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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 304, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In flowering plants, proper seed development is achieved through the constant interplay of fertilization products, embryo and endosperm, and maternal tissues. Communication between these compartments is supposed to be tightly regulated at their interfaces. Here, we characterize the deposition pattern of an apoplastic lipid barrier between the maternal inner integument and fertilization products in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. RESULTS: We demonstrate that an apoplastic lipid barrier is first deposited by the ovule inner integument and undergoes de novo cutin deposition following central cell fertilization and relief of the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED Polycomb group repressive mechanism. In addition, we show that the WIP zinc-finger TRANSPARENT TESTA 1 and the MADS-Box TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 transcription factors act maternally to promote its deposition by regulating cuticle biosynthetic pathways. Finally, mutant analyses indicate that this apoplastic barrier allows correct embryo sliding along the seed coat. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that the deposition of a cutin apoplastic barrier between seed maternal and zygotic tissues is part of the seed coat developmental program.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
Plant Sci ; 286: 98-107, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300147

RESUMO

Flax seeds have a high oil content and are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which have advantageous effects in preventing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. At present, flax seeds are mainly developed for oil. Therefore, it is of practical significance to identify the candidate genes of fatty acid metabolism in flax seeds for breeding flax seeds with high oil content. In the present study, a natural population of flax containing 224 samples planted in 3 different environments was studied. The genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of seed fatty acid content was conducted based on specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) data. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of samples from 3 different periods (14 d, 21 d and 28 d after anthesis) during seed development of the low oil variety Shuangya 4 and the high oil variety NEW was performed. The candidate genes for seed fatty acid metabolism were identified by combined analysis of these 2 methods. GWAS detected 16 SNP loci significantly associated with seed fatty acid content, and RNA-seq analysis identified 11,802 differentially expressed genes between high and low oil samples. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that some differentially expressed genes were classified into fatty acid-related pathways. After comparison of these differentially expressed genes with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, 20 genes homologous to other species were obtained. After analysis, 10 candidate genes were screened by GWAS and RNA-seq screening. Of these 10 genes, qRT-PCR assays using flax seeds in 5 different developmental stages showed that the expression levels of 6 candidate genes were significantly correlated with 5 fatty acid contents in seeds of the high oil variety NEW. Through metabolic pathway analysis found that 6 genes were involved in important fatty acid metabolic pathways, and some of them also have upstream and downstream regulation relations. The present study combined GWAS and RNA-seq methods to identify candidate genes for fatty acid metabolism in flax seeds, which provided reference for screening of candidate genes with complex traits.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Linho/genética , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transcriptoma , Linho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sementes/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8441-8451, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339045

RESUMO

The increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to influence wheat production and grain quality and nutritional properties. In the present study, durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Sula) was grown under two different CO2 (400 versus 700 µmol mol-1) concentrations to examine effects on the crop yield and grain quality at different phenological stages (from grain filling to maturity). Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground biomass and grain yield components. Growth at elevated CO2 diminished the elemental N content as well as protein and free amino acids, with a typical decrease in glutamine, which is the most represented amino acid in grain proteins. Such a general decrease in nitrogenous compounds was associated with altered kinetics of protein accumulation, N remobilization, and N partitioning. Our results highlight important modifications of grain metabolism that have implications for its nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7986-7994, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282158

RESUMO

Compositional analyses were performed on samples of rice grain, straw, and derived bran obtained from golden rice event GR2E and near-isogenic control PSBRc82 rice grown at four locations in the Philippines during 2015 and 2016. Grain samples were analyzed for key nutritional components, including proximates, fiber, polysaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients. Samples of straw and bran were analyzed for proximates and minerals. The only biologically meaningful difference between GR2E and control rice was in levels of ß-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids in the grain. Except for ß-carotene and related carotenoids, the compositional parameters of GR2E rice were within the range of natural variability of those components in conventional rice varieties with a history of safe consumption. Mean provitamin A concentrations in milled rice of GR2E can contribute up to 89-113% and 57-99% of the estimated average requirement for vitamin A for preschool children in Bangladesh and the Philippines, respectively.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Engenharia Genética , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Filipinas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina A/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8096-8106, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260296

