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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111104, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791360

RESUMO

Since development of antioxidant defence system is high energy demanding event, innate defence system and stress tolerance of plant is strictly governed by plant age. This study is aimed towards evaluating variation of tolerance in germinating seeds and seedlings of Oryza sativa L. cv. Swarna against nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). A comparative study of several physiological and biochemical parameters have been carried out among 2 distinct plant groups, Group I treated with variable concentrations of nZVI (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1) during germination and Group II treated with similar nZVI doses on 7th day after germination. Upon treatment with higher nZVI concentrations, Group I seedlings showed susceptibility towards oxidative stress while Group II seedlings showed tolerance against these higher doses of nZVI. Significant growth enhancement was observed upon treatment with 50-150 mg L-1 nZVI, since up-regulation of plant's endogenous antioxidant system protected relatively aged Group II seedlings from oxidative damages. Hierarchical clustering based on overall physiological, biochemical and stress parameters confirmed that in Group I seedlings 100-200 mg L-1 nZVI treatments were toxic where as in Group II seedlings 50-150 mg L-1 nZVI treatments showed growth promoting effects. This differential response is due to developmental stage related resistance in plants.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790719

RESUMO

Melatonin is effective in enhancing various abiotic stress resistances of plants. However, its underlying mechanisms in drought-resistance in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is not clear. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of melatonin on seed germination and to evaluate leaf antioxidant physiology for two wheat varieties. Experiments included 20% PEG, melatonin plus 20% PEG and a control using two contrasting wheat varieties (JM22- drought sensitive and HG35- drought resistant). Melatonin levels were 0, 1, 10, 100 and 300 µmol L-1. Results revealed that 300 µmol L-1 of melatonin alleviated the negative effect of water stress on germination and increased radicle length, radicle number, and plumule length of the germinated seeds. Principal component analysis showed a significant change in amino acid content during germination and this change was dependent on melatonin concentration and the variety. Lysine (Lys) content in wheat seeds under the PEG plus 300 µmol L-1 melatonin treatment increased compared with that of the seeds under PEG alone. There was a significant and positive correlation between Lys content and morphological index of germination. During seedling growth, soluble protein was involved in osmotic adjustment and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased to mitigate the damage in the cytomembrane of JM 22 leaf under 300 µmol L-1 melatonin plus PEG treatment. The effect of melatonin was dependent on SOD activity increasing significantly for HG35-a drought resistant variety. The results of this work lays a foundation for further studies to determine if melatonin can be economically used to mitigate the impact of dry planting conditions on wheat productivity in North China Plain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Osmose , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110918, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800253

RESUMO

This work evaluates different generations of transgenic (cp4-EPSPS gene) and non-transgenic soybean plants through proteomics and metabolomics. For proteomics purpose, 24 differentially abundant protein spots were found through 2-D DIGE, being 4 belonging to transgenic plants. From this total, 19 were successfully identified, storage proteins as predominant class. Some identified proteins are involved in growing and cell division, and stress response, such as LEA and dehydrin. For metabolomics, 17 compounds were putatively annotated, mainly belonging to the secondary metabolism, such as flavonoids. From these analyzes, all generations and varieties of the soybean are prone to be differentiate by PLS-DA. According to our results, transgenic plants appear to be more stable than non-transgenic ones. In addition, the omics-based approaches allowed access some relations between those differential spot proteins and metabolites, mainly those storage proteins and flavonoid.


Assuntos
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Soja/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 111011, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800236

RESUMO

Boron (B) deficiency and surplus are the main factors that affect plant growth and yield. A better understanding of the response mechanisms of plant reproductive organs to stress induced by B deficiency and surplus could provide new insights to potential strategies for improving seed yield and quality. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of tolerance to B-induced stress in the reproductive organs of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. 'Aohan'). We initially used five B concentrations (0 mg B L-1, 400 mg B L-1, 800 mg B L-1, 1200 mg B L-1, and 1600 mg B L-1) to determine the B deficient, sufficient, and surplus levels in the field. Secondly, we examined changes in metabolite profiles of alfalfa 'Aohan' reproductive organs in response to B deficiency (0 mg B L-1), B sufficiency (800 mg B L-1), and B surplus (1600 mg B L-1) conditions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Flowers and seeds from alfalfa 'Aohan' showed different metabolite profiles and resistance capacity under B deficiency and surplus conditions. B deficiency led to the excessive accumulation of sugars and phenolic compounds in alfalfa 'Aohan' and seeds, respectively, thus causing abscission or the abortion of reproductive organs. In contrast, B surplus severely reduced the levels of metabolites associated with amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in the flowers falling and, therefore, low seed yield. Overall, B deficiency predominantly reduced seed yield and quality of alfalfa 'Aohan', while B surplus mainly affected seed yield of alfalfa 'Aohan'.


