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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484128

RESUMO

In March 2020, the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global pandemic. Obesity was soon identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis, with an increased risk of intensive care admissions and mechanical ventilation, but also of adverse cardiovascular events. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue, chronic low-grade inflammation, and immune dysregulation with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, to implement appropriate therapeutic strategies, exact mechanisms must be clarified. The role of white visceral adipose tissue, increased in individuals with obesity, seems important, as a viral reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. After infection of host cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines creates a setting conducive to the "cytokine storm" and macrophage activation syndrome associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. In obesity, systemic viral spread, entry, and prolonged viral shedding in already inflamed adipose tissue may spur immune responses and subsequent amplification of a cytokine cascade, causing worse outcomes. More precisely, visceral adipose tissue, more than subcutaneous fat, could predict intensive care admission; and lower density of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be associated with worse outcome. EAT, an ectopic adipose tissue that surrounds the myocardium, could fuel COVID-19-induced cardiac injury and myocarditis, and extensive pneumopathy, by strong expression of inflammatory mediators that could diffuse paracrinally through the vascular wall. The purpose of this review is to ascertain what mechanisms may be involved in unfavorable prognosis among COVID-19 patients with obesity, especially cardiovascular events, emphasizing the harmful role of excess ectopic adipose tissue, particularly EAT.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , Pericárdio , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
2.
mBio ; 12(4): e0097021, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340553

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), initiates host cell entry when its spike protein (S) binds to its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In airway epithelia, the spike protein is cleaved by the cell surface protease TMPRSS2, facilitating membrane fusion and entry at the cell surface. This dependence on TMPRSS2 and related proteases suggests that protease inhibitors might limit SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory tract. Here, we tested two serine protease inhibitors, camostat mesylate and nafamostat mesylate, for their ability to inhibit entry of SARS-CoV-2 and that of a second pathogenic coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Both camostat and nafamostat reduced infection in primary human airway epithelia and in the Calu-3 2B4 cell line, with nafamostat exhibiting greater potency. We then assessed whether nafamostat was protective against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo using two mouse models. In mice sensitized to SARS-CoV-2 infection by transduction with human ACE2, intranasal nafamostat treatment prior to or shortly after SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly reduced weight loss and lung tissue titers. Similarly, prophylactic intranasal treatment with nafamostat reduced weight loss, viral burden, and mortality in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. These findings establish nafamostat as a candidate for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The causative agent of COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), requires host cell surface proteases for membrane fusion and entry into airway epithelia. We tested the hypothesis that inhibitors of these proteases, the serine protease inhibitors camostat and nafamostat, block infection by SARS-CoV-2. We found that both camostat and nafamostat reduce infection in human airway epithelia, with nafamostat showing greater potency. We then asked whether nafamostat protects mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent COVID-19 lung disease. We performed infections in mice made susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection by introducing the human version of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, into their airway epithelia. We observed that pretreating these mice with nafamostat prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in better outcomes, in the form of less virus-induced weight loss, viral replication, and mortality than that observed in the untreated control mice. These results provide preclinical evidence for the efficacy of nafamostat in treating and/or preventing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Benzamidinas/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360857

RESUMO

Herein, for the first time, the potential relationships between the cytoskeleton-associated proteins DAAM1 and PREP with different testicular disorders, such as classic seminoma (CS), Leydig cell tumor (LCT), and Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SOS), were evaluated. Six CS, two LCT, and two SOS tissue samples were obtained during inguinal exploration in patients with a suspect testis tumor based on clinical examination and ultrasonography. DAAM1 and PREP protein levels and immunofluorescent localization were analyzed. An increased DAAM1 protein level in CS and SOS as compared to non-pathological (NP) tissue was observed, while LCT showed no significant differences. Conversely, PREP protein level increased in LCT, while it decreased in CS and SOS compared to NP tissue. These results were strongly supported by the immunofluorescence staining, revealing an altered localization and signal intensity of DAAM1 and PREP in the analyzed samples, highlighting a perturbed cytoarchitecture. Interestingly, in LCT spermatogonia, a specific DAAM1 nuclear localization was found, probably due to an enhanced testosterone production, as confirmed by the increased protein levels of steroidogenic enzymes. Finally, although further studies are needed to verify the involvement of other formins and microtubule-associated proteins, this report raised the opportunity to indicate DAAM1 and PREP as new potential markers, supporting the cytoskeleton dynamics changes occurring during normal and/or pathological cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Seminoma/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Espermatogônias/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361576

