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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 595-606, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change has posed great challenges to rice production. Temperature and solar radiation show significant variations in central China. This study aims to analyze the responses of different rice genotypes to the variations of temperature and solar radiation in central China, and to find the way of identifying the optimal sowing date to improve and stabilize rice production. For this end, four rice genotypes (two Indica and two Japonica cultivars) were cultivated at two locations under irrigation conditions in 2 years with six sowing dates. RESULTS: We investigated variations of rice grain yield, resource use efficiency, average daily temperature and solar radiation during different phenological stages. Rice grain yield could increase by about 2-17% in central China. Compared with solar radiation, temperature was a more important factor affecting rice grain yield in central China. The grain yield showed great correlation with the means temperature during different phenological stages, especially during the first 20 days after heading (GT20). Besides our results demonstrated that the grain yield displayed slender variations when the GT20 was within 24.9-26.4 °C. However, GT20 was higher than 26.4 °C in most cases, which became more frequent due to climate changes. Analysis of climate change during the last 25 years revealed that the frequency of GT20 within 24.9-26.4 °C was increased by the delay of sowing date. CONCLUSION: We propose that delaying sowing date to achieve the optimal GT20 (24.9 °C-26.4 °C) can be an effective strategy to stabilize and improve rice grain yield and resource use efficiency in central China. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola , China , Mudança Climática , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 308: 125661, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669948

RESUMO

A high level of serum cholesterol is a major cause of atherosclerosis. Fenugreek is a well-known hypocholesterolaemic agent with amazing phytochemical composition. Due to its impact on plant metabolism, CO2 enrichment was tested as a strategy to support functional values in fenugreek seeds. Phytochemical composition and biological activities of three fenugreek cultivars (G2, G6 and G30) grown under ambient (aCO2, 400 µmol mol-1) and elevated CO2 (eCO2, 620 µmol mol-1) were assessed. Applying eCO2 improved physical parameters of fenugreek seeds, and enhanced their biological activities. A significant increase in hypocholesterolaemic potential, as indicated by inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility and pancreatic lipase activity, was recorded. In addition, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and antibacterial activities were improved. These enhanced biological activities were accompanied by improved seed chemical composition at the primary and secondary metabolic levels. Therefore, eCO2 treatment represents an efficient strategy to increase the hypocholesterolaemic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of fenugreek seeds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Animais , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Food Chem ; 307: 125518, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644976

RESUMO

The Greek vineyard is home to many minor, indigenous grape cultivar whose diverse polyphenolic content has remained largely unexploited. The study aimed at assaying and assessing the polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of: (a) five obscure cultivars; (b) Six biotypes of cultivar 'Liatiko'; (c) Five prominent cultivars; and (d) three French varieties included for comparison reasons. Results revealed all samples exhibiting high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity levels. 'Vertzami' recorded the highest concentrations in berry skins total anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, antioxidant capacity. 'Mandilaria' scored the highest value in seed total flavanols compared to all biotypes and cultivars. All 'Liatiko' biotypes scored the highest concentrations in seed total flavonoids and flavonols. 'Liatiko' and its biotypes exhibited different polyphenolic profiles between them. Owing to the climate change, those indigenous varieties' substantial polyphenol amounts, and the differences between biotypes, will allow viticulturists to select the varieties/biotypes most appropriate for obtaining higher quality products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Polifenóis/química , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , Mudança Climática , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Grécia , Polifenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 305: 125484, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514048

RESUMO

Grape pathogenesis-related proteins can cause haze in wine that is undesirable for consumers. Bentonite is used to remove these proteins but is a non-renewable natural material and reduces wine volume due to poor settling. As a potential bentonite alternative, grape seeds powder (GSP) was added to four wines and two grape juice varieties. Addition to wine required high doses (25-32 g/L) for protein removal and haze prevention and this induced changes to wine composition. By contrast, addition to grape juice prior to fermentation required substantially lower doses of GSP (5 g/L) to prevent haze formation. Further 20 g/L of GSP added to the must induced less changes to wine composition than direct addition of GSP to the wine. No changes were recorded in the efficacy of protein removal by changing the GSP source (red or white grape marc), or by using grape seed roasting. Despite the need for additional trials, these preliminary results suggest that GSP may be considered as a viable alternative to bentonite especially when added to juice prior to fermentation.


