Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49.469
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

RESUMO

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Assuntos
Solo , Banco de Sementes , Paquistão , Plantas , Sementes , Ecossistema , Poaceae
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257314, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355908

RESUMO

Abstract Melon production in the Brazilian semi-arid region is subject to the use of marginal waters with high salinity. However, the use of regulators and bioactivators in seed treatment can mitigate the harmful effects of salts in irrigation water. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-germination treatments with plant regulators and bioactivator in melon seeds for the production of seedlings irrigated with biosaline water from fish farming effluent. For this, two trials with the Goldex and Grand Prix hybrids were carried out separately. A completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme (pre-germination treatments × water dilutions). In addition to the control, the seeds were treated with salicylic and gibberellic acids and thiamethoxam. The waters used for irrigation were local-supply water, fish farming effluent (biosaline water) and these diluted to 50%. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed for fourteen days. Biosaline water (5.0 dS m-1) did not affect the emergence of Goldex melon seedlings, but compromised the establishment of the Grand Prix cultivar. Seed pre-treatments with salicylic and gibberellic acids attenuate the effects of water salinity and promote growth modulations, resulting in more vigorous melon seedlings.


Resumo A produção de meloeiro no semiárido brasileiro está sujeita a utilização de águas marginais com salinidade elevada. Entretanto, a utilização de reguladores e bioativadores no tratamento de sementes podem mitigar os efeitos nocivos dos sais na água de irrigação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos com fitorreguladores e bioativador em sementes de melão para a produção de mudas irrigadas com água biossalina de efluente de piscicultura. Para isso, dois ensaios com os híbridos Goldex e Grand Prix foram realizados separadamente. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 3 (tratamentos pré-germinativos × diluições de água). Além do controle, as sementes foram tratadas com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico, e tiametoxam. As águas utilizadas para irrigação foram a de abastecimento local, efluente de piscicultura (água biossalina) e estas diluídas a 50%. Durante quatorze dias foram realizadas as análises fisiológicas e bioquímicas. A água biossalina (5,0 dS m-1) não afetou a emergência de plântulas de meloeiro Goldex, mas prejudicou o estabelecimento da cultivar Grand Prix. Os pré-tratamentos de sementes com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico atenuam os efeitos da salinidade da água e promovem modulações no crescimento, proporcionando mudas de meloeiro mais vigorosas.


Assuntos
Germinação , Cucurbitaceae , Sementes , Água , Plântula
3.
Food Chem ; 398: 133936, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027659

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of seed coats from peas (PC) and chickpeas (CC) (at 15 % and 30 % levels) on rice-based co-extruded snacks. Using PC and CC reduced the content of soluble (29 %) and cell-wall bound phenolic acids (21 %), but it enhanced the amount and the profile of flavonoids of rice-based snacks (up to 16 times with PC), resulting in significantly higher antioxidant activity (134 %). Snacks with 15 % CC showed a higher section area (about 335 versus 191 mm2) and a lower average pore radius (20.1 versus 23.9 mm) than PC-snacks; however, such features did not affect either texture or porosity. At 30 % level, PC resulted in a more porous structure (porosity: 73.1 versus 66.7 %) with smaller pores (17.2 versus 27.3 mm) and high firmness (55.9 versus 40.1 N). Consumers' acceptability evaluation revealed that samples containing pulse seed coat were comparable and preferred to the control (i.e., 100 % polished rice).


Assuntos
Cicer , Oryza , Cicer/química , Oryza/química , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes , Lanches
4.
Food Chem ; 399: 133924, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029672

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of genipin cross-linking on the gelling properties of ginkgo seed protein isolate (GSPI). Cross-linking of GSPI was achieved with different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% w/v) of genipin at pH 6.0. Compared to pure GSPI, genipin treatment led to lower solubility, surface hydrophobicity, and fluorescence intensity, while promoted protein aggregation. Cross-linked GSPI gels exhibited markedly improved gelling properties and water holding capacity (WHC), with up to 2.1-fold increases in gel hardness and 1.3-fold increases in WHC over non-treated GSPI gel. Electrophoresis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the cross-linking. Moreover, microstructural examination showed that cross-linking with genipin resulted in protein aggregation and more porous gel matrix. Overall, genipin cross-linking demonstrated great potential for the enhancement of gelling properties of ginkgo seed protein. The current research may expand the utilization of ginkgo seeds in food applications.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Agregados Proteicos , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/química , Géis/química , Iridoides/análise , Sementes/química
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 134011, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044826

