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1.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 70(3): 109-116, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491335

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Three months after the first appearance of the new coronavirus (COVID-19), Senegal recorded its first case on March 2, 2020. Faced with this pandemic, the State reacted quickly with public measures : instituting a curfew, placing a ban on travel between regions, and closing shops and places of worship. This research aims to study the acceptability of these non-pharmaceutical measures by the Senegalese population. METHOD: This study was a cross-sectional and analytical survey conducted in June and July 2020 among Senegalese over 18 years old. Sampling by the representative quota method was distributed proportionally to age, gender and region. We constructed the questionnaire using the theoretical framework of acceptability of health interventions. Through a telephone call center synchronised to an internet server, we collected data on personal characteristics, knowledge of the disease, trust in information sources, trust in government, concern about the pandemic, and the seven dimensions of acceptability. We performed descriptive analysis and structural equation with R software version 4.0.2. RESULTS: This study included a total of 813 individuals. The average age was 34.7 years ( ± 14.2 years). They were predominantly male (54.6 %), with no education (42.6 %). The increased level of knowledge of the disease was associated with confidence in national media information sources provided by the administrative and health authorities (ß=0.11, p<0.01). The increase in the level of trust in the government in response to COVID-19 was positively related to the acceptability of curfew (ß=0.16, p<0.001), travel ban between regions (ß=0.11, p<0.001), and closure of places of worship (ß=0.1, p<0.01) and markets (ß=0.09, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: In Senegal, the acceptability of the measures depended on knowledge of the disease, perception of the risk of the disease, and trust in the government. There is a need to strengthen awareness and risk communication of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Senegal/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 79, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382054

RESUMO

Introduction: stroke is a cerebrovascular disease. Early reperfusion in neurovascular units can reduce its morbidity and mortality. Even when neurovascular units exist, patients usually arrive late in the emergency department. to the purpose of this study was to determine prehospital delay in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated factors. Methods: we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in the neurology department of the Fann University Hospital in Dakar from January 1s t to June 30th, 2020. We included patients younger than 80 years seen in the emergency unit for ischemic stroke. The median time to presentation was calculated based on the time of stroke onset and that of arrival at the hospital. Multivariate analysis was used to determine factors associated with prehospital delay. Results: a total of 56 patients were enrolled, among whom 58.6% arrived at the hospital in less than 3 hours. Of them, 37.5% presented to a level 3 or 4 hospital first. Less than 34% of our patient presented to a level 2-3 hospital in less than 3 hours. Based on bi- and multivariate analysis, being married (OR = 7.2 [CI à 95%: 1.5 - 35.8]), being a female (OR = 5.5 [CI à 95%: 1.5 - 19.8]) and having stroke during week days (OR = 4.3 [CI à 95%: 1.3-13.9]) were associated with prehospital delay. Conclusion: most of our patients arrived late at a level 2 or 3 hospital. Being a married woman increased the risk of late arrival. This study highlights the importance of improving awareness in order to increase the proportion of patients potentially eligible for revascularization.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Senegal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(5): 695-704, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485126