Assuntos
Pós/química , Vitis/química , Adsorção , Bentonita/química , Cor , Estudos de Viabilidade , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 305: 125462, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618694

RESUMO

The objectives of this research were to demonstrate the changes in isoflavone-aglycones, total phenolics, and biological properties (digestive enzyme inhibition; antioxidant) from six organs including leaves, leafstalks, roots, stems, seeds, and pods at different growth times of soybean plant. Three isoflavone-aglycones in microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis extracts were elucidated using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS and their contents exhibited remarkable differences in leaves (245.93-2239.33 µg/g), roots (854.96-4425.34 µg/g), and seeds (ND-2339.62 µg/g). Specifically, the collected samples on 15-Oct (leaves: 2239.33; seeds: 2339.62 µg/g) and 31-Aug (roots: 4425.34 µg/g) showed the highest isoflavone-aglycones, and daidzein was observed the most abundant component, comprising approximately 70%. Moreover, the inhibitions against α-glucosidase and α-amylase displayed the predominant effects in roots (89;91%) and leaves (81;85%) of samples on 31-Aug and 15-Oct at 300 µg/ml. The antioxidant activities on ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals increased considerably with the increases of growth times in leaves and seeds, especially, ABTS showed the highest scavenging abilities: leaves (15-Oct;83%) > roots (31-Aug;75%) > seeds (15-Oct;68%). Therefore, our results suggest that soybean leaves, roots and seeds may be considered as excellent natural sources for nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Glucosidases/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/análise , Micro-Ondas , Soja/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrólise , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 200: 111650, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698288

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was synthesized by biogenic reduction of applied Cucurbita seed extract. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern displayed the high crystalline nature of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles and the crystallite size was calculated at 35 nm range. The Fourier Transform Infra-Red study revealed the functional groups of biogenic reduction and vibrational bands present in the synthesized nanoparticles. The UV-Visible analysis explained the SPR absorption peak at 371 nm. The Photoluminescence study revealed the strong red shoulder emission peak at 665 nm. The particle size analyzer displayed the particle size occupies majorly on 45-65 nm. The SEM analysis pointed the ZnO nanoparticles under rod, rectangular and hexagonal shapes were procured. The EDAX spectrum also mapping exposed the purity of formed ZnO nanoparticles with just Zn and O peaks. The HRTEM analysis exposed the hexagonal shape wurtzite structure ZnO particles formation. The physiochemical analysis revealed general nature of Cucurbita seed powder moreover which explained the phytochemicals involved in biogenic reduction of ZnO nanoparticles. The formed ZnO nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial activity on E. coli, Bacillus pumilus, and Salmonella typhi bacteria. The cytotoxicity study stated the good toxicity on E. coli AB 1157. The antifungal activity showed a better effect on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger fungi. The antioxidant activity clarified the good free radical scavenging action. The anti larvicidal activity expressed a better impact on Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito larvae.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12528-12537, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631662

