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1.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14191, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351287

RESUMO

F-box proteins constitute a significant family in eukaryotes and, as a component of the Skp1p-cullin-F-box complex, are considered critical for cellular protein degradation and other biological processes in plants. Despite their importance, the functions of F-box proteins, particularly those with C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, remain largely unknown in plants. Therefore, the present study conducted genome-wide identification and in silico characterization of F-BOX proteins with C-terminal LRR domains in soybean (Glycine max L.) (GmFBXLs). A total of 45 GmFBXLs were identified. The phylogenetic analysis showed that GmFBXLs could be subdivided into ten subgroups and exhibited a close relationship with those from Arabidopsis thaliana, Cicer aretineum, and Medicago trunculata. It was observed that most cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of GmFBXLs are involved in hormone signalling, stress responses, and developmental stages. In silico transcriptome data illustrated diverse expression patterns of the identified GmFBXLs across various tissues, such as shoot apical meristem, flower, green pods, leaves, nodules, and roots. Overexpressing (OE) GmFBXL12 in Tianlong No.1 cultivar resulted in a significant difference in seed size, number of pods, and number of seeds per plant, indicated a potential increase in yield compared to wild type. This study offers valuable perspectives into the role of FBXLs in soybean, serving as a foundation for future research. Additionally, the identified OE lines represent valuable genetic resources for enhancing seed-related traits in soybean.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Proteínas F-Box , /genética , Filogenia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e16813, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374952

RESUMO

Assessing the risk of nontarget attack (NTA) for federally listed threatened and endangered (T&E) plant species confamilial to invasive plants targeted for classical biological control, is one of the most important objectives of pre-release environmental safety assessments in the United States. However, evaluating potential NTA on T&E species is often complicated by restrictive agency requirements for obtaining propagules, or the ability to propagate plants and rear agents to the appropriate phenostages synchronously for testing, or both. Here, we assessed whether plant cues associated with a host recognition can be used for testing the attractiveness of four T&E and one rare single population plant species non-destructively for a candidate biocontrol agent. We used the seed-feeding weevil, Mogulones borraginis, a candidate for the biological control of the invasive plant, Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae) as the study system. We collected olfactory and visual cues in the form of flowering sprigs from T&E plant species confamilial to the invasive plant in a non-destructive manner and used them to measure behavioral responses and searching time of weevils. Female weevils preferred C. officinale to all tested plant species in dual-choice bioassays using either olfactory or visual cues in a modified y-tube device. Furthermore, female weevils were repelled by the combined olfactory and visual cues from all tested T&E plant species in a dual-choice test against controls (e.g., purified air in an empty arm), indicating that it would be extremely unlikely for the weevil to attack any of these species upon release in the United States. Principal component analysis based on 61 volatile organic compounds effectively separated the five confamilial plant species and C. officinale, corroborating the results of behavioral bioassays. We conclude that studies on pre-alighting host selection behavior and the underlying physiological mechanisms of how organisms select host plants they exploit can aid in environmental safety testing of weed biological control agents.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Controle de Plantas Daninhas , Boraginaceae/fisiologia , Olfato , Sementes
3.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14214, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366694

RESUMO

Rice straighthead disease substantially reduces crop yield, posing a significant threat to global food security. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) is the causal agent of straighthead disease and is highly toxic to the reproductive tissue of rice. However, the precise physiological mechanism underlying DMA toxicity remains unknown. In this study, six rice varieties with varying susceptibility to straighthead were utilized to investigate the growth performance and element distribution in rice panicles under DMA stress through pot experiments, as well as to explore the physiological response to DMA using transcriptomic methods. The findings demonstrate significant variations in both DMA accumulation and straighthead sensitivity among cultivars. The susceptible varieties exhibited higher DMA accumulation indices and displayed typical symptoms of straighthead disease, including erect panicles, deformed rachides and husks, and reduced seed setting rate and grain yield when compared to the resistant varieties. Moreover, DMA addition promoted mineral nutrients to accumulate in rachides and husks but less in grains. DMA showed preferential accumulation in rice grains with a distribution pattern similar to that of Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) within the panicle. Transcriptome analyses underscored the substantial impact of DMA on gene expression related to mineral metabolism. Notably, DMA addition significantly up-regulated the expression of pectin methylesterase, pectin lyase, polygalacturonase, and exogalacturonase genes in Nanjingxiangzhan, while these genes were down-regulated or weakly expressed in Ruanhuayou 1179. The alteration of pectin metabolic pathways induced by DMA may lead to abnormality of cell wall assembly and modification, thereby resulting in deformed rice panicles.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Grão Comestível , Ácido Cacodílico/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4162, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378923

