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1.
Phytochemistry ; 165: 112055, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261031

RESUMO

Twenty-one known Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of various structural types and one undescribed alkaloid, named narcimatuline, have been isolated from fresh bulbs of Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. cv. Dutch Master. The chemical structures were elucidated by combination of MS, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, and by comparison with literature data. Narcimatuline amalgamates two basic scaffolds of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in its core, namely galanthamine and galanthindole. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), and glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) inhibitory activities. The most interesting biological profile was demonstrated by newly isolated alkaloid narcimatuline.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Narcissus/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/química , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/isolamento & purificação , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161918

RESUMO

Immunochemical and mass spectrometric methods were used to examine the gluten composition of a gluten-reduced beer produced by brewing with barley malt in the presence of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) and a final filtration treatment with diatomaceous earth and perlite. The competitive ELISA is generally considered appropriate for the analysis of hydrolysed gluten, but it is not considered a scientifically valid method for the quantification of gluten in fermented or hydrolysed foods due to the lack of an appropriate reference standard. As no single analytical method can capture the spectrum of gluten-derived products in beer, a comprehensive approach was employed to analyse the intact and hydrolysed fractions of gluten with complementary methods. The combination of PEP addition and diatomaceous earth/perlite filtration was more effective at reducing the concentration of detectable gluten than each of the treatments alone. However, gluten proteins and/or polypeptides were observed in filtered, PEP-treated beers using sandwich ELISA methods, western blot, and bottom-up mass spectrometry. In addition, mass spectrometry results showed that the number of hydrolysed gluten peptides was almost unaffected by the filtration process. Gluten peptides that contained potentially immunopathogenic sequences were identified in the filtered PEP-containing beers by MS. Variability in gluten composition was observed between three replicate pilot-scale productions, suggesting that the gluten profile in beer could differ from batch to batch. As there is uncertainty in the detection and quantification of gluten in hydrolysed and fermented foods, characterisation of hydrolysed gluten by complementary analytical methodologies is recommended.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Glutens/análise , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fermentação , Glutens/metabolismo , Hidrólise
3.
Subcell Biochem ; 92: 187-219, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214988

RESUMO

Signal peptidases are the membrane bound enzymes that cleave off the amino-terminal signal peptide from secretory preproteins . There are two types of bacterial signal peptidases . Type I signal peptidase utilizes a serine/lysine catalytic dyad mechanism and is the major signal peptidase in most bacteria. Type II signal peptidase is an aspartic protease specific for prolipoproteins. This chapter will review what is known about the structure, function and mechanism of these unique enzymes.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/química , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2853, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253808

RESUMO

Plant innate immunity restricts growth of bacterial pathogens that threaten global food security. However, the mechanisms by which plant immunity suppresses bacterial growth remain enigmatic. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana secreted aspartic protease 1 and 2 (SAP1 and SAP2) cleave the evolutionarily conserved bacterial protein MucD to redundantly inhibit the growth of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Antibacterial activity of SAP1 requires its protease activity in planta and in vitro. Plants overexpressing SAP1 exhibit enhanced MucD cleavage and resistance but incur no penalties in growth and reproduction, while sap1 sap2 double mutant plants exhibit compromised MucD cleavage and resistance against P. syringae. P. syringae lacking mucD shows compromised growth in planta and in vitro. Notably, growth of ΔmucD complemented with the non-cleavable MucDF106Y is not affected by SAP activity in planta and in vitro. Our findings identify the genetic factors and biochemical process underlying an antibacterial mechanism in plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(16): 3193-3206, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201463

