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1.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 23(1): 233-252, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925827

RESUMO

Lineage specific expansions and gene duplications are some of the most important sources of evolutionary novelty in eukaryotes. Although not as prevalent in eukaryotes compared to bacteria, horizontal gene transfer events can also result in key adaptations for insects, especially for those involved in insect-microbe interactions. In this study we assemble the first chromosomal assembly of the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli and reveal that the B. cockerelli genome has experienced significantly more gene expansion events compared to other Hemipteran representatives with fully sequenced genomes. We also reveal that B. cockerelli's genome is the largest psyllid genome (567 Mb) sequenced to date and is ~15% larger than the other two psyllid species genomes sequenced (Pachypsylla venusta and Diaphorina citri). Structurally, B. cockerelli appears to have an additional chromosome compared to the distantly related psyllid species P. venusta due to a previous chromosomal fission or fusion event. The increase in genome size and dynamic nature of the B. cockerelli genome may largely be contributed to the widespread expansion of type I and II repeat elements that are rampant across all of B. cockerelli's. chromosomes. These repeat elements are distributed near equally in both euchromatic and heterochromatic regions. Furthermore, significant gene family expansions and gene duplications were uncovered for genes that are expected to be important in its adaptation to insect-plant and microbe interactions, which include transcription factors, proteases, odorant receptors, and horizontally transferred genes that are involved in the nutritional symbioses with their long-term nutritional endosymbiont Carsonella.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Hemípteros/genética , Simbiose/genética , Genoma , Bactérias/genética , Cromossomos
2.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 23(1): 253-272, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932461

RESUMO

Locoweeds are perennial forbs poisonous to livestock and cause extreme losses to animal husbandry. Locoweed toxicity is attributed to the symbiotic endophytes in Alternaria sect. Undifilum, which produce a mycotoxin swainsonine (SW). We performed a de novo whole genome sequencing of the most common locoweed in China, Oxytropis ochrocephala (2n = 16), and assembled a high-quality, chromosome-level reference genome. Its genome size is 958.83 Mb with 930.94 Mb (97.09%) anchored and oriented onto eight chromosomes, and 31,700 protein-coding genes were annotated. Phylogenetic and collinearity analysis showed it is closely related to Medicago truncatula with a pair of large interchromosomal rearrangements, and both species underwent a whole-genome duplication event. We also derived the genome of A. oxytropis at 74.48 Mb with a contig N50 of 8.87 Mb and 10,657 protein-coding genes, and refined the genes of SW biosynthesis. Multiple Alternaria species containing the swnK gene were grouped into a single clade, but in other genera, swnK's homologues are diverse. Resequencing of 41 A. oxytropis strains revealed one SNP in the SWN cluster causing changes in SW concentration. Comparing the transcriptomes of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic interactions identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) linked to defence and secondary metabolism in the host. Within the endophyte DEGs were linked to cell wall degradation, fatty acids and nitrogen metabolism. Symbiosis induced the upregulation of most of the SW biosynthetic genes. These two genomes and relevant sequencing data should provide valuable genetic resources for the study of the evolution, interaction, and SW biosynthesis in the symbiont.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Oxytropis , Swainsonina/análise , Swainsonina/metabolismo , Oxytropis/genética , Oxytropis/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/metabolismo , Alternaria/genética , Alternaria/metabolismo , Simbiose/genética , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159944, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351498

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential but limiting nutrient for coral growth due to low concentrations of dissolved inorganic concentrations (DIP) in reef waters. P limitation is often exacerbated when concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) increase in the reef. To increase their access to phosphorus, corals can use organic P dissolved in seawater (DOP). They possess phosphatase enzymes that transform DOP into DIP, which can then be taken up by coral symbionts. Although the concentration of DOP in reef waters is much higher than DIP, the dependence of corals on this P source is still poorly understood, especially with different concentrations of DIN in seawater. As efforts to predict the future of corals increase, improved knowledge of the P requirements of corals living under different DIN concentrations may be key to predicting coral health. In this study, we investigated P content and phosphatase activities (PAs) in Stylophora pistillata maintained under nutrient starvation, long-term nitrogen enrichment (nitrate or ammonium at 2 µM) and short-term (few hours) nitrogen pulses. Results show that under nutrient depletion and ammonium-enriched conditions, a significant increase in PAs was observed compared to control conditions, with no change in the N:P ratio of the coral tissue. On the contrary, under nitrate enrichment, there was no increase in PAs compared to control conditions, but an increase in the N:P ratio of the coral tissue. These results suggest that under nitrate enrichment, corals were unable to increase their ability to rely on DOP and replenish their cellular P content. An increase in cellular N:P ratio is detrimental to coral health as it increases the susceptibility of coral bleaching under thermal stress. These results provide an overall view of the P requirements of corals exposed to different nutrient conditions and improve our understanding of the effects of nitrogen enrichment on corals.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Antozoários , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Simbiose , Nitratos , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Compostos Orgânicos , Nutrientes , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Recifes de Corais
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMO

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Turnera , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta
5.
Microbiol Res ; 266: 127256, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410317

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria inevitably form mutualistic relationships with plants and supply numerous benefits without causing peripheral infection or adverse effects on their host. They are omnipresent and may be found in a variety of habitats, including terrestrial and mangrove environments, spanning the plant kingdom. The need for bioactive compounds in medicines has skyrocketed in recent years. Because of their intimate association with their host plant, bacterial endophytes might be investigated for biotechnologically important products, including antibiotics, proteins, enzymes, and others. Bioactive compounds produced by bacterial endophytes possess numerous biological properties corresponding to antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Therefore, endophytes are an essential replacement for overcoming pathogen drug resistance due to their enormous diversity and long-term tolerance to environmental conditions. Bacterial endophytes have a tremendous impact on the floral community by boosting their growth, raising their fitness by targeting pests and plant pathogens. The major focus of the review relies on the isolation and identification of bacterial endophytes from diverse habitats and illustrates their various potential applications in the pharmaceutical, industrial, and agricultural sectors as well as in nanotechnology for the fabrication of various nanoparticles incorporated into different applications.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Endófitos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Simbiose , Agricultura
6.
Gene ; 850: 146953, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243214

RESUMO

The mechanisms of chemoreception in fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) are of primary importance in their co-evolutionary relationship with the fig trees they pollinate. We used transcriptome sequences of 25 fig wasps in six genera that allowed a comparative approach to the evolution of key molecular components of fig wasp chemoreception: their odorant (OR) and gustatory (GR) receptor genes. In total, we identified 311 ORs and 47 GRs, with each species recording from 5 to 30 OR genes and 1-4 GR genes. 304 OR genes clustered into 18 orthologous groups known to be sensitive to cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), pheromones, acids, alcohols and a variety of floral scents such as cineole, Linalool, and Heptanone. 45 GR genes clustered into 4 orthologous groups that contain sweet, bitter, CO2 and undocumented receptors. Gene sequences in most orthologous groups varied greatly among species, except for ORco (60.0% conserved) and sweet receptors (30.7% conserved). Strong purifying selection of both odorant and gustatory genes was detected, as shown by low ω values. Signatures of positive selection were detected in loci from both OR and GR orthologous groups. Fig wasps have relatively few olfactory and especially gustatory receptors, reflecting the natural history of the system. Amino acid sequences nonetheless vary significantly between species and are consistent with the phylogenetic relationships among fig wasps. The differences in ORs within some orthologous groups from the same species, but different hosts and from closely related species from one host can reach as low as 49.3% and 9.8% respectively, implying the ORs of fig wasps can evolve rapidly to novel ecological environments. Our results provide a starting point for understanding the molecular basis of the chemosensory systems of fig wasps.


Assuntos
Ficus , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/genética , Ficus/genética , Filogenia , Eucaliptol , Dióxido de Carbono , Simbiose , Feromônios , Polinização
7.
Zool Res ; 44(1): 106-125, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419378

RESUMO

Endosymbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria is fundamental for the success of bathymodioline mussels in deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems. However, the recent discovery of Campylobacteria on the gill surfaces of these mussels suggests that these host-bacterial relationships may be more complex than previously thought. Using the cold-seep mussel ( Gigantidas haimaensis) as a model, we explored this host-bacterial system by assembling the host transcriptome and genomes of its epibiotic Campylobacteria and endosymbiotic Gammaproteobacteria and quantifying their gene and protein expression levels. We found that the epibiont applies a sulfur oxidizing (SOX) multienzyme complex with the acquisition of soxB from Gammaproteobacteria for energy production and switched from a reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle to a Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle for carbon assimilation. The host provides metabolic intermediates, inorganic carbon, and thiosulfate to satisfy the materials and energy requirements of the epibiont, but whether the epibiont benefits the host is unclear. The endosymbiont adopts methane oxidation and the ribulose monophosphate pathway (RuMP) for energy production, providing the major source of energy for itself and the host. The host obtains most of its nutrients, such as lysine, glutamine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, and folate, from the endosymbiont. In addition, host pattern recognition receptors, including toll-like receptors, peptidoglycan recognition proteins, and C-type lectins, may participate in bacterial infection, maintenance, and population regulation. Overall, this study provides insights into the complex host-bacterial relationships that have enabled mussels and bacteria to thrive in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ecossistema , Animais , Bivalves/genética , Bactérias/genética , Simbiose , Carbono/metabolismo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128304, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370947