Assuntos
Boro/deficiência , Boro/toxicidade , Células Germinativas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células Germinativas Vegetais/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Sementes/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
5.
Gene ; 762: 145015, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783994

RESUMO

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a carbon fixation enzyme which probably plays crucial roles in seed development. A greater number of PEPC isoforms are encoded in the soybean genome, while most of the PEPC isoforms are functionally unknown. In this study, we investigated on soybean PEPC expressed in the external layer of seed coat (ELSC) during seed formation. PEPC activity in ELSC ranged from 0.24 to 1.0 U/g F.W., which could be comparable to those in whole seeds at U per dry matter. Public RNA-Seq data in separated soybean seed tissues revealed that six plant-type PEPC isogenes were substantially expressed in ELSC, and Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 were highly expressed in hourglass cells of ELSC. Gene Ontology enrichment of co-expressed genes with Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 implicated a role of these isogenes in assisting energy production and cellulose biosynthesis. Comparison of PEPC sequences from 16 leguminous species hypothesized adaptive evolution of the Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 lineage after divergence from the other plant-type PEPC lineages. Molecular diversification of these plant-type PEPC was possibly accomplished by adaptation to the functions of the soybean seed tissues. This study indicates that energy demand in immature seeds may be a driving force for the molecular evolution of PEPC.


Assuntos
Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0237045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735576

RESUMO

The dead organs enclosing embryos (DOEEs) emerge as central components of the dispersal unit (DU) capable for long-term storage of active proteins and other substances that affect seed performance and fate. We studied the effect of maternal environment (salt and salt+heat) on progeny DU (dry indehiscent fruit) focusing on pericarp properties of Anastatica hierochuntica. Stressed plants displayed increased seed abortion and low level and rate of germination. Hydrated pericarps released antimicrobial factors and allelopathic substances that inhibit germination of heterologous species. Proteome analysis of dead pericarps revealed hundreds of proteins, among them nucleases, chitinases and proteins involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification and cell wall modification. Salt treatment altered the composition and level of proteins stored in the pericarp. We observed changes in protein profile released from seeds of salt-treated plants with a notable increase in a small anti-fungal protein, defensin. The levels of phytohormones including IAA, ABA and salicylic acid were reduced in dead pericarps of stressed plants. The data presented here highlighted the predominant effects of maternal environment on progeny DUs of the desert plant A. hierochuntica, particularly on pericarp properties, which in turn might affect seed performance and fate, soil fertility and consequently plant biodiversity.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Frutas , Brassicaceae/embriologia , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Defensinas/metabolismo , Frutas/embriologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841235

RESUMO

The morphology and physiology of diaspores play crucial roles in determining the fate of seeds in unpredictable habitats. In some genera of the Brassicaceae different types of diaspores can be found. Lepidium appelianum produces non-dormant seeds within indehiscent fruits while in L. campestre dormant seeds are released from dehiscent fruits. We investigated whether the allocation of relevant defence compounds into different tissues in different Lepidium species may be related to the diverse dispersal strategy (indehiscent and dehiscent) and seed physiology (non-dormant and dormant). Total glucosinolate concentration and composition were analysed in immature and mature seeds and pericarps of L. appelianum and L. campestre using high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, for comparison, transgenic RNAi L. campestre lines were used that produce indehiscent fruits due to silencing of LcINDEHISCENCE, the INDEHISCENCE ortholog of L. campestre. Total glucosinolate concentrations were lower in immature compared to mature seeds in all studied Lepidium species and transgenic lines. In contrast, indehiscent fruits of L. appelianum maintained their total glucosinolate concentration in mature pericarps compared to immature ones, while in dehiscent L. campestre and in indehiscent RNAi-LcIND L. campestre a significant decrease in total glucosinolate concentrations from immature to mature pericarps could be detected. Indole glucosinolates were detected in lower abundance than the other glucosinolate classes (aliphatic and aromatic). Relatively high concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate were found in mature seeds of L. appelianum compared to other tissues, while no indole glucosinolates were detected in mature diaspores of L. campestre. The diaspores of the latter species may rather depend on aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates for long-term protection. The allocation patterns of glucosinolates correlate with the morpho-physiologically distinct fruits of L. appelianum and L. campestre and may be explained by the distinct dispersal strategies and the dormancy status of both species.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Lepidium/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ecossistema , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Lepidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes/fisiologia , Água
8.
Gene ; 761: 145036, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777525

