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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 58, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a major risk factor for the transmission of blood-borne infections to healthcare workers. There are several primary studies in Ethiopia yet they might not be at the national level to quantify the extent of occupational blood and body fluid exposures (splash of blood or other body fluids into the eyes, nose, or mouth) or blood contact with non-intact skin among the healthcare workers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of occupational blood and body fluid exposure of healthcare workers in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, Hinari, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched; withal, the references of appended articles were also checked for further possible sources. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 tests were used to assess the heterogeneity of the included studies. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Of the 641 articles identified through the database search, 36 studies were included in the final analysis. The estimated pooled lifetime and 12-month prevalence on occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers were found to be at 54.95% (95% confidence interval (CI), 48.25-61.65) and 44.24% (95% CI, 36.98-51.51), respectively. The study identified a variation in healthcare workers who were exposed to blood and body fluids across Ethiopian regions. CONCLUSION: The finding of the present study revealed that there was a high level of annual and lifetime exposures to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Sangue , Líquidos Corporais , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4779, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963246

RESUMO

Highly reproducible smoking-associated DNA methylation changes in whole blood have been reported by many Epigenome-Wide-Association Studies (EWAS). These epigenetic alterations could have important implications for understanding and predicting the risk of smoking-related diseases. To this end, it is important to establish if these DNA methylation changes happen in all blood cell subtypes or if they are cell-type specific. Here, we apply a cell-type deconvolution algorithm to identify cell-type specific DNA methylation signals in seven large EWAS. We find that most of the highly reproducible smoking-associated hypomethylation signatures are more prominent in the myeloid lineage. A meta-analysis further identifies a myeloid-specific smoking-associated hypermethylation signature enriched for DNase Hypersensitive Sites in acute myeloid leukemia. These results may guide the design of future smoking EWAS and have important implications for our understanding of how smoking affects immune-cell subtypes and how this may influence the risk of smoking related diseases.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenoma , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Algoritmos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Sangue , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica/métodos , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Células Mieloides
3.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 3(2)ago.12, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1117149

RESUMO

Los plaguicidas organoclorados fueron utilizados en campañas de salud pública y en prácticas agrícolas. Su uso fue prohibido al detectarse residuos tóxicos en tejidos grasos de animales y personas y su persistencia en el ambiente. En El Salvador aún se utilizan, comercializan y almacenan algunos de estos plaguicidas. Objetivo. Identificar la presencia de plaguicidas organoclorados en muestras sanguíneas, almacenadas en la seroteca del Laboratorio Nacional de Salud Pública. Metodología. Estudio transversal de las muestras almacenadas en la seroteca en el periodo de enero a octubre de 2018, analizadas a través del método de cromatografía de gases con detector de microcaptura de electrones. Resultados. Se identificó presencia de plaguicidas organoclorados en 33 muestras (34 %); de las cuales 28 se detectaron en hombres. De las muestras positivas 27 eran de personas mayores de 29 años. En los departamentos de La Libertad (7) y San Salvador (6) se identificó mayor cantidad de muestras positivas a plaguicidas para el Dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane y el Lindano. Conclusiones. Se identificó presencia de algunos plaguicidas organoclorados en las muestras de la seroteca del Laboratorio Nacional de Salud Pública, lo que da indicios de la exposición de la población a plaguicidas en el medio ambiente, agua y/o alimentos


Organochlorine pesticides were widely used in public health campaigns and agricultural practices. Its use was restricted and in some cases prohibited when residues of these toxins were detected in fatty tissues of animals and people, as well as their excessive persistence in the environment. However, some of these pesticides are still in use, promoted, and stored in El Salvador. Objective. To identify the presence of organochlorine pesticides in serum samples stored in the National Laboratory of Public Health (LNSP). Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted over samples stored in the (NLPH) during the period from January to October 2018, which were analyzed by the gas chromatography method with electron microcapture detector (uECD). Results. Organochlorine pesticides were identified in 33 samples (34 %), of which 28 were from men. Of the positive samples, 27 were from people older than 29 years. In the department of La Libertad (7), and San Salvador (6), a greater number of samples were identified positive for pesticides Dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane and lindane. Conclusions. The presence of some organochlorine pesticides was identified in the seroteca samples of the National Laboratory of Public Health, which indicates the population's exposure to pesticides in the environment, water and/or food


Assuntos
Sangue , Inseticidas Organoclorados
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e012420, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756775

