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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 74, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemic rebounds observed in 2010 and 2013 in Dielmo, a Senegalese village, during a decade (2008-2019) of universal coverage using a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) strategy could have contributed to the resurgence of malaria. Thus, this study was undertaken to understand the implications of net ownership and use on malaria rebound events. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out in Dielmo with 11 years of LLIN implementation from July 2008 to June 2019 with successive net renewals in 2011, 2014, 2016 and 2019. Quarterly cross-sectional surveys were performed to assess LLIN ownership and use by different age groups in the population. In addition, malaria incidence and transmission were assessed during the study period. RESULTS: Ownership of LLINs decreased significantly from 88% in the 1st year of net implementation to 70% during the first malaria upsurge and 72% during the second upsurge while net use decreased significantly from 66% during the 1st year to 58% during the first malaria upsurge and 53% during the second upsurge. Among young adults aged 15-29 years, net use decreased significantly from the 2nd year (51%) of net use to reach 43% during the first malaria upsurge and only 32% use during the second malaria upsurge. During the second malaria upsurge, net use was significantly lower among older children aged 10-14 years old than during the 1st year of net use (p < 0.001). During the first and the second malaria upsurges, the malaria incidence was significantly higher among children aged 10-14 years old (0.4 attacks per person-year) and young adults aged 15-29 years old (0.3 and 0.4 attacks per person, respectively) than during that the 1st year of net implementation (only 0.02 attacks per person-year for 10-14 year olds and 0.04 for 15-29 year olds; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The first malaria upsurge occurred following a progressive decrease in net use after the 2nd year of their implementation with an important increase in malaria incidence among older children while the second malaria upsurge was significantly associated with the decrease of net use among older children and young adults. The regular use of nets in all age groups prevented the occurrence of a third malaria upsurge in Dielmo.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Longitudinais , Controle de Mosquitos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1295181, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327573

