Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.623
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445334

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to demonstrate the biostimulating effect of exogenous melatonin (MEL) applied to seeds via hydroconditioning. It was indicated that only well-chosen application technique and MEL dose guarantees success concerning seed germination and young seedlings growth under stress conditions. For maize seed, 50 µM of MEL appeared to be the optimal dose. It improved seed germination and embryonic axes growth especially during chilling stress (5 °C/14 days) and during regeneration after its subsided. Unfortunately, MEL overdosing lowered IAA level in dry seeds and could disrupt the ROS-dependent signal transduction pathways. Very effective antioxidant MEL action was confirmed by low level of protein oxidative damage and smaller quantity of lipid oxidation products in embryonic axes isolated from seeds pre-treated with MEL and then exposed to cold. The stimulatory effects of MEL on antioxidant enzymes: SOD, APX and GSH-PX and on GST-a detoxifying enzyme, was also demonstrated. It was indicated for the first time, that MEL induced defence strategies against stress at the cytological level, as appearing endoreplication in embryonic axes cells even in the seeds germinating under optimal conditions (preventive action), but very intensively in those germinating under chilling stress conditions (intervention action), and after stress removal, to improve regeneration.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Melatonina/farmacologia , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Endorreduplicação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4941, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400639

RESUMO

Plant small RNAs are important regulatory elements that fine-tune gene expression and maintain genome integrity by silencing transposons. Reproductive organs of monocots produce abundant phased, small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs). The 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs triggered by miR2118 are highly enriched in pre-meiotic anthers, and have been found in multiple eudicot species, in contrast with prior reports of monocot specificity. The 24-nt reproductive phasiRNAs are triggered by miR2275, and are highly enriched during meiosis in many angiosperms. Here, we report the widespread presence of the 21-nt reproductive phasiRNA pathway in eudicots including canonical and non-canonical microRNA (miRNA) triggers of this pathway. In eudicots, these 21-nt phasiRNAs are enriched in pre-meiotic stages, a spatiotemporal distribution consistent with that of monocots and suggesting a role in anther development. Although this pathway is apparently absent in well-studied eudicot families including the Brassicaceae, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, our work in eudicots supports an earlier singular finding in spruce, a gymnosperm, indicating that the pathway of 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs emerged in seed plants and was lost in some lineages.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Meiose , MicroRNAs/genética , Filogenia , Picea/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445676

RESUMO

Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate and a major component in pea seeds, accounting for about 50% of dry seed weight. As a by-product of pea protein processing, current uses for pea starch are limited to low-value, commodity markets. The globally growing demand for pea protein poses a great challenge for the pea fractionation industry to develop new markets for starch valorization. However, there exist gaps in our understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying starch metabolism, and its relationship with physicochemical and functional properties, which is a prerequisite for targeted tailoring functionality and innovative applications of starch. This review outlines the understanding of starch metabolism with a particular focus on peas and highlights the knowledge of pea starch granule structure and its relationship with functional properties, and industrial applications. Using the currently available pea genetics and genomics knowledge and breakthroughs in omics technologies, we discuss the perspectives and possible avenues to advance our understanding of starch metabolism in peas at an unprecedented level, to ultimately enable the molecular design of multi-functional native pea starch and to create value-added utilization.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Amido/isolamento & purificação
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360673