RESUMO

Piroplasm species were analyzed by molecular tools in total 31 blood samples from positive dogs, previously checked by stained slides, stored until DNA extraction between 2016 to 2018 in the laboratory Clinical Analyzes in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The piroplasms were identified by PCR, targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing. From the total number of samples only 24 (77.4%) were positive and show adequate nucleotide sequences for interpretation with identity between 93%-100% with Babesia vogeli in compared to the sequences isolated of infected dogs from other states in Brazil deposited on GenBank. Most of dogs infected with B. vogeli had anemia (62.5%) and thrombocytopenia (95.8%). The findings of this study are compatible with previous reports in the literature and highlight B. vogeli as the most incriminated species in canine piroplasmosis in Brazil, and thrombocytopenia the hematological alteration most frequently identified in this infection. It is important to note that this is the first study involving the molecular characterization of piroplasms in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, based on PCR followed by sequencing.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Sangue , Doenças do Cão , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Sangue/parasitologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008717, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745123

RESUMO

Hepatocystis is a genus of single-celled parasites infecting, amongst other hosts, monkeys, bats and squirrels. Although thought to have descended from malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Hepatocystis spp. are thought not to undergo replication in the blood-the part of the Plasmodium life cycle which causes the symptoms of malaria. Furthermore, Hepatocystis is transmitted by biting midges, not mosquitoes. Comparative genomics of Hepatocystis and Plasmodium species therefore presents an opportunity to better understand some of the most important aspects of malaria parasite biology. We were able to generate a draft genome for Hepatocystis sp. using DNA sequencing reads from the blood of a naturally infected red colobus monkey. We provide robust phylogenetic support for Hepatocystis sp. as a sister group to Plasmodium parasites infecting rodents. We show transcriptomic support for a lack of replication in the blood and genomic support for a complete loss of a family of genes involved in red blood cell invasion. Our analyses highlight the rapid evolution of genes involved in parasite vector stages, revealing genes that may be critical for interactions between malaria parasites and mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Sangue/parasitologia , Colobus/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Plasmodium/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/fisiologia , Genoma de Protozoário , Malária/sangue , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Transcriptoma
6.
Artif. organs ; 44(8): 785-796, Aug. 2020. gráfico, ilustração, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1103514

RESUMO

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been used as a bridge to transplantation or as destination therapy to treat patients with heart failure (HF). The inability of control strategy to respond automatically to changes in hemodynamic conditions can impact the patients' quality of life. The developed control system/algorithm consists of a control system that harmoniously adjusts pump speed without additional sensors, considering the patient's clinical condition and his physical activity. The control system consists of three layers: (a) Actuator speed control; (b) LVAD flow control (FwC); and (c) Fuzzy control system (FzC), with the input variables: heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), minimum pump flow, level of physical activity (data from patient), and clinical condition (data from physician, INTERMACS profile). FzC output is the set point for the second LVAD control schemer (FwC) which in turn adjusts the speed. Pump flow, MAP, and HR are estimated from actuator drive parameters (speed and power). Evaluation of control was performed using a centrifugal blood pump in a hybrid cardiovascular simulator, where the left heart function is the mechanical model and right heart function is the computational model. The control system was able to maintain MAP and cardiac output in the physiological level, even under variation of EF. Apart from this, also the rotational pump speed is adjusted following the simulated clinical condition. No backflow from the aorta in the ventricle occurred through LVAD during tests. The control algorithm results were considered satisfactory for simulations, but it still should be confirmed during in vivo tests.


Assuntos
Sangue , Técnicas In Vitro , Algoritmos , Coração Auxiliar
7.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [12], jul. 2020. ilus.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118900