RESUMO

Seeds of 32 pure lines and 6 commercial broccoli cultivars were used to investigate variation in glucosinolates and their breakdown products. The aliphatic glucosinolate content was 54.5-218.7 µmol/g fresh weight, accounting for >90% of the total glucosinolates. The major glucosinolates found were glucoraphanin and glucoerucin in 27 samples and progoitrin in 7 samples. A gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) method was used to identify glucosinolate breakdown products; nine products were directly determined using standards. Using Arabidopsis thaliana lines myb28myb29 and Landsberg erecta to hydrolyze each reference glucosinolate, seven products were tentatively identified. 4-(Methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate and 5-(methylsulfinyl)pentanenitrile contents were 2.6-91.1 µmol/g fresh weight and 0-35.4 µmol/g fresh weight, respectively, with epithionitriles being more common than nitriles in accessions rich in alkenyl glucosinolate. Additionally, (S)-5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione was detected in accessions rich in progoitrin. Specific lines with altered glucosinolate profiles and breakdown products were obtained and discussed according to the putative glucosinolate metabolism pathway.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11805-11814, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566383

RESUMO

The impact of cross-breeding two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants on the content of phytic acid and the metabolite profile of the resulting double mutant was investigated. Progenies resulting from the cross of Os-lpa-XS110-1, a rice mutant carrying the myo-inositol kinase (OsMIK) mutated gene, and Os-lpa-XS110-2, with the multidrug resistance-associated protein ABC transporter gene 5 (OsMRP5) as the mutation target, were subjected to high-pressure ion chromatography. The reduction of the phytic acid content in the double mutant (-63%) was much more pronounced than in the single mutants (-26 and -47%). Gas chromatography-based metabolite profiling revealed a superimposition of the metabolite profiles inherited from the lpa progenitors in the double mutant progenies; the resulting metabolite signature was predominated by the OsMIK mutation effect. The study demonstrated that cross-breeding of two single lpa mutants can be employed to generate double lpa rice mutants showing both a significant reduction in the content of phytic acid and the imprinting of a specific mutation-induced metabolite signature.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Hibridização Genética , Oryza/química , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
9.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 77(4): 367-377, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659617

RESUMO

Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. However, cisplatin is limited in clinical treatment because of its severe nephrotoxicity. This study reported whether O-GSP can antagonize the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells through inducing HO-1 protein expression. We previously demonstrated O-GSP can increase the survival rate of HEK293 and have protective effect on HEK293 cells. Herein, We found that O-GSP can antagonize cisplatin nephrotoxicity through regulating the expression of HO-1. O-GSP promotes the translocation of Nrf2 in the nucleus, and activates the ERKN JNK pathway and p38 MAPK pathway. Interestingly, p38 MAPK plays a major role in HO-1 expression induced by O-GSP. And O-GSP can modulate the decrease of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression induced by cisplatin, and improve the cisplatin-induced activity and apoptosis rate of cells by stimulating the expression of HO-1. However, the protective effects of O-GSP are inhibited by ZnPP IX. Collectively, the results indicated that O-GSP induced the expression of HO-1 through p38MAPK and Nrf2 pathway in HEK293 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12770-12779, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652052

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are of interest for potential antimicrobial activity of their degradation products and exclusive presence in Brassicaceae. Compositional changes of aliphatic, benzenic, and indolic GSLs of Sinapis alba, Brassica napus, and B. juncea seeds by germination and fungal elicitation were studied. Rhizopus oryzae (nonpathogenic), Fusarium graminearum (nonpathogenic), and F. oxysporum (pathogenic) were employed. Thirty-one GSLs were detected by reversed-phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array with in-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn). Aromatic-acylated derivatives of 3-butenyl GSL, p-hydroxybenzyl GSL, and indol-3-ylmethyl GSL were for the first time tentatively annotated and confirmed to be not artifacts. For S. alba, germination, Rhizopus elicitation, and F. graminearum elicitation increased total GSL content, mainly consisting of p-hydroxybenzyl GSL, by 2-3 fold. For B. napus and B. juncea, total GSL content was unaffected by germination or elicitation. In all treatments, aliphatic GSL content was decreased (≥50%) in B. napus and remained unchanged in B. juncea. Indolic GSLs were induced in all species by germination and nonpathogenic elicitation.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/microbiologia , Glucosinolatos/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassicaceae/química , Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/fisiologia , Germinação , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Rhizopus/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 609, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486904