RESUMO

Lupinus albus γ-conglutin is proposed to positively affect glucose metabolism through inhibition of hepatic glucose production and insulin-mimetic activity; however, the action mechanism is not entirely known. Besides, most studies had focused on its effect on molecular targets directly related to glucose metabolism, and few studies have investigated how γ-conglutin may affect the liver gene expression or if it plays a role in other metabolic processes. Therefore, we investigated the influence of γ-conglutin on the liver transcriptome of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using DNA microarrays, ontological analyses, and quantitative PCR. Of the 22,000 genes evaluated, 803 and 173 were downregulated and upregulated, respectively. The ontological analyses of the differentially expressed genes revealed that among others, the mitochondria, microtubules, cytoskeleton, and oxidoreductase activity terms were enriched, implying a possible role of γ-conglutin on autophagy. To corroborate the microarray results, we selected and quantified, by PCR, the expression of two genes associated with autophagy (Atg7 and Snx18) and found their expression augmented two and threefold, respectively; indicating a higher autophagy activity in animals treated with γ-conglutin. Although complementary studies are required, our findings indicate for the first time that the hypoglycaemic effects of γ-conglutin may involve an autophagy induction mechanism, a pivotal process for the preservation of cell physiology and glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Colectinas/farmacologia , Lupinus/metabolismo , Soroglobulinas/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colectinas/metabolismo , Colectinas/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Lupinus/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/metabolismo , Soroglobulinas/metabolismo , Soroglobulinas/fisiologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20325-20333, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747542

RESUMO

Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are the basal components of the spliceosome and play crucial roles in splicing. Their biogenesis is spatiotemporally regulated. However, related mechanisms are still poorly understood. Defective in snRNA processing (DSP1) is an essential component of the DSP1 complex that catalyzes plant snRNA 3'-end maturation by cotranscriptional endonucleolytic cleavage of the primary snRNA transcripts (presnRNAs). Here, we show that DSP1 is subjected to alternative splicing in pollens and embryos, resulting in two splicing variants, DSP1α and DSP1ß. Unlike DSP1α, DSP1ß is not required for presnRNA 3'-end cleavage. Rather, it competes with DSP1α for the interaction with CPSF73-I, the catalytic subunit of the DSP1 complex, which promotes efficient release of CPSF73-I and the DNA-dependent RNA polymerease II (Pol II) from the 3' end of snRNA loci thereby facilitates snRNA transcription termination, resulting in increased snRNA levels in pollens. Taken together, this study uncovers a mechanism that spatially regulates snRNA accumulation.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Pólen , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
10.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1325-1337, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607601

RESUMO

The main edible organ of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the pod, whose color is a main characteristic affecting its commercial use. Golden pods are popular with consumers; however, color instability affects their commercial exploitation and causes economic losses to the planters. In this study, we focused on the different pod color of two varieties of snap bean. The golden yellow color of snap bean pods is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene located at 1-4.24 Mb of chromosome 2. To explore the physiological and molecular mechanism of the golden pod color, the golden bean line 'A18-1' and the green bean line 'Renaya' were selected as experimental materials. We analyzed the pigment contents, detected the intermediate products of chlorophyll biosynthesis, and identified differentially expressed genes using RNA-seq. The formation of golden bean pods reflects a chlorophyll deficiency, which was speculated to be caused by impairment of the Mg-protoporphyrin IX to chlorophyllide step. In 'A18-1' and 'Renaya' pods on 10, 14, and 18 days, five genes related to this step were differentially expressed, all of which were protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) genes. Among them, the expression changes of the Phvul. 004G112700, Phvul.007G157500, and Phvul. 004G112400 genes were consistent with the color change and physiological data during pod development in 'A18-1' and 'Renaya'. We speculated that the altered expression of these three POR genes might be related to changes in the chlorophyllide content. The results might provide insight into the understanding of chlorophyll biosynthesis and crop breeding for snap bean.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Cor , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000564, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701952