RESUMO

Background: Depression is highly prevalent in people living with HIV (PLWH) but remains under treated in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, we conducted the first study of Group Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) to treat depression in PLWH in Senegal. We assessed the perceptions and experiences of patients and group facilitators, as well as barriers to implementation. Methods: This study was conducted at the Fann National University Hospital Center in Dakar, the urban capital of Senegal. Qualitative data were collected during the implementation phase (February to June 2020 and then from January to February 2021), with a 6-month pause due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty-five patients and three group facilitators were individually interviewed by a socio-anthropologist. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Results: Group IPT was perceived as successful and beneficial by patients and facilitators. Patients reported positive experiences with group IPT and sustained outcomes. Beyond improving depressive symptoms, patients reported improvements in their social and professional lives, and the development of skills to prevent relapse. Group facilitators noted the benefits of therapy for their patients and for their professional skills, reporting greater clinical competence and improved supportive skills. Challenges to intervention implementation included confidentiality and patient privacy concerns, healthcare accessibility issues, and time demands. Conclusion: In this first qualitative study of group IPT for depression in PLWH in Senegal, participants described both positive experiences with the intervention and challenges to its implementation. Future studies, conducted in suburban and rural communities outside of Dakar, would further inform the implementation of IPT in Senegal.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Humanos , Depressão/terapia , Pandemias , Senegal , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011755, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Senegal is a leprosy low-endemic country with nine villages known to be hyperendemic with a leprosy incidence rate above 1,000 per million inhabitants. We aim to implement a door-to-door screening strategy associated with the administration of a single-dose-rifampicin (SDR) as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to household and social contacts in these villages and to identify spatial clustering and assess the risk of leprosy in population according to the physical distance to the nearest index-case. METHODS: From October/2020 to February/2022 active door-to-door screening for leprosy was conducted in nine villages. Using an open-source application, we recorded screening results, demographic and geographic coordinate's data. Using Poisson model we analysed clustering and estimated risk of contracting leprosy in contacts according to the distance to the nearest new leprosy patient. RESULTS: In nine villages, among 9086 contacts listed, we examined 7115. Among 6554 eligible contacts, 97.8% took SDR. We found 39(0.64%) new leprosy cases among 6,124 examined in six villages. Among new cases, 21(53.8%) were children, 10(25.6%) were multibacillary and 05(12.8%) had grade 2 disability. The prevalent risk ratio and 95% confidence intervale(95%CI) adjusted by village were 4.2(95%CI 1.7-10.1), 0.97(95%CI 0.2-4.4), 0.87(95%CI 0.2-25), 0.89(95%CI 0.3-2.6) and 0.70(95%CI 0.2-2.5) for the contacts living in the same household of an index case, 1-25m, 26-50m, 51-75m and 76-100m compared to those living at more than 100m respectively. We identified nine high prevalent clusters including 27/39(69%) of new cases in 490/7,850(6%) inhabitants, with relative risks of 46.6(p-value = 0.01), and 7.3, 42.8, 8.2, 12.5, 11.4, 23.5, 22.3, and 14.6 (non-significant p-values). CONCLUSIONS: Our strategy has proved the feasibility of active screening for leprosy in contacts and the introduction of PEP for leprosy under programmatic conditions. Only individuals living in the same household as the leprosy patient had a significant risk of contracting leprosy. We documented nine clusters of leprosy that could benefit from tailored control activities while optimizing resources.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Rifampina , Criança , Humanos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 16, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban population health initiative was designed as a multidisciplinary, multisector programme to address cardiovascular (CV) disease, specifically hypertension and its underlying causes in the cities of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; Dakar, Senegal; and São Paulo, Brazil. This article aims to provide an overview of the history and dynamics of CV disease policy making in the three countries, to present the policy reform contributions of the initiative and its role in the policy agenda-setting framework/process in each country and to identify the enablers and challenges to the initiative for doing so. METHODS: A qualitative case study was conducted for each setting from November 2020 to January 2021, comprised of a document review, semi-structured in-depth interviews and unstructured interviews with stakeholders involved in the initiative. The literature review included documents from the initiative and the peer-reviewed and grey literature with a total of 188 documents screened. Interviews were conducted with 21 stakeholders. Data collection and thematic analysis was guided by (i) the Kingdon multiple streams conceptual framework with the main themes being CV disease problems, policy, politics and the role of policy entrepreneurs; and (ii) the study question inquiring on the role of the urban population health initiative at the CV disease policy level and enabling and challenging factors to advancing CV disease policy. Data were thematically analysed using the Framework Method. RESULTS: Each setting was characterized by a high hypertension and CV disease burden combined with an aware and proactive political environment. Policy outcomes attributed to the initiative were updating the guidelines and/or algorithms of care for hypertension and including revised physical and nutritional education in school curricula, in each city. Overall, the urban health initiative's effects in the policy arena, were most prominent in Mongolia and Senegal, where the team effectively acted as policy entrepreneur, promoting the solutions/policies in alignment with the most pressing local problems and in strong involvement with the political actors. The initiative was also involved in improving access to CV disease drugs at primary health levels. Its success was influenced by the local governance structures, the proximity of the initiative to the policy makers and the local needs. In Brazil, needs were expressed predominantly in the clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-country experience shows that, although the policy and political environment plays its role in shaping initiatives, often the local priority needs are the driving force behind wider change.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Hipertensão , Humanos , Saúde da População Urbana , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Brasil , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 873, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195638

RESUMO

Information on population structure and connectivity of targeted species is key for proper implementation of spatial conservation measures. We used a combination of genomics, biophysical modelling, and biotelemetry to infer the population structure and connectivity of Atlantic meagre, an important fisheries resource throughout its distribution. Genetic samples from previously identified Atlantic spawning locations (Gironde, Tejo, Guadalquivir, Banc d'Arguin) and two additional regions (Algarve and Senegal) were analysed using genome-wide SNP-genotyping and mitochondrial DNA analyses. Biophysical models were conducted to investigate larval dispersal and connectivity from the known Atlantic spawning locations. Additionally, thirteen fish were double-tagged with biotelemetry transmitters off the Algarve (Portugal) to assess movement patterns and connectivity of adult individuals. This multidisciplinary approach provided a robust overview of meagre population structure and connectivity in the Atlantic. Nuclear SNP-genotyping showed a clear differentiation between the European and African populations, with significant isolation of the few known Atlantic spawning sites. The limited level of connectivity between these subpopulations is potentially driven by adults, capable of wide-ranging movements and connecting sites 500 km apart, as evidenced by tagging studies, whilst larval dispersal inferred by modelling is much more limited (average of 52 km; 95% of connectivity events up to 174 km). Our results show sufficient evidence of population structure, particularly between Africa and Europe but also within Europe, for the meagre to be managed as separate stocks. Additionally, considering the low degree of larvae connectivity, the implementation of marine protected areas in key spawning sites could be crucial towards species sustainability.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Perciformes , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Larva , Perciformes/genética , Senegal
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(2): 214-219, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167431