RESUMO

Applying extracts from plants is considered a safe approach in biomedicine and bio-nanotechnology. The present report is considered the first study that evaluated the seeds of Lasiurus scindicus and Panicum turgidum as biogenic agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which had bioactivity against cancer cells and bacteria. Assessment of NPs activity against varied cell lines (colorectal cancer HCT116 and breast cancer MDA MBA 231 and MCF 10A used as control) was performed beside the antibacterial efficiency. Different techniques (DLS, TEM, EDX and FTIR) were applied to characterize the biosynthesized AgNPs. The phytochemicals from both L. scindicus and Panicum turgidum were identified by GC-MS analysis. Spherical monodisperse NPs at average diameters of 149.6 and 100.4 nm were obtained from seed extract of L. scindicus (L-AgNPs) and P. turgidum, (P-AgNPs) respectively. A strong absorption peak at 3 keV is observed by the EDX spectrum in the tested NPs. Our study provided effective NPs in mitigating the tested cell lines and the lowest IC50 were 7.8 and 10.30 for MDA MB231 treated by L-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively. Both fabricated NPs might differentially target the MDA MB231 cells compared to HCT116 and MCF10A. Ultrastructural changes and damage for the NPs-treated MDA MB231 cells were studied using TEM and LSM analysis. Antibacterial activity was also observed. About 200 compounds were identified in L. scindicus and P. turgidum by GC-MS analysis might be responsible for the NPs reduction and capping abilities. Efficient NPs against cancer cells and microbes were obtained, however large-scale screening is needed to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Panicum , Prata/química , Panicum/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3800-3813, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327020

RESUMO

Folate was enriched during quinoa germination, while molecular mechanisms were not well understood. In this study, three quinoa varieties were selected for germination, and changes in substrate content and enzyme activity of the folate biosynthesis pathway were monitored. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-THF) and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-CHO-THF) were significantly enriched in quinoa sprouts. Among the selected varieties, QL-2 exhibited the lowest content of the oxidation product MeFox and the highest total folate content. Based on transcriptome analysis, the p-ABA branch was found to be crucial for folate accumulation, while the pterin branch served as a key control point for the one carbon pool by folate pathway, which limited further folate biosynthesis. In the one carbon pool by folate pathway, genes CqMTHFR and CqAMT significantly contributed to the enrichment of 5-CH3-THF and 5-CHO-THF. Findings gained here would facilitate the potential application of quinoa sprouts as an alternative strategy for folate supplementation.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Ácido Fólico , Sementes/genética , Sementes/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Carbono/análise
6.
Food Funct ; 15(4): 2144-2153, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305768

RESUMO

The hippocampal memory deficit stands out as a primary symptom in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. While numerous therapeutic candidates have been proposed, they primarily serve to delay disease progression. Given the irreversible brain atrophy or injury associated with these conditions, current research efforts are concentrated on preventive medicine strategies. Herein, we investigated whether the extracts of Capsicum annuum L. seeds (CSE) and Capsicum annuum L. pulp (CPE) have preventive properties against glutamate-induced neuroexcitotoxicity (one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease) in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells. Pretreatment with CSE demonstrated significant anti-neuroexcitotoxic activity, whereas CPE did not exhibit such effects. Specifically, CSE pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited the elevation of excitotoxic elements (intracellular calcium influx and reactive oxygen species; ROS) and apoptotic elements (p53 and cleaved caspase-3). In addition, the glutamate-induced alterations of neuronal activity indicators (brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BDNF and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation; CREB) were significantly attenuated by CSE treatment. We also found that luteolin is the main bioactive compound corresponding to the anti-neuroexcitotoxic effects of CSE. Our results strongly suggest that Capsicum annuum L. seeds (but not its pulp) could be candidates for neuro-protective resources especially under conditions of neuroexcitotoxicity. Its underlying mechanisms may involve the amelioration of ROS-mediated cell death and BDNF-related neuronal inactivity and luteolin would be an active compound.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Capsicum , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Luteolina/farmacologia , Cânfora/metabolismo , Cânfora/farmacologia , Mentol/metabolismo , Mentol/farmacologia , Neurônios , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo
7.
Carbohydr Res ; 536: 109048, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310808