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Violence against women during institutional childbirth is recognized as a major barrier to the quality of care. In recent years, several countries have implemented interventions aimed at improving the childbirth experience of women through humanized care. However, the literature on the effectiveness of these interventions remains weak. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: The aim of this study is therefore to analyze the experience of care of women regarding the intervention of humanized childbirth in Senegal. Qualitative research based on a multiple case study was done. Three collection methods were used: observation, individual interview, and document analysis. Individual interview were carried out with 20 women. RESULTS: In general, women who gave birth following the intervention appreciated their experience due to changes such as the opportunity to eat and drink, to be accompanied by a trusted person and to choose their position during childbirth. However, it was the way in which women were received at the health facility and the attitude of health professionals that were decisive in their level of satisfaction with care. Few women benefited from all the components of the intervention. The difficulties encountered in the implementation such as non-functional delivery rooms, the lack of qualified human resources and the lack of awareness of the intervention explain this. CONCLUSIONS: Our results therefore suggest that improving the quality of care at birth, for a “humanized” (or natural, respectful) birth, is only possible when certain materials and medical conditions are met and prepared in advance, during the prenatal period.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Parto , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Senegal
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 719, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are one of the core components of global malaria prevention and control. The lifespan of LLIN varies widely depending on the population or environment, and randomized studies are required to compare LLIN inaccording to arbitrary thresholds households under different field conditions. This study investigated survival of different LLIN brands in Senegal. METHODS: Ten thousand six hundred eight LLINs were distributed in five regions, each stratified by rural and urban setting. As part of the longitudinal follow-up, 2222 nets were randomly sampled and monitored from 6 to 36 months. Using random effects for households, Bayesian models were used to estimate independent survival by net type (Interceptor®, Life Net®, MAGNet™, Netprotect®, Olyset® Net, PermaNet® 2.0 R, PermaNet® 2.0 C, Yorkool® LN) and by area (rural/urban). In addition to survival, median survival time and attrition of each LLIN brand was determined. Attrition was defined as nets that were missing because they were reported given away, destroyed and thrown away, or repurposed. RESULTS: Three net types had a proportion of survival above 80% after 24 months: Interceptor®87.8% (95% CI 80-93.4); conical PermaNet® 2.0 86.9% (95% CI 79.3-92.4) and Life Net® 85.6% (95% CI 75-93). At 36 months, conical PermaNet® 2.0 maintained a good survival rate, 79.5% (95% CI 65.9-88.8). The attrition due to redistributed nets showed that the two conical net types (PermaNet® 2.0 and Interceptor®) were more often retained by households and their median retention time was well above 3 years (median survival time = 3.5 years for PermaNet® 2.0 and median survival time = 4 years for Interceptor®). Despite this good retention, Interceptor® had weak physical integrity and its median survival due to wear and tear was below 3 years (median survival time = 2.4 years). The odds ratio of survival was 2.5 times higher in rural settings than in urban settings (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7-3.7). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in survival among LLIN may be driven by brand, shape or environmental setting. In this study in Senegal, conical PermaNet® 2.0 were retained in households while rectangular PermaNet® 2.0 had lower retention, suggesting that net shape may play a role in retention and should be further investigated. Distribution of preferred LLIN shape, accompanied by good communication on care and repair, could lead to increased effective lifespan, and allow for longer intervals between universal coverage campaigns.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Senegal/epidemiologia
5.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221092268, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In West Africa, female sex workers are at increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. HIV self-testing could be an effective tool to improve access to and frequency of HIV testing to female sex workers, their clients and partners. This article explores their perceptions regarding HIV self-testing use and the redistribution of HIV self-testing kits to their partners and clients. METHODS: Embedded within ATLAS, a qualitative study was conducted in Côte-d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal in 2020. Nine focus group discussions were conducted. A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 87 participants expressed both positive attitudes toward HIV self-testing and their willingness to use or reuse HIV self-testing. HIV self-testing was perceived to be discreet, confidential, and convenient. HIV self-testing provides autonomy from testing by providers and reduces stigma. Some perceived HIV self-testing as a valuable tool for testing their clients who are willing to offer a premium for condomless sex. While highlighting some potential issues, overall, female sex workers were optimistic about linkage to confirmatory testing following a reactive HIV self-testing. Female sex workers expressed positive attitudes toward secondary distribution to their partners and clients, although it depended on relationship types. They seemed more enthusiastic about secondary distribution to their regular/emotional partners and regular clients with whom they had difficulty using condoms, and whom they knew enough to discuss HIV self-testing. However, they expressed that it could be more difficult with casual clients; the duration of the interaction being too short to discuss HIV self-testing, and they fear violence and/or losing them. CONCLUSION: Overall, female sex workers have positive attitudes toward HIV self-testing use and are willing to redistribute to their regular partners and clients. However, they are reluctant to promote such use with their casual clients. HIV self-testing can improve access to HIV testing for female sex workers and the members of their sexual and social network.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Atitude , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Mali , Autoteste , Senegal
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e055957, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the early implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and the ongoing decentralisation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) care, over 10% of the Senegalese adult population lives with CHB and liver cancer remains a main cause of death. Investigating factors associated with CHB infection, prevention of CHB-related morbidity, and prevention and treatment of mortality secondary to CHB calls for a holistic and multidimensional approach. This paper presents the adaptation of the health capability profile (HCP) to a specific epidemiological issue and empirical setting: it seeks to identify and analyse inter-related abilities and conditions (health capabilities) in relation to the CHB epidemic in the rural area of Niakhar, Senegal. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This ongoing study relies on a sequential social justice mixed-methods design. The HCP is comprehensively adapted to CHB in rural Senegal and guides the design and conduct of the study. Objective and subjective data are collected at the individual level following a mixed-methods explanatory core design. The quantitative module, embedded in the ANRS12356 AmBASS cross-sectional survey (exhaustive sampling), is used to select a purposeful sampling of participants invited for one-on-one qualitative interviews. Additional data are collected at the institutional and community level through health facility surveys and an ethnography (in-depth interviews) of local and national CHB stakeholders. Data analysis adopts a synergistic approach to produce a multilayered analysis of individual HCPs and crosscutting analysis of the 15 health capabilities. The data integration strategy relies on a mixed-methods convergent core design, and will use 0-100 health capability scores as well as flow diagrams to measure and characterise levels of development and interactions among health capabilities, respectively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by Senegalese and French authorities. Results dissemination through local workshops and scientific publications aim at fuelling effective policy change towards CHB-related health capability.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , População Rural , Senegal/epidemiologia , Justiça Social
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266025, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325007

