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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10556, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719847

RESUMO

Fertilization with nickel (Ni) can positively affect plant development due to the role of this micronutrient in nitrogen (N) metabolism, namely, through urease and NiFe-hydrogenase. Although the application of Ni is an emerging practice in modern agriculture, its effectiveness strongly depends on the chosen application method, making further research in this area essential. The individual and combined effects of different Ni application methods-seed treatment, leaf spraying and/or soil fertilization-were investigated in soybean plants under different edaphoclimatic conditions (field and greenhouse). Beneficial effects of the Soil, Soil + Leaf and Seed + Leaf treatments were observed, with gains of 7 to 20% in biological nitrogen fixation, 1.5-fold in ureides, 14% in shoot dry weight and yield increases of up to 1161 kg ha-1. All the Ni application methods resulted in a 1.1-fold increase in the SPAD index, a 1.2-fold increase in photosynthesis, a 1.4-fold increase in nitrogenase, and a 3.9-fold increase in urease activity. Edaphoclimatic conditions exerted a significant influence on the treatments. The integrated approaches, namely, leaf application in conjunction with soil or seed fertilization, were more effective for enhancing yield in soybean cultivation systems. The determination of the ideal method is crucial for ensuring optimal absorption and utilization of this micronutrient and thus a feasible and sustainable management technology. Further research is warranted to establish official guidelines for the application of Ni in agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Glycine max , Níquel , Solo , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycine max/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycine max/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo/química , Urease/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixação de Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731974

RESUMO

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeding for improved fruit quality emphasizes selecting for desirable taste and characteristics, as well as enhancing disease resistance and yield. Seed germination is the initial step in the plant life cycle and directly affects crop productivity and yield. ERECTA (ER) is a receptor-like kinase (RLK) family protein known for its involvement in diverse developmental processes. We characterized a Micro-Tom EMS mutant designated as a knock-out mutant of sler. Our research reveals that SlER plays a central role in controlling critical traits such as inflorescence development, seed number, and seed germination. The elevation in auxin levels and alterations in the expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABI5 in sler seeds compared to the WT indicate that SlER modulates seed germination via auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Additionally, we detected an increase in auxin content in the sler ovary and changes in the expression of auxin synthesis genes YUCCA flavin monooxygenases 1 (YUC1), YUC4, YUC5, and YUC6 as well as auxin response genes AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 5 (ARF5) and ARF7, suggesting that SlER regulates fruit development via auxin signaling.


Assuntos
Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Proteínas de Plantas , Sementes , Transdução de Sinais , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731985

RESUMO

The effect of UV-B radiation exposure on transgenerational plasticity, the phenomenon whereby the parental environment influences both the parent's and the offspring's phenotype, is poorly understood. To investigate the impact of exposing successive generations of rice plants to UV-B radiation on seed morphology and proanthocyanidin content, the local traditional rice variety 'Baijiaolaojing' was planted on terraces in Yuanyang county and subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation treatments. The radiation intensity that caused the maximum phenotypic plasticity (7.5 kJ·m-2) was selected for further study, and the rice crops were cultivated for four successive generations. The results show that in the same generation, enhanced UV-B radiation resulted in significant decreases in grain length, grain width, spike weight, and thousand-grain weight, as well as significant increases in empty grain percentage and proanthocyanidin content, compared with crops grown under natural light conditions. Proanthocyanidin content increased as the number of generations of rice exposed to radiation increased, but in generation G3, it decreased, along with the empty grain ratio. At the same time, biomass, tiller number, and thousand-grain weight increased, and rice growth returned to control levels. When the offspring's radiation memory and growth environment did not match, rice growth was negatively affected, and seed proanthocyanidin content was increased to maintain seed activity. The correlation analysis results show that phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) enzyme activity positively influenced proanthocyanidin content. Overall, UV-B radiation affected transgenerational plasticity in seed morphology and proanthocyanidin content, showing that rice was able to adapt to this stressor if previous generations had been continuously exposed to treatment.