RESUMO

Prunus mahaleb L. fruit has long been used in the production of traditional liqueurs. The fruit also displayed scavenging and reducing activity, in vitro. The present study focused on unravelling peripheral and central protective effects, antimicrobial but also anti-COVID-19 properties exerted by the water extract of P. mahaleb. Anti-inflammatory effects were studied in isolated mouse colons exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neuroprotection, measured as a blunting effect on hydrogen-peroxide-induced dopamine turnover, was investigated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. Antimicrobial effects were tested against different Gram+ and Gram- bacterial strains. Whereas anti-COVID-19 activity was studied in lung adenocarcinoma H1299 cells, where the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was measured after extract treatment. The bacteriostatic effects induced on Gram+ and Gram- strains, together with the inhibition of COX-2, TNFα, HIF1α, and VEGFA in the colon, suggest the potential of P. mahaleb water extract in contrasting the clinical symptoms related to ulcerative colitis. The inhibition of the hydrogen peroxide-induced DOPAC/DA ratio indicates promising neuroprotective effects. Finally, the downregulation of the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in H1299 cells, suggests the potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus entry in the human host. Overall, the results support the valorization of the local cultivation of P. mahaleb.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Linhagem Celular , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prunus/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445763

RESUMO

Unfortunately, COVID-19 is still a threat to humankind and has a dramatic impact on human health, social life, the world economy, and food security. With the limited number of suggested therapies under clinical trials, the discovery of novel therapeutic agents is essential. Here, a previously identified anti-SARS-CoV-2 compound named Compound 13 (1,2,5-Oxadiazole-3-carboximidic acid, 4,4'-(methylenediimino) bis,bis[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]hydrazide) was subjected to an iterated virtual screening against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using a combination of Ligand Designer and PathFinder. PathFinder, a computational reaction enumeration tool, was used for the rapid generation of enumerated structures via default reaction library. Ligand designer was employed for the computerized lead optimization and selection of the best structural modification that resulted in a favorable ligand-protein complex. The obtained compounds that showed the best binding to Mpro were re-screened against TMPRSS2, leading to the identification of 20 shared compounds. The compounds were further visually inspected, which resulted in the identification of five shared compounds M1-5 with dual binding affinity. In vitro evaluation and enzyme inhibition assay indicated that M3, an analogue of Compound 13 afforded by replacing the phenolic moiety with pyridinyl, possesses an improved antiviral activity and safety. M3 displayed in vitro antiviral activity with IC50 0.016 µM and Mpro inhibition activity with IC50 0.013 µM, 7-fold more potent than the parent Compound 13 and potent than the antivirals drugs that are currently under clinical trials. Moreover, M3 showed potent activity against human TMPRSS2 and furin enzymes with IC50 0.05, and 0.08 µM, respectively. Molecular docking, WaterMap analysis, molecular dynamics simulation, and R-group analysis confirmed the superiority of the binding fit to M3 with the target enzymes. WaterMap analysis calculated the thermodynamic properties of the hydration site in the binding pocket that significantly affects the biological activity. Loading M3 on zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) increased the antiviral activity of the compound 1.5-fold, while maintaining a higher safety profile. In conclusion, lead optimized discovery following an iterated virtual screening in association with molecular docking and biological evaluation revealed a novel compound named M3 with promising dual activity against SARS-CoV-2. The compound deserves further investigation for potential clinical-based studies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
6.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 159-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420994

RESUMO

The human TMPRSS2 gene is pathogenetically implicated in both coronaviral lung infection and prostate cancer, suggesting its potential as a drug target in both contexts. SARS-COV-2 spike polypeptides are primed by the host transmembrane TMPRSS2 protease, triggering virus fusion with epithelial cell membranes followed by an endocytotic internalisation process that bypasses normal endosomal activation of cathepsin-mediated innate immunity; viral co-opting of TMPRSS2 thus favors microbial survivability by attenuating host inflammatory responses. In contrast, most early hormone-dependent prostate cancers express TMPRSS2:ERG fusion genes arising from deletions that eliminate the TMPRSS2 coding region while juxtaposing its androgen-inducible promoter and the open reading frame of ERG, upregulating pro-inflammatory ERG while functionally disabling TMPRSS2. Moreover, inflammatory oxidative DNA damage selects for TMPRSS2:ERG-fused cancers, whereas patients treated with antiinflammatory drugs develop fewer of these fusion-dependent tumors. These findings imply that TMPRSS2 protects the prostate by enabling endosomal bypass of pathogens which could otherwise trigger inflammation-induced DNA damage that predisposes to TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. Hence, the high oncogenic selectability of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions may reflect a unique pro-inflammatory synergy between androgenic ERG gain-of-function and fusogenic TMPRSS2 loss-of-function, cautioning against the use of TMPRSS2-inhibitory drugs to prevent or treat early prostate cancer.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Fertilidade , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 573: 158-163, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416436