RESUMO

Amyloids are protein aggregates with a highly ordered spatial structure giving them unique physicochemical properties. Different amyloids not only participate in the development of numerous incurable diseases but control vital functions in archaea, bacteria and eukarya. Plants are a poorly studied systematic group in the field of amyloid biology. Amyloid properties have not yet been demonstrated for plant proteins under native conditions in vivo. Here we show that seeds of garden pea Pisum sativum L. contain amyloid-like aggregates of storage proteins, the most abundant one, 7S globulin Vicilin, forms bona fide amyloids in vivo and in vitro. Full-length Vicilin contains 2 evolutionary conserved ß-barrel domains, Cupin-1.1 and Cupin-1.2, that self-assemble in vitro into amyloid fibrils with similar physicochemical properties. However, Cupin-1.2 fibrils unlike Cupin-1.1 can seed Vicilin fibrillation. In vivo, Vicilin forms amyloids in the cotyledon cells that bind amyloid-specific dyes and possess resistance to detergents and proteases. The Vicilin amyloid accumulation increases during seed maturation and wanes at germination. Amyloids of Vicilin resist digestion by gastrointestinal enzymes, persist in canned peas, and exhibit toxicity for yeast and mammalian cells. Our finding for the first time reveals involvement of amyloid formation in the accumulation of storage proteins in plant seeds.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Detergentes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Íons , Pancreatina/metabolismo , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/ultraestrutura
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127406, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615387

RESUMO

Hot peppers are sensitive to low temperature, and seed browning significantly reduces the fruit quality. This study aims to clarify the mechanisms of seed browning in terms of metabolite changes. Metabolites were analysed during a 30-day-storage period at 2 °C and 10 °C. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and isoleucine concentrations were significantly higher at 2 °C storage than at 10 °C. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was associated with seed browning. Transcription of jasmonic acid synthesis and ROS scavenging genes were higher in hot peppers stored at 2 °C than those stored at 10 °C. This study elucidated the mechanisms underlying seed browning and chill damage in hot peppers during storage at low temperatures and our findings may help improve hot peppers' quality following harvesting.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127408, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619944

RESUMO

A research was performed to determine and compare the physicochemical properties, chemical compositions and in vitro antioxidant activities of Paeonia lactiflora Pall seed oils with ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction, pressing and supercritical fluid extraction. Paeonia lactiflora Pall seed oil contained a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (31.62-32.88%) and α-linolenic acids (37.55-39.95%). The beneficial multiple dietary phytochemicals (tocopherol, phytosterols and squalene) and in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly influenced by the hull and processing method (P<0.05). However, higher tocopherol (596.67-738.76 mg/kg) and phytosterols (5775.01-6055.62 mg/kg) contents were found in supercritical fluid extraction oils. Additionally, ten individual polyphenols were quantified, and significantly influenced by the hull and processing method (P<0.05), with the content of benzoic acid and several individual flavonoids being the higher. According to the results, pressing might be the best process for extracting oil with a high number of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Paeonia/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sonicação , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555619

RESUMO

Seeds stored in controlled conditions in gene banks, faster or slower lose their viability. The effects of seed moisture content levels (ca. 5, 8, 11%) combined with storage temperatures (-3°, -18°, -196°C) were investigated in terms of the description of seeds defined as orthodox under oxidative stress after seed storage, during germination, and initial seedling growth. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ascorbate (Asc) were analyzed in relation to seed germinability and seedlings emergence in three species: Malus sylvestris L., Prunus avium L. and Prunus padus L. The effect of seed storage conditions on H2O2 levels appeared in germinated seeds after the third year of storage in each species. The H2O2 levels were negatively correlated with the germination and seedling emergence of P. avium seeds after three years of storage under all examined combinations. The emergence of P. padus seedlings was not linked to any of the stress markers tested. The P. padus seed biochemical traits were least altered by storage conditions, and the seeds produced tolerant seedlings of relatively high levels of H2O2 and TBARS. To cope with different H2O2 levels, TBARS levels, and Asc levels in seeds of three species varying storage conditions different molecular responses, i.e. repairing mechanisms, were applied during stratification to compensate for the storage conditions and, as a result, seeds remained viable and seedlings were successfully established.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura
15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127120, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526646