RESUMO

Avocado seeds account for 13% of the waste from industrial production of cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO). Therefore, the aim of this study was to valorise avocado seeds by converting it into an extruded snack product using a friction cooker and comparing their textural and physical characteristics to extruded brown rice and malted barley ready to eat (RTE) snacks. Concentration of toxins; amygdalin and persin were compared in extruded avocado seed and fresh avocado seeds. Avocado seed extrudates were significantly lower in lateral expansion, apparent density, porosity, hardness, and crispiness compared to brown rice extrudates. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) was highest in freeze-dried avocado seeds. Antioxidant capacity and TPC of avocado seed extrudates were significantly higher than brown rice and malted barley. The concentrations of both amygdalin and persin in the RTE avocado seed snack were present at non-toxic levels (2.6 × 10-6 mg/g and 0.68 mg/g respectively).


Assuntos
Amigdalina , Hordeum , Persea , Antioxidantes , Álcoois Graxos , Fenóis , Sementes , Lanches
6.
Food Chem ; 398: 133849, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985240

RESUMO

A promising drying technology, namely combined freeze-drying and far-infrared drying (FD-FIRD) was employed to dehydrate seed-used pumpkin (SUP) and its effects on physical characteristics (color, microstructure, texture, shrinkage), bioactive components (phenolics and carotenoids) of SUP were evaluated. The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze moisture state and distribution during FD process, which is beneficial for choosing appropriate moisture transfer point. Results showed that most free water (87.29 %) was removed when drying time reached 25 h, thus retaining original tissue structure of sample with almost no deformation during later FIRD process. Therefore, FD for 25 h followed by FIRD for 2 h (FD25-FIRD2) sample exhibited similar appearance with FD sample. The free phenolics content of FD-FIRD samples was 14.97 %-26.60 % higher than that of FD depending on FIRD duration. Especially, p-coumaric acid content of FD25-FIRD2 sample increased of 32.23 %. Besides, FD-FIRD performed higher retention for carotenoids showing 3.00-3.39 folds than FIRD.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Tecnologia
7.
Food Chem ; 398: 133923, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987005

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP) obtained from Moringa oleifera seed protein hydrolysates. Cell membrane chromatography and live bacteria adsorption were combined into a single step to efficiently isolate the active fraction of the AMP. Five peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS, among which the MCNDCGA peptide (termed MOp3) showed the greatest inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 2 mg/mL]. MOp3 was identified as a hydrophobic anionic AMP rich in ß-sheet structures with negligible hemolytic activity at 2.0 × MIC. MOp3 had good tolerance to salt solutions at 5 % and pH range 6.0-8.0, but was sensitive to high temperatures (>100 °C) and acid protease. Microscopic observation further revealed that MOp3 induced irreversible damage onto the cell membrane of S. aureus and interacted with dihydrofolate reductase and DNA gyrase by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. These findings highlight the potential application of a new antimicrobial agent against S. aureus in the food industry.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análise , Adsorção , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Cromatografia Líquida , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Food Chem ; 398: 133906, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988413

RESUMO

Nigella sativa L. seeds (NS) are known as one of the most traditional immunomodulatory and nutritive food additives. NS can, furthermore, be roasted to give curries, breads, and other dishes a smoky, nutty flavor. This study evaluated the effect of roasting NS on the metabolic profile and immunomodulatory activity. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis was conducted using several analytical platforms, including GC-MS and UPLC-MS. A total of 197 metabolites were identified, belonging to different classes such as saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and lipids. In vitro immunomodulatory activity on the differentiated monocytic cell line THP-1 was assessed, revealing that the roasted seeds showed significantly-decreased immunomodulatory activity. Furthermore, a molecular docking study, which was carried out against immunomodulation-related pathway protein (iNOS), revealed that compounds which showed the best binding scores were severely decreased by roasting. Conclusively, our results demonstrate that the roasting of NS results in severe losses in their bioactive metabolites and immunomodulatory activity.