RESUMO

Resin glycosides are commonly found in plants belonging to the Convolvulaceae family. Ipomoea lacunosa L. (Convolvulaceae) is an herbaceous vine native to the United States. The resin glycosides of this plant have not been studied in detail. In this study, the components of the crude resin glycoside fraction extracted from the seeds of I. lacunosa are characterized. Alkaline hydrolysis of the crude resin glycoside fraction obtained from methanolic extract of the seeds yielded three organic acids, namely, 2S-methylbutyric, (E)-2-methylbut-2-enoic, and 2R-methyl-3R-hydroxybutyric acids, and a glycosidic acid fraction. Acidic hydrolysis of the glycosidic acid fraction yielded hydroxyl fatty acid components, including 7S-hydroxydecanoic, 11S-hydroxytetradecanoic, 11S-hydroxyhexadecanoic, 3S,11S-dihydroxytetradecanoic, 3S,11S-dihydroxyhexadecanoic, and 3S,12S-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acids, as well as monosaccharide components, including d-glucose, d-quinovose, d-fucose, and l-rhamnose. Trimethylsilyldiazomethane-hexane treatment of the glycosidic acid fraction further yielded eleven previously undescribed glycosidic acid methyl esters and two known glycosidic acid methyl esters. The structures of the obtained compounds were characterized using various spectral techniques. Four of the undescribed compounds were hexaglycosides, five were heptaglycosides, and two were octaglycosides. The aglycone of these compounds was either methyl 11S-hydroxytetradecanoate, methyl 3S,11S-dihydroxytetradecanoate, or methyl 3S,11S-dihydroxyhexadecanoate. Among the undescribed compounds identified, eight contained novel glycans, and three were rare bisdesmosides with sugar linkages at the C-3 and C-11 positions of methyl 3S,11S-dihydroxytetradecanoate.


Assuntos
Convolvulaceae , Ipomoea , Glicosídeos/química , Convolvulaceae/química , Sementes/química , Resinas Vegetais/análise , Resinas Vegetais/química , Estrutura Molecular
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3886, 2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365919

RESUMO

The Assam lemon is a highly valued Citrus cultivar known for its unique aroma, flavor, and appearance. This study aimed to investigate the morphological, seeding pattern and biochemical variations within 132 populations of Assam lemon from across 22 districts of Assam along with the control samples, with the objective to offer comprehensive understanding that could facilitate the improvement of breeding programs and further improvement of this important cultivar. Clustering based on UPGMA algorithm for morphological and seeding pattern data were analysed at population level, revealed two major clusters, where all the populations of Upper Assam districts were in the same cluster with the original stock (control population). The populations from Tinsukia and Dhemaji districts displayed more close similarities with the control population in comparison to populations of Upper Assam districts. Another interesting observation was regarding flowering patterns, while populations from Upper Assam districts excluding Golaghat district displayed both bisexual and unisexual flowers with less concentration of unisexual flowers, other remaining districts had bisexual and unisexual flowers of almost equal concentration. Unisexual flowers contained only the male reproductive organs with 40 anthers, while bisexual flowers had 36 anthers. Seeding patterns were examined across the districts, and it was found that populations from Tinsukia, Dhemaji, Lakhimpur, Dibrugarh, Jorhat, and the control population exhibited seedless characteristic while populations from other selected districts displayed a combination of seedless and seeded traits. Interestingly, Golaghat district appears as the linking district and showed availability of both seeded and seedless Assam lemon fruit, connecting the regions of Barak valley, Central, Lower, North and Upper Assam. Biochemical analysis showed significant variations across districts, however, the populations from Dhemaji, Tinsukia, Lakhimpur, Dibrugarh, and Jorhat districts displayed similarity with the control population. The study also investigated variability in soil nutrient content revealing substantial variation among the populations studied. This comprehensive investigation provides valuable insights into the morphological, seeding pattern, and biochemical diversity within the Assam lemon cultivar. These findings can be instrumental in breeding programs to enhance the cultivar, particularly in producing high-quality seedless fruits to meet consumer demands.


