOSURES AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Additive Bayesian network analysis was used to investigate the interdependency of lipid profiles with other metabolic risk factors (prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose and early gestational weight gain) in association with birth weight and CBI, along with multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regressions, maternal triglyceride was associated with increased birth weight (adjusted ß=67.46, 95% CI 41.85 to 93.06 g per mmol/L) and CBI (adjusted ß=0.89, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.72 µU/mL per mmol/L increase), while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with decreased birth weight (adjusted ß=-45.29, 95% CI -85.49 to -5.09 g per mmol/L). After considering the interdependency of maternal metabolic risk factors in the Network analysis, none of the maternal lipid profiles was independently associated with birth weight and CBI. Instead, prepregnancy BMI was the global strongest factor for birth weight and CBI directly and indirectly. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational dyslipidaemia appears to be secondary to metabolic dysfunction with no clear association with metabolic adverse outcomes in neonates. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity appears the most influential upstream metabolic risk factor for both maternal and neonatal metabolic health; these data imply weight management may need to be addressed from the preconception period and during early pregnancy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Obesidade , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Peso ao Nascer , Obesidade/complicações , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Insulina , Estudos de Coortes , Teorema de Bayes , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Triglicerídeos
17.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 71(1): 1, 2022 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528821

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is crucial to cure hematologic malignancies. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells, but 90% of UCB units are discarded due to low cellularity. Improving the engraftment capacities of CD34+ stem cells would allow the use of UCB that were so far rejected. Betamethasone induces long-term transcriptomic and epigenomic changes in immune cells through glucocorticoid receptor. We hypothesize that discarded UCB could be used owing to improvements induced by betamethasone. Isolated CD34+ HSC from UCB were exposed to the synthetic glucocorticoids betamethasone and fluticasone for 20 h, and cell phenotype was determined before transplantation. NSG mice were sub-lethally irradiated (1 Gy or 2 Gy) 6 h before intravenously transferring 2-5 × 105 CD34+ HSC. The peripheral blood engraftment levels and the leukocyte subsets were followed up for 20 weeks using flow cytometry. At end point, the engraftment and leukocyte subsets were determined in the spleen and bone marrow. We demonstrated that betamethasone has surprising effects in recovering immune system homeostasis. Betamethasone and fluticasone increase CXCR4 and decrease HLA class II and CD54 expression in CD34+ HSCs. Both glucocorticoids-exposed cells showed a similar engraftment in 2 Gy-irradiated NSG mice. Interestingly, betamethasone-exposed cells showed enhanced engraftment in 1 Gy-irradiated NSG mice, with a trend to increase regulatory T cell percentage when compared to control. Betamethasone induces alterations in CD34+ HSCs and improve the engraftment, leading to a faster immune system recovery, which will contribute to engrafted cells survival.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Camundongos , Animais , Sangue Fetal , Camundongos SCID , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD34 , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fluticasona
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e066529, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36523222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: New point-of-care (POC) quantitative G6PD testing devices developed to provide safe radical cure for Plasmodium vivax malaria may be used to diagnose G6PD deficiency in newborns at risk of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, improving clinical care, and preventing related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study analysing technical performance and usability of the 'STANDARD G6PD' Biosensor when used by trained midwives on cord blood samples at two rural clinics on the Thailand-Myanmar border. RESULTS: In 307 cord blood samples, the Biosensor had a sensitivity of 1.000 (95% CI: 0.859 to 1.000) and a specificity of 0.993 (95% CI: 0.971 to 0.999) as compared with gold-standard spectrophotometry to diagnose G6PD-deficient newborns using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis-derived threshold of ≤4.8 IU/gHb. The Biosensor had a sensitivity of 0.727 (95% CI: 0.498 to 0.893) and specificity of 0.933 (95% CI: 0.876 to 0.969) for 30%-70% activity range in girls using ROC analysis-derived range of 4.9-9.9 IU/gHb. These thresholds allowed identification of all G6PD-deficient neonates and 80% of female neonates with intermediate phenotypes.Need of phototherapy treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia was higher in neonates with deficient and intermediate phenotypes as diagnosed by either reference spectrophotometry or Biosensor.Focus group discussions found high levels of learnability, willingness, satisfaction and suitability for the Biosensor in this setting. The staff valued the capacity of the Biosensor to identify newborns with G6PD deficiency early ('We can know that early, we can counsel the parents about the chances of their children getting jaundice') and at the POC, including in more rural settings ('Because we can know the right result of the G6PD deficiency in a short time, especially for the clinic which does not have a lab'). CONCLUSIONS: The Biosensor is a suitable tool in this resource-constrained setting to identify newborns with abnormal G6PD phenotypes at increased risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Malária Vivax , Oxibato de Sódio , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Sangue Fetal , Oxibato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Trials ; 23(1): 1010, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs, i.e., neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation) are at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with potential long-life visual impairment. Due to concomitant anemia, ELGANs need repeated red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. These produce a progressive replacement of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) by adult hemoglobin (HbA). Furthermore, a close association exists between low levels of HbF and severe ROP, suggesting that a perturbation of the HbF-mediated oxygen release may derange retinal angiogenesis and promote ROP. METHODS/DESIGN: BORN (umBilical blOod to tRansfuse preterm Neonates) is a multicenter double-blinded randomized controlled trial in ELGANs, to assess the effect of allogeneic cord blood RBC transfusions (CB-RBCs) on severe ROP development. Recruitment, consent, and randomization take place at 10 neonatology intensive care units (NICUs) of 8 Italian tertiary hospitals. ELGANs with gestational age at birth comprised between 24+0 and 27+6 weeks are randomly allocated into two groups: (1) standard RBC transfusions (adult-RBCs) (control arm) and (2) CB-RBCs (intervention arm). In case of transfusion need, enrolled patients receive transfusions according to the allocation arm, unless an ABO/RhD CB-RBC is unavailable. Nine Italian public CB banks cooperate to make available a suitable amount of CB-RBC units for all participating NICUs. The primary outcome is the incidence of severe ROP (stage 3 or higher) at discharge or 40 weeks of postmenstrual age, which occurs first. DISCUSSION: BORN is a groundbreaking trial, pioneering a new transfusion approach dedicated to ELGANs at high risk for severe ROP. In previous non-randomized trials, this transfusion approach was proven feasible and able to prevent the HbF decrease in patients requiring multiple transfusions. Should the BORN trial confirm the efficacy of CB-RBCs in reducing ROP severity, this transfusion strategy would become the preferential blood product to be used in severely preterm neonates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05100212. Registered on October 29, 2021.