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la presión barométrica determina la presión parcial de los gases tanto en el medio ambiente como a nivel alveolar pulmonar, por lo que, para una determinada presión barométrica, la presión de oxígeno y dióxido de carbono es distinta. OBJETIVO: el objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar los valores de gasometría arterial en residentes adultos sanos a muy alta altitud en la ciudad de El Alto. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio serie de casos, realizado durante la gestión 2019 en 22 (73%) mujeres y 8 varones (27%), con una media de edad de 36.07 años. El estudio contó con la aprobación del Comité de Ética Hospitalario. RESULTADOS: a 4150 metros sobre el nivel del mar, el pH tiende hacia la alcalosis (7.43) así como la PaO2 es menor (58.69mmHg), el valor de PaCO2 (26.14mmHg) es menor correspondiente a una ciudad con mayor altitud, el valor de bicarbonato sérico (20.14mmol/L) se encuentra disminuido en compensación a la disminución de la PaCO2 y el valor de la SatO2% (91.7%) es menor al reportado a nivel del mar. Hay que destacar que el índice PaO2/FiO2 no concuerda con el cálculo realizado según la fórmula propuesta dentro de la definición de los Criterios de Berlín. Se evidencia también que, en la muestra, si bien la correlación entre la PaO2 y la SatO2% resulta como alta, no resulta perfectamente lineal. CONCLUSIÓN: resulta imperativo precisar las características propias a la fisiología correspondientes a cada altitud, buscando aplicar parámetros propios como los de la gasometría arterial para el tratamiento de las enfermedades prevalentes en cada región, así como desarrollar investigaciones específicas a gran altura, ensayar posibilidades y documentarlas.


INTRODUCTION: barometric pressure determines the partial pressure of gases both in the environment and at the pulmonary alveolar level, so for a given barometric pressure, the pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide is different. The objective of this paper is to characterize arterial blood gas values in healthy adult residents at very high altitude in the city of El Alto. METHODOLOGY: case series study, carried out during 2019; 22 volunteers (73%) women and 8 men (27%), mean age 36.07 years are included. The study was approved by the Hospital Bioethics Committee. RESULTS: at 4150 meter above sea level, pH tends towards alkalosis (7.43) as well as PaO2 is lower (58.69mmHg), the value of PaCO2 (26.14mmHg) is lower corresponding to a city with higher altitude, the value of serum bicarbonate (20.14mmol/L) is lower in compensation at the decrease in PaCO2 and the value of SatO2% (91.7%) is lower than that reported at sea level. The PaO2/FiO2 index does not match the calculation made according to the proposed formula within the definition of the Berlin Criteria. It is also evident that, although the correlation between PaO2 and SatO2% is high, it is not perfectly linear. CONCLUSION: it is imperative to precise the characteristics corresponding to the physiology corresponding to each altitude, looking forward to apply these parameters, such as those of arterial blood gas, in the treatment of prevalent diseases for each region, and so as develop specific studies at high altitude, also testing and reporting them.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pressão Atmosférica , Gasometria , Altitude , Sangue
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678844

RESUMO

Defining genetic diversity of viral infections directly from patient specimens is the ultimate goal of surveillance. Simple tools that can provide full-length sequence information on blood borne viral hepatitis viruses: hepatitis C, hepatitis B and hepatitis D viruses (HCV, HBV and HDV) remain elusive. Here, an unbiased metagenomic next generation sequencing approach (mNGS) was used for molecular characterization of HCV infections (n = 99) from Israel which yielded full-length HCV sequences in 89% of samples, with 7 partial sequences sufficient for classification. HCV genotypes were primarily 1b (68%) and 1a (19%), with minor representation of genotypes 2c (1%) and 3a (8%). HBV/HDV coinfections were characterized by suppressed HBV viral loads, resulting in sparse mNGS coverage. A probe-based enrichment approach (xGen) aiming to increase HBV and HDV coverage was validated on a panel of diverse genotypes, geography and titers. The method extended HBV genome coverage a median 61% (range 8-84%) and provided orders of magnitude boosts in reads and sequence depth for both viruses. When HBV-xGen was applied to Israeli samples, coverage was improved by 28-73% in 4 samples and identified HBV genotype A1, A2, D1 specimens and a dual B/D infection. Abundant HDV reads in mNGS libraries yielded 18/26 (69%) full genomes and 8 partial sequences, with HDV-xGen only providing minimal extension (3-11%) of what were all genotype 1 genomes. Advanced molecular approaches coupled to virus-specific capture probes promise to enhance surveillance of viral infections and aid in monitoring the spread of local subtypes.