Assuntos
Citrus , Humanos , Masculino , Citrus/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Frutas/química , Sementes , Fenótipo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(6): 3231-3243, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303105

RESUMO

The color of the seed coat has great diversity and is regarded as a biomarker of metabolic variations. Here we isolated a soybean variant (BLK) from a population of recombinant inbred lines with a black seed coat, while its sibling plants have yellow seed coats (YL). The BLK and YL plants showed no obvious differences in vegetative growth and seed weight. However, the BLK seeds had higher anthocyanins and flavonoids level and showed tolerance to various abiotic stresses including herbicide, oxidation, salt, and alkalinity during germination. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that the upregulation of biosynthetic genes probably contributed to the overaccumulation of flavonoids in BLK seeds. The transient expression of those biosynthetic genes in soybean root hairs increased the levels of total flavonoids or anthocyanins. Our study revealed the molecular basis of flavonoid accumulation in soybean seeds, leveraging genetic engineering for both nutritious and stress-tolerant soybean germplasm.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Multiômica , Pigmentação , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3513, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347005

RESUMO

The Philistine culture (Iron Age, ca. 1200-604 BCE) profoundly impacted the southern Levant's cultural history, agronomy, and dietary customs. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the Philistines' cultic praxis and deities, is limited and uncertain. Here, we combine archaeological data with a meticulous study of plant use at two successive temples at Tell es-Sâfi/Gath. We provide a list of the plants used, their time of harvest, mode of offering, and possible symbolism. Analysis of the temples' macrobotanical (seed and fruits) plant assemblage reveals the offerings; that the inception date for rites was early spring; and sheds light on the date of the final utilization of the temples (late summer/early fall). Besides food crops, we note the earliest cultic use of chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), crown daisy (Glebionis coronaria), and scabious (Lomelosia argentea). These wide-spread Mediterranean plants were known so far only in later cults-of early Greek deities, such as Hera, Artemis, Demeter, and Asclepios. We discuss the data as reflecting that the Philistine religion relied on the magic and power of nature, such as fresh water and seasonality, which influence human life, health, and activity. In sum, our results offer novel insights into the culture of the Philistines.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Vitex , Humanos , Plantas , Agricultura , Frutas , Sementes
11.
Acta Vet Scand ; 66(1): 6, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Boar sperm are highly susceptible to specific conditions during cryopreservation, leading to a significant decrease in their fertilizing potential due to damage to their membranes. Camellia oil, known for its fatty acids with antioxidant and biological properties, has not been previously explored for the cryopreservation of boar semen. This study aimed to examine the effects of camellia oil on post-thawed boar sperm quality. Boar semen ejaculates (n = 9) were collected and divided into six equal aliquots based on camellia oil concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% v/v) in the freezing extender. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved using the liquid nitrogen vapor method. Thereafter, frozen semen samples were thawed at 50 °C for 12 s and evaluated for sperm morphology by scanning electron microscope, sperm motility using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer, sperm viability, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial function, MDA level and total antioxidant capacity. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the supplementation of 1.5% (v/v) camellia oil showed superior post-thaw sperm qualities such as improved sperm morphology, motility, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial function by 14.3%, 14.3% and 11.7%, respectively, when compared to the control group. Camellia oil at a concentration of 1.5% (v/v) showed the lowest level of MDA (18.3 ± 2.1 µmol/L) compared to the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, adding 1.5% (v/v) camellia oil in the freezing extender reduced the oxidative damage associated with cryopreservation and resulted in a higher post-thawed sperm quality.


