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1.
Zootaxa ; 4878(3): zootaxa.4878.3.2, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311142

RESUMO

Agassiz, L. (1862) Contributions to the natural history of the United States of America. Vol. 4. Little Brown, Boston, 380 pp.Aguirrezabalaga, F., Altuna, A., Borja, A., Feliu, J., GarcíaCarrascosa, A.M., Romero, A., San Vicente, C., Torres-Gómez-de-Cádiz, J.A., Uriz, M.J. Ibánez, M. (1984) Contribución al conocimiento de la fauna marina de la costa Vasca. Π. Lurralde, Investigación y espacio, 1984, pp. 83-133.Alder, J. (1856) A notice of some new genera and species of British hydroid zoophytes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 2, 18, 353-362.        https://doi.org/10.1080/00222935608697652Allman, G.J. (1873) Interim report on the hydroids collected by L.F. de Pourtalès during the Gulf Stream exploration of United States coast survey. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 3 (7), 185-186.Allman, G.J. (1874) Report on the Hydroida collected during the expeditions of H.M.S. 'Porcupine.' Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 8, 469-481.        https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1874.tb00566.xAllman, G.J. (1877) Report on the Hydroida collected during the exploration of the Gulf Stream by L.F. de Pourtalès, assistant United States Coast Survey. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 5 (2), 1-66.        https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl. TITLE: 15852Allman, G.J. (1883) Report on the Hydroida dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. I. Plumularidae. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger 1873-1876, 1-55, pls. 1-20.        https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl. TITLE: 1322Hirohito, E.S. (1995) The hydroids of Sagami Bay II. Thecata. Biological Laboratory Imperial Household, Tokyo, pp. 1-355.Izquierdo, M.S., García-Corrales, P., Bacallado, J.J. (1986b) Contribución al conocimiento de los hidrozoos caliptoblástidos del Archipiélago Canario. Parte II: Plumulariidae. Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 3 (2), 49-66.Jäderholm, Ε. (1909) Northern and Arctic invertebrates in the collection of the Swedish State Museum (Riksmuseum). IV. Hydroiden. Kungliga Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar, 45 (1), 1-124.Jäderholm, E. (1919) Zur Kenntnis der Hydroidenfauna Japans. Arkiv för Zoologi, 12 (9), 1-34.            Jensen, A. Frederiksen, R. (1992) The fauna associated with the bank-forming deepwater coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinaria) on the Faroe shelf. Sarsia, 77 (1), 53-69.        https://doi.org/10.1080/00364827.1992.10413492Jickeli, C.F. (1883) Der Bau der Hydroidpolypen. Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 8, 580-680.Johnston, G. (1833) Illustrations in British zoology. Magazine of natural history and journal of zoology, botany, mineralogy, geology and meteorology, 6, 320-324, 497-499.Johnston, G. (1837) A catalogue of the zoophytes of Berwickshire. Berwickshire Naturalist's Club Proceedings, 1, 107-108.Johnston, G. (1838) A history of the British zoophytes. W.H. Lizars, Edinburgh, 341 pp.        https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Hidrozoários , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Senegal , Suínos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374228

RESUMO

In central Senegal, malaria incidence declined in response to scaling-up of control measures from 2000 to 2010 and has since remained stable, making elimination unlikely in the short term. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots using a metapopulation mathematical model, based on a differential-equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidence from 45 villages. Three approaches for selecting intervention targets were compared: (a) villages with malaria cases during the low transmission season of the previous year; (b) villages with highest incidence during the high transmission season of the previous year; (c) villages with highest connectivity with adjacent populations. Our results showed that intervention strategies targeting hotspots would be effective in reducing malaria incidence in both targeted and untargeted areas. Regardless of the intervention strategy used, pre-elimination (1-5 cases per 1000 per year) would not be reached without simultaneously increasing vector control by more than 10%. A cornerstone of malaria control and elimination is the effective targeting of strategic locations. Mathematical tools help to identify those locations and estimate the impact in silico.