Assuntos
Nigella sativa , Cromatografia Líquida , Imunomodulação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nigella sativa/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 301(Pt B): 120358, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446497

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the inhibition effects of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) on ice recrystallization and to figure out its possible molecular weight-dependent effects. TSP fractions (2412.38-20.75 kDa) were prepared while preserving the natural structure. Ice recrystallization was effectively inhibited by TSP. Decreasing the molecular weight to a certain range, such as 224.04 kDa and 90.41 kDa, could enhance the activity of TSP due to the reduction of self- and intermolecular aggregation. Adding TSP into water decreased the melting temperature of bulk ice. Raman spectra showed that partial group vibrations or deformations of TSP molecules were restricted upon solution freezing and also revealed a destructuring effect of TSP on the H-bond network of water. These findings suggested the potential of TSP as a novel food cryoprotectant and help produce TSP fractions with enhanced activity, and shed new light on understanding the antifreeze mechanism of natural polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Tamarindus , Gelo , Peso Molecular , Sementes , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta , Água , Crioprotetores
10.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120640, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403881

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer derived from phthalate ester, is used as an additive in industrial products such as plastics, paints, and medical devices. However, DEHP is known as an endocrine-disrupting chemical, causing cancers and adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated DEHP biodegradation efficiency via food waste composting during 35 days of incubation. At high DEHP concentrations (2167 mg kg-1) in food waste compost mixture, the DEHP biodegradation efficiency was 99% after 35 days. The highest degradation efficiency was recorded at the thermophilic phase (day 3 - day 11) with the biodegradation rate reached 187 mg kg-1 day-1. DEHP was metabolized to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and would be oxidized to benzyl alcohol (BA) and mineralized into CO2 and water via various metabolisms. Finally, the compost's quality with residual DEHP was evaluated using Brassica chinensis L. seeds via 96 h of germination tests. The compost (at day 35) with a trace amount of DEHP as the end product showed no significant effect on the germination rate of Brassica chinensis L. seeds (88%) compared to that without DEHP (94%), indicating that the compost can be reused as fertilizer in agricultural applications. These results provide an improved understanding of the DEHP biodegradation via food waste composting without bioaugmentation and hence facilitating its green remediation and conversion into value-added products. Nevertheless, further studies are needed on DEHP biodegradation in large-scale food waste composting or industrial applications.