RESUMO

Microalgae-bacteria symbiosis system (MBS) appear to be a promising way for treating the rare earth elements (REEs) wastewater due to the natural symbiotic interactions between microalgae and bacteria. Herein, we investigated the effect of different inoculation ratios of microalgae and bacteria including 3:1 (MB_1), 1:1 (MB_2) and 1:3 (MB_3) on NH4+-N removal from REEs wastewater and analyzed the corresponding biological mechanism. The NH4+-N removal rate with MB_3 reached 17.69 ± 0.45 mg NH4+-N/L d-1, which was 2.58 times higher than that in single microalgae system. The results were further verified in continuous feeding photobioreactors and kept stable for 100 days. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the abundance of genes related to microalgae assimilation increased by 14 %-50 % in answer to photosynthesis and NH4+-N absorption, while that related to nitrification apparently dropped, indicating that MBS was a sustainable method capable of enhancing NH4+-N removal from REEs wastewater.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Amônia , Simbiose , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Bactérias/genética , Biomassa
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2562: 425-442, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272092

RESUMO

Microbial symbionts are broadly categorized by their impacts on host fitness: commensals, pathogens, and mutualists. However, recent investigations into the physiological basis of these impacts have revealed nuanced microbial influences on a wide range of host developmental, immunological, and physiological processes, including regeneration. Exploring these impacts begins with knowing which microbes are present. This methodological pipeline contains both targeted assays using PCR and culturing, as well as culture-independent approaches, to survey host salamander tissues for common and unknown microbial symbionts.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Urodelos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Simbiose
10.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 265, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is one of the most widespread endosymbiosis in our oceans and provides the ecological basis of coral reef ecosystems. Although many studies have been undertaken to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying these symbioses, we still know little about the epigenetic mechanisms that control the transcriptional responses to symbiosis. RESULTS: Here, we used the model organism Exaiptasia diaphana to study the genome-wide patterns and putative functions of the histone modifications H3K27ac, H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K36me3, and H3K27me3 in symbiosis. While we find that their functions are generally conserved, we observed that colocalization of more than one modification and or DNA methylation correlated with significantly higher gene expression, suggesting a cooperative action of histone modifications and DNA methylation in promoting gene expression. Analysis of symbiosis genes revealed that activating histone modifications predominantly associated with symbiosis-induced genes involved in glucose metabolism, nitrogen transport, amino acid biosynthesis, and organism growth while symbiosis-suppressed genes were involved in catabolic processes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of prominent histone modifications and their interaction with DNA methylation in regulating symbiosis in cnidarians.


Assuntos
Anêmonas-do-Mar , Animais , Anêmonas-do-Mar/genética , Código das Histonas , Simbiose , Metilação de DNA , Ecossistema
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 990889, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467722

RESUMO

I. ricinus is an obligate hematophagous parasitic arthropod that is responsible for the transmission of a wide range of zoonotic pathogens including spirochetes of the genus Borrelia, Rickettsia spp., C. burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella tularensis, which are part the tick´s microbiome. Most of the studies focus on "pathogens" and only very few elucidate the role of "non-pathogenic" symbiotic microorganisms in I. ricinus. While most of the members of the microbiome are leading an intracellular lifestyle, they are able to complement tick´s nutrition and stress response having a great impact on tick´s survival and transmission of pathogens. The composition of the tick´s microbiome is not consistent and can be tied to the environment, tick species, developmental stage, or specific organ or tissue. Ovarian tissue harbors a stable microbiome consisting mainly but not exclusively of endosymbiotic bacteria, while the microbiome of the digestive system is rather unstable, and together with salivary glands, is mostly comprised of pathogens. The most prevalent endosymbionts found in ticks are Rickettsia spp., Ricketsiella spp., Coxiella-like and Francisella-like endosymbionts, Spiroplasma spp. and Candidatus Midichloria spp. Since microorganisms can modify ticks' behavior, such as mobility, feeding or saliva production, which results in increased survival rates, we aimed to elucidate the potential, tight relationship, and interaction between bacteria of the I. ricinus microbiome. Here we show that endosymbionts including Coxiella-like spp., can provide I. ricinus with different types of vitamin B (B2, B6, B7, B9) essential for eukaryotic organisms. Furthermore, we hypothesize that survival of Wolbachia spp., or the bacterial pathogen A. phagocytophilum can be supported by the tick itself since coinfection with symbiotic Spiroplasma ixodetis provides I. ricinus with complete metabolic pathway of folate biosynthesis necessary for DNA synthesis and cell division. Manipulation of tick´s endosymbiotic microbiome could present a perspective way of I. ricinus control and regulation of spread of emerging bacterial pathogens.