RESUMO

Auxin is a key regulator of plant development affecting the formation and maturation of reproductive structures. The apoplastic route of auxin transport engages influx and efflux facilitators from the PIN, AUX and ABCB families. The polar localization of these proteins and constant recycling from the plasma membrane to endosomes is dependent on Rab-mediated vesicular traffic. Rab proteins are anchored to membranes via posttranslational addition of two geranylgeranyl moieties by the Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase enzyme (RGT), which consists of RGTA, RGTB and REP subunits. Here, we present data showing that seed development in the rgtb1 mutant, with decreased vesicular transport capacity, is disturbed. Both pre- and post-fertilization events are affected, leading to a decrease in seed yield. Pollen tube recognition at the stigma and its guidance to the micropyle is compromised and the seed coat forms incorrectly. Excess auxin in the sporophytic tissues of the ovule in the rgtb1 plants leads to an increased tendency of autonomous endosperm formation in unfertilized ovules and influences embryo development in a maternal sporophytic manner. The results show the importance of vesicular traffic for sexual reproduction in flowering plants, and highlight RGTB1 as a key component of sporophytic-filial signaling.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Sementes/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mutação , Tubo Polínico/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 394, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand the mechanism of glucosinolates (GSs) accumulation in the specific organs, combined analysis of physiological change and transcriptome sequencing were applied in the current study. Taking Chinese kale as material, seeds and silique walls were divided into different stages based on the development of the embryo in seeds and then subjected to GS analysis and transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: The main GS in seeds of Chinese kale were glucoiberin and gluconapin and their content changed with the development of the seed. During the transition of the embryo from torpedo- to the early cotyledonary-embryo stage, the accumulation of GS in the seed was accompanied by the salient decline of GS in the corresponding silique wall. Thus, the seed and corresponding silique wall at these two stages were subjected to transcriptomic sequencing analysis. 135 genes related to GS metabolism were identified, of which 24 genes were transcription factors, 81 genes were related to biosynthetic pathway, 25 genes encoded catabolic enzymes, and 5 genes matched with transporters. The expression of GS biosynthetic genes was detected both in seeds and silique walls. The high expression of FMOGS-OX and AOP2, which is related to the production of gluconapin by side modification, was noted in seeds at both stages. Interestingly, the expression of GS biosynthetic genes was higher in the silique wall compared with that in the seed albeit lower content of GS existed in the silique wall than in the seed. Combined with the higher expression of transporter genes GTRs in silique walls than in seeds, it was proposed that the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed is an important source for seed GS accumulation. In addition, genes related to GS degradation expressed abundantly in the seed at the early cotyledonary-embryo stage indicating its potential role in balancing seed GS content. CONCLUSIONS: Two stages including the torpedo-embryo and the early cotyledonary-embryo stage were identified as crucial in GS accumulation during seed development. Moreover, we confirmed the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed and proposed possible sidechain modification of GS biosynthesis may exist during seed formation.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
6.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205624

RESUMO

Studies have reported that cholesterol, a molecule found mainly in animals, is also present in some plants and algae. This study aimed to determine whether cholesterol exists in three dehydrated algae species, namely, Pyropia tenera, Saccharina japonica, and Undaria pinnatifida, and in one plant species, namely, Perilla frutescens (four perilla seed oil samples were analyzed). These species were chosen for investigation because they are common ingredients in East Asian cuisine. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis found that cholesterol was present in P. tenera (14.6 mg/100 g) and in all four perilla seed oil samples (0.3-0.5 mg/100 g). High-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) also demonstrated that cholesterol was present in P. tenera (14.2 mg/100 g) and allowed the separation of cholesterol from its isomer lathosterol. However, cholesterol could not be detected by HPLC-ELSD in the perilla seed oil samples, most likely because it is only present in trace amounts. Moreover, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmed the presence of cholesterol in both P. tenera and perilla seed oil. MRM results further suggested that lathosterol (a precursor of cholesterol) was present in P. tenera.


Assuntos
Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206169

RESUMO

In addition to the vast diversity of fauna and flora, the Brazilian Amazon has different climatic periods characterized by periods with greater and lesser rainfall. The main objective of this research was to verify the influence of climatic seasons in the Brazilian Amazon (northeast of Pará state) concerning the aromatic and bioactive profiles of fermented and dried cocoa seeds. About 200 kg of seeds was fermented using specific protocols of local producers. Physicochemical analyzes (total titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic compounds, quantification of monomeric phenolics and methylxanthines) and volatile compounds by GC-MS were carried out. We observed that: in the summer, the highest levels of aldehydes were identified, such as benzaldehyde (6.34%) and phenylacetaldehyde (36.73%), related to the fermented cocoa and honey aromas, respectively; and a total of 27.89% of this same class was identified during winter. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05, Tukey test) in the profile of bioactive compounds (catechin, epicatechin, caffeine, and theobromine), being higher in fermented almonds in winter. This study indicates that the climatic seasons in the Amazon affect the aromatic and bioactive profiles and could produce a new identity standard (summer and winter Amazon) for the cocoa almonds and their products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ecossistema , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Estações do Ano , Sementes , Cacau/química , Cacau/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Odorantes , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206810