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg-1 to 46.0 mg-1 kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg-1 kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 µg kg-1 to 361 µg kg-1 and 249 µg kg-1, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 µg kg-1 to 338 µg kg-1 in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Iodo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Iodo/análise , Ferro/análise , México , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , África do Sul , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Turquia , Zinco/análise
6.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 414-420, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278561

RESUMO

The amount of cold press oil manufacture is globally rising, which in turn leads to the accumulation of deoiled plant seeds at significant quantities and consequent manufacture of plant protein products. In this study, we made an attempt to analyze the protein profile of black cumin seed protein concentrates prepared by the alkali extraction-acid precipitation technique (AE-IP). The analytical strategy relied on gel-based proteome mapping which included two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). 14 different protein bands were identified, and in gel-trypsinolysis was carried out for the corresponding gel spots. Using the MASCOT database, current findings on 10 proteins were compared with the existing data. The highest similarity was 46 which was obtained between the highest pI black cumin protein observed here and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana. The molecular mass of the intact protein was determined by linear MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS as 23,711.2186 Da. The peptide constructs of this protein have been further studied in order to identify potential biological activity. Matching sequences generated bioactive peptides in silico such as IR, AL, and SL dipeptides during sequential enzymatic digestion with pepsin and trypsin. Since the majority of bioactivity investigations on black cumin seeds have been related to black cumin oil and its oil soluble components, the structure and bioactivities of black cumin proteins deserve further research.


Assuntos
Nigella sativa/metabolismo , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteoma , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Peso Molecular , Proteômica , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Tripsina/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7050-7059, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240932

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the effect of selenium (Se) and irrigation on the grain yield, on the forms of Se, phenols, and carotenes, and on some antioxidant activities of maize ( Zea mays L.) grains. To reach this goal, a 2 year experiment was undertaken. Maize was fertigated with sodium selenite at the rate of 200 g of Se ha-1 and grown under two water regimes. While the irrigation did not show a clear effect on the selected parameters, Se fertigation increased the contents of inorganic and organic Se forms, xanthophyll, and salicylic acid. Furthermore, while Se fertigation decreased the hydroxycinnamic acid content, generally higher antioxidant activities were found in Se-treated grains than in the control. These findings suggest that Se fertigation increases most of the nutraceutical values of maize grains, which therefore might improve human and livestock health and could increase the maize grain shelf life and its byproducts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Selenito de Sódio/metabolismo , Água/análise , Zea mays/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio/análise , Solo/química , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(6): 604-608, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155567

RESUMO

Two new triterpene glycosides (1 and 2), together with nine known triterpene glycosides (3-11), were isolated from the seeds of Dolichos lablab (Leguminosae). The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, and chromatographic analysis of the hydrolyzed products. The isolated compounds did not show cytotoxicity against HL-60 human leukemia cells and HepG2 human hepatoma cells at sample concentrations of 20 µM.


Assuntos
Dolichos/química , Glicosídeos/química , Triterpenos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dolichos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
9.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 58-62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178052

RESUMO

Climate change is predicted to have adverse impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and uncertainties exist on how these systems will respond. Terrestrial plant ecosystems can be divided by how they fix atmospheric carbon- C3, C4 and CAM photosynthesis pathways. However, as for now, no clear answers could be given regarding the future global repartition of the C3, C4 and CAM plants. As seeds are the reproductive and dispersal unit of the plants and endophytes play a central role in their preservation; here it is suggested that a better knowledge regarding the seeds endophytic community is needed when studying the future repartition of C3, C4 and CAM plant seeds. Bacterial endophyte communities inhabiting seeds belonging to C3, C4 and CAM annual plants were analysed by culture-dependent methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results indicated there were differences in the relative abundance of bacterial phyla within and across all photosynthetic pathways. Indicating some level of niche partitioning, and each of the three photosynthetic pathways could be characterized by a specific endophytic composition of Firmicutes, corresponding to the adaptation capacity of each group. We successfully identified resistant species of endophytes in the Firmicutes phylum of C4 and CAM plant seeds. Those bacteria are known for being involved in thermal regulation and plant protection through enzymes and antibiotic synthesis and match the strong adaptation capacity of C4 and CAM plants. Overall, this study suggests that there is a plant-mediated selection of the seed microbiome and these symbionts could potentially confer additional benefits to the seed.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Aclimatação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Firmicutes , Israel , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 293: 15-22, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151595