Assuntos
Malária , Quimioprevenção , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Senegal/epidemiologia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.8, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056136

RESUMO

Corcyrogobius pulcher sp. nov. is described from off Île de Ngor, Dakar, Senegal. Corcyrogobius pulcher is distinguished from its two congeners by having the rear edge of the jaws ending posteriorly below mideye, second dorsal fin I/9, pectoral fin rays 17, pelvic fins oval or truncated posteriorly, scales in lateral series 26-27, anterior oculoscapular head canal with pore ß, suborbital row b of sensory papillae anteriorly beginning below vertical of posterior edge of eye, dark vertical caudal bar, branchiostegal membrane without intense dark spot, cheek with two oblique whitish stripes, the first going from the eye downwards and forward to the posterior jaws, the second on the preopercular, alternating with brown oblique stripe going from behind the eye downwards and forward across the cheek. Furthermore, mitochondrial COI-barcoding data unambiguously support the species-level distinctiveness of the three Corcyrogobius species. A key to the species of Corcyrogobius is provided.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Peixes , Cabeça , Senegal
5.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193597

RESUMO

En 2006 nace una ONG en Boulembou (A 500 km de Dakar), fundada por cooperantes e inmigrantes del pueblo en nuestro país, donde se hicieron estudios para definir el entorno y asambleas y comités para priorizar intervenciones. OBJETIVOS: conocer el funcionamiento de un proyecto comunitario y formar parte de una ONG de codesarrollo, así como obtener y valorar los resultados de sus acciones a medio y largo plazo sobre la población. MÉTODOS: codesarrollo (las personas inmigrantes ayudan en realizar intervenciones en sus países de origen) y salud comunitaria (acciones para mejorar la salud de una comunidad más allá de la individual). RESULTADOS: el pueblo tiene agua potable, huertos, centro de salud (enfermero, comadrona y agentes de salud) y mejoras en la escuela. DISCUSIÓN: el enfoque y las líneas de trabajo realizadas desde un punto de vista comunitario y de codesarrollo han permitido que los proyectos se autogestionen y autofinancien para poder seguir evolucionando y progresando


An NGO was founded in 2006 in Boulembou (located 500 km from Dakar). It was founded by aid workers and immigrants from this town to our country. Studies were performed there to define the setting and to start meetings and committees to prioritize interventions. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the operation of a community project and be part of a co-development NGO in addition to obtaining and evaluating the impact of its actions on the population in the medium and long term. METHODS: Co-development (immigrants assist with development in countries of origin) and community health (actions targeted at improving community health). RESULTS: The town now has drinking water from fountains, orchards and a healthcare centre (with a nurse, midwife and healthcare agents) in addition to school improvements. DISCUSSION: Projects were implemented from a community and co-development point of view and have facilitated self-management and self-financing to continue evolving and progressing by themselves


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Participação da Comunidade , Organizações , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Cooperação Internacional , Senegal , Saúde Pública , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0232306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986707

RESUMO

Tsetse eradication continues to be a top priority for African governments including that of Senegal, which embarked on a project to eliminate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, following an area-wide integrated pest management approach with an SIT component. A successful SIT programme requires competitive sterile males of high biological quality. This may be hampered by handling processes including irradiation and the release mechanisms, necessitating continued improvement of these processes, to maintain the quality of flies. A new prototype of an automated chilled adult release system (Bruno Spreader Innovation, (BSI™)) for tsetse flies was tested for its accuracy (in counting) and release rate consistency. Also, its impact on the quality of the released sterile males was evaluated on performance indicators, including flight propensity, mating competitiveness, premating and mating duration, insemination rate of mated females and survival of male flies. The BSITM release system accurately counted and homogenously released flies at the lowest motor speed set (0.6 rpm), at a consistent rate of 60±9.58 males/min. Also, the release process, chilling (6 ± 1°C) and passing of flies through the machine) had no significant negative impact on the male flight propensity, mating competitiveness, premating and mating durations and the insemination rates. Only the survival of flies was negatively affected whether under feeding or starvation. The positive results of this study show that the BSI™ release system is promising for use in future tsetse SIT programmes. However, the negative impact of the release process on survival of flies needs to be addressed in future studies and results of this study confirmed under operational field conditions in West Africa.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Masculina/veterinária , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/fisiologia , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores/instrumentação , Senegal , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925982

RESUMO

Cultivated diversity is considered an insurance against major climatic variability. However, since the 1980s, several studies have shown that climate variability and agricultural changes may already have locally eroded crop genetic diversity. We studied pearl millet diversity in Senegal through a comparison of pearl millet landraces collected 40 years apart. We found that more than 20% of villages visited in 1976 had stopped growing pearl millet. Despite this, its overall genetic diversity has been maintained but differentiation between early- and late-flowering accessions has been reduced. We also found stronger crop-to-wild gene flow than wild-to-crop gene flow and that wild-to-crop gene flow was weaker in 2016 than in 1976. In conclusion, our results highlight genetic homogenization in Senegal. This homogenization within cultivated pearl millet and between wild and cultivated forms is a key factor in genetic erosion and it is often overlooked. Improved assessment and conservation strategies are needed to promote and conserve both wild and cultivated pearl millet diversity.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Pennisetum/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produção Agrícola/história , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluxo Gênico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Senegal
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 162, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952806