RESUMO

Recently, crop breeders have widely adopted a new biotechnology-based process, termed Seed Production Technology (SPT), to produce hybrid varieties. The SPT does not produce nuclear male-sterile lines, and instead utilizes transgenic SPT maintainer lines to pollinate male-sterile plants for propagation of nuclear-recessive male-sterile lines. A late-stage pollen-specific promoter is an essential component of the pollen-inactivating cassette used by the SPT maintainers. While a number of plant pollen-specific promoters have been reported so far, their usefulness in SPT has remained limited. To increase the repertoire of pollen-specific promoters for the maize community, we conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of mature pollen and mature anthers against other tissue types. We found that maize pollen has much less expressed genes (>1 FPKM) than other tissue types, but the pollen grain has a large set of distinct genes, called pollen-specific genes, which are exclusively or much higher (100 folds) expressed in pollen than other tissue types. Utilizing transcript abundance and correlation coefficient analysis, 1215 mature pollen-specific (MPS) genes and 1009 mature anther-specific (MAS) genes were identified in B73 transcriptome. These two gene sets had similar GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment patterns, indicating that their members share similar functions in the maize reproductive process. Of the genes, 623 were shared between the two sets, called mature anther- and pollen-specific (MAPS) genes, which represent the late-stage pollen-specific genes of the maize genome. Functional annotation analysis of MAPS showed that 447 MAPS genes (71.7% of MAPS) belonged to genes encoding pollen allergen protein. Their 2-kb promoters were analyzed for cis-element enrichment and six well-known pollen-specific cis-elements (AGAAA, TCCACCA, TGTGGTT, [TA]AAAG, AAATGA, and TTTCT) were found highly enriched in the promoters of MAPS. Interestingly, JA-responsive cis-element GCC box (GCCGCC) and ABA-responsive cis-element-coupling element1 (ABRE-CE1, CCACC) were also found enriched in the MAPS promoters, indicating that JA and ABA signaling likely regulate pollen-specific MAPS expression. This study describes a robust and straightforward pipeline to discover pollen-specific promotes from publicly available data while providing maize breeders and the maize industry a number of late-stage (mature) pollen-specific promoters for use in SPT for hybrid breeding and seed production.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Pólen/genética , Transcriptoma , Zea mays/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
J Plant Physiol ; 264: 153471, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315029

RESUMO

During germination, the availability of sugars, oxygen, or cellular energy fluctuates under dynamic environmental conditions, likely affecting the global RNA profile of rice genes. Most genes that exhibit sugar-regulation in rice embryos under aerobic conditions are responsive to low energy and anaerobic conditions, indicating that sugar regulation is strongly associated with energy and anaerobic signaling. The interference pattern of sugar regulation by either anaerobic or low energy conditions indicates that induction is likely the more prevalent regulatory mechanism than repression for altering the expression of sugar-regulated genes. Among the aerobically sugar-regulated genes, limited genes exhibit sugar regulation under anaerobic conditions, indicating that anaerobic conditions strongly influence sugar regulated gene expression. Anaerobically responsive genes substantially overlap with low energy responsive genes. In particular, the expression levels of anaerobically downregulated genes are consistent with those provoked by low energy conditions, suggesting that anaerobic downregulation results from the prevention of aerobic respiration due to the absence of the final electron acceptor, i.e., molecular oxygen. It has been noted that abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes are over representative of genes upregulated under low energy conditions, in contrast to downregulated genes. This suggests that either ABA itself or upstream signaling components of the ABA signaling pathway are likely to be involved in the signaling pathways activated by low energy conditions.


Assuntos
Germinação , Oryza/embriologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281271

RESUMO

The allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (mustard) is grown worldwide as oilseed and vegetable crops; the yellow seed-color trait is particularly important for oilseed crops. Here, to examine the factors affecting seed coat color, we performed a metabolic and transcriptomic analysis of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea seeds. In this study, we identified 236 compounds, including 31 phenolic acids, 47 flavonoids, 17 glucosinolates, 38 lipids, 69 other hydroxycinnamic acid compounds, and 34 novel unknown compounds. Of these, 36 compounds (especially epicatechin and its derivatives) accumulated significantly different levels during the development of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea. In addition, the transcript levels of BjuDFR, BjuANS,BjuBAN, BjuTT8, and BjuTT19 were closely associated with changes to epicatechin and its derivatives during seed development, implicating this pathway in the seed coat color determinant in B. juncea. Furthermore, we found numerous variations of sequences in the TT8A genes that may be associated with the stability of seed coat color in B. rapa, B. napus, and B. juncea, which might have undergone functional differentiation during polyploidization in the Brassica species. The results provide valuable information for understanding the accumulation of metabolites in the seed coat color of B. juncea and lay a foundation for exploring the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203321