Assuntos
Oryza , Proantocianidinas , Raios Ultravioleta , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/efeitos da radiação , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fenótipo
4.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114335, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729717

RESUMO

Germination holds the key to nutritional equilibrium in plant grains. In this study, the effect of soybean germination on the processing of soymilk (SM) and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) induced soymilk gel (SG) was investigated. Germination promoted soybean sprout (SS) growth by activating the energy metabolism system. The energy metabolism was high during the three-day germination and was the most vigorous on the second day of germination. After germination, protein dissolution was improved in SM, and endogenous enzymes produced small molecule proteins. Small molecule proteins were more likely to aggregate to produce SM protein particles. Germination increased the water-holding capacity of SG induced by GDL but weakened the strength. Furthermore, the dynamic fluctuations in isoflavone content were closely monitored throughout the processing of soybean products, including SS, SM, and SG. Although the total amount of isoflavones in SM and SG processed from germinated soybeans decreased, a significant enrichment in the content of aglycone isoflavones was observed. The content of aglycone isoflavones in SG processed from germinated soybeans on the second day of germination was 736.17 ± 28.49 µg/g DW, which was 83.19 % higher than that of the control group. This study demonstrates that germination can enhance the nutritional value of soybean products, providing innovative opportunities for the development of health-promoting soybean-based products.


Assuntos
Géis , Germinação , Glycine max , Isoflavonas , Leite de Soja , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Leite de Soja/química , Leite de Soja/metabolismo , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycine max/química , Glycine max/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Lactonas/metabolismo , Lactonas/análise
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 377, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees produce seeds irregularly; therefore, it is necessary to store beech seeds for forestation. Despite the acquisition of desiccation tolerance during development, beech seeds are classified as intermediate because they lose viability during long-term storage faster than typical orthodox seeds. In this study, beech seeds stored for short (3 years) or long (20 years) periods under optimal conditions and displaying 92 and 30% germination capacity, respectively, were compared. RESULTS: Aged seeds displayed increased membrane damage, manifested as electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation levels. Analyses have been based on embryonic axes, which contained higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher levels of protein-bound methionine sulfoxide (MetO) in aged seeds. Using label-free quantitative proteomics, 3,949 proteins were identified, of which 2,442 were reliably quantified pointing to 24 more abundant proteins and 35 less abundant proteins in beech seeds under long-term storage conditions. Functional analyses based on gene ontology annotations revealed that nucleic acid binding activity (molecular function), ribosome organization or biogenesis and transmembrane transport (cellular processes), translational proteins (protein class) and membranous anatomical entities (cellular compartment) were affected in aged seeds. To verify whether MetO, the oxidative posttranslational modification of proteins that can be reversed via the action of methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) enzymes, is involved in the aging of beech seeds, we identified and quantified 226 MetO-containing proteins, among which 9 and 19 exhibited significantly up- and downregulated MetO levels, respectively, in beech seeds under long-term storage conditions. Several Msr isoforms were identified and recognized as MsrA1-like, MsrA4, MsrB5 and MsrB5-like in beech seeds. Only MsrA1-like displayed decreased abundance in aged seeds. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the loss of membrane integrity reflected in the elevated abundance of membrane proteins had a higher impact on seed aging progress than the MetO/Msr system. Proteome analyses enabled us to propose protein Sec61 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as potential longevity modulators in beech seeds.


Assuntos
Fagus , Metionina , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteômica , Sementes , Fagus/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Germinação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 11278-11291, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708781

RESUMO

Moringa seeds are an excellent dietary source of phytochemicals (i.e., glucosinolates, GSLs; isothiocyanates, ITCs) with health-beneficial effects. Although numerous studies have been conducted on moringa seeds, the effect of germination on the regulation of GSLs remains scarcely explored. The present study investigated the dynamic changes of GSLs in moringa seeds during germination (at 25, 30, and 35 °C for 6 days in the dark) through an untargeted metabolomics approach and compared the antioxidant capacity of ungerminated and germinated moringa seeds. Our results showed that germination significantly increased the total GSL content from 150 (day 0) to 323 µmol/g (35 °C, day 6) on a dry weight (DW) basis, especially glucomoringin (GMG), the unique glucosinolate in moringa seeds, which was significantly upregulated from 61 (day 0) to 149 µmol/g DW (35 °C, day 4). The upregulation of GMG corresponded to the metabolism of tyrosine, which might be the initial precursor for the formation of GMG. In addition, germination enhanced the total ITC content from 85 (day 0) to 239 µmol SE/g DW (35 °C, day 6), indicating that germination may have also increased the activity of myrosinase. Furthermore, germination remarkably increased the total phenolic content (109-507 mg GAE/100 g DW) and antioxidant capacity of moringa seeds. Our findings suggest that moringa sprouts could be promoted as a novel food and/or ingredient rich in GMG.