RESUMO

High consumer demand has led global food color manufacturers and food companies to dramatically increase the development and use of natural colors. We have previously reported that avocado (Persea americana) seeds, when crushed in the presence of air, develop a red-orange color in a polyphenol oxidase-dependent reaction. The objective of this study was to identify the major colored compound in colored avocado seed extract (CASE). Column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate the most abundant colored compound in CASE. This compound, henceforth referred to as perseorangin, was a yellow-orange solid. Structural analysis was performed using high-resolution mass spectrometry, and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We determined that perseorangin is a glycosylated benzotropone-containing compound with a molecular formula of C29H30O14. Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis of CASE and uncolored avocado seed extract showed that perseorangin was unique to CASE.


Assuntos
Persea/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Persea/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 206-214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176880

RESUMO

SUMOylation is an important protein modification that regulates the properties of substrate proteins in a variety of cellular processes. SUMOylation is catalyzed via a cascade of enzymes and is usually stimulated by SUMO E3 ligases. However, the molecular functions and regulatory mechanisms of SUMOylation in forage crops are unknown. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized DiMMS21, a homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO ligase AtMMS21, from the forage legume Desmodium intortum. DiMMS21 is expressed ubiquitously in various D. intortum organs and its encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that DiMMS21 contains a conserved SP-RING domain that is required for its activity. Biochemical evidence supports the notion that this protein is a functional SUMO ligase. When expressed in an Arabidopsis mms21 mutant, DiMMS21 completely rescued the defects in root, leaf, and silique development. The results from cotyledon greening and marker gene expression suggested that DiMMS21 can only partially complements the role of AtMMS21 in abscisic acid (ABA) responses. In summary, we characterized the molecular features of DiMMS21 and uncovered potential roles of this SUMO ligase in development and ABA responses, increasing our understanding on the function of SUMOylation in forage crops.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Citoplasma/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 231-239, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195253

RESUMO

Anther/pollen development is a highly programmed process in flowering plants. However, the molecular mechanism of regulating anther/pollen development is still largely unclear so far. Here, we report a cotton WRKY transcription factor (GhWRKY22) that functions in anther/pollen development. Quantitative RT-PCR and GUS activity analyses revealed that GhWRKY22 is predominantly expressed in the late developing anther/pollen of cotton. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GhWRKY22 displayed the male fertility defect with the fewer viable pollen grains. Expression of the genes involved in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis was up-regulated, whereas expression of the JA-repressors (JAZ1 and JAZ8) was down-regulated in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GhWRKY22, compared with those in wild type. Yeast one-hybrid and ChIP-qPCR assays demonstrated that GhWRKY22 modulated the expression of JAZ genes by directly binding to their promoters for regulating anther/pollen development. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that GhMYB24 could interact with GhJAZ8-A and GhJAZ13-A. Furthermore, expression of AtMYB24, AtPAL2 and AtANS2 was enhanced in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, owing to GhWRKY22 overexpression. Taking the data together, our results suggest that GhWRKY22 acts as a transcriptional repressor to regulate anther/pollen development possibly by modulating the expression of the JAZ genes.


Assuntos
Gossypium/metabolismo , Pólen/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sementes/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Transgenes , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7016-7024, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194907

RESUMO

Most of the previous in vitro digestion treatments were conducted directly to whole grains without extraction of free phenolics, thus the bioaccessible phenolics contained both free phenolics that survived the digestion and digested phenolics released by digestion. However, the profiles of digested phenolics released by digestion remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical contents, peroxyl radical scavenging capacities (PSCs), and cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs) of free, digested, and bound fractions of whole grains. Total phenolic contents of whole grains were highest in digested fraction, followed by free and bound fractions. The predominant phenolics were 12 phenolic acids and one flavonoid, which mostly existed in bound forms, then in digested and free forms. The digested phenolics bound to proteins were in conjugated form. The bound fractions had the highest PSCs, followed by free and digested fractions. CAAs were highest in bound fractions, followed by digested and free fractions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Digestão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 295: 537-547, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174793