RESUMO

Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant-derived proteins can improve their quality by offering opportunities for food applications. In this study, three proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, Alcalase®) were used, alone or combined, to produce faba bean protein hydrolysates (PHs). Their functional, nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated, and the peptidomic profile was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Hydrolysis improved solubility of faba proteins at acidic and neutral pH, and their antioxidant properties. Peptidomic analysis identified 2031 peptides in the different PHs. Among them, 9 showed 100% homology with previously known antioxidant peptides and several others had antioxidant motifs in their sequences. Sensory data analysis showed that after addition of PHs to apple juice, no significant differences were perceived between control and some of the PHs. This study demonstrates that enzymatic hydrolysis enhances the functional and antioxidant properties of faba bean proteins. Specifically, hydrolysates can be used as functional food ingredients to produce fortified beverages.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Vicia faba/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidrólise , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 330: 127198, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535313

RESUMO

The metabolome of three soybean genotypes, Glycine max Hwangkeum (elite or domesticated cultivar), Glycine max Napjakong (landrace or semi-wild cultivar) and Glycine soja Dolkong (wild cultivar), were characterized in seeds and leaves using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. Expression of primary and secondary metabolites were different in seeds and leaves as well as amongst soybean genotypes. Different kaempferol glycosides were observed in the leaves but not in the seeds, and quercetin derivatives were found only in G. max Napjakong and G. soja Dolkong. Moreover, epicatechin was found only in the seeds of G. max Napjakong and G. soja Dolkong. These results demonstrate distinct adaptations of different soybean genotypes to given environmental conditions. The current study, therefore, provides useful information on global metabolic compositions that might be used to develop soybean-based products through better understanding of the metabolic phenotypes of existing soybean genotypes.


Assuntos
Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Genótipo , Metabolômica , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127445, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593005

RESUMO

Iron oxide nanoparticles (nFe2O3)-filled materials have been widely employed in various products and their effects on plants have attracted considerable attention because of their potential release into the environment. Currently, numerous studies reporting the influences of iron-bearing nanoparticles on plants are focused on root or seed exposure. However, plants exposed to atmospheric iron-bearing nanoparticles through the leaves and their impacts on plants are still not well understood. This study focused on the uptake, translocation, and effects of foliar exposure of nFe2O3 on wheat seedlings. Wheat seedlings were foliar applied to various concentrations of nFe2O3 (0, 60 and 180 µg per plant) for 1, 7, 14 or 21 d. Our results demonstrated that after exposure for 21 d, the concentrations of Fe in leaves, stems, and roots were 1100, 280 and 160 µg kg-1, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), as well as the backscattered electron (BSE) images, revealed the stomatal opening was likely the pathway for nFe2O3 uptake. Analysis of the transfer rate, translocation of Fe from leaves to stems and roots, suggested the involvement of plant Fe regulation processes. Particularly, the antioxidant enzymatic activities and malondialdehyde levels in leaves were modified, which was ascribed to the excessive hydroxyl radical (OH) generated via the Fenton-like reaction mediated by nFe2O3. Finally, the OH facilitated the degradation of chlorophyll, posting a negative impact on the photosynthesis, and thus inhibited the biomass production. These findings are meaningful to understand the fate and physiological effects of atmospheric nFe2O3 in crops.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555603