RESUMO

Despite marked progress in Senegal, three regions in the southeast part continue to have a high burden of malaria, but there have been no recent studies assessing the prevalence of malaria associated with pregnancy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria infection in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Senegal. During the malaria transmission season of 2019, pregnant women attending 11 health care facilities for a scheduled visit and those presenting unwell with signs of malaria were invited to participate in a malaria screening study. A finger prick blood sample was taken for malaria diagnosis by rapid diagnosis test (RDT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 877 pregnant women were enrolled, 787 for a scheduled antenatal consultation and 90 for an unscheduled consultation with signs of malaria. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among the first group was 48% by PCR and 20% by RDT, and that among the second group was 86% by PCR and 83% by RDT. RDT sensitivity in capturing asymptomatic, PCR-positive infections was 9.2% but ranged from 83% to 94% among febrile women. The prevalence of infection by PCR in women who reported having received at least three doses of sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) was 41.9% compared with 58.9% in women who reported they had not received any SP doses (prevalence ratio adjusted for gravidity and gestational age, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.41-0.73). The burden of P. falciparum infections remains high among pregnant women, the majority of which are not captured by RDT. More effective measures to prevent malaria infection in pregnancy are needed.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Lactente , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Gestantes , Prevalência , Senegal/epidemiologia , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 747, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272885

RESUMO

The worldwide decline in malaria incidence is revealing the extensive burden of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI), which remains poorly understood and difficult to diagnose. To characterize NMFI in Senegal, we collected venous blood and clinical metadata in a cross-sectional study of febrile patients and healthy controls in a low malaria burden area. Using 16S and untargeted sequencing, we detected viral, bacterial, or eukaryotic pathogens in 23% (38/163) of NMFI cases. Bacteria were the most common, with relapsing fever Borrelia and spotted fever Rickettsia found in 15.5% and 3.8% of cases, respectively. Four viral pathogens were found in a total of 7 febrile cases (3.5%). Sequencing also detected undiagnosed Plasmodium, including one putative P. ovale infection. We developed a logistic regression model that can distinguish Borrelia from NMFIs with similar presentation based on symptoms and vital signs (F1 score: 0.823). These results highlight the challenge and importance of improved diagnostics, especially for Borrelia, to support diagnosis and surveillance.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Malária , Plasmodium , Humanos , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Borrelia/genética
9.
Virus Res ; 339: 199259, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926155

RESUMO

In Senegal, since its first detection in early March 2020, genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 isolates has led to the identification of the emergence of the Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 sublineages from early June 2022. To investigate the origin of a cluster of cases in Northern Senegal on July 2022, isolates were analysed using Next-generation sequencing and phylogeny. Our data provided evidence of the origin of the cluster of BA.4 cases from a XAS recombinant, that is to date, the first reported sequence of this variant from Senegal. Continuous genomic surveillance of positive SARS-CoV-2 samples is a crucial need.


Assuntos
Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Senegal , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
10.
Langmuir ; 40(1): 529-540, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105537

RESUMO

The adsorption process of Acacia gum (A. senegal), a complex heteropolysaccharide, was followed by using a spectroscopic method to unravel the relative contribution of the protein moieties and the carbohydrate blocks on the adsorption process. In situ ATR-FTIR was used to investigate the kinetics and conformational changes associated with the adsorption of A. senegal gum on gold nanoparticle films (Au-NPs) at different pHs. The results of this thorough study highlighted the adsorption of A. senegal gum through its protein moieties, in particular, AGPs of low molecular weight and high protein content, close to the Au-NPs surface. Isotherm experiments, by gradually increasing the concentration, showed that the gum adsorption was heterogeneous and followed the Freundlich model for the amide part, while the polysaccharide part followed the Langmuir model. In addition, the hydration and structural organization of the gum layer depended on the gum concentration. A. senegal gum adsorbed irreversibly on Au-NPs whatever the pHs, but the adsorbed layer presented a different behavior depending on pH. A more aggregated and less hydrated structure was observed at acidic pH, while a very hydrated and continuous layer was detected at higher pH. The secondary structure analysis through amide III band revealed a change in the gum secondary structure at high pH with the increase in ß-turn while random coil decreased.