Assuntos
Germinação , Glucosinolatos , Moringa , Sementes , Tirosina , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tirosina/metabolismo , Tirosina/análise , Moringa/química , Moringa/metabolismo , Moringa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/análise
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10944-10957, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710505

RESUMO

Isoflavones, the major secondary metabolites of interest due to their benefits to both human and plant health, are exclusively produced by legumes. In this study, we profiled the isoflavone content in dry seeds from 211 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions grown across five environments. Broad and discernible phenotypic variations were observed among accessions, regions, and years of growth. Twenty-six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the sum of glycitein (GLE), glycitin (GL), 6″-O-acetylglycitin (AGL), and 6″-O-malonylglycitin (MGL) contents were detected in multiple environments via a genome-wide association study (GWAS). These SNPs were located on chromosome 11 (8,148,438 bp to 8,296,956 bp, renamed qGly11-01). Glyma.11g108300 (GmGLY1), a gene that encodes a P450 family protein, was identified via sequence variation analysis, functional annotation, weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), and expression profile analysis of candidate gene, and hairy roots transformation in soybean. Overexpression of GmGLY1 increased the glycitein content (GLC) in soybean hairy roots and transgenic seeds, while CRISPR/Cas9-generated mutants exhibited decreased GLC and increased daidzein content (DAC). Haplotype analysis revealed that GmGLY1 allelic variations significantly affect the GLC accumulation. These findings enhance our understanding of genes influencing GLC in soybean and may guide breeding for lines with high and stable GLC.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glycine max , Isoflavonas , Proteínas de Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes , Glycine max/metabolismo , Glycine max/genética , Glycine max/química , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10862-10878, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712687

RESUMO

Bama County is a world-famous longevity county in the Guangxi Province, China. Bama hemp is a traditional seed used in hemp cultivation in the Bama County. The seeds contain abundant unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid in the golden ratio. These two substances have been proven to be related to human health and the prevention of various diseases. However, the seed development and seed oil accumulation mechanisms remain unclear. This study employed a combined analysis of physiological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic parameters to elucidate the fatty acid formation patterns in Bama hemp seeds throughout development. We found that seed oil accumulated at a late stage in embryo development, with seed oil accumulation following an "S″-shaped growth curve, and positively correlated with seed size, sugar content, protein content, and starch content. Transcriptome analysis identified genes related to the metabolism of LA, α-linolenic acid (ALA), and jasmonic acid (JA). We found that the FAD2 gene was upregulated 165.26 folds and the FAD3 gene was downregulated 6.15 folds at day 21. Metabolomic changes in LA, ALA, and JA compounds suggested a competitive relationship among these substances. Our findings indicate that the peak period of substance accumulation and nutrient accumulation in Bama hemp seeds occurs during the midstage of seed development (day 21) rather than in the late stage (day 40). The results of this research will provide a theoretical basis for local cultivation and deep processing of Bama hemp.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Linoleico , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Plantas , Sementes , Transcriptoma , Ácido alfa-Linolênico , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/química , Ácido alfa-Linolênico/metabolismo , Cannabis/genética , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cannabis/metabolismo , Cannabis/química , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , China , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
9.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 110, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants differ more than threefold in seed oil contents (SOCs). Soybean (Glycine max), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), and sesame (Sesamum indicum) are four important oil crops with markedly different SOCs and fatty acid compositions. RESULTS: Compared to grain crops like maize and rice, expanded acyl-lipid metabolism genes and relatively higher expression levels of genes involved in seed oil synthesis (SOS) in the oil crops contributed to the oil accumulation in seeds. Here, we conducted comparative transcriptomics on oil crops with two different SOC materials. In common, DIHYDROLIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE, STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE, PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and oil-body protein genes were both differentially expressed between the high- and low-oil materials of each crop. By comparing functional components of SOS networks, we found that the strong correlations between genes in "glycolysis/gluconeogenesis" and "fatty acid synthesis" were conserved in both grain and oil crops, with PYRUVATE KINASE being the common factor affecting starch and lipid accumulation. Network alignment also found a conserved clique among oil crops affecting seed oil accumulation, which has been validated in Arabidopsis. Differently, secondary and protein metabolism affected oil synthesis to different degrees in different crops, and high SOC was due to less competition of the same precursors. The comparison of Arabidopsis mutants and wild type showed that CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 9, the conserved regulator we identified, was a factor resulting in different relative contents of lignins to oil in seeds. The interconnection of lipids and proteins was common but in different ways among crops, which partly led to differential oil production. CONCLUSIONS: This study goes beyond the observations made in studies of individual species to provide new insights into which genes and networks may be fundamental to seed oil accumulation from a multispecies perspective.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Óleos de Plantas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Óleos de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303040, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713652