RESUMO

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is less adaptable to high temperatures than other major cereals. Previous studies of the effects of high temperature on wheat focused on the reproductive stage. There are few reports on yield after high temperatures at other growth stages. Understanding growth-stage-specific responses to heat stress will contribute to the development of tolerant lines suited to high temperatures at various stages. We exposed wheat cultivar "Norin 61" to high temperature at three growth stages: seedling-tillering (GS1), tillering-flowering (GS2), and flowering-maturity (GS3). We compared each condition based on agronomical traits, seed maturity, and photosynthesis results. Heat at GS2 reduced plant height and number of grains, and heat at GS3 reduced the grain formation period and grain weight. However, heat at GS1 reduced senescence and prolonged grain formation, increasing grain weight without reducing yield. These data provide fundamental insights into the biochemical and molecular adaptations of bread wheat to high-temperature stresses and have implications for the development of wheat lines that can respond to high temperatures at various times of the year.


Assuntos
Triticum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/genética
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 352, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) leaves, flowers, especially seeds are used in traditional medicine to prevent or cure various diseases. Its seed's market is expanding. However, the other tissues are still underexploited due to the lack of information related to metabolites distribution and variability in the plant. Herein, the metabolite profiles of five sesame tissues (leaves, fresh seeds, white and purple flowers, and fresh carpels) have been investigated using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based widely targeted metabolomics analysis platform. RESULTS: In total, 776 metabolites belonging to diverse classes were qualitatively and quantitatively identified. The different tissues exhibited obvious differences in metabolites composition. The majority of flavonoids predominantly accumulated in flowers. Amino acids and derivatives, and lipids were identified predominantly in fresh seeds followed by flowers. Many metabolites, including quinones, coumarins, tannins, vitamins, terpenoids and some bioactive phenolic acids (acteoside, isoacteoside, verbascoside, plantamajoside, etc.) accumulated mostly in leaves. Lignans were principally detected in seeds. 238 key significantly differential metabolites were filtered out. KEGG annotation and enrichment analyses of the differential metabolites revealed that flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acids biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were the main differently regulated pathways. In addition to the tissue-specific accumulation of metabolites, we noticed a cooperative relationship between leaves, fresh carpels, and developing seeds in terms of metabolites transfer. Delphinidin-3-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)glucoside and most of the flavonols were up-regulated in the purple flowers indicating they might be responsible for the purple coloration. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the metabolic processes in the sesame tissues are differently regulated. It offers valuable resources for investigating gene-metabolites interactions in sesame tissues and examining metabolic transports during seed development in sesame. Furthermore, our findings provide crucial knowledge that will facilitate sesame biomass valorization.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Sesamum/genética , Sesamum/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética , Sesamum/anatomia & histologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(29): 8287-8297, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264677

RESUMO

Protein lysine lactylation is a new post-translational modification (PTM) prevalently found in fungi and mammalian cells that directly stimulates gene transcription and regulates the glycolytic flux. However, lysine lactylation sites and regulations remain largely unexplored, especially in cereal crops. Herein, we report the first global lactylome profile in rice, which effectively identified 638 lysine lactylation sites across 342 proteins in rice grains. Functional annotations demonstrated that lysine lactylation was enriched in proteins associated with central carbon metabolism and protein biosynthesis. We also observed that proteins serving as nutrition reservoirs in rice grains were frequently targeted by lactylation. Homology analyses indicated that lactylation was conserved on both histone and nonhistone proteins across plants, human cells, and fungi. In addition to lactylation, additional types of acylations could co-occur in many proteins at identical lysine residues, indicating potential cross-talks between these modifications. Our study provided a comprehensive profile of protein lysine lactylation in cereal crop grains.