Assuntos
Acacia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro , Senegal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amidas , Adsorção
11.
Health Econ ; 33(1): 153-193, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37916862

RESUMO

We use a cohort of female sex workers (FSWs) in Senegal to show how large anticipated economic shocks lead to increased risky sexual behavior. Exploiting the exogenous timing of interviews, we study the effect of Tabaski, the most important Islamic festival celebrated in Senegal, in which most households purchase an expensive animal for sacrifice. Condom use, measured robustly via the list experiment, falls by between 27.3 percentage points (pp) (65.5%) and 43.1 pp (22.7%) in the 9 days before Tabaski, or a maximum of 49.5 pp (76%) in the 7 day period preceding Tabaski. The evidence suggests the economic pressures from Tabaski are key to driving the behavior change observed through the price premium for condomless sex. Those most exposed to the economic pressure from Tabaski were unlikely to be using condoms at all in the week before the festival. Our findings show that Tabaski leads to increased risky behaviors for FSWs, a key population at high risk of HIV infection, for at least 1 week every year and has implications for FSWs in all countries celebrating Tabaski or similar festivals. Because of the scale, frequency, and size of the behavioral response to shocks of this type, policy should be carefully designed to protect vulnerable women against anticipated shocks.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Senegal/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Sexo Seguro
12.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1202966, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38045972

RESUMO

Background: African countries leveraged testing capacities to enhance public health action in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper describes experiences and lessons learned during the improvement of testing capacity throughout the COVID-19 response in Senegal, Uganda, Nigeria, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods: The four countries' testing strategies were studied using a mixed-methods approach. Desk research on COVID-19 testing strategies was conducted and complemented by interviewing key informants. The findings were synthesized to demonstrate learning outcomes across the four countries. Results: The four countries demonstrated severely limited testing capacities at the onset of the pandemic. These countries decentralized COVID-19 testing services by leveraging preexisting laboratory systems such as PCR and GeneXpert used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) to address this gap and the related inequities, engaging the private sector, establishing new laboratories, and using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to expand testing capacity and reduce the turnaround time (TAT). The use of digital platforms improved the TAT. Testing supplies were sourced through partners, although access to global markets was challenging. Case detection remains suboptimal due to high costs, restrictive testing strategies, testing access challenges, and misinformation, which hinder the demand for testing. The TAT for PCR remained a challenge, while RDT use was underreported, although Senegal manufactured RDTs locally. Key findings indicate that regionally coordinated procurement and manufacturing mechanisms are required, that testing modalities must be simplified for improved access, and that the risk-based testing strategy limits comprehensive understanding of the disease burden. Conclusion: Although testing capacities improved significantly during the pandemic, case detection and access to testing remained suboptimal. The four countries could benefit from further simplification of testing modalities and cost reduction. Local manufacturing and pooled procurement mechanisms for diagnostics are needed for optimal pandemic preparedness and response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , República Democrática do Congo , Nigéria , Uganda/epidemiologia , Senegal , Teste para COVID-19 , Pandemias
13.
J Parasitol ; 109(6): 580-587, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104629

RESUMO

Urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are endemic in Senegal, with prevalence heterogeneous throughout the country. Because of their way of life, nomadic pastoralists are not typically included in epidemiological surveys, and data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Senegalese nomadic populations are largely non-existent. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of schistosomiasis in Senegalese nomadic pastoralists. A modified snowball sampling survey was conducted among 1,467 nomadic pastoralists aged 6 mo and older in 5 districts in northern Senegal. Dried blood spots from participants of all ages and data regarding demographics were collected to assess IgG antibody responses against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) using a bead-based multiplex assay. Out of 1,467 study subjects, 1,464 (99.8%) provided IgG serological data that cleared quality assurance. Of the participants with appropriate data, 56.6% were male, the median age was 22 yr, and 31.6% were under 15 yr of age. The overall anti-SEA IgG seroprevalence was 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.1-21.1%) with the highest estimates observed in Dagana (35.9%) and the lowest observed in Podor nomadic groups (3.4%). Antibody responses increased significantly with age except for the oldest age groups (>40 yr of age), which saw lower levels of antibody response compared to younger adults. When controlling for age and location by multivariate regression, the male sex was associated with a 2-fold greater odds of anti-SEA IgG seropositivity (aPOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5-2.7). Serosurveys for anti-SEA IgG among nomadic peoples in northern Senegal found a substantial percentage of individuals with evidence for current or previous Schistosoma spp. infection with the highest levels of exposure in the district adjacent to the Diama dam along the Senegal River. With IgG prevalence increased by age except in the older adults, and the male sex significantly associated with seropositivity, these data point toward sex-associated behavioral practices and human environmental modification as risk factors for Schistosoma exposure.