RESUMO

The angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldesterone system (RAAS) that mediates numerous effects in the cardiovascular system. It is also the cellular point of contact for the coronavirus spike protein. Cleavage of the receptor is both important to its physiological function as well as being necessary for cell entry by the virus. Shedding of ACE2 by the metalloprotease ADAM17 releases a catalytically active soluble form of ACE2, but cleavage by the serine protease TMPRSS2 is necessary for virion internalization. Complicating the issue is the observation that circulating ACE2 can also bind to the virus effectively blocking attachment to the membrane-bound receptor. This work investigates the possibility that the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection can abrogate shedding by ADAM17, thereby favoring cleavage by TMPRSS2 and thus cell entry by the virion.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM17/química , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/química , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361079

RESUMO

The liver has a most indispensable role in glucose and lipid metabolism where we see some of the most serious worldwide health problems. The serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) cleaves toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity under PRSS8 knockout condition. However, liver substrate proteins of PRSS8 other than TLR4 and the effect to glucose and lipid metabolism remain unclarified with hepatic elevation of PRSS8 expression. Here we show that high-fat-diet-fed liver-specific PRSS8 transgenic mice improved glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis independent of body weight. PRSS8 amplified extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation associated with matrix metalloproteinase 14 activation in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, in humans, serum PRSS8 levels reduced more in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients than healthy controls and were lower in T2DM patients with increased maximum carotid artery intima media thickness (>1.1 mm). These results identify the regulatory mechanisms of PRSS8 overexpression over glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as excessive hepatic fat storage.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
9.
J Mol Graph Model ; 108: 108001, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388402

RESUMO

The 2015 Zika outbreak sparked major global concern and emphasized the reality and dangers still posed by mosquito borne pathogens. While efforts have been made to develop a vaccine and other therapeutics, there is still a great demand for antiviral drugs targeting Zika and other flaviviruses. The non-structural protein 3 (NS3) helicase is a vital component of the viral replication complex, tasked with unwinding the viral dsRNA molecule into single strands. Given this critical function, the Zika virus helicase is a potential therapeutic target and the focus of many ongoing research efforts. Using a combination of drug docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified a list of competitive helicase inhibitors targeting the ATP hydrolysis site and have discovered a potential allosteric site capable of distorting both of the protein's active sites.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339474

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a major global threat that sparked global research efforts. Pre-clinical and biochemical SARS-CoV-2 studies firstly rely on cell culture experiments where the importance of choosing an appropriate cell culture model is often underestimated. We here present a bottom-up approach to identify suitable permissive cancer cell lines for drug screening and virus research. Human cancer cell lines were screened for the SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 based on RNA-seq data of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). However, experimentally testing permissiveness towards SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found limited correlation between receptor expression and permissiveness. This underlines that permissiveness of cells towards viral infection is determined not only by the presence of entry receptors but is defined by the availability of cellular resources, intrinsic immunity, and apoptosis. Aside from established cell culture infection models CACO-2 and CALU-3, three highly permissive human cell lines, colon cancer cell lines CL-14 and CL-40 and the breast cancer cell line CAL-51 and several low permissive cell lines were identified. Cell lines were characterised in more detail offering a broader choice of non-overexpression in vitro infection models to the scientific community. For some cell lines a truncated ACE2 mRNA and missense variants in TMPRSS2 might hint at disturbed host susceptibility towards viral entry.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Receptores Virais , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299127

RESUMO

Reelin is a secretory protein involved in a variety of processes in forebrain development and function, including neuronal migration, dendrite growth, spine formation, and synaptic plasticity. Most of the function of Reelin is focused on excitatory neurons; however, little is known about its effects on inhibitory neurons and inhibitory synapses. In this study, we investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway of Reelin in primary cortical and hippocampal neurons. Individual neurons were visualized using immunofluorescence to distinguish inhibitory neurons from excitatory neurons. Reelin-rich protein supplementation significantly induced the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 protein in excitatory neurons, but not in most inhibitory neurons. In somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons, one of major subtypes of inhibitory neurons, Reelin-rich protein supplementation induced the phosphorylation of S6. Subsequently, we investigated whether or not Reelin-rich protein supplementation affected dendrite development in cultured inhibitory neurons. Reelin-rich protein supplementation did not change the total length of dendrites in inhibitory neurons in vitro. Finally, we examined the development of inhibitory synapses in primary hippocampal neurons and found that Reelin-rich protein supplementation significantly reduced the density of gephyrin-VGAT-positive clusters in the dendritic regions without changing the expression levels of several inhibitory synapse-related proteins. These findings indicate a new role for Reelin in specific groups of inhibitory neurons and the development of inhibitory synapses, which may contribute to the underlying cellular mechanisms of RELN-associated neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Dendritos/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibição Neural , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299289