RESUMO

In the present study, we attempted to use melatonin combined with germination treatment to remove pesticide residues from contaminated grains. High levels of pesticide residues were detected in soybean seeds after soaking with chlorothalonil (10 mM) and malathion (1 mM) for 2 hours. Treatment with 50 µM melatonin for 5 days completely removed the pesticide residues, while in the control group, only 61-71% of pesticide residues were removed from soybean sprouts. Compared with the control, melatonin treatment for 7 days further increased the content of ascorbic acid (by 48-66%), total phenolics (by 52-68%), isoflavones (by 22-34%), the total antioxidant capacity (by 37-40%), and the accumulated levels of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3) (by 17-30%) in soybean sprouts. Moreover, melatonin treatment further increased the accumulation of ten components of phenols and isoflavones in soybean sprouts relative to those in the control. The ability of melatonin to accelerate the degradation of pesticide residues and promote the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites might be related to its ability to trigger the glutathione detoxification system in soybean sprouts. Melatonin promoted glutathione synthesis (by 49-139%) and elevated the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (by 24-78%) and glutathione reductase (by 38-61%). In summary, we report a new method in which combined treatment by melatonin and germination rapidly degrades pesticide residues in contaminated grains and improves the nutritional quality of food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Germinação , Glycine max , Melatonina , Valor Nutritivo , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Sementes , Melatonina/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycine max/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycine max/metabolismo , Glycine max/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo
11.
J Biosci ; 492024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726824

RESUMO

Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is an important protein that can help in regulating reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in plants. The role of AOX in regulation of nitro-oxidative stress in chickpea is not known. Using germinating chickpea as a model system, we investigated the role of AOX in nitro-oxidative stress tolerance. NaCl treatment was used as an inducer of nitro-oxidative stress. Treatment of germinating seeds with 150 mM NaCl led to reduced germination and radicle growth. The AOX inhibitor SHAM caused further inhibition of germination, and the AOX inducer pyruvate improved growth of the radicle under NaCl stress. Isolated mitochondria from germinated seeds under salt stress not only increased AOX capacity but also enhanced AOX protein expression. Measurement of superoxide levels revealed that AOX inhibition by SHAM can enhance superoxide levels, whereas the AOX inducer pyruvate reduced superoxide levels. Measurement of NO by gas phase chemiluminescence revealed enhanced NO generation in response to NaCl treatment. Upon NaCl treatment there was enhanced tyrosine nitration, which is an indicator of nitrosative stress response. Taken together, our results revealed that AOX induced under salinity stress in germinating chickpea can help in mitigating nitro-oxidative stress, thereby improving germination.