Assuntos
Sangue/virologia , Vírus de Hepatite/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , Estudos de Coortes , Genótipo , Vírus de Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 249-251, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To metagenomically analyse blood units originating from the Brazilian Amazon and positive for parenterally transmitted infections (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), Chagas disease or syphilis). METHODS: Twenty plasma samples (35% HBV-positive, 10% HIV-positive, 10% HCV-positive, 20% positive for syphilis, 20% for Chagas disease, and 5% for HTLV) assembled in pools were analysed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing. The obtained raw sequencing data were submitted to a bioinformatic pipeline set up for identification of emerging viruses. The viral reads of interest were phylogenetically analysed and confirmed by PCR in the individual samples. RESULTS: The metagenomic analysis identified contigs belonging to the emerging human Gemykibivirus-2 (HuGkV-2) in two pools. The HuGkV-1 phylogeny demonstrated that the Amazonian isolate formed a separate cluster with other HuGkV-2 strains obtained from human hosts. The PCR confirmation detected HuGkV-1 DNA in three individual samples (15%). CONCLUSIONS: HuGkV-2 is an emerging virus with unknown clinical impact. The detection of HuGkV-2 DNA in blood donations positive for parenterally transmitted infections showed that HuGkV-2 can be considered as an opportunistic viral agent with a hypothetic parenteral transmission route.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Sangue/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Viroses/sangue , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 502-514, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102936

RESUMO

Este artigo volta-se para os processos simbólicos que, frente à iminência do adoecimento e da morte, fazem emergir no imaginário poderosas narrativas que se dinamizam em mitos. Elege, para isso, as imagens simbólicas sobre a lepra que circundam o mito do Papa-Figo ­ criatura fantástica, ele é representado por ricos e poderosos que, contaminados, fariam de tudo para recuperar sua saúde; inclusive consumir vísceras de crianças sequestradas. Em um percurso sincrônico e diacrônico, relacionamos relatos históricos e folclóricos com narrativas contemporâneas: vídeos de exploração à casa da 'viúva Papa-Figo'. Nesta leitura simbólica, exploramos a recorrência dos símbolos de sangue, fígado, poço, poder, dinheiro e de um Outro misterioso, mostrando que o medo da doença e suas consequências físicas e sociais nos movimentam arquetipicamente, despertando relações ancestrais que nos conectam com o plano da experiência humana.


This article is focused on the symbolic processes that, in the face of the imminence of illness and death, make powerful narratives emerge in the imaginary, which are symbolized by myths. For this purpose, we center on the symbolic images on leprosy that surround the Brazilian myth of the Papa-Figo - a fantastic creature represented by the rich and powerful people which were contaminated and would do anything to recover from the illness and back to their health; including consuming the entrails of kidnapped children. In a synchronic and diachronic journey, we related historical and folkloric reports to contemporary narratives: urban exploration videos exploring the abandoned house of the 'Papa-Figo widow'. In this symbolic reading, we explore the recurrence of symbols linked to blood, liver, well, power, money and the mysterious Other, showing that the fear of disease and its physical and social consequences move us archetypically, awakening ancestral relationships that connect us to the experience human level.


Este artículo se centra en los procesos simbólicos que, en vista de la inminencia de la enfermedad y de la muerte, hacen que surjan narrativas poderosas en el imaginario simbolizadas en mitos. Para este propósito, elegimos las imágenes simbólicas sobre la lepra que rodean el mito brasileño llamado Papa-Figo, una criatura fantástica representada por personas ricas y poderosas que, contaminadas con la enfermedad, harían cualquier cosa para recuperar su salud; incluyendo el consumo de las entrañas de niños secuestrados. En un camino sincrónico y diacrónico, relacionamos los relatos históricos y folclóricos con narrativas contemporáneas: vídeos de exploración urbana a la casa de la 'viuda Papa-Figo'. En esta lectura simbólica exploramos la recurrencia de símbolos vinculados a la sangre, al hígado, al pozo, al poder, al dinero y al Otro misterioso, mostrando que el miedo a la enfermedad y sus consecuencias físicas y sociales nos mueven arquetípicamente, despertando relaciones ancestrales por las cuales nos conectamos con el plano de la experiencia humana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Religião e Medicina , Sangue , Pandemias , Criaturas Lendárias , Hanseníase , Doença , Narração , Mídia Audiovisual , Mídias Sociais , Fígado
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525960