Assuntos
Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 46: 5, 2023.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37928220

RESUMO

Introduction: after a year of evolution, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a burden. The African continent has not had the high case and death rates from COVID-19 as was predicted early in the pandemic. However, coronavirus is placing severe strains on Africa´s health and economic sectors. Senegal, like other African countries, continues to face this pandemic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the management strategy and the epidemiological profile of the pandemic in Senegal one year on. Methods: we listed all patients who tested positive for COVID-19 by RT-PCR throughout the country during the first year of the pandemic, from 2 March 2020 (first case date) to 1st March 2021. Epidemiological data were analysed. Results: a total of 34,732 positive cases were diagnosed and recorded in one year, with a case-fatality rate of 2.5%. All the country´s administrative regions had been affected. Dakar, the capital, was the epicentre of the pandemic. Male predominance was established on the basis of the number of positive cases and deaths. The average age of subjects was 47 years and the cure rate was 83.5%. People over 60 were the most vulnerable, particularly those with cardiovascular co-morbidities. Conclusion: Senegal´s strategy for managing COVID-19 has received international recognition. It has been dynamic, drawing on experience from previous management of public health events such as Ebola. The COVID-19 pandemic has put a strain on our fragile health systems. However, the response and the results achieved highlight the significant progress made by our country, helping to ensure the resilience of the health system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Senegal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença
16.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7268, 2023 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949851

RESUMO

We here analyze data from the first year of an ongoing nationwide program of genetic surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Senegal. The analysis is based on 1097 samples collected at health facilities during passive malaria case detection in 2019; it provides a baseline for analyzing parasite genetic metrics as they vary over time and geographic space. The study's goal was to identify genetic metrics that were informative about transmission intensity and other aspects of transmission dynamics, focusing on measures of genetic relatedness between parasites. We found the best genetic proxy for local malaria incidence to be the proportion of polygenomic infections (those with multiple genetically distinct parasites), although this relationship broke down at low incidence. The proportion of related parasites was less correlated with incidence while local genetic diversity was uninformative. The type of relatedness could discriminate local transmission patterns: two nearby areas had similarly high fractions of relatives, but one was dominated by clones and the other by outcrossed relatives. Throughout Senegal, 58% of related parasites belonged to a single network of relatives, within which parasites were enriched for shared haplotypes at known and suspected drug resistance loci and at one novel locus, reflective of ongoing selection pressure.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947572

RESUMO

Universal health coverage (UHC) defines individuals' timely access to healthcare services without suffering any health-related financial constraints. The Senegalese government has shown commitments towards achievement of UHC as a way of improving access by the population to quality healthcare services. This is very pertinent for promoting some indicators of under-five health in Senegal. Therefore, this study analyzed the factors influencing sick children's utilization of the nearest healthcare facilities and their wait times in Senegal. The data were from the Service Provision Assessment (SPA) survey, which was conducted in 2018. The instrumental Tobit regression model was used for data analysis. The results showed that 63.50% and 86.01% of the children utilized health posts and publicly owned facilities, respectively. Also, 98.46% of the children utilized urban facilities. The nearest facilities were utilized by 74.55%, and 78.19% spent less than an hour in the facilities. The likelihood of using the nearest healthcare facilities significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with caregivers' primary education, higher education, residence in some regions (Fatick, Kaokack, Saint Louis, Sediou, and Tambacounda), and use of private/NGO not-for-profit facilities, but increased with not having visited any other providers, residence in the Kaffrie region, vomiting symptoms, use of health centers, and use of health posts. Moreover, treatment wait times significantly increased (p < 0.05) with the use of nearest facilities, residence in some regions (Diourbel, Kaokack, Matam and Saint Louis), use of private for-profit facilities, use of private not-for-profit facilities, and urban residence, but decreased with secondary education, use of health centers, use of health posts, vomiting symptoms, and showing other symptoms. It was concluded that reduction in wait times and utilization of the nearest healthcare facilities are fundamental to achieving UHC in Senegal. Therefore, more efforts should be integrated at promoting regional and sectoral equities through facilitated public and private healthcare investment.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Listas de Espera , Humanos , Criança , Senegal , Atenção à Saúde , Vômito
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 389, 2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37917217