Assuntos
Brassica , Compostagem , Dietilexilftalato , Eliminação de Resíduos , Humanos , Germinação , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Sementes
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 680-691, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pumpkin seed and sunflower oil are rich in bioactive compounds, but are prone to oxidation during storage. Their fatty acids, carotenoid and volatile compounds and their Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) profiles were studied during 8 months storage in order to assess the overall quality, but also to assess the impact of the oleogelation as conditioning process. RESULTS: The fatty acids methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The linoleic acid was the most abundant in the oils (604.6 g kg-1 in pumpkin and 690 g kg-1 in sunflower), but also in oleogels. Through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), lutein and ß-carotene were determined as specific carotenoid compounds of the pumpkin seed oil and oleogel, in a total amount of 0.0072 g kg-1 . The volatile compounds profile revealed the presence of alpha-pinene for the pumpkin seed oil and oleogels and a tentative identification of limonene for the sunflower oil. Hexanal was also detected in the oleogels, indicating a thermal oxidation, which was further analyzed through infrared spectroscopy. CONCLUSIONS: During 8 months storage, the decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acid total amount was 5.72% for the pumpkin seed oil and 3.55% for the oleogel, while in the sunflower oil samples of 2.93% and 3.28% for the oleogel. It was concluded that oleogelation might protect specific carotenoid compounds, since the oleogels displayed higher content of ß-carotene at each storage time. Hexanal and heptanal were detected during storage, regardless of the oil or oleogel type. FTIR analysis depicts the differences in the constituent fatty acids resulting due to thermal oxidation or due to storage. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Cucurbita/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Carotenoides/análise , Óleo de Girassol/análise , beta Caroteno/análise , Sementes/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Aldeídos/análise
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 627-636, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food processing produces large volumes of waste that can be transformed into useful and relevant ingredients. The by-product of oil extraction from faveleira seeds is a potentially low-cost raw material that can be used for obtaining functional foods. This study aimed to analyze the physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl) seed press cake flour (FSPCF). Additionally, the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and physical, microbiological, and sensory aspects of cookies with 0, 25%, or 50% substitution of refined wheat flour (RWF) with FSPCF (0-FSPCF, 25-FSPCF, and 50-FSPCF cookies, respectively) were evaluated. RESULTS: FSPCF exhibited good physicochemical properties, high antioxidant activity (0.45 ± 0.00 and 42.83 ± 1.30 g TE g-1 for the DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively), and high polyphenol content (particularly gallic acid at 21015.85 ± 4981.76 g kg-1 ) and is also rich in minerals and fiber (359.40 ± 1.10 g kg-1 ). Replacement of RWF with FSPCF increased the activity of antioxidants and the levels of polyphenols, ash, lipids, proteins, and fibers. The 50-FSPCF cookie possessed the highest linoleic acid content (97.50 ± 8.47 g kg-1 ). Flour replacement influenced the weight of the cookies without affecting the other physical characteristics. The cookies yielded good sensory acceptance and purchase intentions. Contamination was not detected. CONCLUSION: Faveleira flour possesses high nutritional and bioactive value and can be used as a functional ingredient in cookies and possibly in other bakery products such as bread, cakes, and pastas. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Farinha , Farinha/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Triticum/química , Sementes/química , Pão/análise , Polifenóis/análise
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 924-932, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oilseed-matrix consolidation is a crucial factor when talking about oil expression because, as the cake consolidates, the coefficient of permeability inevitably decreases. Thus, any treatment that extensively ruptures cell walls reduces rigidity and hardness of the oilseed press-cake, while improving the oil expression. Such process intensification was investigated in the present study through the introduction of the ultrasound (US) technology. Screw pressing of Cannabis sativa L. seeds was operated using a pilot scale equipment set at three different pressures (low, medium and high) to understand the correlation with the ultrasound effectiveness. Samples of non-exhausted press-cakes were tested for objective instrumental indices of compressibility and oil expression yields prior and after the US treatment. RESULTS: US led to a drag resistance reduction within press-cakes, improving oil flowability through a decrease in the material cohesiveness and adhesiveness. Consistently, sonication favoured oil extraction yields and oil antioxidant capacities, which increased with respect to the untreated samples, respectively equal to +19.2% and + 29.4% for the press-cake screwed at low pressure, to +21.8% and + 49.3% at medium pressure, and to +15.4% and + 0.5% at high pressure. Overall, US highest effectiveness was accounted for samples screwed at medium pressure. CONCLUSION: Press-cake compressibility can be well described by macroscopic texture parameters; indeed, their decrease is linked to higher oil expression efficiencies. Sonication can help boosting oil extraction yields reducing drag resistance within the mechanical screwing equipment. These outcomes offer good potentials for US application in the hempseed technology and, more extensively, in the oil seed industry. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Antioxidantes
14.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120638, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370974

RESUMO

Exposure of crops to CeO2 nanoparticles (nCeO2) in agricultural environments impact crop quality and human health. In this regard, the effects of selenium nanoparticles (nSe) on the yield and quality of Vigna radiata (L.) exposed to nCeO2 were investigated. The experiment was carried out as a factorial with two factors: NPs (nCeO2, and nSe) as factor one and concentrations as factor two [(0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L nCeO2; 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/L nSe)]. Nanoparticles were foliar applied to 45-day old mung bean shoot in two steps and one-week interval. At 250-1000 mg/L, nCeO2 increased P, protein and Ce accumulation in grain. Additionally, at 1000 mg/L, the nCeO2, significantly decreased seed number, yield, Fe, and Zn storage in seeds. Conversely, at 25 and 50 mg/L, nSe stimulated the growth and yield of mung bean, and significantly increased P, Fe, Zn, and Se in seeds, but reduced the protein content in seeds. The Se25+Ce250 and Se50+Ce250 significantly increased pod number, seed number, grain weight, yield, Fe, Zn and Se storage in grains. In contrast, the Ce accumulation in seeds decreased in all combination treatments (nCeO2 + nSe) compared to their respective single nCeO2 treatments. Moreover, in the plants exposed to high nCeO2 concentrations, nSe application resulted in undamaged vacuoles, less starch granules' accumulation, significant yield improvement, and elevated Fe, Se, and Zn in seeds. Data suggest that selenium nanoparticles prevent nCeO2 stress in mung bean and improve grain production and quality.