RESUMO

Monitoring the presence and spread of pathogens in the environment is of critical importance. Rapid detection of infectious disease outbreaks and prediction of their spread can facilitate early responses of health agencies and reduce the severity of outbreaks. Current sampling methods are sorely limited by available personnel and throughput. For instance, xenosurveillance utilizes captured arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, as sampling tools to access blood from a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of nucleic acid from individual blooded mosquitoes can be used to identify mosquito and host species, and microorganisms including pathogens circulating within either host. However, there are practical challenges to collecting and processing mosquitoes for xenosurveillance, such as the rapid metabolization or decay of microorganisms within the mosquito midgut. This particularly affects pathogens that do not replicate in mosquitoes, preventing their detection by NGS or other methods. Accordingly, we performed a series of experiments to establish the windows of detection for DNA or RNA from human blood and/or viruses present in mosquito blood meals. Our results will contribute to the development of xenosurveillance techniques with respect to optimal timing of sample collection and NGS processing and will also aid trap design by demonstrating the stabilizing effect of temperature control on viral genome recovery from blood-fed mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Sangue , Culicidae/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/análise , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3169, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576825

RESUMO

Understanding tumor metabolism holds the promise of new insights into cancer biology, diagnosis and treatment. To assess human cancer metabolism, here we report a method to collect intra-operative samples of blood from an artery directly upstream and a vein directly downstream of a brain tumor, as well as samples from dorsal pedal veins of the same patients. After performing targeted metabolomic analysis, we characterize the metabolites consumed and produced by gliomas in vivo by comparing the arterial supply and venous drainage. N-acetylornithine, D-glucose, putrescine, and L-acetylcarnitine are consumed in relatively large amounts by gliomas. Conversely, L-glutamine, agmatine, and uridine 5-monophosphate are produced in relatively large amounts by gliomas. Further we verify that D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) is high in venous plasma from patients with isocitrate dehydrogenases1 (IDH1) mutations. Through these paired comparisons, we can exclude the interpatient variation that is present in plasma samples usually taken from the cubital vein.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioma/sangue , Glioma/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Agmatina/sangue , Sangue , Análise Química do Sangue , Glicemia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Feminino , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/genética , Glucose , Glutamina/sangue , Glutaratos/sangue , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/sangue , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ornitina/análogos & derivados , Ornitina/sangue , Putrescina/sangue , Uridina Monofosfato/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0228234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589639

RESUMO

A major issue in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is "de-duplication" or removal of repeated isolates, for which there exist multiple methods. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) requires de-duplication by selecting only the first isolate of a given bacterial species per patient per surveillance period per specimen type per age group, gender, and infection origin stratification. However, no study on the comparative application of this method has been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in data tabulation between the WHO GLASS and the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) system, which counts both patients and isolates after removing repeated isolates of the same bacterial species isolated from a patient within 30 days, regardless of specimen type, but distinguishing isolates with change of antimicrobial resistance phenotype. All bacterial data, consisting of approximately 8 million samples from 1795 Japanese hospitals in 2017 were exported from the JANIS database, and were tabulated using either the de-duplication algorithm of GLASS, or JANIS. We compared the tabulated results of the total number of patients whose blood and urine cultures were taken and of the percentage of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli for each priority antibiotic. The number of patients per specimen type tabulated by the JANIS method was always smaller than that of GLASS. There was a small (< 3%) difference in the percentage of resistance of E. coli for any antibiotic between the two methods in both out- and inpatient settings and blood and urine isolates. The two tabulation methods did not show considerable differences in terms of the tabulated percentages of resistance for E. coli. We further discuss how the use of GLASS tabulations to create a public software and website that could help to facilitate the understanding of and treatment against AMR.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Sangue/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urina/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 391-397, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549570

RESUMO

Systemic isosporosis (formerly atoxoplasmosis), is a protozoal infection that causes death in nestling and fledgling passerine birds impacting ex situ breeding and reintroduction programs. Because current antemortem diagnostic tests lack sensitivity, a qPCR was developed for detection of Isospora spp. using primers and a fluorescent-tagged MGB probe targeting the large subunit (28s) ribosomal RNA gene (assay efficiency = >100%; sensitivity = <1 dsDNA copy). The assay was used to screen postmortem frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from passerine birds (n = 24; 12 with confirmed systemic isosporosis), whole blood and feces (n = 38) from live passerines, and other tissues infected with phylogenetically similar protozoa. The qPCR identified Isospora sp. DNA in tissues from 21/24 birds including 12/12 birds with cytologically-histologically confirmed infection (100% sensitivity) and 9/12 birds lacking microscopic organisms. The assay also amplified Eimeria sp. DNA; however, sequence analysis ruled out infection in the passerine cases. Blood and/or feces were positive in 30/38 birds, and in only 7/38 birds, blood and feces both contained Isospora sp. DNA. Finally, the qPCR was utilized to screen 30 consecutive daily fecal samples from live passerines (n = 20) to determine optimal sampling protocols. One or more of the daily fecal samples were positive in all 20 birds. In individual birds, the interval between positive qPCR amplification results ranged from 0 to 23 days, with an average of 5.85 days. Simulated application of 13 potential sample collection schedules was used to identify the sensitivity of repeated testing for identification of infected birds. Increased sampling days resulted in higher sensitivity but increased both cost and animal handling requirements. Based on statistical analysis and clinical considerations, the testing recommendation for detection of fecal shedding was collection and assay of five consecutive daily fecal samples, which had an average diagnostic sensitivity of 0.86.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Aves Canoras , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Sangue/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Isosporíase/diagnóstico , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2081, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350278