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the sixth-leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Neurotoxic amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques are one of the pathological hallmarks in AD patient brains. Aß accumulates in the brain upon sequential, proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ß- and γ-secretases. However, so far disease-modifying drugs targeting ß- and γ-secretase pathways seeking a decrease in the production of toxic Aß peptides have failed in clinics. It has been demonstrated that the metalloproteinase meprin ß acts as an alternative ß-secretase, capable of generating truncated Aß2-x peptides that have been described to be increased in AD patients. This indicates an important ß-site cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1)-independent contribution of the metalloprotease meprin ß within the amyloidogenic pathway and may lead to novel drug targeting avenues. However, meprin ß itself is embedded in a complex regulatory network. Remarkably, the anti-amyloidogenic α-secretase a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) is a direct competitor for APP at the cell surface, but also a sheddase of inactive pro-meprin ß. Overall, we highlight the current cellular, molecular and structural understanding of meprin ß as alternative ß-secretase within the complex protease web, regulating APP processing in health and disease.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM10/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteína ADAM10/química , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/química , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Proteólise , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 466-475, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082461

RESUMO

Targeted degrading Aspergillus niger-derived prolyl endopeptidase (AN-PEP) is promising in gluten hydrolysis because it specifically cleaves the proline-rich sites in gluten. The current study aims to understand the safety aspects of AN-PEP hydrolysed low immunoreactive wheat flours by testing immune responses using cell line and animal models. In the AN-PEP hydrolysed wheat flour (AN-PEP HWF) gliadin extract, there was no increase in the levels of zonulin-1 (Zo-1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) but a significant increase was noted in the control wheat flour (CWF) gliadin-treated Caco-2 cells. The Zo-1 localization in Caco-2 cells was significantly noted in the reacted positive fluorescence cells that were treated with the control wheat flour. Further, a safety evaluation of HWF was carried out in gluten-sensitized BALB/c mice. Mouse anti-gliadin (IgG, IgA and IgE) antibodies were significantly generated in the CWF treated animals rather than the AN-PEP HWF groups. The serum pro-inflammatory (IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-15, TNF-α and IFN-γ) markers were observed in significant levels in CWF challenged mice and a similar trend was observed in ex-vivo splenocyte cells. A small intestine histopathological sectioning revealed that there are no abnormalities or structural changes in AN-PEP HWF challenged mice.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Farinha , Glutens/toxicidade , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrólise , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15164, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045759

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytomorphologic maturity and molecular activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the intratumoral stroma and invasive front in colorectal cancer and understand how they affect cancer invasion and long-term oncological outcomes.The cytomorphologic maturity of and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα), and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1) expression in CAFs in the intratumoral stroma (CAF) and the invasive front (CAF) of colorectal cancer tissues were compared (n = 147). The correlations between CAF maturation, molecular activity markers, and cancer invasion were evaluated by network analysis. Overall survival and systemic recurrence were analyzed to assess the oncological effects of CAF properties.The cytomorphologic maturation rate was comparable between CAF and CAF. The presence of mature CAFs was related to epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression in cancer cells. Expression rates of α-SMA (96.6%-98.0%) and FAPα (18.6%-22.9%) were similar between CAF and CAF. FSP-1 expression was more frequent in CAF than in CAF (66.4% vs 58.2%, P = .038). There was a significant decrease in FSP-1 expression in CAF and CAF in higher stages. The infiltrating growth pattern of the tumor was more frequent in the immature CAF. In colorectal cancer with perineural invasion and lymph node metastasis, FSP-1 expression in CAF was significantly lower. On multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, immature CAF was found to be an independent prognostic factor of overall survival. In non-metastatic (stage I-III) colorectal cancer patients, CAF maturity was not a prognostic factor for systemic recurrence.Cytomorphologic maturity and molecular activation markers were similar between CAFs in the intratumoral stroma and invasive front of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Gelatinases/metabolismo , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(18): 5240-5249, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008594