Assuntos
Camellia , Preservação do Sêmen , Suínos , Masculino , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Criopreservação/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Sementes
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(1): 10, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319430

RESUMO

Quinoa seeds are gluten- and cholesterol-free, contain all amino acids required by the human body, have a high protein content, provide endocrine regulation, protein supplementation, and cardiovascular protection effects. However, metabolite accumulation and transcriptional regulatory networks in quinoa seed development are not well understood. Four key stages of seed development in Dianli-3260 and Dianli-557 were thus analyzed and 849 metabolites were identified, among which sugars, amino acids, and lipids were key for developmental processes, and their accumulation showed a gradual decrease. Transcriptome analysis identified 40,345 genes, of which 20,917 were differential between the M and F phases, including 8279 and 12,638 up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. Grain development processes were mainly enriched in galactose metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, the biosynthesis of amino acids, and carbon metabolism pathways, in which raffinose, phosphoenolpyruvate, series and other metabolites are significantly enriched, gene-LOC110689372, Gene-LOC110710556 and gene-LOC110714584 are significantly expressed, and these metabolites and genes play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid and Amino acid synthesis of quinoa. This study provides a theoretical basis to expand our understanding of the molecular and metabolic development of quinoa grains.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Sementes/genética , Aminoácidos
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3225, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332029

RESUMO

The maize (Zea mays L.) is a monocot that is a member of the Poaceae family and a valuable feed for livestock, human food, and raw material for various industries. The halothermal time model determines how plants respond to salt (NaCl) stress under sub-optimal conditions. This model examines the relation between NaClb (g), GR, GP, salinity and temperature stress on germination of seeds dynamics in various crops. Five constant temperatures i.e. 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C and five ψ levels (NaCl concentrations converted to ψ - 0, - 0.2, - 0.4, - 0.6, and - 0.8 MPa) were used in this experiment. In light of the results, the maximum halo-thermal time constant value was recorded at 35 °C temperature, while maximum germination percentage was detected at 30 °C in the controlled condition. Moreover, the lowermost value was recorded at 20 °C at - 0.8 MPa osmotic potential. The highest CAT, APX, and GPX activities were recorded at 15 °C at - 0.8 MPa, while the lowest values were observed for 0 MPa at 30 °C temperature. In conclusion, by employing the halo thermal time model, the germination of maize variety (var.30W52) was accurately predicted for the first time under varying levels of temperature and osmotic potentials.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Zea mays , Humanos , Temperatura , Poaceae , Sementes/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia
14.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337656

RESUMO

The production of olive oil has important economic repercussions in Mediterranean countries but also a considerable impact on the environment. This production generates enormous quantities of waste and by-products, which can be exploited as new raw materials to obtain innovative ingredients and therefore make the olive production more sustainable. In a previous study, we decided to foster olive seeds by generating two protein hydrolysates using food-grade enzymes, alcalase (AH) and papain (PH). These hydrolysates have shown, both in vitro and at the cellular level, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities, being able to inhibit the activity of the DPP-IV enzyme and modulate the secretion of GLP-1. Given the multifunctional behavior of peptides, both hydrolysates displayed dual hypocholesterolemic activity, inhibiting the activity of HMGCoAR and impairing the PPI of PCSK9/LDLR, with an IC50 equal to 0.61 mg/mL and 0.31 mg/mL for AH and PH, respectively. Furthermore, both samples restored LDLR protein levels on the membrane of human hepatic HepG2 cells, increasing the uptake of LDL from the extracellular environment. Since intestinal bioavailability is a key component of bioactive peptides, the second objective of this work is to evaluate the capacity of AH and PH peptides to be transported by differentiated human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The peptides transported by intestinal cells have been analyzed using mass spectrometry analysis, identifying a mixture of stable peptides that may represent new ingredients with multifunctional qualities for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods to delay the onset of metabolic syndrome, promoting the principles of environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Olea , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Humanos , Células Hep G2 , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Olea/química , Peptídeos/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Sementes/química
15.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338327