RESUMO

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) is a highly dynamic transport interface that serves brain homeostasis. To date, however, understanding of its role in brain development and pathology has been hindered by the absence of a non-invasive technique for functional assessment. Here we describe a method for non-invasive measurement of BSCFB function by using tracer-free MRI to quantify rates of water delivery from arterial blood to ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Using this method, we record a 36% decrease in BCSFB function in aged mice, compared to a 13% decrease in parenchymal blood flow, itself a leading candidate biomarker of early neurodegenerative processes. We then apply the method to explore the relationship between BCSFB function and ventricular morphology. Finally, we provide proof of application to the human brain. Our findings position the BCSFB as a promising new diagnostic and therapeutic target, the function of which can now be safely quantified using non-invasive MRI.


Assuntos
Sangue/diagnóstico por imagem , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Plexo Corióideo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Nature ; 581(7809): 465-469, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-23868

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute infection of the respiratory tract that emerged in late 20191,2. Initial outbreaks in China involved 13.8% of cases with severe courses, and 6.1% of cases with critical courses3. This severe presentation may result from the virus using a virus receptor that is expressed predominantly in the lung2,4; the same receptor tropism is thought to have determined the pathogenicity-but also aided in the control-of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 20035. However, there are reports of cases of COVID-19 in which the patient shows mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, which suggests the potential for pre- or oligosymptomatic transmission6-8. There is an urgent need for information on virus replication, immunity and infectivity in specific sites of the body. Here we report a detailed virological analysis of nine cases of COVID-19 that provides proof of active virus replication in tissues of the upper respiratory tract. Pharyngeal virus shedding was very high during the first week of symptoms, with a peak at 7.11 × 108 RNA copies per throat swab on day 4. Infectious virus was readily isolated from samples derived from the throat or lung, but not from stool samples-in spite of high concentrations of virus RNA. Blood and urine samples never yielded virus. Active replication in the throat was confirmed by the presence of viral replicative RNA intermediates in the throat samples. We consistently detected sequence-distinct virus populations in throat and lung samples from one patient, proving independent replication. The shedding of viral RNA from sputum outlasted the end of symptoms. Seroconversion occurred after 7 days in 50% of patients (and by day 14 in all patients), but was not followed by a rapid decline in viral load. COVID-19 can present as a mild illness of the upper respiratory tract. The confirmation of active virus replication in the upper respiratory tract has implications for the containment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Soroconversão , Replicação Viral , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sangue/virologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Fezes/química , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Faringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Escarro/virologia , Urina/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Carga Viral/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(6): 697-706, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On Dec 31, 2019, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia in people at Wuhan, Hubei Province. The responsible pathogen is a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report the relevant features of the first cases in Europe of confirmed infection, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the first patient diagnosed with the disease on Jan 24, 2020. METHODS: In this case series, we followed five patients admitted to Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital (Paris, France) and Pellegrin University Hospital (Bordeaux, France) and diagnosed with COVID-19 by semi-quantitative RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. We assessed patterns of clinical disease and viral load from different samples (nasopharyngeal and blood, urine, and stool samples), which were obtained once daily for 3 days from hospital admission, and once every 2 or 3 days until patient discharge. All samples were refrigerated and shipped to laboratories in the National Reference Center for Respiratory Viruses (The Institut Pasteur, Paris, and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France), where RNA extraction, real-time RT-PCR, and virus isolation and titration procedures were done. FINDINGS: The patients were three men (aged 31 years, 48 years, and 80 years) and two women (aged 30 years and 46 years), all of Chinese origin, who had travelled to France from China around mid-January, 2020. Three different clinical evolutions are described: (1) two paucisymptomatic women diagnosed within a day of exhibiting symptoms, with high nasopharyngeal titres of SARS-CoV-2 within the first 24 h of the illness onset (5·2 and 7·4 log10 copies per 1000 cells, respectively) and viral RNA detection in stools; (2) a two-step disease progression in two young men, with a secondary worsening around 10 days after disease onset despite a decreasing viral load in nasopharyngeal samples; and (3) an 80-year-old man with a rapid evolution towards multiple organ failure and a persistent high viral load in lower and upper respiratory tract with systemic virus dissemination and virus detection in plasma. The 80-year-old patient died on day 14 of illness (Feb 14, 2020); all other patients had recovered and been discharged by Feb 19, 2020. INTERPRETATION: We illustrated three different clinical and biological types of evolution in five patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with detailed and comprehensive viral sampling strategy. We believe that these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease and will contribute to advances in the implementation of more efficient infection control strategies. FUNDING: REACTing (Research & Action Emerging Infectious Diseases).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sangue/virologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Viagem , Urina/virologia , Carga Viral
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008156, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226028