Assuntos
Anemia Neonatal , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Anemia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Anemia Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sangue Fetal
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499001

RESUMO

The relationship between smoking and human health has been investigated mostly in adults, despite the fact that the chemicals originating from sustained maternal smoking disrupt the carefully orchestrated regulatory cascades in the developing fetus. In this study, we followed molecular alterations in the umbilical cord (UC) vessels and fetal red blood cells (RBCs), which faithfully reflect the in vivo status of the fetus. We showed evidence for the decreased level of DNA-PKcs-positive nuclei in samples with smoking origin, which is associated with the impaired DNA repair system. Furthermore, we pointed out the altered ratio of MMP-9 metalloproteinase and its endogenous inhibitor TIMP-1, which might be a possible explanation for the morphological abnormalities in the UC vessels. The presented in vivo dataset emphasizes the higher vulnerability of the veins, as the primary target for the toxic materials unfiltered by the placenta. All these events become amplified by the functionally impaired fetal RBC population via a crosstalk mechanism between the vessel endothelium and the circulating RBCs. In our ex vivo approach, we looked for the molecular explanation of metal-exposure-induced alterations, where expressions of the selected genes were upregulated in the control group, while samples with smoking origin showed a lack of response, indicative of prior long-term in utero exposure.


Assuntos
Placenta , Cordão Umbilical , Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Feto , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Eritrócitos/química , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo
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