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica is the most common foodborne pathogen worldwide. It causes two types of diseases, a self-limiting gastroenteritis and an invasive, more threatening, infection. Salmonella gastroenteritis is caused by several serotypes and is common worldwide. In contrast, invasive salmonellosis is rare in high-income countries (HIC) while frequent in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS), corresponding to serotypes other than Typhi and Paratyphi, have emerged in sSA and pose a significant risk to public health. We conducted a whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis of 72 strains of Salmonella isolated from diarrheic human patients and chicken meat sold in multipurpose markets in Dakar, Senegal. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing combined with WGS data analysis revealed frequent resistance to fluoroquinolones and the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination that are among the most used treatments for invasive Salmonella. In contrast, resistance to the historical first-line drugs chloramphenicol and ampicillin, and to cephalosporins was rare. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was lower in clinical isolates compared to chicken strains pointing to the concern posed by the excessive use of antimicrobials in farming. Phylogenetic analysis suggested possible transmission of the emerging multidrug resistant (MDR) Kentucky ST198 and serotype Schwarzengrund from chicken to human. These results stress the need for active surveillance of Salmonella and AMR in order to address invasive salmonellosis caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains and other important bacterial diseases in sSA.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Salmonella , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Senegal/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264646, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239727

RESUMO

The assigned work was aimed to examine the capability of phytoconstituents of an aqueous seed extract of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and regression of the atherosclerotic plaque. The chemical fingerprinting of the test extract was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Consequently, the analyses of in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-silico were executed by using the standard protocols. The in-vitro assessment of the test extract revealed 74.1% inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. In-vivo assessments of the test extract indicated that treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited a significant (P≤0.001) amelioration in the biomarker indices of the dyslipidaemia i.e., atherogenic index, Castelli risk index(I&II), atherogenic coefficient along with lipid profile. Subsequently, significant reductions were observed in the atherosclerotic plaque and antioxidant levels. The in-silico study of molecular docking shown interactions capabilities of the leading phytoconstituents of the test extract i.e., eicosanoic acid, linoleic acid, and flavan-3-ol with target protein of HMG-CoA reductase. The values of RSMF and potential energy of top docked complexes were show significant interactions. Accordingly, the free energy of solvation, interaction angle, radius of gyration and SASA were shown significant stabilities of top docked complex. The cumulative data of results indicate phytoconstituents of an aqueous seed extract of Acacia senegal have capabilities to inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase and improve the levels of antioxidants.