Assuntos
Cicer , Germinação , Mitocôndrias , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Óxido Nítrico , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases , Proteínas de Plantas , Superóxidos , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicer/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo
12.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14325, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715548

RESUMO

Boosting plant immunity by priming agents can lower agrochemical dependency in plant production. Levan and levan-derived oligosaccharides (LOS) act as priming agents against biotic stress in several crops. Additionally, beneficial microbes can promote plant growth and protect against fungal diseases. This study assessed possible synergistic effects caused by levan, LOS and five levan- and LOS-metabolizing Bacillaceae (Bacillus and Priestia) strains in tomato and wheat. Leaf and seed defense priming assays were conducted in non-soil (semi-sterile substrate) and soil-based systems, focusing on tomato-Botrytis cinerea and wheat-Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum (MoT) pathosystems. In the non-soil system, seed defense priming with levan, the strains (especially Bacillus velezensis GA1), or their combination significantly promoted tomato growth and protection against B. cinerea. While no growth stimulatory effects were observed for wheat, disease protective effects were also observed in the wheat-MoT pathosystem. When grown in soil and subjected to leaf defense priming, tomato plants co-applied with levan and the bacterial strains showed increased resistance to B. cinerea compared with plants treated with levan or single strains, and these effects were synergistic in some cases. For seed defense priming in soil, more synergistic effects on disease tolerance were observed in a non-fertilized soil as compared to a fertilized soil, suggesting that potential prebiotic effects of levan are more prominent in poor soils. The potential of using combinations of Bacilliaceae and levan in sustainable agriculture is discussed.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Frutanos , Doenças das Plantas , Solanum lycopersicum , Triticum , Frutanos/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/imunologia , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Bacillus/fisiologia , Botrytis , Imunidade Vegetal , Resistência à Doença , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/imunologia , Ascomicetos
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108591, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583314

RESUMO

Fresh lotus seeds are gaining favor with consumers for their crunchy texture and natural sweetness. However, the intricacies of sugar accumulation in lotus seeds remain elusive, which greatly hinders the quality improvement of fresh lotus seeds. This study endeavors to elucidate this mechanism by identifying and characterizing the sucrose synthase (SUS) gene family in lotus. Comprising five distinct members, namely NnSUS1 to NnSUS5, each gene within this family features a C-terminal glycosyl transferase1 (GT1) domain. Among them, NnSUS1 is the predominately expressed gene, showing high transcript abundance in the floral organs and cotyledons. NnSUS1 was continuously up-regulated from 6 to 18 days after pollination (DAP) in lotus cotyledons. Furthermore, NnSUS1 demonstrates co-expression relationships with numerous genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. To investigate the function of NnSUS1, a transient overexpression system was established in lotus cotyledons, which confirmed the gene's contribution to sugar accumulation. Specifically, transient overexpression of NnSUS1 in seed cotyledons leads to a significant increase in the levels of total soluble sugar, including sucrose and fructose. These findings provide valuable theoretical insights for improving sugar content in lotus seeds through molecular breeding methods.


Assuntos
Cotilédone , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosiltransferases , Lotus , Proteínas de Plantas , Sementes , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Cotilédone/genética , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Cotilédone/enzimologia , Lotus/genética , Lotus/enzimologia , Lotus/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
14.
Cell Rep ; 43(4): 114091, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607914

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gasotransmitter required in a broad range of mechanisms controlling plant development and stress conditions. However, little is known about the specific role of this signaling molecule during lipid storage in the seeds. Here, we show that NO is accumulated in developing embryos and regulates the fatty acid profile through the stabilization of the basic/leucine zipper transcription factor bZIP67. NO and nitro-linolenic acid target and accumulate bZIP67 to induce the downstream expression of FAD3 desaturase, which is misregulated in a non-nitrosylable version of the protein. Moreover, the post-translational modification of bZIP67 is reversible by the trans-denitrosylation activity of peroxiredoxin IIE and defines a feedback mechanism for bZIP67 redox regulation. These findings provide a molecular framework to control the seed fatty acid profile caused by NO, and evidence of the in vivo functionality of nitro-fatty acids during plant developmental signaling.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica , Ácidos Graxos , Peroxirredoxinas , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Sementes/metabolismo
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 267(Pt 1): 131177, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583842