RESUMO

Fluoride is a widespread environmental pollutant that can induce low sperm quality and fertilizing ability; however, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. Hence, we aimed to investigate the influence of fluoride on the sperm fertilizing ability via some key proteins in the epididymis. For this, 40 adult rats were assigned randomly into four groups. The control group was given distilled water, while the other three groups were given 25, 50, and 100 mg of NaF/L via drinking water for 56 days, respectively. After 1 day, epididymides were processed for sperm-egg binding, RNA extraction, western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis. Fluoride exposure reduced the ability of sperm to break down the egg cumulus cell layer. A further study revealed that fluoride altered the expression levels of genes and proteins related to acrosome reaction in vivo, including SPAM1, ACR, and PRSS21. However, fluoride only affected the expression of the ACR protein only in the epididymis but not in the testis. Fluoride also affected the expression levels of the membrane proteins CD9 and CD81 of epididymosomes in the epididymis. From the results, it can be concluded that fluoride exposure reduced the ability of sperm to break down the egg cumulus cell layer, which could be one of the reasons for decreased fertility ability in males treated with fluoride. These results provide some theoretical guidance and new ideas for treatments of low fertility, infertility, and other reproductive diseases.


Assuntos
Acrosina/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Acrosina/genética , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Epididimo/metabolismo , Fertilização/efeitos dos fármacos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
J Mol Neurosci ; 68(2): 261-274, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949956

RESUMO

The level of miR-181a decreases rapidly in N2a cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion, but its role in this process is unclear. Reelin, a regulator of neuronal migration and synaptogenesis, is a predicted target of miR-181a. We hypothesized that miR-181a reduces neuronal apoptosis and protects neurons by targeting reelin. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) is a protein located in mitochondria that regulates apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of Smac is achieved by reversing the effects of apoptosis-inhibiting proteins (IAPs), particularly X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). We also evaluated the effect of miR-181a on the Smac/IAP signaling pathway after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion in N2a cells. The miR-181a level, apoptosis rate, and the levels of reelin mRNA and protein, Smac, and XIAP were assessed in N2a cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 4 h and reperfusion for 0, 4, 12, or 24 h with/without an miR-181a mimic, or mismatched control. Direct targeting of reelin by miR-181a was assessed in vitro by dual luciferase assay and immunoblotting. Pre-treatment with miR-181a mimicked the increase in the miR-181a level in N2a cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion, resulting in a significant decrease in the apoptosis rate. Changes in the miR-181a level in N2a cells were inversely correlated with reelin protein expression. Direct targeting of the reelin 3' untranslated region by miR-181a was verified by dual luciferase assay, which showed that miR-181a significantly inhibited luciferase activity. The Smac level was significantly lower in the miR-181a mimics than the normal control and mimics-cont groups (P < 0.01), whereas the level of XIAP was increased slightly. These findings suggest that miR-181a protects neurons from apoptosis by inhibiting reelin expression and regulating the Smac/IAP signaling pathway after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Apoptose , MicroRNAs/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glucose/deficiência , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
10.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(3): 354-356, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828067

RESUMO

Reelin is a secreted protein that antagonizes the deposition and toxicity of amyloid ß peptide (Aß). Therefore, augmentation of Reelin activity may ameliorate Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently reported that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 3 (ADAMTS-3) cleaves and inactivates Reelin in the mouse brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of reducing ADAMTS-3 on deposition of Aß by crossbreeding drug-inducible ADAMTS-3 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice with "next-generation" AD model mice. We found that reducing ADAMTS-3 inhibited deposition of Aß significantly in AppNL-F mice, which produce human wild-type Aß. On the other hand, reducing ADAMTS-3 had no effect in AppNL-G-F mice, which produce the Arctic mutant Aß (E22G) that forms protofibrils more efficiently than does wild-type Aß. Thus, the findings suggest that the administration of an inhibitor against ADAMTS-3 will prevent the progression of AD pathology caused by deposition of wild-type Aß.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Proteínas ADAMTS/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1944: 115-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840238

RESUMO

Global characterization of protein N termini provides valuable information on proteome dynamics and diversity in health and disease. Driven by the progress in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, novel approaches for the dedicated investigation of protein N termini and protease substrates have been recently developed. Terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) is a quantitative proteomics approach suitable for high-throughput and system-wide profiling of protein N termini in complex biological matrices. TAILS employs isotopic labeling of primary amines of intact proteins in combination with an amine-reactive high molecular weight polymer (HPG-ALD) for depletion of internal tryptic peptides and high enrichment of protein N termini by negative selection. Thereby, TAILS allows simultaneous identification of the natural N termini, protease-generated neo-N termini, and endogenously modified (e.g., acetylated) N termini. In this chapter, we provide a protocol for tandem mass tag (TMT)-TAILS analysis and further discuss specific considerations regarding N-terminome data interpretation using Proteome Discoverer™ software.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Camundongos , Domínios Proteicos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteólise , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
Toxicon ; 162: 9-14, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849454