Assuntos
Oryza , Acetilação , Animais , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209706

RESUMO

The plant transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a member of AP2/EREBP, is involved in the regulation of glycolysis and the expression of genes related to the de novo synthesis of fatty acids in plastids. In this study, the key regulator of seed oil synthesis and accumulation transcription factor gene PoWRI1 was identified and cloned, having a complete open reading frame of 1269 bp and encoding 422 amino acids. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PoWRI1 is located at the nucleus. After the expression vector of PoWRI1 was constructed and transformed into wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, it was found that the overexpression of PoWRI1 increased the expression level of downstream target genes such as BCCP2, KAS1, and PKP-ß1. As a result, the seeds of transgenic plants became larger, the oil content increased significantly, and the unsaturated fatty acid content increased, which provide a scientific theoretical basis for the subsequent use of genetic engineering methods to improve the fatty acid composition and content of plant seeds.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Paeonia/genética , Paeonia/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transporte Proteico , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4141, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230471

RESUMO

Genetic gain in potato is hampered by the heterozygous tetraploid genome of cultivated potato. Converting potato into a diploid inbred-line based F1-hybrid crop provides a promising route towards increased genetic gain. The introduction of a dominant S-locus inhibitor (Sli) gene into diploid potato germplasm allows efficient generation of self-fertilized seeds and thus the development of potato inbred lines. Little is known about the structure and function of the Sli locus. Here we describe the mapping of Sli to a 12.6 kb interval on chromosome 12 using a recombinant screen approach. One of two candidate genes present in this interval shows a unique sequence that is exclusively present in self-compatible lines. We describe an expression vector that converts self-incompatible genotypes into self-compatible and a CRISPR-Cas9 vector that converts SC genotypes into SI. The Sli gene encodes an F-box protein that is specifically expressed in pollen from self-compatible plants. A 533 bp insertion in the promotor of that gene leads to a gain of function mutation, which overcomes self-pollen rejection.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Diploide , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Magnoliopsida , Pólen/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética
16.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200152

RESUMO

Lupin seeds can represent a valuable source of phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile was performed on seeds from three Lupinus species, including one cultivar (Lupinus albus) and two wild accessions (Lupinus cossentinii and Lupinus luteus), collected from the northern region of Tunisia. Untargeted metabolomic profiling allowed to identify 249 compounds, with a great abundance of phenolics and alkaloids. In this regard, the species L. cossentinii showed the highest phenolic content, being 6.54 mg/g DW, followed by L. luteus (1.60 mg/g DW) and L. albus (1.14 mg/g DW). The in vitro antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS assay on seed extracts ranged from 4.67 to 17.58 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g, recording the highest values for L. albus and the lowest for L. luteus. The DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 0.39 to 3.50 mg TE/g. FRAP values varied between 4.11 and 5.75 mg TE/g. CUPRAC values for lupin seeds ranged from 7.20 to 8.95 mg TE/g, recording the highest for L. cossentinii. The results of phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelation showed similarity between the three species of Lupinus. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was detected in each methanolic extract analyzed with similar results. Regarding the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme, it was weakly inhibited by the Lupinus extracts; in particular, the highest activity values were recorded for L. albus (1.74 mg GALAE/g). Overall, our results showed that L. cossentinii was the most abundant source of polyphenols, consisting mainly in tyrosol equivalents (5.82 mg/g DW). Finally, significant correlations were outlined between the phenolic compounds and the in vitro biological activity measured, particularly when considering flavones, phenolic acids and lower-molecular-weight phenolics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Lupinus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Tunísia
17.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203721

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 (IL1) is a proinflammatory cytokine and promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in a diversity of cancers, such as breast and colon cancer. Here, we focused on the pharmacological effect of Entelon® (ETL) on the tumorigenesis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells by IL1-alpha (IL1A). IL1A enhanced the cell growth and invasiveness of TNBC cells. We observed that abnormal IL1A induction is related with the poor prognosis of TNBC patients. IL1A also increased a variety of chemokines such as CCL2 and IL8. Interestingly, IL1A expression was reduced by the ETL treatment. Here, we found that ETL significantly decreased the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in TNBC cells. IL1A expression was reduced by UO126. Lastly, we studied the effect of ETL on the metastatic potential of TNBC cells. Our results showed that ETL significantly reduced the lung metastasis of TNBC cells. Our results showed that IL1A expression was regulated by the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway. Taken together, ETL inhibited the MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and suppressing the lung metastasis of TNBC cells through downregulation of IL1A. Therefore, we propose the possibility of ETL as an effective adjuvant for treating TNBC.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299326