Assuntos
Cério , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Vigna , Humanos , Cério/toxicidade , Selênio/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Sementes , Grão Comestível , Produtos Agrícolas
15.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134599, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444019

RESUMO

Ordinary and hyperlipidemic rats were gavaged with lotus seed resistant starch (LRS), and the structure of the small intestinal flora and bile acids composition were determined for four groups of rats to construct a relationship network diagram between different bacterial genera, bile acids and blood lipid profiles, revealing a microbial mechanism for the lipid-lowering effect of LRS in hyperlipidemic rats. LRS inhibited the growth of Romboutsia, Bacillus, Blautia, norank_f__Muribaculaceae and norank_f__Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group in hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile LRS promoted the production of primary bile acids (CA, CDCA, ß-MCA) and secondary bile acids (LCA, UDCA), and reduced the contents of TCA, Dehydro-LCA, isoLCA, LCA-3-S and THDCA in hyperlipidemic rats. Furthermore, Blautia, norank_f__Muribaculaceae and norank_f__Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group were positively correlated with Dehydro-LCA, isoLCA, TCA, LCA-3-S, TCHO, TG and LDL-C. In summary, LRS improves blood lipid levels by regulating small intestinal flora and accelerating the breakdown of cholesterol into bile acids in the liver.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Lotus , Amido Resistente , Sementes , Animais , Ratos , Bacteroidetes , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Clostridiales , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido Resistente/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Hiperlipidemias/microbiologia , Hiperlipidemias/terapia
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130284, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332279

RESUMO

Rapeseed cultivation is a novel approach to safely utilizing lead (Pb) contaminated farmland. However, the mechanism of Pb absorption in seeds remains uncertain. A field experiment was conducted to explore this mechanism with two contrasting treatments: rapeseed exposed to atmospheric deposition and non-exposed treatment. Non-exposed treatment ultimately decreased Pb content in leaf, silique, and seed by 46.7%, 53.7%, and 53.6%, respectively. Sub-microstructure analysis further confirmed that rapeseed leaves and siliques could directly absorb atmospheric Pb. In addition, Pb isotope analysis indicates that atmospheric deposition is the primary source of silique and seed Pb. The root and silique organs had relative Pb contributions of 28.0% and 72.0%, respectively, to seed. Thus, the direct absorption of atmospheric Pb by siliques during the filling stage was found to be the leading cause of seed Pb pollution.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Chumbo/análise , Sementes/química , Poluição Ambiental
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt A): 115901, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336220

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A. Barkley (RVS) is an economic tree species and widely distributed in East Asia. Wood parts and raw lacquers of RVS have been used in coatings, herbal medicines or food supplements, and the leaves, flowers, roots, and fruits of RVS are also widely used in medicine traditionally. Lacquer seed oil (LSO) has potential health benefits and has not previously been evaluated for safety. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicological potential of LSO by acute and subchronic toxicity tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characterization of fatty acids of the LSO was carried out by gas chromatography. In the acute toxicity study, LSO was administered at single doses of 5000 or 10000 mg/kg by oral gavage. The subchronic toxicity study was conducted by daily oral administration of LSO at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The animals were evaluated for clinical observations, body weight, organ weight, feed consumption, biochemical and hematological parameters, and liver, lung, and kidney histology. RESULTS: There were no mortality and toxic changes were observed in acute toxicity study. The results of subchronic toxicity showed no toxicologically significant changes in clinical observations, body weight, organ weight, biochemical or hematological parameters. Histopathologic results indicated slight hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration in the rats of 5000 mg/kg/day LSO treated group. However, the histopathologic observation was not confirmed by hepatic biochemical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the LD50 of LSO is over 10000 mg/kg and LSO is non-toxic for SD rats in acute toxicity study. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of LSO in rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg/day, and liver is the potential target organ of LSO for 30-day subchronic toxicity study.