RESUMO

The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met pathway, which mainly consists of HGF activator (HGFA) and its substrate HGF, protects various types of cells via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory signals. Thrombin is the main physiological activator of such plasmatic pathway, and increased plasma concentrations of HGF have been considered as a molecular marker for some pathological conditions, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation. Since thrombin generation is often linked to tissue injury, and these events are common during snake venom-induced consumption coagulopathies (VICC), our goals were to examine whether Bothrops jararaca venom (Bjv), which induces VICC in vivo: (i) activates the HGF/c-met pathway in vivo and (ii) cleaves zymogen forms of HGFA and HGF (proHGFA and proHGF, respectively) in vitro. Two experimental groups (n = 6, each) of male adult Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with 500 µL of 0.9% NaCl solution (control) or sub-lethal doses (1.6 mg/kg) of Bjv. Three hours after envenomation, whole blood samples were collected from the carotid arteries to evaluate relevant coagulation parameters using rotational thromboelastometry and fibrinogen level (colorimetric assay). Additionally, the plasma concentration of HGF was assayed (ELISA). Thromboelastometric assays showed that blood clotting and fibrin polymerization were severely impaired 3 h after Bjv injection. Total plasma HGF concentrations were almost 6-fold higher in the Bjv-injected group (410.0 ±â€¯91) compared with control values (68 ±â€¯18 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Western blotting assay showed that Bjv processed proHGFA and proHGF, generating bands resembling those generated by thrombin and kallikrein, respectively. In contrast to the serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF), the metalloprotease inhibitor ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2-EDTA) strongly reduced the ability of Bjv to process proHGFA and generated one active band similar to that of thrombin. Since Bjv contains prothrombin and factor X activators, increased intravascular thrombin formation might partly explain the increased HGF levels after bothropic envenomation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that snake venom metalloproteases may be determinant for elevation of plasma levels of HGF in rats experimentally envenomated with Bjv.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/sangue , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea , Venenos de Crotalídeos/enzimologia , Feminino , Fibrina/análise , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Masculino , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813632

RESUMO

HslVU is an ATP-dependent proteolytic complex present in certain bacteria and in the mitochondrion of some primordial eukaryotes, including deadly parasites such as Leishmania. It is formed by the dodecameric protease HslV and the hexameric ATPase HslU, which binds via the C-terminal end of its subunits to HslV and activates it by a yet unclear allosteric mechanism. We undertook the characterization of HslV from Leishmania major (LmHslV), a trypanosomatid that expresses two isoforms for HslU, LmHslU1 and LmHslU2. Using a novel and sensitive peptide substrate, we found that LmHslV can be activated by peptides derived from the C-termini of both LmHslU1 and LmHslU2. Truncations, Ala- and D-scans of the C-terminal dodecapeptide of LmHslU2 (LmC12-U2) showed that five out of the six C-terminal residues of LmHslU2 are essential for binding to and activating HslV. Peptide cyclisation with a lactam bridge allowed shortening of the peptide without loss of potency. Finally, we found that dodecapeptides derived from HslU of other parasites and bacteria are able to activate LmHslV with similar or even higher efficiency. Importantly, using electron microscopy approaches, we observed that the activation of LmHslV was accompanied by a large conformational remodeling, which represents a yet unidentified layer of control of HslV activation.