RESUMO

Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites of the Lupinus species, the presence of which limits the expansion of lupin beans consumption, despite their high protein content. Evaluation of the level of alkaloids in edible Lupinus species is crucial from a food safety point of view. However, quantitation of QAs is complicated by the fact that not all important alkaloids used for quantitation are commercially available. In this context, we developed a method for the simultaneous quantitation of eight major lupin alkaloids using quantitative NMR spectroscopy (qNMR). Quantitation and analysis were performed in 15 different seed extracts of 11 Lupinus spp. some of which belonged to the same species, with different geographical origins and time of harvest, as well as in all aerial parts of L. pilosus. The mature seeds of L. pilosus were found to be a uniquely rich source of multiflorine. Additionally, we developed a protocol using adsorption or ionic resins for easy, fast, and efficient debittering of the lupine seeds. The protocol was applied to L. albus, leading to a decrease of the time required for alkaloids removal as well as water consumption and to a method for QA isolation from the debittering wastewater.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Lupinus , Alcaloides Quinolidizínicos , Lupinus/química , Alcaloides/análise , Sementes/química
16.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338423

RESUMO

Drug resistance represents one of the great plagues of our time worldwide. This largely limits the treatment of common infections and requires the development of new antibiotics or other alternative approaches. Noteworthy, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics is mostly responsible for the selection of mutations that confer drug resistance to microbes. In this regard, recently, ozone has been raising interest for its unique biological properties when dissolved in natural oils. Ozonated oils have been reported to act in a non-specific way on microorganisms hindering the acquisition of advantageous mutations that result in resistance. Here, we focused on the antimicrobial effect of two commercial olive (OOO) and sunflower seeds (OSO) oils. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermal analysis showed the change in the chemical composition of the oils after ozonation treatment. Different ozonated oil concentrations were then used to evaluate their antimicrobial profile against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. Cytotoxicity was also evaluated in keratinocytes and epithelial cells. Overall, our results revealed that both OOO and OSO showed a potent microbicidal effect, especially against C. albicans (IC50 = OOO: 0.3 mg/mL and OSO: 0.2 mg/mL) and E. faecalis (IC50 = OOO: 0.4 mg/mL and OSO: 2.8 mg/mL) albeit exerting a certain effect also against S. aureus and E. coli. Moreover, both OOO and OSO do not yield any relevant cytotoxic effect at the active concentrations in both cell lines. This indicates that the ozonated oils studied are not toxic for mammalian cells despite exerting a potent antimicrobial effect on specific microorganisms. Therefore, OOO and OSO may be considered to integrate standard therapies in the treatment of common infections, likely overcoming drug resistance issues.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Helianthus , Óleos Voláteis , Olea , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sementes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mamíferos
17.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(2): 55, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315238

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: ABI5 functions in ABA-mediated anthocyanin accumulation in plant response to low phosphate. Low phosphate (LP)-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation play an important role in plant adaptive response to phosphate starvation conditions. However, whether and how the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) participates in LP-induced anthocyanin accumulation remain elusive. Here, we report that ABA is required for LP-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Disrupting ABA DEFICIENT2 (ABA2), a key ABA-biosynthetic gene, or BETA-GLUCOSIDASE1 (BG1), a major gene implicated in converting conjugated ABA to active ABA, significantly impairs LP-induced anthocyanin accumulation, as LP-induced expression of the anthocyanin-biosynthetic genes Chalcone Synthase (CHS) is dampened in the aba2 and bg1 mutant. In addition, LP-induced anthocyanin accumulation is defective in the mutants of ABA signaling pathway, including ABA receptors, ABA Insensitive2, and the transcription factors ABA Insensitive5 (ABI5), suggesting a role of ABI5 in ABA-mediated upregulation of anthocyanin-biosynthetic genes in plant response to LP. Indeed, LP-induced expression of CHS is repressed in the abi5-7 mutant but further promoted in the ABI5-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type. Moreover, ABI5 can bind to and transcriptionally activate CHS, and the defectiveness of LP-induced anthocyanin accumulation in abi5-7 can be restored by overexpressing CHS. Collectively, our findings illustrates that ABI5 functions in ABA-mediated LP-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética
18.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(2): 51, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308138