Assuntos
Acacia , Dislipidemias , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Placa Aterosclerótica , Acacia/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA-Redutases NADP-Dependentes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos , Senegal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 484, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanisation in Sub-Saharan African cities such as Dakar, Senegal, leads to proliferation of informal braised meat restaurants known as "dibiteries". Dibiteries do not often comply with minimal hygiene and food safety standards. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and cost of a good hygiene practice intervention, identify factors that incentivize hygiene improvement and how that impacts on dibiteries' income. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out in Dakar dibiteries. The 120 random samples of braised meat were collected in three phases: (i) one-month pre-intervention, (ii) 2 months post-intervention, (iii) 10 months post-intervention. The trial comprised four groups of 10 dibiteries each: (a) (control) received no intervention, (b) a standardized training module, (c) a hygiene kit, (d) a training module and hygiene kit. Laboratory analysis of samples determined the total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF), thermotolerant coliforms (TC) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA). A questionnaire-based survey and focus group discussion were used to identify pre-intervention hygiene practices, and socioeconomic determinants of hygiene management in dibiteries post-intervention, respectively. RESULTS: Samples were found to be contaminated with TAMF, TC and SA. In phase 1, 27 and 13% of the samples contained TC and SA, respectively. In phase 2, no significant improvement of contamination rates was seen. In phase 3, microbiological quality of samples was significantly improved, with only 11.5% showing contamination with any of the bacterial species analysed (p < 0.1). Compared to the control group, only samples from dibiteries in group (b) had significantly reduced bacterial load in phase 3. The cost of intervention and hygiene improvement was estimated at 67 FCFA ($ 0.12) and 41 FCFA ($ 0.07) / day respectively and did not significantly impact on dibiterie profitability. Incentives to sustainably implement good hygiene practices were mainly linked to access to secure long-term workspaces. CONCLUSION: This intervention may have worked, but globally the results are mixed and not quite significant. However, continuous training in good hygiene practice and access to secure and sustainable infrastructure for dibiterie restaurants are the incentives necessary to achieve sustainable investments and behavioural change. We recommend further intervention refinement and testing other factors for promoting the adoption of good hygiene practices in the dibiteries in relation to consumers health risk.


Assuntos
Higiene , Motivação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Senegal
10.
Hematology ; 27(1): 379-383, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess incidence, risk factors, treatment and outcome of LTB in Senegalese people with hemophilia (PWH). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics of LTB in a cohort of 274 PWH after 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: We included 274 patients (241 HA and 33 HB). The mean age was 16.45 years and the median age was 13 years. The mean annual bleeding rate (ABR) was 1.65 (2.83 for severe form, 1.54 for moderate form, and 1.22 for mild form). A replacement therapy with clotting factor concentrates (CFC) was administered to 217 patients (79.2%); 56 patients (20.4%) received low-dose prophylaxis (LDP). Prevalence of inhibitors was 4.7% (13/274). All patients were HIV and HCV antibody negative. We observed 31 cases of LTB in 22 patients with an incidence of 8.03%. Central nervous system (CNS) bleeds were most frequent (6.2%) and accounted for 54.8% of severe bleeding. The delay between the first signs and the emergency visit was 78.9 hours. Inhibitors were positive in one patient among those who presented LTB. These bleeding were treated with CFC in 16 patients, surgical drainage (1 patient) and electrocoagulation during gastroscopy (1 patient). Eleven patients had complete remission and two had sequelae. We reported 0.32 death per 100 person-years. CNS bleeds were the main cause (77.7%). Four patients were secondarily on LDP. We observed a significant correlation between treatment (after 2 hours) and mortality. CONCLUSION: LTB is a serious and lethal complication in PWH in absence of early management. A good awareness of patients and their family would further reduce this incidence, especially in resources-limited countries.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A , Hemorragia , Adolescente , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Hemofilia A/complicações , Hemofilia A/epidemiologia , Hemofilia A/terapia , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Senegal/epidemiologia
11.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211073415, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused socio-economic disruptions across the globe. The pandemic disrupted the health system (HS) calling for reengineering in response to high infection rates, deaths, and resultant containment measures. To deal with COVID-19 and promote resilience, community health workers (CHWs) were engaged across countries. OBJECTIVE: Assess the preparedness of CHWs in supporting health system response in prevention and management of COVID-19 in Kenya, Senegal, and Uganda. METHODS: A mixed methods design study involving national and subnational jurisdictions in the 3 countries. Key informant interviews were conducted with policy actors (16) and health care workers (24) while in-depth interviews involved CHWs (14) and community members (312) subjected to survey interviews. RESULTS: Most (>50%) households survived on