Assuntos
Leishmania major/enzimologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885835

RESUMO

Tibetan pigs, indigenous to Tibetan plateau, are well adapted to hypoxia. So far, there have been not any definitively described genes and functional sites responsible for hypoxia adaptation for the Tibetan pig. The whole genome-wide association studies in human suggested that genetic variations in TMPRSS6 was associated with hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and red cell counts (RBC). Here we conducted resequencing of the nearly entire genomic region (40.1 kb) of the candidate gene TMPRSS6 in 40 domestic pigs and 40 wild boars along continuous altitudes and identified 708 SNPs, in addition to an indel (CGTG/----) in the intron 10. We conduct the CGTG indel in 838 domestic pigs, both the CGTG deletion frequency and the pairwise r2 linkage disequilibrium showed an increase with elevated altitudes, suggesting that TMPRSS6 has been under Darwinian positive selection. As the conserved core sequence of hypoxia-response elements (HREs), the deletion of CGTG in Tibetan pigs decreased the expression levels of TMPRSS6 mRNA and protein in the liver revealed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot, respectively. We compared domestic pigs and Tibetan pigs living continuous altitudes, found that the blood-related traits with the increase of altitude, however, the HGB did not increase with the elevation in Tibetan pigs. Genotype association analysis results dissected a genetic effect on reducing HGB by 13.25 g/L in Gongbo'gyamda Tibetan pigs, decreasing mean corpuscular volume (MCV) by 4.79 fl in Diqing Tibetan pigs. In conclusion, the CGTG deletion of TMPRSS6 resulted in lower HGB and smaller MCV, which could reflect a blunting erythropoiesis and improving blood viscosity as well as erythrocyte deformability. It remains to be determined whether a blunting of erythropoiesis for TMPRSS6 or others genetic effects are the physiological adaptations among Tibetan pigs.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Viscosidade Sanguínea/fisiologia , Eritropoese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases , Animais , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Suínos , Tibet
15.
eNeuro ; 6(1)2019 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863790

RESUMO

CRISPR-based technology has provided new avenues to interrogate gene function, but difficulties in transgene expression in post-mitotic neurons has delayed incorporation of these tools in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we demonstrate a highly efficient, neuron-optimized dual lentiviral CRISPR-based transcriptional activation (CRISPRa) system capable of robust, modular, and tunable gene induction and multiplexed gene regulation across several primary rodent neuron culture systems. CRISPRa targeting unique promoters in the complex multi-transcript gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) revealed both transcript- and genome-level selectivity of this approach, in addition to highlighting downstream transcriptional and physiological consequences of Bdnf regulation. Finally, we illustrate that CRISPRa is highly efficient in vivo, resulting in increased protein levels of a target gene in diverse brain structures. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CRISPRa is an efficient and selective method to study gene expression programs in brain health and disease.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas Genéticas , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma
16.
J Mol Neurosci ; 68(1): 91-98, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847724

RESUMO

Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-ß receptors. We recently demonstrated that the expressions of SARA and level of downstream phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) were upregulated in the brain in the epileptic rat model, but were never examined in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this study, we examined the expressions of SARA and level of p-Smad3 in brain tissues of TLE patients using immunohistochemistry and western blot to demonstrate that SARA activation in neurons is sufficient to facilitate TGF- ß pathway in patients to regulate epilepsy. We found that the expressions of SARA and level of p-Smad3 were significantly upregulated in neurons of the temporal cortex of TLE patients compared to controls. Moreover, SARA and p-Smad3 were strongly stained in the cytoplasm in the temporal cortex of TLE patients. Our results indicate that upregulation of SARA and p-Smad3 in cortex neurons might be involved in the development of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
17.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 692-702, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777474

RESUMO

Matriptase is ectopically expressed in neoplastic B-cells, in which matriptase activity is enhanced by negligible expression of its endogenous inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1. HAI-1, however, is also involved in matriptase synthesis and intracellular trafficking. The lack of HAI-1 indicates that other related inhibitor, such as HAI-2, might be expressed. Here, we show that HAI-2 is commonly co-expressed in matriptase-expressing neoplastic B-cells. The level of active matriptase shed after induction of matriptase zymogen activation in 7 different neoplastic B-cells was next determined and characterised. Our data reveal that active matriptase can only be generated and shed by those cells able to activate matriptase and in a rough correlation with the levels of matriptase protein. While HAI-2 can potently inhibit matriptase, the levels of active matriptase are not proportionally suppressed in those cells with high HAI-2. Our survey suggests that matriptase proteolysis might aberrantly remain high in neoplastic B-cells regardless of the levels of HAI-2.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese
18.
Virchows Arch ; 474(5): 599-608, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734108