RESUMO

Ziziphus jujuba extracts possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, such as antioxidant and anticancer activities in melanoma cancers. Nevertheless, the compounds contain high antioxidant capacities and anticancer activities in melanoma cells, shown to be effective in hyperpigmentation disorders, but whether flavonoid glycosides from Z. jujuba regulate anti-melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-melanogenic activity of five flavonoid glycosides from Z. jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder seeds, including jujuboside A (JUA), jujuboside B (JUB), epiceanothic acid (EPA), betulin (BTL), and 6'''-feruloylspinosin (FRS), in B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae. According to our results, JUB, EPA, and FRS potently inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis and prevented hyperpigmentation in zebrafish larvae. In particular, under α-MSH-stimulated conditions, FRS most significantly inhibited α-MSH-induced intracellular and extracellular melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells. Additionally, JUB, EPS, and FRS remarkably downregulated melanogenesis in α-MSH-treated zebrafish larvae, with no significant change in heart rate. Neither JUA nor BTA were effective in downregulating melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, JUB, EPA, and FRS directly inhibited in vitro mushroom tyrosinase enzyme activity. JUB, EPA, and FRS also downregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and subsequent microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that JUB, EPA, and FRS isolated from Z. jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder seeds exhibit potent anti-melanogenic properties by inhibition of the cAMP-CERB-MITF axis and consequent tyrosinase activity.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Ziziphus/metabolismo , alfa-MSH/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Larva , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra , alfa-MSH/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
J Plant Res ; 134(5): 1061-1081, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279738

RESUMO

The major tissues of the cereal endosperm are the starchy endosperm (SE) in the inner and the aleurone layer (AL) at the outer periphery. The fates of the cells that comprise these tissues are determined according to positional information; however, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms remains limited. Here, we conducted a high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of the rice endosperm transcriptome during early cellularization. In rice, endosperm cellularization proceeds in a concentric pattern from a primary alveolus cell layer, such that developmental progression can be defined by the number of cell layers. Using laser-capture microdissection to obtain precise tissue sections, transcriptomic changes were followed through five histologically defined stages of cellularization from the syncytial to 3-cell layer (3 L) stage. In addition, transcriptomes were compared between the inner and the outermost peripheral cell layers. Large differences in the transcriptomes between stages and between the inner and the peripheral cells were found. SE attributes were expressed at the alveolus-cell-layer stage but were preferentially activated in the inner cell layers that resulted from periclinal division of the alveolus cell layer. Similarly, AL attributes started to be expressed only after the 2 L stage and were localized to the outermost peripheral cell layer. These results indicate that the first periclinal division of the alveolus cell layer is asymmetric at the transcriptome level, and that the cell-fate-specifying positional cues and their perception system are already operating before the first periclinal division. Several genes related to epidermal identity (i.e., type IV homeodomain-leucine zipper genes and wax biosynthetic genes) were also found to be expressed at the syncytial stage, but their expression was localized to the outermost peripheral cell layer from the 2 L stage onward. We believe that our findings significantly enhance our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell fate specification in rice endosperm.


Assuntos
Endosperma , Oryza , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Transcriptoma
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 689-699, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214779

RESUMO

Fatty acids play many roles in plants, but the function of some key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis in plant development are not yet properly understood. Here, we clone two ß-ketoacyl-[ACP] reductase (KAR) genes from sunflower, HaKAR1 and HaKAR2, and characterize their functional roles. The enzymes cloned were the only two copies present in the sunflower genome. Both displayed a high degree of similarity, but their promoters infer different regulation. The two sunflower KAR genes were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, being maximum in developing cotyledons at the start of oil synthesis. Over-expression of HaKAR1 in E. coli changed the fatty acid composition by promoting the elongation of C16:0 to C18:0 fatty acids. The enzymatic characterization of HaKAR1 revealed similar kinetic parameters to homologues from other oil accumulating species. The results point to a partially functional redundancy between HaKAR1 and HaKAR2. This study clearly revealed that these genes play a prominent role in de novo fatty acids synthesis in sunflower seeds.


Assuntos
Helianthus , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína Carreadora de Acil) Redutase , Proteína de Transporte de Acila , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Helianthus/genética , Helianthus/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...