RESUMO

The Gobra zebu genetic breeding program has resulted in the genetic improvement of a new population. This population gained genetic characteristics that set them apart from the other cattle populations reared in Senegal. The cause of these differences might be the reproductive isolation and selection to which this population of the "Centre de Recherches Zootechniques" of Dahra has been subjected since the 1950s. This study aimed to assess the genetic differentiation and structuration of this population compared to the main cattle breeds used in Senegal. A total of 180 individuals, selected from the Gobra selection nucleus and bovine populations from four main breeds in Senegal, were included in this study. We used a panel of 21 microsatellite markers among those recommended by the Food Agriculture Organization, to conduct the molecular genotyping of our sampled populations. The basic genetic parameters of differentiation and structuration were calculated using various bioinformatics software. The results of this study, particularly the degrees of genetic differentiation (Fst), the coefficient of genetic homogeneity (Gst), and the gene flow (Nm), show a significant genetic differentiation of the Gobra from the station compared to the other populations studied. Structuring and phylogeny analyses reveal a micro-structuring within the Gobra population as a novelty. This micro-structuring clearly identifies the Gobra individuals from Dahra's station among the other Gobra populations studied. The main causes of these observations would be reproductive isolation and the selection pressure exerted on this population for several decades.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Deriva Genética , Humanos , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Senegal , Repetições de Microssatélites , Variação Genética
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 46: 12, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035156

RESUMO

Introduction: even though exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for up to six months is recognised as essential infant care, it is still insufficiently practiced. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of EBF cessation in Thiès. Methods: this was a survival analysis of data collected using a cross-sectional procedure. Data collection took place from 2nd December 2019 to 21st January 2020. The study population consisted of mothers of children aged 6 to 12 months residing in Thiès and seen at the reference health centre of the Thiès Health District during infant vaccination sessions. The number of subjects was 400 mothers recruited using a systematic survey, with a sampling interval equal to two. Data were collected through a face-to-face interview. Predictive factors were identified using the Cox regression model. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) are calculated. Results: the average age of the mothers was 27.08 ± 6.34 years. The proportion of mothers who breastfed their child within one hour of birth was 29.25%. The proportion of those who practiced EBF was 41.50%. The incidence density of EBF cessation was 14 person-months per 100 breastfeeding mothers. The median duration of EBF was 5 months. Lack of advice on EBF during antenatal care (AHR=1.42; 95% CI =1.08-1.85), sources of information other than health professionals (AHR =1.51; 95% CI =1.05-2.19), late initiation of EBF, i.e. breastfeeding beyond 24 hours after birth (AHR =1.53; 95% CI =1.02-2.28) and low level of knowledge about EBF (AHR =1.46; 95% CI =1.11-1.92) were significantly associated with early termination of EBF. Conclusion: the promotion of EBF for up to six months will necessarily involve the promotion of prenatal consultations during which professionals should raise awareness among future mothers.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Lactente , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Senegal , Cuidado Pré-Natal
20.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 31(4): 2272741, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37982806

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the harm reduction potential of virtual sex work (VSW) such as video or audio calls with clients. VSW limits exposure to COVID-19 and STIs. However, sex workers using digital technologies face high risks of technology-facilitated intimate partner violence (IPV), such as non-consensual distribution of intimate images. This study explored perceived risks and benefits of VSW, including the salience of STI harm reduction. Ethnographic interviews and participant observation with self-identified cis women sex workers in Dakar between January 2018 and August 2019 informed a further period of focused data collection in June 2022, in which two key research participants and the author devised a goal of concrete community benefit: a list of contextually relevant digital privacy precautions and resources. Brainstorming this list during workshops with 18 sex workers provided prompts for participant perspectives. While participants generally preferred VSW, citing STI prevention as a key reason, most resumed in-person sex work after COVID-19 curfews lifted; social risks of digital privacy breach and potential outing outweighed physical risks of contracting STIs. Participants proposed privacy features for mobile applications to make VSW viable and benefit from STI prevention. Their reflections call on tech companies to embed values of informed consent and privacy into platform design, shifting the burden of protecting privacy from individuals to companies. This study addresses a gap in technology-facilitated IPV research, which has concentrated on Euro-American contexts. Participant perspectives can inform action in technology policy sectors to advance criminalised communities' rights to sexual health, privacy, and autonomy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Sexual , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Humanos , Feminino , Trabalho Sexual , Senegal , Pandemias , Privacidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
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