RESUMO

A study was performed to determine whether self-rooted grafting decreases cadmium (Cd) accumulation in post-grafting soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) Merrill) generations. Pot experiments were performed using ungrafted (UG) seedlings, self-rooted grafting from the same soybean seedling (SG), self-rooted grafting from two soybean seedlings at the same growth stage (TG), and self-rooted grafting from two soybean seedlings at different developmental stages (DG). Growth and Cd accumulation in three post-grafting soybean generations were assessed. In the SG treatment, only the second post-grafting generation had increased shoot biomass and only the first post-grafting generation shoots had decreased Cd contents. The seed Cd content, soluble protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activity were not significantly affected in three post-grafting generations. In the TG and DG treatments, shoot biomass, soluble protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, and the shoot and seed Cd contents were decreased in three post-grafting generations. The seed Cd contents in the first, second, and third post-grafting generations were 15.00%, 9.46%, and 12.44%, respectively, lower in the TG than UG treatments. The seed Cd contents in the first, second, and third post-grafting generations were 32.73%, 27.03%, and 32.22%, respectively, lower in the DG than UG treatments. Different grafting methods promoted growth and decreased Cd accumulation to different degrees in three post-grafting generations. Grafting seedlings at different developmental stages had the strongest effects.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10813-10822, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490069

RESUMO

Traditional seed pretreatment methods cause secondary pollution for the application of various chemicals. This study investigated the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) cold plasma on seedling growth. Effects of plasma-activated tap water (PATW) and plasma-activated seeds (PAS) were compared for germination rates, seedling height, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Results show that compared with controls these growth parameters were all increased by more than 50%. The yields and contributions of hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were quantified. Hydrogen peroxide and nitrate have an important role in seedling growth. By etching, the seed epidermis free radicals can reduce the apparent contact angle and increase the water absorption of the seeds. In addition to the low cost of PATW and PAS compared with commercial fertilizers, DBD does not involve any chemical addition. Thus, both PATW and PAS can be an alternative for improvement of agricultural production.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/química
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11262-11276, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509416

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds are rich in flavonoids. However, the detailed flavonoid compositions and the molecular basis of flavonoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat seeds remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a combined metabolite profiling and transcriptome analysis to identify flavonoid compositions and characterize genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in the developing tartary buckwheat seeds. In total, 234 flavonoids, including 10 isoflavones, were identified. Of these, 80 flavonoids were significantly differential accumulation during seed development. Transcriptome analysis indicated that most structural genes and some potential regulatory genes of flavonoid biosynthesis were significantly differentially expressed in the course of seed development. Correlation analysis between transcriptome and metabolite profiling shown that the expression patterns of some differentially expressed structural genes and regulatory genes were more consistent with the changes in flavonoids profiles during seed development and promoted one SG7 subgroup R2R3-MYB transcription factors (FtPinG0009153900.01) was identified as the key regulatory gene of flavonoid biosynthesis. These findings provide valuable information for understanding the mechanism of flavonoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat seeds and the further development of tartary buckwheat health products.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11281-11287, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539257

RESUMO

The seeds of the guarana plant (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae) are well-known to many cultures as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and astringent. Its rhizome was traditionally boiled into a tea by Amazonian cultures. Today, guarana seeds are ground to a fine powder and sold as powder, tablets, and capsules. This review focuses on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of the guarana seed to evaluate its safety as a dietary ingredient. A comprehensive review of published literature was conducted to identify articles that focused on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety of guarana. On the basis of this review, guarana is not currently known to be associated causally with any serious health risks when consumed properly. Overall, guarana is generally recognized as safe as a dietary ingredient marketed for its flavor and caffeine content. If guidelines for caffeine intake are respected, guarana consumption is not likely to be associated with any serious health risks.