Assuntos
Francisella tularensis , Ixodes , Microbiota , Rickettsia , Animais , Coxiella , Simbiose
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2211637119, 2022 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343219

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common reproductive manipulation produced by Wolbachia, obligately intracellular alphaproteobacteria that infect approximately half of all insect species. Once infection frequencies within host populations approach 10%, intense CI can drive Wolbachia to near fixation within 10 generations. However, natural selection among Wolbachia variants within individual host populations does not favor enhanced CI. Indeed, variants that do not cause CI but increase host fitness or are more reliably maternally transmitted are expected to spread if infected females remain protected from CI. Nevertheless, approximately half of analyzed Wolbachia infections cause detectable CI. Why? The frequency and persistence of CI are more plausibly explained by preferential spread to new host species (clade selection) rather than by natural selection among variants within host populations. CI-causing Wolbachia lineages preferentially spread into new host species because 1) CI increases equilibrium Wolbachia frequencies within host populations, and 2) CI-causing variants can remain at high frequencies within populations even when conditions change so that initially beneficial Wolbachia infections become harmful. An epidemiological model describing Wolbachia acquisition and loss by host species and the loss of CI-induction within Wolbachia lineages yields simple expressions for the incidence of Wolbachia infections and the fraction of those infections causing CI. Supporting a determinative role for differential interspecific spread in maintaining CI, many Wolbachia infections were recently acquired by their host species, many show evidence for contemporary spatial spread or retreat, and rapid evolution of CI-inducing loci, especially degradation, is common.


Assuntos
Wolbachia , Feminino , Humanos , Wolbachia/genética , Fertilidade , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Reprodução , Seleção Genética , Simbiose
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2206291119, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375074

RESUMO

Legumes establish endosymbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which they host inside root nodules. Here, specific physiological and morphological adaptations, such as the production of oxygen-binding leghemoglobin proteins and the formation of an oxygen diffusion barrier in the nodule periphery, are essential to protect the oxygen-labile bacterial nitrogenase enzyme. The molecular basis of the latter process remains elusive as the identification of required genes is limited by the epistatic effect of nodule organogenesis over nodule infection and rhizobia accommodation. We overcame this by exploring the phenotypic diversity of Lotus japonicus accessions that uncouple nodule organogenesis from nodule infection when inoculated with a subcompatible Rhizobium strain. Using comparative transcriptomics, we identified genes with functions associated with oxygen homeostasis and deposition of lipid polyesters on cell walls to be specifically up-regulated in infected compared to noninfected nodules. As hydrophobic modification of cell walls is pivotal for creating diffusion barriers like the root endodermis, we focused on two Fatty acyl-CoA Reductase genes that were specifically activated in the root and/or in the nodule endodermis. Mutant lines in a Fatty acyl-CoA Reductase gene expressed exclusively in the nodule endodermis had decreased deposition of polyesters on this cell layer and increased nodule permeability compared to wild-type plants. Oxygen concentrations were significantly increased in the inner cortex of mutant nodules, which correlated with reduced nitrogenase activity, and impaired shoot growth. These results provide the first genetic evidence for the formation of the nodule oxygen diffusion barrier, a key adaptation enabling nitrogen fixation in legume nodules.