Assuntos
COVID-19 , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 601, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of COVID-19 on harmful traditional practices such Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and Child or Forced Marriages (CFM) have not been well documented. We examined respondents' perceptions on how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected FGM/C and CFM in Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, and Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with a mixed methods approach was used. Data collection on participants' perceptions on the effects of COVID-19 on FGM/C and CFM took place between October-December 2020. Household surveys targeting women and men aged 15-49 years in Kenya (n = 312), Uganda (n = 278), Ethiopia (n = 251), and Senegal (n = 208) were conducted. Thirty-eight key informant interviews with programme implementers and policymakers were carried out in Kenya (n = 17), Uganda (n = 9), Ethiopia (n = 8), and Senegal (n = 4). RESULTS: In Kenya, the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to the increase in both FGM/C and CFM cases. Minimal increase of FGM/C cases was reported in Uganda and a significant increase in CFM cases. In Ethiopia, the COVID-19 pandemic had a limited perceived effect on changes in FGM/C and CFM. In Senegal, there were minimal perceived effects of COVID-19 on the number of FGM/C and CFM cases. The pandemic negatively affected implementation of interventions by the justice and legal system, the health system, and civil societies. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has had varied perceived effects on FGM/C and CFM across the four countries. Generally, the pandemic has negatively affected implementation of interventions by the various sectors that are responsible for preventing and responding to FGM/C and CFM. This calls for innovative approaches in intervening in the various communities to ensure that women and girls at risk of FGM/C and CFM or in need of services are reached during the pandemic. Evidence on how effective alternative approaches such as the use of call centres, radio talk shows and the use of local champions as part of risk communication in preventing and responding to FGM/C and CFM amid COVID-19 is urgently required.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Circuncisão Feminina , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 101, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a disease that poses major threats to human and animal health, as well as the economy, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Whilst many studies have evaluated the economic impact of schistosomiasis in humans, to date only one has been performed in livestock in SSA and none in Senegal. This study aimed to estimate the financial impact of livestock schistosomiasis in selected regions of Senegal. METHODS: Stochastic partial budget models were developed for traditional ruminant farmers in 12 villages in northern Senegal. The models were parameterised using data from a cross-sectional survey, focus group discussions, scientific literature and available statistics. Two scenarios were defined: scenario 1 modelled a situation in which farmers tested and treated their livestock for schistosomiasis, whilst scenario 2 modelled a situation in which there were no tests or treatment. The model was run with 10,000 iterations for 1 year; results were expressed in West African CFA francs (XOF; 1 XOF was equivalent to 0.0014 GBP at the time of analysis). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of uncertain variables on the disease costs. RESULTS: Farmers surveyed were aware of schistosomiasis in their ruminant livestock and reported hollowing around the eyes, diarrhoea and weight loss as the most common clinical signs in all species. For scenario 1, the median disease costs per year and head of cattle, sheep and goats were estimated at 13,408 XOF, 27,227 XOF and 27,694 XOF, respectively. For scenario 2, the disease costs per year and head of cattle, sheep and goats were estimated at 49,296 XOF, 70,072 XOF and 70,281 XOF, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the financial impact of livestock schistosomiasis on traditional subsistence and transhumance farmers is substantial. Consequently, treating livestock schistosomiasis has the potential to generate considerable benefits to farmers and their families. Given the dearth of data in this region, our study serves as a foundation for further in-depth studies to provide estimates of disease impact and as a baseline for future economic analyses. This will also enable One Health economic studies where the burden on both humans and animals is estimated and included in cross-sectoral cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of disease control strategies.


Assuntos
Gado , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Cabras , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Senegal/epidemiologia , Ovinos
14.
Mol Ecol ; 31(8): 2242-2263, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152493