Assuntos
Paullinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Paullinia/efeitos adversos , Paullinia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos adversos , Sementes/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11436-11443, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553599

RESUMO

Phospholipids and phytic acid are important phosphorus (P)-containing compounds in rice grains. Phytic acid is considered as a major antinutrient, because the negatively charged phytic acid chelates cations, including essential micronutrients, and decreases their bioavailability to human beings and monogastric animals. To gain an insight into the interplay of these two kinds of phosphorus-containing metabolites, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mutants of a phospholipase D gene (OsPLDα1) and analyzed the mutational effect on metabolites, including phytic acid in rice grains. Metabolic profiling of two ospldα1 mutants revealed depletion in the phosphatidic acid production and lower accumulation of cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The mutants also showed significantly reduced phytic acid content as compared to their wild-type parent, and the expression of the key genes involved in the phytic acid biosynthesis was altered in the mutants. These results demonstrate that OsPLDα1 not only plays an important role in phospholipid metabolism but also is involved in phytic acid biosynthesis, most probably through the lipid-dependent pathway, and thus revealed a potential new route to regulate phytic acid biosynthesis in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Fosfolipase D/genética , Ácido Fítico/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(4-5): 373-387, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422517

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Polysaccharide composition of seed mucilage was successfully modified using three seed coat-specific promoters driving expression of genes encoding cell wall-modifying enzymes. Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat epidermal cells synthesize and secrete large quantities of mucilage, a specialized secondary cell wall composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The composition and structure of mucilage confers its unique properties of expansion, extrusion, and adherence. We are developing seed mucilage as a model to study the biochemical and biological consequences of manipulating cell wall polysaccharides in vivo using cell wall-modifying enzymes. To specifically engineer mucilage composition and avoid altering other cell types, seed coat-specific promoters are required. In this study, we investigated the ability of seed coat-specific promoters from three genes, TESTA-ABUNDANT2 (TBA2), PEROXIDASE36 (PER36), and MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 (MUM4), to express the cell wall modifying ß-galactosidase (BGAL)-encoding gene MUCILAGE-MODIFIED2 (MUM2) and complement the mum2 mutant. The strength of the three promoters relative to one another was found to vary by two to 250 fold, and correlated with their ability to rescue the mum2 mutant phenotype. The strongest of the three promoters, TBA2p, was then used to examine the ability of three MUM2 homologs to complement the mum2 extrusion and cell wall composition phenotypes. The degree of complementation was variable and correlated with the amino acid sequence similarity between the homologous gene products and MUM2. These data demonstrate that all three seed coat-specific promoters can drive expression of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes in a spatial and temporal pattern sufficiently to modify polysaccharide composition in seed mucilage without obvious negative consequences to the rest of the plant.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Mucilagem Vegetal/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Mucilagem Vegetal/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Domínios Proteicos , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 848-856, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426227

RESUMO

Seagrass meadows are recognized as critical and among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. As a worldwide concern, there is an urgent need to develop techniques to restore and preserve these vital coastal ecosystems due to their alarming decline rate. To effectively preserve and restore seagrasses, more research is required on the germination ecology of seeds. The seagrass Zostera japonica Asch. & Graebn is an endangered species in its native range, the Northwestern Pacific Coast. The present study investigated the germination and seedling establishment in Z. japonica seeds (collected from northern China) under different temperature and salinity conditions to explore suitable seed germination and establishment conditions, as well as the seedling formation process. Results showed that salinity had a more significant influence on seed germination rate. Germination rate decreased with an increase in salinity, and seeds did not germinate when salinity was higher than 40 psu. Temperature was more likely to influence germination speed, which increased with an increase in temperature, with high germination rates and the most rapid germination speed observed at 30 °C. Therefore, the optimal culture conditions were 10 psu salinity at 30 °C for germination and 10-20 psu salinity at 20 °C for seedling establishment, with a seed germination rate of 45.6% after 6 days of germination culture and a seedling establishment rate of 14.3% after 6 days of seedling culture, respectively. A new seedling raising method with low salinity (5 psu) germination and high salinity (20 psu) seedling establishment was proposed and a flow chart of seedling formation of Z. japonica was created. The results provide insight into the seed germination and seedling establishment in Z. japonica, and will facilitate future large-scale seedling culture and field restoration activities for this seagrass species.