RESUMO

A large body of evidence shows the harmful effects of cigarette smoke to oral and systemic health. More recently, a link between smoking and susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was proposed. COVID-19 is due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which uses the receptor ACE2 and the protease TMPRSS2 for entry into host cells, thereby infecting cells of the respiratory tract and the oral cavity. Here, we examined the effects of cigarette smoke on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors and infection in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). We found that cigarette smoke condensates (CSC) upregulated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in GECs, and that CSC activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling in the oral cells. ACE2 was known to mediate SARS-CoV-2 internalization, and we demonstrate that CSC treatment potentiated the internalization of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in GECs in an AhR-dependent manner. AhR depletion using small interference RNA decreased SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus internalization in CSC-treated GECs compared with control GECs. Our study reveals that cigarette smoke upregulates SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression and infection in oral cells. Understanding the mechanisms involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells of the oral cavity may suggest therapeutic interventions for preventing viral infection and transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Gengiva/metabolismo , Gengiva/virologia , Humanos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fumar/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4384, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282151

RESUMO

Skin and lung fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is driven by myofibroblasts, alpha-smooth muscle actin expressing cells. The number of myofibroblasts in SSc skin correlates with the modified Rodnan skin score, the most widely used clinical measure of skin disease severity. Murine fibrosis models indicate that myofibroblasts can arise from a variety of different cell types, but their origin in SSc skin has remained uncertain. Utilizing single cell RNA-sequencing, we define different dermal fibroblast populations and transcriptome changes, comparing SSc to healthy dermal fibroblasts. Here, we show that SSc dermal myofibroblasts arise in two steps from an SFRP2hi/DPP4-expressing progenitor fibroblast population. In the first step, SSc fibroblasts show globally upregulated expression of transcriptome markers, such as PRSS23 and THBS1. A subset of these cells shows markers indicating that they are proliferating. Only a fraction of SFRP2hi SSc fibroblasts differentiate into myofibroblasts, as shown by expression of additional markers, SFRP4 and FNDC1. Bioinformatics analysis of the SSc fibroblast transcriptomes implicated upstream transcription factors, including FOSL2, RUNX1, STAT1, FOXP1, IRF7 and CREB3L1, as well as SMAD3, driving SSc myofibroblast differentiation.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Fibrose , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia , Proteína Smad3
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209110

RESUMO

Positively charged groups that mimic arginine or lysine in a natural substrate of trypsin are necessary for drugs to inhibit the trypsin-like serine protease TMPRSS2 that is involved in the viral entry and spread of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Based on this assumption, we identified a set of 13 approved or clinically investigational drugs with positively charged guanidinobenzoyl and/or aminidinobenzoyl groups, including the experimentally verified TMPRSS2 inhibitors Camostat and Nafamostat. Molecular docking using the C-I-TASSER-predicted TMPRSS2 catalytic domain model suggested that the guanidinobenzoyl or aminidinobenzoyl group in all the drugs could form putative salt bridge interactions with the side-chain carboxyl group of Asp435 located in the S1 pocket of TMPRSS2. Molecular dynamics simulations further revealed the high stability of the putative salt bridge interactions over long-time (100 ns) simulations. The molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area-binding free energy assessment and per-residue energy decomposition analysis also supported the strong binding interactions between TMPRSS2 and the proposed drugs. These results suggest that the proposed compounds, in addition to Camostat and Nafamostat, could be effective TMPRSS2 inhibitors for COVID-19 treatment by occupying the S1 pocket with the hallmark positively charged groups.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzamidinas/química , Benzamidinas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/metabolismo , Guanidinas/química , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Termodinâmica
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209188

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is the leading global health threat to date caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Recent clinical trials reported that the use of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors to treat COVID-19 patients could reduce dyspnea and hypoxia, thromboinflammation, hypercoagulability and improve oxygenation. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Thus, this study employs structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) to repurpose BTK inhibitors acalabrutinib, dasatinib, evobrutinib, fostamatinib, ibrutinib, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, spebrutinib, XL418 and zanubrutinib against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking is conducted with BTK inhibitors against structural and nonstructural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and host targets (ACE2, TMPRSS2 and BTK). Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are then carried out on the selected complexes with high binding energy. Ibrutinib and zanubrutinib are found to be the most potent of the drugs screened based on the results of computational studies. Results further show that ibrutinib and zanubrutinib could exploit different mechanisms at the viral entry and replication stage and could be repurposed as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Piperidinas/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Pirazóis/química , Pirimidinas/química , Adenina/química , Adenina/metabolismo , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Piperidinas/metabolismo , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203049