RESUMO

Introduction: the purpose of our study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on health care activities and prescriptions at the Albert Royer National Children´s Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study comparing outpatient activity, hospitalizations and prescriptions over the first-quarter of 2019 and 2020. Results: an average drop in external consultations of 33% was reported in the first quarter of 2020 (the pandemic period) compared to the first quarter of 2019. An increase in hospitalizations was observed mainly in the months of January and February. However, a drop of 11% was reported in the month of March. The same is true for prescriptions, for which a drop of 10% was reported only in the month of March.Conclusion: the current COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on outpatients´ consultations, health care activities and prescriptions at the Albert Royer National Children´s Hospital. Effective measures should be taken to prevent effects on mortality and Hospital activities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Senegal/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until 2011, stockouts of family planning commodities were common in Senegalese public health facilities. Recognizing the importance of addressing this problem, the Government of Senegal implemented the Informed Push Model (IPM) supply system, which involves logisticians to collect facility-level stock turnover data once a month and provide contraceptive supplies accordingly. The aims of this paper were to evaluate the impact of IPM on contraceptive availability and on stockout duration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To estimate the impact of the IPM on contraceptive availability, stock card data were obtained from health facilities selected through multistage sampling. A total number of 103 health facilities pertaining to 27 districts and nine regions across the country participated in this project. We compared the odds of contraceptive stockouts within the health facilities on the 23 months after the intervention with the 18 months before. The analysis was performed with a logistic model of the monthly time-series. The odds of stockout for any of the five contraceptive products decreased during the 23 months post-intervention compared to the 18 months pre-intervention (odds ratio, 95%CI: 0.34, 0.22-0.51). To evaluate the impact of the IPM on duration of stockouts, a mixed negative binomial zero-truncated regression analysis was performed. The IPM was not effective in reducing the duration of contraceptive stockouts (incidence rate ratio, 95%CI: 0.81, 0.24-2.7), except for the two long-acting contraceptives (intrauterine devices and implants). Our model predicted a decrease in stockout median duration from 23 pre- to 4 days post-intervention for intrauterine devices; and from 19 to 14 days for implants. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the IPM has resulted in greater efficiency in contraceptive stock management, increasing the availability of contraceptive methods in health facilities in Senegal. The IPM also resulted in decreased duration of stockouts for intrauterine devices and implants, but not for any of the short-acting contraception (pills and injectables).


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/instrumentação , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/provisão & distribução , Senegal
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008417, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is responsible for the second highest burden of disease among neglected tropical diseases globally, with over 90 percent of cases occurring in African regions where drugs to treat the disease are only sporadically available. Additionally, human re-infection after treatment can be a problem where there are high numbers of infected snails in the environment. Recent experiments indicate that aquatic factors, including plants, nutrients, or predators, can influence snail abundance and parasite production within infected snails, both components of human risk. This study investigated how snail host abundance and release of cercariae (the free swimming stage infective to humans) varies at water access sites in an endemic region in Senegal, a setting where human schistosomiasis prevalence is among the highest globally. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected snail intermediate hosts at 15 random points stratified by three habitat types at 36 water access sites, and counted cercarial production by each snail after transfer to the laboratory on the same day. We found that aquatic vegetation was positively associated with per-capita cercarial release by snails, probably because macrophytes harbor periphyton resources that snails feed upon, and well-fed snails tend to produce more parasites. In contrast, the abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrate snail predators was negatively associated with per-capita cercarial release by snails, probably because of several potential sublethal effects on snails or snail infection, despite a positive association between snail predators and total snail numbers at a site, possibly due to shared habitat usage or prey tracking by the predators. Thus, complex bottom-up and top-down ecological effects in this region plausibly influence the snail shedding rate and thus, total local density of schistosome cercariae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that aquatic macrophytes and snail predators can influence per-capita cercarial production and total abundance of snails. Thus, snail control efforts might benefit by targeting specific snail habitats where parasite production is greatest. In conclusion, a better understanding of top-down and bottom-up ecological factors that regulate densities of cercarial release by snails, rather than solely snail densities or snail infection prevalence, might facilitate improved schistosomiasis control.