Assuntos
Lotus , Rhizobium , Lotus/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poliésteres , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rhizobium/genética , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Simbiose/genética , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos
14.
Planta ; 257(1): 6, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437384

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Recognition of the interaction of Trichoderma during the evolution of land plants plays a potential key role in the development of the salicylic acid defense pathway and the establishment of a mutualistic relationship. Marchantia polymorpha is a common liverwort considered in recent years as a model plant for evolutionary studies on plant-microorganism interactions. Despite the lack of research, remarkable results have been reported regarding the understanding of metabolic and evolutionary processes of beneficial and/or harmful interactions, owing to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of different plant defense pathways. In this study, we have carried out work on the direct and indirect interactions (exudates and volatiles) of M. polymorpha with different species of the fungal genus Trichoderma. These interactions showed different outcomes, including resistance or even growth promotion and disease. We have analyzed the level of tissue colonization and defense-related gene expression. Furthermore, we have used the pteridophyte Dryopteris affinis and the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, as subsequent steps in plant evolution, together with the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani as a control of plant pathogenicity. Trichoderma virens, T. brevicompactum and T. hamatum are pathogens of M. polymorpha, while exudates of T. asperellum are harmful to the plant. The analysis of the expression of several defense genes in M. polymorpha and A. thaliana showed that there is a correlation of the transcriptional activation of SA-related genes with resistance or susceptibility of M. polymorpha to Trichoderma. Moreover, exogenous SA provides resistance to the virulent Trichoderma species. This beneficial fungus may have had an evolutionary period of interaction with plants in which it behaved as a plant pathogen until plants developed a defense system to limit its colonization through a defense response mediated by SA.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Marchantia , Trichoderma , Marchantia/genética , Marchantia/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Trichoderma/genética , Simbiose
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1024330, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439192

RESUMO

Gut microbiota has extensive and tremendous impacts on human physiology and pathology. The regulation of microbiota is therefore a cardinal problem for the mutualistic relationship, as both microbial overgrowth and excessive immune reactions toward them could potentially be detrimental to host homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests that IgA, the most dominant secretory immunoglobulin in the intestine, regulates the colonization of commensal microbiota, and consequently, the microbiota-mediated intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. In this review, we discuss the interactions between IgA and gut microbiota particularly relevant to human pathophysiology. We review current knowledge about how IgA regulates gut microbiota in humans and about the molecular mechanisms behind this interaction. We further discuss the potential role of IgA in regulating human diseases by extrapolating experimental findings, suggesting that IgA can be a future therapeutic strategy that functionally modulates gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Humanos , Simbiose , Intestinos , Imunoglobulina A
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221458, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321493

RESUMO

Fungal cultivation is a defining feature for advanced agriculture in fungus-farming ants and termites. In a third supposedly fungus-farming group, wood-colonizing ambrosia beetles, an experimental proof for the effectiveness of beetle activity for selective promotion of their food fungi over others is lacking and farming has only been assumed based on observations of social and hygienic behaviours. Here, we experimentally removed mothers and their offspring from young nests of the fruit-tree pinhole borer, Xyleborinus saxesenii. By amplicon sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities of nests with and without beetles we could show that beetles are indeed able to actively shift symbiont communities. Although being consumed, the Raffaelea food fungi were more abundant when beetles were present while a weed fungus (Chaetomium sp.) as well as overall bacterial diversity were reduced in comparison to nests without beetles. Core symbiont communities were generally of low diversity and there were strong signs for vertical transmission not only for the cultivars, but also for secondary symbionts. Our findings verify the existence of active farming, even though the exact mechanisms underlying the selective promotion and/or suppression of symbionts need further investigation.


Assuntos
Besouros , Hereditariedade , Microbiota , Gorgulhos , Animais , Besouros/genética , Gorgulhos/microbiologia , Ambrosia , Simbiose/genética , Jardins , Fungos
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221478, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350208

RESUMO

Shipworms (Bivalvia, Teredinidae) are the principal consumers of wood in marine environments. Like most wood-eating organisms, they digest wood with the aid of cellulolytic enzymes supplied by symbiotic bacteria. However, in shipworms the symbiotic bacteria are not found in the digestive system. Instead, they are located intracellularly in the gland of Deshayes, a specialized tissue found within the gills. It has been independently demonstrated that symbiont-encoded cellulolytic enzymes are present in the digestive systems and gills of two shipworm species, Bankia setacea and Lyrodus pedicellatus, confirming that these enzymes are transported from the gills to the lumen of the gut. However, the mechanism of enzyme transport from gill to gut remains incompletely understood. Recently, a mechanism was proposed by which enzymes are transported within bacterial cells that are expelled from the gill and transported to the mouth by ciliary action of the branchial or food grooves. Here we use in situ immunohistochemical methods to provide evidence for a different mechanism in the shipworm B. setacea, in which cellulolytic enzymes are transported via the ducts of Deshayes, enigmatic structures first described 174 years ago, but whose function have remained unexplained.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Celulases , Animais , Brânquias , Filogenia , Simbiose , Bivalves/microbiologia , Bactérias
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1987): 20221443, 2022 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448420