RESUMO

The present study aims to determine the neuroprotective effect of Bergenin against spatial memory deficit associated with neurodegeneration. Preliminarily, the protective effect of Bergenin was observed against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HT-22 and PC-12 cells. Further studies were performed in 5xFAD Tg mouse model by administering Bergenin (1, 30 and 60 mg/kg; orally), whereas Bergenin (60 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the memory deficit observed in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy displayed restoration of lipids, proteins and their derivatives compared to the 5xFAD Tg mice group. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) suggested an absence of amyloid beta (Aß) aggregation in Bergenin-treated mice. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis suggested the neuroprotective effect of Bergenin by increasing Reelin signaling (Reelin/Dab-1) and attenuated Aß (1-42) aggregation in hippocampal regions of mouse brains. Furthermore, IHC and western blot results suggested antioxidant (Keap-1/Nrf-2/HO-1), anti-inflammatory (TLR-4/NF-kB) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase-3) effect of Bergenin. Moreover, a decrease in Annexin V/PI-stained hippocampal cells suggested its effect against neurodegeneration. The histopathological changes were reversed significantly by Bergenin. In addition, a remarkable increase in antioxidant level with suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and nitric oxide production were observed in specific regions of the mouse brains.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/química , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4068, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210968

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 attacks various organs, most destructively the lung, and cellular entry requires two host cell surface proteins: ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Downregulation of one or both of these is thus a potential therapeutic approach for COVID-19. TMPRSS2 is a known target of the androgen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor; androgen receptor activation increases TMPRSS2 levels in various tissues, most notably prostate. We show here that treatment with the antiandrogen enzalutamide-a well-tolerated drug widely used in advanced prostate cancer-reduces TMPRSS2 levels in human lung cells and in mouse lung. Importantly, antiandrogens significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in lung cells. In support of this experimental data, analysis of existing datasets shows striking co-expression of AR and TMPRSS2, including in specific lung cell types targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Together, the data presented provides strong evidence to support clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antiandrogens as a treatment option for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/síntese química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
19.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207340

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry (MS) used in proteomic approaches is able to detect hundreds of proteins in a single assay. Although undeniable high analytical power of MS, data acquired sometimes lead to confusing results, especially during a search of very selective, unique interactions in complex biological matrices. Here, we would like to show an example of such confusing data, providing an extensive discussion on the observed phenomenon. Our investigations focus on the interaction between the Zika virus NS3 protease, which is essential for virus replication. This enzyme is known for helping to remodel the microenvironment of the infected cells. Several reports show that this protease can process cellular substrates and thereby modify cellular pathways that are important for the virus. Herein, we explored some of the targets of NS3, clearly shown by proteomic techniques, as processed during infection. Unfortunately, we could not confirm the biological relevance of protein targets for viral infections detected by MS. Thus, although mass spectrometry is highly sensitive and useful in many instances, also being able to show directions where cell/virus interaction occurs, we believe that deep recognition of their biological role is essential to receive complete insight into the investigated process.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células Vero
20.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 841, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230602

RESUMO

Characterizing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is an effective method to help explore protein function. Here, through integrating a newly identified split human Rhinovirus 3 C (HRV 3 C) protease, super-folder GFP (sfGFP), and ClpXP-SsrA protein degradation machinery, we developed a fluorescence-assisted single-cell methodology (split protease-E. coli ClpXP (SPEC)) to explore protein-protein interactions for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic species in E. coli cells. We firstly identified a highly efficient split HRV 3 C protease with high re-assembly ability and then incorporated it into the SPEC method. The SPEC method could convert the cellular protein-protein interaction to quantitative fluorescence signals through a split HRV 3 C protease-mediated proteolytic reaction with high efficiency and broad temperature adaptability. Using SPEC method, we explored the interactions among effectors of representative type I-E and I-F CRISPR/Cas complexes, which combining with subsequent studies of Cas3 mutations conferred further understanding of the functions and structures of CRISPR/Cas complexes.


Assuntos
Endopeptidase Clp/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Endopeptidase Clp/genética , Enterovirus/enzimologia , Enterovirus/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Histidina Quinase/genética , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteólise , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
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