Assuntos
Plantas , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Cercárias/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Perifíton , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Senegal
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603345

RESUMO

High quality census data are not always available in developing countries. Instead, mobile phone data are becoming a popular proxy to evaluate the density, activity and social characteristics of a population. They offer additional advantages: they are updated in real-time, include mobility information and record visitors' activity. However, we show with the example of Senegal that the direct correlation between the average phone activity and both the population density and the nighttime lights intensity may be insufficiently high to provide an accurate representation of the situation. There are reasons to expect this, such as the heterogeneity of the market share or the particular granularity of the distribution of cell towers. In contrast, we present a method based on the daily, weekly and yearly phone activity curves and on the network characteristics of the mobile phone data, that allows to estimate more accurately such information without compromising people's privacy. This information can be vital for development and infrastructure planning. In particular, this method could help to reduce significantly the logistic costs of data collection in the particularly budget-constrained context of developing countries.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Censos , Densidade Demográfica , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Eletricidade , Humanos , Senegal
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 71-74, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604603

RESUMO

Rapid access to patient overall health status is essential for a physician during a medical consultation. The use of a HIS for the management of neonatal screening and follow-up of sickle cell disease patients at CERPAD in the Saint-Louis region of Senegal leads the patient electronic records growing in volume and complexity. To facilitate access to relevant information and shortens the time required to analyze and understand these clinical data, an original solution is to set up a data visualization system. In this article, we propose the integration of two iconic visualization tools into the SIMENS-CERPAD module designed for sickle cell screening and healthcare. The two tools use the VCM iconic language and consist of a simplified anatomical schema showing the current health status of the patient and a timeline to visualize its temporal evolution.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Visualização de Dados , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idioma , Triagem Neonatal , Senegal
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1025, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many unmarried young people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) want to avoid pregnancy but do not use modern methods of contraception-as a result, half of teen births in these countries are unintended. Researchers have identified numerous barriers that prevent youth from using contraception. However, much of the research in West Africa is narrowly focused on married women, and relatively little research has been done to understand the needs, preferences, barriers, and solution set for sexually active unmarried young people who would like to avoid pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the behavioral barriers that prevent unmarried young people in eastern Senegal from using modern methods of contraception. METHODS: This qualitative study conducted in 2017 in the Tambacounda and Kedougou regions in Senegal explores attitudes and beliefs relating to sex and contraception among unmarried young women and men through 48 in-depth individual interviews with young people aged 15-24 and parents of youth and 5 sex-segregated focus groups with 6-9 young people per group. The research team conducted a thematic content analysis and synthesized the findings by major theme following the behavioral diagnosis methodology. RESULTS: Drawing insights from behavioral science, the analysis yields five key findings: (1) unmarried young people avoid making a decision about contraception because thinking about contraceptive use provokes uncomfortable associations with a negative identity (i.e., being sexually active before marriage); (2) unmarried young people see modern methods as inappropriate for people like them; (3) unmarried young people are overconfident in their ability to prevent pregnancy through traditional and folk methods; (4) unmarried young people overestimate the social and health risks of modern contraceptive methods; and (5) unmarried young people fail to plan ahead and are not prepared to use modern contraceptive methods before every sexual encounter. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at increasing uptake of contraceptives among unmarried young people in eastern Senegal must address several significant behavioral barriers in addition to structural, informational, and socio-cultural barriers in order to be successful.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Pessoa Solteira/psicologia , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Senegal , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139419, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521357

RESUMO

We explore in-situ fluorescence spectroscopy as an instantaneous indicator of total bacterial abundance and faecal contamination in drinking water. Eighty-four samples were collected outside of the recharge season from groundwater-derived water sources in Dakar, Senegal. Samples were analysed for tryptophan-like (TLF) and humic-like (HLF) fluorescence in-situ, total bacterial cells by flow cytometry, and potential indicators of faecal contamination such as thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), nitrate, and in a subset of 22 samples, dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Significant single-predictor linear regression models demonstrated that total bacterial cells were the most effective predictor of TLF, followed by on-site sanitation density; TTCs were not a significant predictor. An optimum multiple-predictor model of TLF incorporated total bacterial cells, nitrate, nitrite, on-site sanitation density, and sulphate (r2 0.68). HLF was similarly related to the same parameters as TLF, with total bacterial cells being the best correlated (ρs 0.64). In the subset of 22 sources, DOC clustered with TLF, HLF, and total bacterial cells, and a linear regression model demonstrated HLF was the best predictor of DOC (r2 0.84). The intergranular nature of the aquifer, timing of the study, and/or non-uniqueness of the signal to TTCs can explain the significant associations between TLF/HLF and indicators of faecal contamination such as on-site sanitation density and nutrients but not TTCs. The bacterial population that relates to TLF/HLF is likely to be a subsurface community that develops in-situ based on the availability of organic matter originating from faecal sources. In-situ fluorescence spectroscopy instantly indicates a drinking water source is impacted by faecal contamination but it remains unclear how that relates specifically to microbial risk in this setting.