RESUMO

Durum wheat, less immunogenically intolerant than bread wheat, originates from diploid progenitors known for nutritional quality and stress tolerance. Present study involves the analysis of major grain parameters, viz. size, weight, sugar, starch, and protein content of Triticum durum (AABB genome) and its diploid progenitors, Triticum monococcum (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides (BB genome). Samples were collected during 2-5 weeks after anthesis (WAA), and at maturity. The investigation revealed that T. durum displayed the maximum grain size and weight. Expression analysis of Grain Weight 2 (GW2) and Glutamine Synthase (GS2), negative and positive regulators of grain weight and size, respectively, revealed higher GW2 expression in Ae. speltoides and higher GS2 expression in T. durum. Further we explored total starch, sugar and protein content, observing higher levels of starch and sugar in durum wheat while AA genome species exhibited higher protein content dominated by the fractions of albumin/globulin. HPLC profiling revealed unique sub-fractions in all three genome species. Additionally, a comparative transcriptome analysis also corroborated with the starch and protein content in the grains. This study provides valuable insights into the genetic and biochemical distinctions among durum wheat and its diploid progenitors, offering a foundation for their nutritional composition.


Assuntos
Diploide , Amido , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
16.
J Proteomics ; 300: 105176, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604334

RESUMO

Cold stratification is known to affect the speed of seed germination; however, its regulation at the molecular level in Ferula assa-foetida remains ambiguous. Here, we used cold stratification (4 °C in the dark) to induce germination in F. assa-foetida and adopted a proteomic and metabolomic approach to understand the molecular mechanism of germination. Compared to the control, we identified 209 non-redundant proteins and 96 metabolites in germinated F. assa-foetida seed. Results highlight the common and unique regulatory mechanisms like signaling cascade, reactivation of energy metabolism, activation of ROS scavenging system, DNA repair, gene expression cascade, cytoskeleton, and cell wall modulation in F. assa-foetida germination. A protein-protein interaction network identifies 18 hub protein species central to the interactome and could be a key player in F. assa-foetida germination. Further, the predominant metabolic pathways like glucosinolate biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and carotenoid biosynthesis in germinating seed may indicate the regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism is prime essential to maintain the physiology of germinating seedlings. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of cold stratification-induced seed germination, which might be utilized for genetic modification and traditional breeding of Ferula assa-foetida. SIGNIFICANCE: Seed germination is the fundamental checkpoint for plant growth and development, which has ecological significance. Ferula assa-foetida L., commonly known as "asafoetida," is a medicinal and food crop with huge therapeutic potential. To date, our understanding of F. assa-foetida seed germination is rudimentary. Therefore, studying the molecular mechanism that governs dormancy decay and the onset of germination in F. assa-foetida is essential for understanding the basic principle of seed germination, which could offer to improve genetic modification and traditional breeding.


Assuntos
Ferula , Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteômica , Sementes , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferula/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Metabolômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2787: 257-263, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656495

RESUMO

Here, we propose a method to convert the organic nitrogen in maize kernels into ammonia in solution and then chlorinate it to prepare monochloride salts, which can form an oxidatively coupled blue-green mixture with sodium salicylate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The concentration of ammonium ions in the blue-green mixture can then be determined in the solution, and finally the protein content in maize kernels can be calculated from the nitrogen content.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Grão Comestível , Proteínas de Plantas , Zea mays , Colorimetria/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9378, 2024 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654029