Assuntos
Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zosteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Germinação , Salinidade , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Zosteraceae/metabolismo
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10296-10305, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464437

RESUMO

Grass pea is an orphan legume that is grown in many places in the world. It is a high-protein, drought-tolerant legume that is capable of surviving extreme environmental challenges and can be a sole food source during famine. However, grass pea produces the neurotoxin ß-N-oxalyl-L-α,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP), which can cause a neurological disease. This crop is promising as a food source for both animals and humans if ß-ODAP levels and other antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors are lowered or removed. To understand more about these proteins, a proteomic analysis of grass pea was conducted using three different extraction methods to determine which was more efficient at isolating antinutritional factors. Seed proteins extracted with Tris-buffered saline (TBS), 30% ethanol, and 50% isopropanol were identified by mass spectrometry, resulting in the documentation of the most abundant proteins for each extraction method. Mass spectrometry spectral data and BLAST2GO analysis led to the identification of 1376 proteins from all extraction methods. The molecular function of the extracted proteins revealed distinctly different protein functional profiles. The majority of the TBS-extracted proteins were annotated with nutrient reservoir activity, while the isopropanol extraction yielded the highest percentage of endopeptidase proteinase inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that the 50% isopropanol extraction method was the most efficient at isolating antinutritional factors including protease inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Endopeptidases/química , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2015-2023, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364175

RESUMO

Kenaf belongs to the family Malvaceae noted for their economic and horticultural importance. Kenaf seed is a valuable component of kenaf plant. For several years, it has been primarily used as a cordage crop and secondarily as a livestock feed. The potential for using kenaf seeds as a source of food-based products has not been fully exploited. Consumers are becoming more interested in naturally healthy plant-based food products. Kenaf seed, the future crop with a rich source of essential nutrients and an excellent source of phytocompounds, might serve suitable roles in the production of value-added plant-based foods. At present kenaf seed and its value-added components have not been effectively utilized for both their nutritional and functional properties as either ingredient or major constituent of food products. This review focuses on the possible food applications of kenaf seed and its value-added components based on their nutritional composition and functional properties available in literature, with the purpose of providing an overview on the possible food applications of this underutilized seed. The review focuses on a brief introduction on kenaf plant, nutritional function, lipids and proteins composition and food applications of the seed. The review elaborately discusses the seed in terms of; bioactive components, antioxidants enrichment of wheat bread, antimicrobial agents, as edible flour, as edible oil and a source of protein in food system. The review closes with discussion on other possible food applications of kenaf seed. The need for food scientists and technologists to exploit this natural agricultural product as a value-added food ingredient is of great significance and is emphasized.


Assuntos
Hibiscus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Hibiscus/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9697-9704, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403787

RESUMO

In higher plants, seed size is an important parameter and agricultural trait in many aspects of evolutionary fitness. The loss of water-deficiency-induced crop yield is the largest among all natural hazards. Under water-deficient stress, the most prevalent response to terminal stress is to accelerate the early arrest of floral development and, thereby, to accelerate fruit/seed production, which consequently reduces seed size. This phenomenon is well-known, but its molecular mechanism is not well-reviewed and characterized. However, increasing evidence have indicated that water-deficient stress is always coordinated with three genetic signals (i.e., seed size regulators, initial seed size, and fruit number) that decide the final seed size. Here, our review presents new insights into the mechanism underlying cross-talk water-deficient stress signaling with three genetic signals controlling final seed size. These new insights may aid in preliminary screening, identifying novel genetic factors and future design strategies, or breeding to increase crop yield.


Assuntos
Sementes/citologia , Água/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/análise
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