RESUMO

Black cumin seed (BCS) is a novel oil source with potential health benefits. This study investigates the influence of infrared (IR) and dry air (DA) roasting (140, 160 and 180 °C for 5 and 10 min) on BCS oil quality characteristics. Results revealed that the oxidative stability index (OSI), Maillard reaction products (MRPs), chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were increased while acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV) and color values were decreased in DA roasted (180°C for 10 min) BCS oil compared to other DA and IR treatments. DA and IR roasting slightly influenced the fatty acid composition (FAC) of BCS oils. FTIR spectra showed minor changes in peak intensities (at 2854, 2929 and 3008 cm-1) of DA and IR roasted BCS oils. DA roasting proved more effective than IR roasting. The oil from the DA roasted BCS at 180°C for 10 min had significantly higher oil quality and oxidative stability.


Assuntos
Ar , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Raios Infravermelhos , Nigella sativa/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila/química , Culinária/métodos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Nigella sativa/química , Oxirredução , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Food Chem ; 295: 548-555, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174794

RESUMO

The retrogradation behaviors and molecular structures of lotus seed starch (LS) combined with different hydrocolloids, chitosan (CS), guar gum (GG) and xanthan (XN), were investigated. Following an autoclave treatment, the storage modulus (G') value of LS-CS increased more rapidly than LS alone, indicating an increase in starch retrogradation. This might result from intermolecular interactions, increased ordered structure, decreased weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and greater leached amylose content in LS-CS system. The LS-GG and particularly LS-XN blends showed the opposite trend. The much greater Mw of LS-XN was mainly attributed to the lower retrogradation rate. The enwrapping effect of GG or XN on LS, as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, might retard their retrogradation by limiting the granules' swelling and the amylose leaching. Overall, the changes in the interaction force, ordered structure, Mw, leached amylose and microstructure were related to retrogradation behaviors of LS-hydrocolloid blends following an autoclave treatment.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Lotus/metabolismo , Amido/química , Amilose/química , Quitosana/análise , Galactanos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Mananas/análise , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Peso Molecular , Gomas Vegetais/análise , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/análise , Reologia , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 295: 579-587, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174798

RESUMO

Chemical composition, thermal, pasting, and moisture adsorption properties of flours from chickpea (Cicer aretinium L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Merr.), and yellow pea (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated over a 6-day germination. Protein content increased for pulses over germination while lentil had the highest protein content that increased from 30.65 to 33.60 g/100 g dry basis (d.b.). Lipid content in pulse flours decreased over germination with chickpea having the greatest decline, i.e. from 8.00 to 5.90 g/100 g (d.b.). Total starch decreased in lentil and yellow pea flours during germination, while there was no significant change (p > 0.05) in germinated chickpea flours. Thermal properties of pulse flours changed slightly, while pasting properties varied among pulses. The highest final viscosities for chickpea, lentil, and yellow pea flours were 1061, 981, and 1052 cP and were observed after 2, 1, and 0 days of germination, respectively. Moisture adsorption isotherms showed improved water adsorption capability after germination.


Assuntos
Cicer/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Adsorção , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/química
17.
Plant Sci ; 285: 175-183, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203882