RESUMO

Uneven rainfall and high temperature cause drought in tropical and subtropical regions which is a major challenge to cultivating summer mung bean. Potassium (K), a major essential nutrient of plants can alleviate water stress (WS) tolerance in plants. A field trial was executed under a rainout shelter with additional K fertilization including recommended K fertilizer (RKF) for relieving the harmful impact of drought in response to water use efficiency (WUE), growth, yield attributes, nutrient content, and yield of mung bean at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, BARI, Ishwardi, Pabna in two successive summer season of 2018 and 2019. Drought-tolerant genotype BMX-08010-2 (G1) and drought-susceptible cultivar BARI Mung-1 (G2) were grown by applying seven K fertilizer levels (KL) using a split-plot design with three replications, where mung bean genotypes were allotted in the main plots, and KL were assigned randomly in the sub-plots. A considerable variation was observed in the measured variables. Depending on the different applied KL and seed yield of mung bean, the water use efficiency (WUE) varied from 4.73 to 8.14 kg ha-1 mm-1. The treatment applying 125% more K with RKF (KL7) under WS gave the maximum WUE (8.14 kg ha-1 mm-1) obtaining a seed yield of 1093.60 kg ha-1. The treatment receiving only RKF under WS (KL2) provided the minimum WUE (4.73 kg ha-1 mm-1) attaining a seed yield of 825.17 kg ha-1. Results showed that various characteristics including nutrients (N, P, K, and S) content in stover and seed, total dry matter (TDM) in different growth stages, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), root volume (RV), root density (RD), plant height, pod plant-1, pod length, seeds pod-1, seed weight, and seed yield in all pickings increased with increasing K levels, particularly noted with KL7. The highest grain yield (32.52%) was also obtained from KL7 compared to lower K with RKF. Overall, yield varied from 1410.37 kg ha-1 using 281 mm water (KL1; well-watered condition with RKF) to 825.17 kg ha-1 using 175 mm water (KL2). The results exhibited that the application of additional K improves the performance of all traits under WS conditions. Therefore, mung beans cultivating under WS requires additional K to diminish the negative effect of drought, and adequate use of K contributes to accomplishing sustainable productivity.


Assuntos
Secas , Potássio , Vigna , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/genética , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Genótipo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Desidratação , Resistência à Seca
19.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14321, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686595

RESUMO

Increasing density is an effective way to enhance wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield under limited cultivated areas. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the reduction in grain weight when density increased are still unclear. Three field experiments were conducted during the 2014-2019 growing seasons to explore the physiological mechanisms by which polyamines affect grain weight formation. The results showed that when wheat planting density exceeded 450 × 104 seedlings ha-1 and 525 × 104 seedlings ha-1, wheat yield tended to decrease. Compared to moderate density (DM, 450 × 104 seedlings ha-1), the filling rate of inferior grains was reduced before 25 days after anthesis (DAA) and the active filling period was shortened by 6.4%-7.4% under high density (DH, 600 × 104 seedlings ha-1), resulting in a loss of 1000-grain weight by 5.4%-8.1%. DH significantly reduced sucrose and starch content in inferior grains at the filling stage. Meanwhile, DH inhibited the activity of key enzymes involved in polyamine synthesis [SAMDC (EC 4.1.1.50) and SpdSy (EC 2.5.1.16)] and induced the activity of ethylene (ETH) precursor synthase, resulting in a significant decrease in endogenous spermidine (Spd) content in inferior grains, but a significant increase in ETH release rate. Post-flowering application of exogenous Spd increased the accumulation of sucrose and starch in the inferior grains and positively regulated the filling and grain weight of the inferior grains, whereas exogenous ETH had a negative effect. Overall, Spd may affect wheat grain weight at high planting density by promoting the synthesis of sucrose and starch in inferior grains.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Espermidina , Amido , Sacarose , Triticum , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Espermidina/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 449: 139183, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604028

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat, celebrated as the "king of grains" for its flavonoid and phenolic acid richness, has health-promoting properties. Despite significant morphological and metabolic variations in mature achenes, research on their developmental process is limited. Utilizing Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging, we conducted spatial-temporal metabolomics on two cultivars during achene development. Metabolic profiles including 17 phenolic acids and 83 flavonoids are influenced by both varietal distinctions and developmental intricacies. Notably, flavonols, as major flavonoids, accumulated with achene ripening and showed a tissue-specific distribution. Specifically, flavonol glycosides and aglycones concentrated in the embryo, while methylated flavonols and procyanidins in the hull. Black achenes at the green achene stage have higher bioactive compounds and enhanced antioxidant capacity. These findings provide insights into spatial and temporal characteristics of metabolites in Tartary buckwheat achenes and serve as a theoretical guide for selecting optimal resources for food production.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massa com Cromatografia Líquida
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