RESUMO

Surveillance of Usutu virus is crucial to prevent future outbreaks both in Europe and in other countries currently naïve to the infection, such as the Americas. This goal remains difficult to achieve, notably because of the lack of large-scale cohort studies and the absence of commercially available diagnostic reagents for USUV. This work started with the first identification of USUV in a blood donor in the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region in Northern-Eastern Italy, which is endemic for West Nile virus. Considering that only one IgG ELISA is commercially available, but none for IgM, a novel NS1 antigen based IgG/M ELISA has been developed. This assay tested successfully for the detection of Usutu virus in blood donors with the identification of a second case of transmission and high levels of exposure. Furthermore, two pan-flavivirus antiviral drugs, that we previously characterized to be inhibitors of other flavivirus infectivity, were successfully tested for inhibition of Usutu virus with inhibitory concentrations in the low micromolar range. To conclude, this work identifies North-Eastern Italy as endemic for Usutu virus with implications for the screening of transfusion blood. A novel NS1-based ELISA test has been implemented for the detection of IgM/G that will be of importance as a tool for the diagnosis and surveillance of Usutu virus infection. Finally, Usutu virus is shown to be sensitive to a class of promising pan-flavivirus drugs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Infecções por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Sangue/virologia , Doadores de Sangue , Feminino , Flavivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Itália , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Testes de Neutralização/métodos
20.
Chem Biol Interact ; 324: 109084, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289290

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants, potentially leading to damage, is termed oxidative stress. Antioxidants (AO), either enzymatic or non-enzymatic, are the ones that can reduce diverse effects of pro-oxidants such as DNA, proteins and lipids damage. Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones) are open chain flavonoids that are widely biosynthesized in plants. Aim of this study was to test antioxidative potency of 15 chalcones (Chs) in in vitro model in serum (native conditions), so as with exogenously induced oxidative stress. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced in serum samples of healthy individuals with 0.25 mmol/L terc-buthyl-hydroperoxide (TBH), and then we monitored the effects of various concentrations of chalcones on oxidative stress parameters: total antioxidative status (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS), total concentration of sulfhydryl group (SHG) and prooxidative-antioxidative balance (PAB), and calculated prooxidative score, antioxidative score, and oxy score (OS). Nonparametric repeated measures ANOVA (Friedman's test) was used for comparison of antioxidative potency of samples with 15 different chalcones, in a native state and upon TBH influence. Spearman's nonparametric correlation analysis was used for estimation of relation between different parameters. RESULTS: Negative Oxy Score (OS) values for Chs11-15 showed significantly stronger antioxidative potency compared to other investigated chalcones (p < 0.05). Ch11, Ch13 and Ch14 remained with negative OS even after TBH addition, whereas OS of Ch12 and Ch15 became positive, with small nominal values. Samples with Ch11 and Ch13 showed significant negative correlation between TAS and TOS (p < 0.05 for both), but in Ch14 sample the negative correlation existed between TAS and PAB (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lower value of OS (i.e. better antioxidative potency) was noticed in samples with Ch11-Ch15. Electron-donor effects of substituent groups as a structural part of these chalcones could explain its antioxidative capability. Phenolic and methyl groups are responsible for antioxidative ability enhancement of five chalcones with the best activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sangue/metabolismo , Chalconas/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Sangue/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/síntese química , Chalconas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido/farmacologia
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