Assuntos
Toxicodendron , Ratos , Animais , Laca , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica , Sementes , Tamanho do Órgão , Peso Corporal , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159443, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252665

RESUMO

Amid concerns on the myriad of existing chemical stressors in agroecosystems, pesticides and particularly neonicotinoid insecticides are in the forefront. Despite that, these neurotoxic compounds remain the dominant group of insecticides in worldwide use with the added versatility of use in seed coatings. Such use sparks environmental concerns counterbalanced by their reported insecticidal efficacy and potential plant bioactivation. Nonetheless, this alleged double benefit and interconnection expected with neonicotinoids has been little explored particularly when the whole plant phenology is considered. Regardless of the expected efficacy against targeted insect pest species, like whiteflies, neonicotinoids may spark dual effect on plants - negative at higher concentrations, positive at low concentrations, which is consistent with the hormesis phenomenon that may be expressed as a plant bioactivation. This effect may also cascade to the targeted insect species, what deserves attention. Therefore, soybean seeds treated with increasing concentrations of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam were followed throughout their development in greenhouse, recording the plant response and yield, besides their effect in whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1). Thiamethoxam application was correlated to leaf contents of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin. Plant hormesis was found for leaf area and root growth, but not for other plant morphological or physiological parameters, nor plant yield. The insecticide concentration-dependency compromised whitefly population growth without evidence of cascading any plant-mediated hormesis to the insects. Thus, although plant hormesis was recognized with thiamethoxam in treated soybean seeds in relevant parameters, no evidence of plant bioactivation was observed to justify its use with such a secondary objective, nor did this hormesis impair whitefly control.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Tiametoxam , Soja , Hormese , Nitrocompostos , Oxazinas , Neonicotinoides , Sementes , Insetos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159181, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191720

RESUMO

The intensive use of chemical fertilizer, particularly nitrogen (N) has resulted in not only markedly increased crop yields but also detrimental effects on ecosystems. Plant microbiomes represent an eco-friendly alternative for plant nutrition and productivity, and the effect of N fertilization on plant and soil microbes has been well studied. However, if and how N fertilization modulates seed endophytic microbiomes and grain quality remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of different N fertilization rates on rice seed endophytic bacterial and fungal communities as well as on grain quality. Higher bacterial and fungal community diversity and richness, but lower grain protein and amino acid contents were found in seeds of rice treated moderate N fertilization than those treated insufficient or excessive N input. There were also more complex co-occurrence networks, and an enrichment of putative beneficial bacterial taxa in seeds under moderate N application, while there was an opposite trend under the excessive N treatment. In addition, the grain amylose and amylopectin contents were positively correlated with the relative abundance of bacterial and fungal dominant genera, while the grain amino acid contents were negatively correlated with the bacterial dominant genera but positively associated with fungal dominant genera. Together, we demonstrate that moderate N fertilization can enhance bacterial and fungal community colonization in seeds and improve grain eating and cooking qualities. This study extends our knowledge regarding the significant role of rational fertilization on seed-microbe interactions in sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Oryza/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Sementes/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Fertilização
20.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134438, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444008

RESUMO

Organosulfides are responsible for the characteristic aroma of Parkia speciosa Hassk seeds (stink bean) yet its formation mechanism from the precursor djenkolic acid has not been characterized. Herein, the aqueous extracts of stink bean were analysed by LC/MS, and the volatile components were extracted and analysed by GC/QTOF/MS. Using enzyme purification methods, we isolated and characterized C-S lyase from ripe stink beans. The active C-S lyase is composed of two protein subunits with molecular weights of 58 kDa and 45 kDa and forms agglomerates in solution with an average particle size of âˆ¼ 50 nm. The enzyme was stable at pH 7.0-11.0 with an optimal pH âˆ¼ 9.0 and was more stable at 25-40 °C with an optimal activity at 50 °C. It shows high substrate specificity towards l-cystine and l-djenkolic acid by forming methanedithiol, which leads to the formation of 1,2,4-trithiolane. C-S lyase is a promising biocatalyst for natural flavour production.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Sementes , Cisteína
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...