RESUMO

Schistosoma mansoni, a snail-borne, blood fluke that infects humans, was introduced into the Americas from Africa during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. As this parasite shows strong specificity to the snail intermediate host, we expected that adaptation to South American Biomphalaria spp. snails would result in population bottlenecks and strong signatures of selection. We scored 475,081 single nucleotide variants in 143 S. mansoni from the Americas (Brazil, Guadeloupe and Puerto Rico) and Africa (Cameroon, Niger, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda), and used these data to ask: (i) Was there a population bottleneck during colonization? (ii) Can we identify signatures of selection associated with colonization? (iii) What were the source populations for colonizing parasites? We found a 2.4- to 2.9-fold reduction in diversity and much slower decay in linkage disequilibrium (LD) in parasites from East to West Africa. However, we observed similar nuclear diversity and LD in West Africa and Brazil, suggesting no strong bottlenecks and limited barriers to colonization. We identified five genome regions showing selection in the Americas, compared with three in West Africa and none in East Africa, which we speculate may reflect adaptation during colonization. Finally, we infer that unsampled populations from central African regions between Benin and Angola, with contributions from Niger, are probably the major source(s) for Brazilian S. mansoni. The absence of a bottleneck suggests that this is a rare case of a serendipitous invasion, where S. mansoni parasites were pre-adapted to the Americas and able to establish with relative ease.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Parasitos , América , Animais , Biomphalaria/genética , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Humanos , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Senegal/epidemiologia , Caramujos/genética , Tanzânia
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When vaccines against the novel COVID-19 were available in Senegal, many questions were raised. How long should non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) be maintained during vaccination roll-out? What are the best vaccination strategies? METHODS: In this study, we used an age-structured dynamic mathematical model. This model uses parameters based on SARS-CoV-2 virus, information on different types of NPIs, epidemiological and demographic data, some parameters relating to hospitalisations and vaccination in Senegal. RESULTS: In all scenarios explored, the model predicts a larger third epidemic wave of COVID-19 in terms of new cases and deaths than the previous waves. In a context of limited vaccine supply, vaccination alone will not be sufficient to control the epidemic, and the continuation of NPIs is necessary to flatten the epidemic curve. Assuming 20% of the population have been vaccinated, the optimal period to relax NPIs would be a few days from the last peak. Regarding the prioritisation of age groups to be vaccinated, the model shows that it is better to vaccinate individuals aged 5-60 years and not just the elderly (over 60 years) and those in high-risk groups. This strategy could be more cost-effective for the government, as it would reduce the high costs associated with hospitalisation. In terms of vaccine distribution, the optimal strategy would be to allocate full dose to the elderly. If vaccine doses are limited, half dose followed by full dose would be sufficient for people under 40 years because whether they receive half or full dose, the reduction in hospitalisations would be similar and their death-to-case ratio is very low. CONCLUSIONS: This study could be presented as a decision support tool to help devise strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic and help the Ministry of Health to better manage and allocate the available vaccine doses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Health Econ ; 82: 102600, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196633

RESUMO

There is a widely held perception that staff shortages in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) lead to excessive workloads, which in turn worsen the quality of healthcare. Yet there is little evidence supporting these claims. We use data from standardised patient visits in Senegal and determine the effect of workload on the quality of primary care by exploiting quasi-random variation in workload. We find that despite a lack of staff, average levels of workload are low. Even at times when workload is high, there is no evidence that provider effort or quality of care are significantly reduced. Our data indicate that providers operate below their production possibility frontier and have sufficient capacity to attend more patients without compromising quality. This contradicts the prevailing discourse that staff shortages are a key reason for poor quality primary care in LMICs and suggests that the origins likely lie elsewhere.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Carga de Trabalho , Humanos , População Rural , Senegal
17.
J Helminthol ; 96: e8, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105390

RESUMO

Three new species of 'tetraphyllideans' in the family Serendipeidae are described from cownose rays off Senegal. Duplicibothrium jeannettae n. sp. and Duplicibothrium collosum n. sp. parasitize both Rhinoptera marginata and Rhinoptera peli. Duplicibothrium jillae n. sp. parasitizes R. marginata. Duplicibothrium jeannettae n. sp. and D. jillae n. sp. differ from one another and their described congeners in size, number of proglottids, and locular configuration. The generic assignment of D. collosum n. sp. was initially unclear because its scolex more closely resembles that of Serendip than Duplicibothrium. To help inform generic placement, sequence data were generated for the 28S rDNA gene (D1-D3 region) for the three new species as well as for Duplicibothrium minutum and Duplicibothrium n. sp. 2 from Rhinoptera bonasus off North Carolina, Duplicibothrium n. sp. 3 from Rhinoptera brasiliensis off Belize, Duplicibothrium n. sp. 4 and Duplicibothrium n. sp. 5 from Rhinoptera jayakari off Mozambique, and Duplicibothrium n. sp. 6 from Rhinoptera neglecta off Australia. Comparable data were obtained from GenBank for adults and larvae of Duplicibothrium collected from the Gulf of Mexico. The tree resulting from a maximum likelihood analysis (MLA) placed D. collosum n. sp. robustly within Duplicibothrium; the generic diagnosis is emended accordingly. This raises a question regarding the independence, and thus also validity, of the three genera of the Serendipeidae - a question that must await a molecular analysis that includes Serendip and Glyphobothrium. These results extend the hosts of Duplicibothrium to include R. brasiliensis, R. jayakari, R. marginata, R. neglecta and R. peli, and the distribution to include the western Pacific Ocean, eastern Atlantic Ocean, and western Indian Ocean (Zoobank Registration: 97BB5020-BFFF-4FEA-AE07-B4711D1110FC).