RESUMO

Plants respond to changes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation both morphologically and physiologically. Among the variety of plant UV-responses, the synthesis of UV-absorbing flavonoids constitutes an effective non-enzymatic mechanism to mitigate photoinhibitory and photooxidative damage caused by UV stress, either reducing the penetration of incident UV radiation or acting as quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we designed a UV-exclusion experiment to investigate the effects of UV radiation in Silene littorea. We spectrophotometrically quantified concentrations of both anthocyanins and UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in petals, calyces, leaves and stems. Furthermore, we analyzed the UV effect on the photosynthetic activity in hours of maximum solar radiation and we tested the impact of UV radiation on male and female reproductive performance. We found that anthocyanin concentrations showed a significant decrease of about 20% with UV-exclusion in petals and stems, and a 30% decrease in calyces. The concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds under UV-exclusion decreased by approximately 25% in calyces and stems, and 12% in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of plants grown under UV decreased at maximum light stress, reaching an inhibition of 58% of photosynthetic activity, but their ability to recover after light-stress was not affected. In addition, exposure to UV radiation did not affect ovule production or seed set per flower, but decreased pollen production and total seed production per plant by 31% and 69%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that UV exposure produced opposing effects on the accumulation of plant phenolic compounds and reproduction. UV radiation increased the concentration of phenolic compounds, suggesting a photoprotective role of plant phenolics against UV light, yet overall reproduction was compromised.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Silene/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/efeitos da radiação
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15305-15315, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541052

RESUMO

Small RNAs are abundant in plant reproductive tissues, especially 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Most 24-nt siRNAs are dependent on RNA Pol IV and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) and establish DNA methylation at thousands of genomic loci in a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In Brassica rapa, RdDM is required in the maternal sporophyte for successful seed development. Here, we demonstrate that a small number of siRNA loci account for over 90% of siRNA expression during B. rapa seed development. These loci exhibit unique characteristics with regard to their copy number and association with genomic features, but they resemble canonical 24-nt siRNA loci in their dependence on RNA Pol IV/RDR2 and role in RdDM. These loci are expressed in ovules before fertilization and in the seed coat, embryo, and endosperm following fertilization. We observed a similar pattern of 24-nt siRNA expression in diverse angiosperms despite rapid sequence evolution at siren loci. In the endosperm, siren siRNAs show a marked maternal bias, and siren expression in maternal sporophytic tissues is required for siren siRNA accumulation. Together, these results demonstrate that seed development occurs under the influence of abundant maternal siRNAs that might be transported to, and function in, filial tissues.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alelos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584851

RESUMO

Two low-phytate soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) mutant lines- V99-5089 (mips mutation on chromosome 11) and CX-1834 (mrp-l and mrp-n mutations on chromosomes 19 and 3, respectively) have proven to be valuable resources for breeding of low-phytate, high-sucrose, and low-raffinosaccharide soybeans, traits that are highly desirable from a nutritional and environmental standpoint. A recombinant inbred population derived from the cross CX1834 x V99-5089 provides an opportunity to study the effect of different combinations of these three mutations on soybean phytate and oligosaccharides levels. Of the 173 recombinant inbred lines tested, 163 lines were homozygous for various combinations of MIPS and two MRP loci alleles. These individuals were grouped into eight genotypic classes based on the combination of SNP alleles at the three mutant loci. The two genotypic classes that were homozygous mrp-l/mrp-n and either homozygous wild-type or mutant at the mips locus (MIPS/mrp-l/mrp-n or mips/mrp-l/mrp-n) displayed relatively similar ~55% reductions in seed phytate, 6.94 mg g -1 and 6.70 mg g-1 respectively, as compared with 15.2 mg g-1 in the wild-type MIPS/MRP-L/MRP-N seed. Therefore, in the presence of the double mutant mrp-l/mrp-n, the mips mutation did not cause a substantially greater decrease in seed phytate level. However, the nutritionally-desirable high-sucrose/low-stachyose/low-raffinose seed phenotype originally observed in soybeans homozygous for the mips allele was reversed in the presence of mrp-l/mrp-n mutations: homozygous mips/mrp-l/mrp-n seed displayed low-sucrose (7.70%), high-stachyose (4.18%), and the highest observed raffinose (0.94%) contents per gram of dry seed. Perhaps the block in phytic acid transport from its cytoplasmic synthesis site to its storage site, conditioned by mrp-l/mrp-n, alters myo-inositol flux in mips seeds in a way that restores to wild-type levels the mips conditioned reductions in raffinosaccharides. Overall this study determined the combinatorial effects of three low phytic acid causing mutations on regulation of seed phytate and oligosaccharides in soybean.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Mutação , Oligossacarídeos , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes , Soja , Oligossacarídeos/genética , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
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