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We generated a new Koshihikari rice line with a drastically reduced content of glutelin proteins and higher lodging resistance by using new and conventional plant breeding techniques. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, we generated mutant rice with drastically decreased contents of major glutelins. A Koshihikari rice mutant line, a123, lacking four glutelins (GluA1, GluA2, GluB4, and GluB5) was used as a host, and another five major glutelin genes (GluA3, GluB1a, GluB1b, GluB2, and GluC) were knocked out through two iterations of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Mutant seeds were deficient in the GluA family, GluB family, and GluC, and the line obtained was named GluABC KO. Glutelin content was much lower in GluABC KO than in the existing low-glutelin rice mutant LGC-1. A null segregant of GluABC KO was selected using new-generation sequencing and backcrossing, and the sd-1 allele for the semi-dwarf trait was introduced to increase lodging resistance.


Assuntos
Glutens , Oryza , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Fenótipo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 85, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onion seeds have limited storage capacity compared to other vegetable seeds. It is crucial to identify the mechanisms that induce tolerance to storage conditions and reduce seed deterioration. To address this goal, an experiment was conducted to evaluate changes in germination, biochemical, physiological, and molecular characteristics of onion seed landraces (Horand, Kazerun landraces and Zargan cultivar) at different aging levels (control, three-days and six-days accelerated aging, and natural aging for one year). RESULTS: The findings suggest that there was an increase in glucose, fructose, total sugar, and electrolyte leakage in the Horand (HOR), Kazerun (KAZ) landraces, and Zarghan (ZAR) cultivar, with Kazerun exhibiting the greatest increase. The percentage and rate of germination of Kazerun decreased by 54% and 33%, respectively, in six-day accelerated aging compared to the control, while it decreased by 12% and 14%, respectively, in Horand. Protein content decreased with increasing levels of aging, with a decrease of 26% in Kazerun landrace at six days of aging, while it was 16% in Horand landrace. The antioxidant activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase decreased more intensively in Kazerun. The expression of AMY1, BMY1, CTR1, and NPR1 genes were lower in Kazerun landraces than in Horand and Zargan at different aging levels. CONCLUSIONS: The AMY1, BMY1, CTR1, and NPR1 genes play a pivotal role in onion seed germination, and their downregulation under stressful conditions has been shown to decrease germination rates. In addition, the activity of CAT, SOD, and GPx enzymes decreased by seed aging, and the amount of glucose, fructose, total sugar and electrolyte leakage increased, which ultimately led to seed deterioration. Based on the results of this experiment, it is recommended to conduct further studies into the molecular aspects involved in onion seed deterioration. More research on the genes related to this process is suggested, as well as investigating the impact of different priming treatments on the genes expression involved in the onion seed aging process.


Assuntos
Germinação , Cebolas , Cebolas/genética , Germinação/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Eletrólitos/análise , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Frutose/análise , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
20.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356368

RESUMO

Myrtaceae species are abundant in tropical Atlantic rainforests, but 41% of the 5500 species of this family are of extreme conservation concern. Eugenia astringens and E. uniflora are native Brazilian Myrtaceae species that occur in the same habitats and produce desiccation-sensitive (DS) seeds. We hypothesized that their seed desiccation-sensitivity degree is associated with specific metabolic signatures. To test it, we analyzed the germination and metabolic profiles of fresh and desiccated seeds. The water content (WC) at which at least half of the seeds survived desiccation was lower in E. astringens (0.17 g H2 O g-1 DW) than in E. uniflora (0.41 g H2 O g-1 DW). We identified 103 annotated metabolites from 3261 peaks in both species, which differed in their relative contents between E. astringens and E. uniflora seeds. The main differences in seed metabolic profiles include several protective molecules in the group of carbohydrates and organic acids and amino acid contents. The relative contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides, malic and quinic acids, amino acids and saturated fatty acids may have taken part in the distinct DS behaviour of E. astringens and E. uniflora seeds. Our study provides evidence of the relationship between desiccation sensitivity, seed viability and metabolic profile of tropical seeds by comparing two closely related Eugenia species with different DS degrees.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Myrtaceae , Dessecação , Germinação , Sementes , Aminoácidos , Metaboloma
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