Assuntos
Cestoides , Rajidae , Animais , Cestoides/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Senegal
18.
J Environ Manage ; 310: 114722, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217446

RESUMO

Rice is a staple food in Senegal, which however imports more than 70% of the rice consumed annually to meet its domestic demand. Despite governmental efforts to increase rice self-sufficiency, both rice supply and yields remain low. Senegalese farmers face challenges related to irrigation infrastructure and fertiliser access, besides those derived from climate change. This study applies Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) combined with financial Life Cycle Costing (LCC) to evaluate alternative scenarios for rice management in the Senegal River Valley and identify sustainability hotspots and potential improvements. Specifically, rice cultivation in Ross Béthio (Saint Louis, Senegal) is assessed based on the observed agricultural practices during the dry seasons of 2016 and 2017. Two scenarios capturing conventional (CONV) and intensive (INT) practices are compared to two reference scenarios (SAED scenarios) according to the recommendations of the official agricultural advisory service. The INT scenario generates the lowest impacts per kg of paddy rice in seven out of thirteen impact categories, including climate change, freshwater and marine eutrophication, ozone depletion and water scarcity. This is due to the higher yields (7.4 t ha-1) relative to CONV (4.8 t ha-1) and the two reference SAED scenarios (6.0 t ha-1). The two latter scenarios show the lowest values in the remaining categories, although they also generate slightly lower profits than INT (138 € t-1 vs. 149 € t-1) due to increased labour costs for additional fertilisation treatments. The results from both LCA and LCC underline the importance of increasing yields to decrease environmental impacts and production costs of rice when estimated per kg of product. Well-designed fertiliser application doses and timing and increased mechanisation can deliver further environmental benefits. Additional improvements (e.g. in irrigation, crop rotations, straw management) could be considered to promote the long-term sustainability and profitability of rice production in Senegal. LCA in combination with financial LCC is identified as a decision-support tool for evaluating the sustainability of alternative crop management practices. Life Cycle Thinking can still benefit from experiential learning based on information exchange between farmers, researchers and extension agents to contribute to a sustainable agriculture and ultimately to food security in Africa.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Oryza , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Rios , Senegal
19.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 6, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123533

RESUMO

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plays a key role in family farming systems in Senegal. It makes an essential contribution to economic, nutritional and food security. Although it is crucial, little is known about how farmers classify the diversity of local varieties or about the social practices associated with them. The aim of this study is to characterize the farming practices associated with growing cowpea in Senegal. Surveys were conducted involving 335 rural farmers living in 37 villages, spread across seven regions that produce cowpea. An average of ten farmers were randomly selected in each village. The results reveal that cowpea is a key feature of cropping systems in the studied area. Our findings highlight the high diversity of local cowpea varieties with 59 local names inventoried. In 75% of cases, the name refers to the seed's morphology or color. Cowpea production is more diverse in Diourbel and Louga and less diverse in the south. More than half the farmers (57%) acquired their cowpea seeds (early, semi-early and late maturity varieties) outside their village, either from markets, seed suppliers or NGOs. This new understanding of farmers' expertize in the management of cowpea and its local variability will help to valorize local diversity in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Vigna , Senegal
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010024, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108284

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease mostly affecting wild and domestic ruminants. It is widespread in Africa, with spillovers in the Arab Peninsula and the southwestern Indian Ocean. Although RVF has been circulating in West Africa for more than 30 years, its epidemiology is still not clearly understood. In 2013, an RVF outbreak hit Senegal in new areas that weren't ever affected before. To assess the extent of the spread of RVF virus, a national serological survey was implemented in young small ruminants (6-18 months old), between November 2014 and January 2015 (after the rainy season) in 139 villages. Additionally, the drivers of this spread were identified. For this purpose, we used a beta-binomial ([Formula: see text]) logistic regression model. An Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) approach was used to fit the spatial model. Lower cumulative rainfall, and higher accessibility were both associated with a higher RVFV seroprevalence. The spatial patterns of fitted RVFV seroprevalence pointed densely populated areas of western Senegal as being at higher risk of RVFV infection in small ruminants than rural or southeastern areas. Thus, because slaughtering infected animals and processing their fresh meat is an important RVFV transmission route for humans, more human populations might have been exposed to RVFV during the 2013-2014 outbreak than in previous outbreaks in Senegal.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Chuva , Febre do Vale de Rift/transmissão , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/imunologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/virologia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia
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