RESUMO

The importance of de novo protein evolution is apparent, but most examples are de novo coding transcripts evolving from silent or non-coding DNA. The peptide macrocycle SunFlower Trypsin Inhibitor 1 (SFTI-1) evolved over 45 million years from genetic expansion within the N-terminal 'discarded' region of an ancestral seed albumin precursor. SFTI-1 and its adjacent albumin are both processed into separate, mature forms by asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP). Here to determine whether the evolution of SFTI-1 in a latent region of its precursor was critical, we used a transgene approach in A. thaliana analysed by peptide mass spectrometry and RT-qPCR. SFTI could emerge from alternative locations within preproalbumin as well as emerge with precision from unrelated seed proteins via AEP-processing. SFTI production was possible with the adjacent albumin, but peptide levels dropped greatly without the albumin. The ability for SFTI to be processed from multiple sequence contexts and different proteins suggests that to make peptide, it was not crucial for the genetic expansion that gave rise to SFTI and its family to be within a latent protein region. Interstitial peptides, evolving like SFTI within existing proteins, might be more widespread and as a mechanism, SFTI exemplifies a stable, new, functional peptide that did not need a new gene to evolve de novo.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis , Helianthus/genética , Helianthus/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
18.
Plant Sci ; 285: 34-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203892

RESUMO

Seed germination is a critical stage during the initiation of the plant lifecycle and is strongly affected by endogenous phytohormones and environmental stress. High temperature (HT) upregulates endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) to suppress seed germination, and ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) is the key positive regulator in the ABA signal-mediated modulation of seed germination. In plants, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a small gas messenger that participates in multiple physiological processes, but its role in seed germination thermotolerance has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we found that H2S enhanced the seed germination rate under HT. Moreover, HT accelerates the efflux of the E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, which results in increased nuclear accumulation of ELONG HYPCOTYL 5 (HY5) to activate the expression of ABI5 and thereby suppress seed germination. However, the H2S signal reversed the HT effect, as characterized by increased COP1 in the nucleus, which resulted in increased degradation of HY5 and reduced expression of ABI5 and thereby enhanced the seed germination thermotolerance. Thus, our findings reveal a novel role for the H2S signal in the modulation of seed germination thermotolerance through the nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1 and the downstream HY5 and ABI5 pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia
19.
Plant Sci ; 285: 79-90, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203896

RESUMO

Inactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) in vitro may be catalyzed either by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8'OH) or by ABA uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (ABAUGT), which conjugates ABA with glucose. However, the involvement of these enzymes in the control of ABA content in vivo, especially ABAUGT, has not been fully elucidated. In pea seeds, both PsABAUGT1 and PsABA8'OH1 contribute to the reduction of ABA content during seed maturation and imbibition; however, during the first hours of imbibition, a high expression of only PsABAUGT1 was observed. Imbibition of seeds with H2O2 increased the ABA content despite the oxygen availability and altered the expression of metabolic genes. The expression of the biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotene dioxygenase (PsNCED2) was increased, while that of PsABAUGT1 was decreased in each H2O2 experiment despite O2 availability. Under hypoxia, only seeds imbibed with H2O2 germinated, while under nonlimiting oxygen conditions, the germination rate was not altered by H2O2. Under hypoxia, the germination rate of H2O2-imbibed seeds seemed to not depend on the absolute ABA content and rather on the balance between ABA and gibberellins (GA), as H2O2 increased the expression of GA synthesis genes. Overexpression of PsABAUGT1 in Arabidopsis decreases seed ABA content, accelerates germination and reduces seed sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA, confirming the ability of PsABAUGT1 to inactivate ABA. Thus, PsABAUGT1 is a new player in the regulation of ABA content in maturating and imbibed pea seeds, both under standard conditions and in response to H2O2.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Homeostase , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Food Chem ; 297: 124992, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253327

RESUMO

Complex starch is gaining research attention due to its unique physicochemical and functional properties. In this study, the effects of green tea polyphenols on the properties and digestion of lotus seed starch under high hydrostatic pressure were investigated. The particle size, swelling power, solubility, crystallization, morphology and thermal properties of lotus seed starch were affected by green tea polyphenols. These may be due to the formation of non-inclusive complexes between lotus seed starch and green tea polyphenols. The morphology and green tea polyphenols distribution of the complexes were determined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, slow digestion properties of starch were realized under a dynamic in vitro rat stomach-duodenum model and the erosion of granules by amylase gradually decreased by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, green tea polyphenols were shown to be able to form V-type inclusion complex with amylose via high hydrostatic pressure.


Assuntos
Lotus/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Chá/química , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalização , Pressão Hidrostática , Lotus/química , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Amido/metabolismo , Chá/metabolismo
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