RESUMO

Many mutualisms are exploited by third-party species, which benefit without providing anything in return. Exploitation can either destabilize or promote mutualisms, via mechanisms that are highly dependent on the ecological context. Here we study a remarkable bird-human mutualism, in which wax-eating greater honeyguides (Indicator indicator) guide humans (Homo sapiens) to wild bees' nests, in an exchange of knowledge about the location of nests for access to the wax combs inside. We test whether the depletion of wax by mammalian and avian exploiter species either threatens or stabilizes the mutualism. Using camera traps, we monitored feeding visits to wax comb made available following honey harvests. We found that greater honeyguides face competition for wax from conspecifics and nine exploiter species, five of which were not previously known to consume wax. Our results support the hypothesis that heterospecific exploiters stabilize the mutualism, because wax depletion by these competitors probably limits feeding opportunities for conspecific exploiters, favouring the early-arriving individual that guided humans to the bees' nest. These findings highlight the importance of the ecological context of species interactions and provide further evidence for how mutualisms can persist because of, and not in spite of, exploitation by third-party species.


Assuntos
Mel , Simbiose , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Ceras , Aves , Mamíferos
19.
Elife ; 112022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355038

RESUMO

The dichotomy that separates prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells runs deep. The transition from pro- to eukaryote evolution is poorly understood due to a lack of reliable intermediate forms and definitions regarding the nature of the first host that could no longer be considered a prokaryote, the first eukaryotic common ancestor, FECA. The last eukaryotic common ancestor, LECA, was a complex cell that united all traits characterising eukaryotic biology including a mitochondrion. The role of the endosymbiotic organelle in this radical transition towards complex life forms is, however, sometimes questioned. In particular the discovery of the asgard archaea has stimulated discussions regarding the pre-endosymbiotic complexity of FECA. Here we review differences and similarities among models that view eukaryotic traits as isolated coincidental events in asgard archaeal evolution or, on the contrary, as a result of and in response to endosymbiosis. Inspecting eukaryotic traits from the perspective of the endosymbiont uncovers that eukaryotic cell biology can be explained as having evolved as a solution to housing a semi-autonomous organelle and why the addition of another endosymbiont, the plastid, added no extra compartments. Mitochondria provided the selective pressures for the origin (and continued maintenance) of eukaryotic cell complexity. Moreover, they also provided the energetic benefit throughout eukaryogenesis for evolving thousands of gene families unique to eukaryotes. Hence, a synthesis of the current data lets us conclude that traits such as the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, autophagosomes, and meiosis and sex evolved as a response to the selective pressures an endosymbiont imposes.


Assuntos
Células Eucarióticas , Simbiose , Células Eucarióticas/fisiologia , Simbiose/genética , Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos/genética , Archaea/genética , Núcleo Celular , Meiose , Biologia , Filogenia
20.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2134672, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358009

RESUMO

Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are a class of tyrosine-sulfated pentapeptides. PSK-α, PSK-γ, and PSK-δ are three reported PSK members involved in regulating plant growth, development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we reported a novel type of PSK, PSK-ε with the sequence YSO3VYSO3TN, and its precursor proteins (MtPSKε, LjPSKε, and GmPSKε), specifically from legume species. PSK-ε peptide differs from PSK-δ by one amino acid and is close to PSK-δ in the phylogenetic relationship. Expression profile analysis showed that MtPSKε was highly expressed in Medicago truncatula roots, especially in root tips and emerged lateral roots. Application of the synthetic sulfated PSK-ε peptide and overexpression of MtPSKε significantly promoted M. truncatula root elongation and increased lateral root number, probably by inducing cell division and expansion in roots. Furthermore, MtPSKε expression was induced by rhizobia infection and was detected in root nodules including nodule primordia. Both PSK-ε peptide treatment and MtPSKε overexpression significantly increased nodule number in M. truncatula. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PSK-ε, a novel type of phytosulfokine, positively regulates root elongation and formation of lateral root and root nodule in M. truncatula.


Assuntos
Medicago truncatula , Medicago truncatula/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Simbiose
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