Assuntos
Carbono , Microbiologia da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorescência , Senegal , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 872, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of women's autonomy in decision-making for fertility control has been highlighted by research. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of women's autonomy over decision-making regarding their health and access to family planning in Senegal in 2017. METHODS: The analyses in this study were carried out using data from the Senegal Demographic and Health Survey in 2017. The sample consisted of 8865 women aged 15-49. The propensity score-matching method was applied. Autonomy in health decision-making was considered the treatment variable. Matching was performed using confounding variables. The outcome variables were the current use of modern contraceptive methods and the existence of unmet needs. The common support condition had been met. The analysis was conducted using STATA.15 software. RESULTS: This study showed that 6.26% of women had decision-making autonomy in relation to their health. For 80.33% of the women, their husbands/partners made health-related decisions for them. Decision-making autonomy increased significantly with the age of the woman (p < 0.05). In addition, 15.24% of women were using a modern method of contraception. An estimated 26.2% of women had unmet needs. Propensity score matching split the women into two groups based on autonomy over decision-making for their health. After matching, there was no longer a significant difference between women who were autonomous with respect to their decision-making and those who were not autonomous with respect to their current use of a modern contraceptive method. On the other hand, there was a 14.42% reduction (p < 0.05) in unmet needs for family planning in the group of women who were autonomous with respect to their health decision-making. CONCLUSION: Autonomy in health decision-making would reduce unmet needs among Senegalese women. These results show the importance of accounting for gender in health interventions for the accessibility of family planning services.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Senegal , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8841, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483255

RESUMO

Breeding management of small populations may have a critical influence on the development of population characteristics in terms of levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding. Two populations of antelope sister species - Critically Endangered Western Derby eland (Tauroragus derbianus derbianus) and non-native Least Concern Cape eland (Taurotragus oryx oryx) bred under different management strategies were studied in Senegal, Western Africa. The aims of the study were to compare the population genetic parameters of the two species and to test for the presence of interspecific hybrids. In total, blood and tissue samples from 76 Western Derby elands and 26 Cape elands were investigated, using 12 microsatellite markers. No hybrid individuals were detected in the sampled animals within the multispecies enclosure in Bandia Reserve, Senegal. The parameters of genetic polymorphism indicated much lower genetic diversity in Western Derby elands compared to Cape elands. On the other hand, the coefficient of inbreeding was low in both species. It is hypothesized that this could be a positive effect of strict population management of Western Derby elands, which, despite the loss of genetic diversity, minimizes inbreeding.


Assuntos
Antílopes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Antílopes/genética , Cruzamento , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Senegal
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008009, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479505

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in northern Senegal, a Sahelian area characterized by a temporary pond network that drive both RVF mosquito population dynamics and nomadic herd movements. To investigate the mechanisms that explain RVF recurrent circulation, we modelled a realistic epidemiological system at the pond level integrating vector population dynamics, resident and nomadic ruminant herd population dynamics, and nomadic herd movements recorded in Younoufere area. To calibrate the model, serological surveys were performed in 2015-2016 on both resident and nomadic domestic herds in the same area. Mosquito population dynamics were obtained from a published model trained in the same region. Model comparison techniques were used to compare five different scenarios of virus introduction by nomadic herds associated or not with vertical transmission in Aedes vexans. Our serological results confirmed a long lasting RVF endemicity in resident herds (IgG seroprevalence rate of 15.3%, n = 222), and provided the first estimation of RVF IgG seroprevalence in nomadic herds in West Africa (12.4%, n = 660). Multivariate analysis of serological data suggested an amplification of the transmission cycle during the rainy season with a peak of circulation at the end of that season. The best scenario of virus introduction combined yearly introductions of RVFV from 2008 to 2015 (the study period) by nomadic herds, with a proportion of viraemic individuals predicted to be larger in animals arriving during the 2nd half of the rainy season (3.4%). This result is coherent with the IgM prevalence rate (4%) found in nomadic herds sampled during the 2nd half of the rainy season. Although the existence of a vertical transmission mechanism in Aedes cannot be ruled out, our model demonstrates that nomadic movements are sufficient to account for this endemic circulation in northern Senegal.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Surtos de Doenças , Modelos Estatísticos , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/veterinária , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Febre do Vale de Rift/transmissão , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão
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