RESUMO

Most ovarian carcinomas (OC) are characterized by poor prognosis, particularly the most frequent type high-grade serous carcinoma. Besides PARP inhibitors, target-based therapeutic strategies are not well established. We asked the question which other therapeutic targets could be of potential value and, therefore, analyzed a large cohort of OC for several predictive factors. Two hundred eighty-eight (288) cases of OC including the major histological types were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1HER2, ALK, and the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6. HER2 amplification and ALK/EML4 fusion were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The most frequent finding was PD-L1 expression ≥ 1% in 19.5% of the cases, which correlated with a significantly better overall survival in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). HER2 amplification was detected in 11 cases (4%), all high-grade serous carcinomas. Amplification of HER2 did not correlate with patients' survival. ALK/EML4 fusion was found in two cases (0.74%): one high-grade serous and one endometrioid carcinoma. MMR deficiency was only present in one case of stage IV high-grade serous carcinoma. Subsets of high-grade serous carcinomas show PD-L1 expression and HER2 amplification, respectively, and, therefore, could qualify for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy or anti HER2 therapy. PD-L1 is also of prognostic impact. ALK/EML4 fusion is very rare in OC and not a putative therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
19.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 9429323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766618

RESUMO

Renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is one of the most important risk factors for the occurrence of delayed graft function (DGF) after kidney transplantation; however, its mechanism remains not fully understood. In the present study, we screened differentially expressed genes in a murine model of renal IR injury by using high-throughput assays. We identified Corin as one of the most significantly downregulated genes among 2218 differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold, P < 0.05). By using a real-time qPCR assay, we observed that the expression of renal Corin in IR-injured mice was reduced to 11.5% of the sham-operated mice and that the protein level of renal Corin in IR-injured mice was also downregulated. Interestingly, renal IR injury in mice induced the downregulation of Corin in heart tissues, suggesting that the overall synthesis of Corin may be suppressed. We recruited 11 recipients complicated with DGF and 16 without DGF, and plasma Corin concentrations were determined by ELISA. We observed that the plasma Corin levels were indeed reduced in recipients complicated with DGF (0.98 vs. 1.95 ng/ml, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that Corin may be a potential biomarker of DGF after kidney transplantation and may participate in the regulation of renal IR injury.


Assuntos
Função Retardada do Enxerto/metabolismo , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Rim/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Função Retardada do Enxerto/sangue , Função Retardada do Enxerto/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/sangue , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
20.
Zygote ; 27(1): 49-53, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714556

RESUMO

SummaryIn eutherian mammals, the placenta plays a critical role in embryo development by supplying nutrients and hormones and mediating interaction with the mother. To establish the fine connection between mother and embryo, the placenta needs to be formed normally, but the mechanism of placental differentiation is not fully understood. We previously revealed that mouse prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) plays a role in trophoblast stem cell (TSC) differentiation into two placental cell types, spongiotrophoblasts (SpT) and trophoblast giant cells. Here, we focused on SpT differentiation and attempted to elucidate a molecular mechanism. For Ascl2, Arnt, and Egfr genes that are indispensable for SpT formation, we found that a POP-specific inhibitor, SUAM-14746, significantly decreased Ascl2 expression, which was consistent with a significant decrease in expression of Flt1, a gene downstream of Ascl2. Although this downregulation was unlikely to be mediated by the PI3K-Akt pathway, our results indicated that POP controls TSC differentiation into SpT by regulating the Ascl2 gene.


Assuntos
Placenta/citologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Trofoblastos/citologia , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Gravidez , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/farmacologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
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