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1.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102475, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610466

RESUMO

Ankylocythere sinuosa (Rioja, 1942), a symbiotic ostracod native to North America, was found from the Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir japonica (De Haan, 1835), a species native to Japan, collected from a pond in Shizuoka City, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan. Introduced North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), which is a host of A. sinuosa in their native range, inhabits ponds sympatrically with Japanese mitten crabs, and it is thought that the ostracods transferred from the exotic crayfish to the native crabs. In recent years, along with the artificial transportation of crayfish around the world, their symbiotic ostracods also have been found on the body surfaces of exotic crayfish in Europe and Japan. However, no studies have confirmed the infestation of exotic ostracods on native crustaceans in the field. A wide range of developmental stages of A. sinuosa from juveniles to adults were found in Japanese mitten crabs, and mating individuals were also found. This strongly suggests that they can reproduce on the body surface of Japanese mitten crabs. In the future, it will be necessary to strengthen measures against alien species to prevent these exotic symbionts from infestating native ecosystems, and we also need to investigate the exact impact of this symbiont on Japanese mitten crabs.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/parasitologia , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Espécies Introduzidas , Simbiose , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Masculino
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131644, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346335

RESUMO

The application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is increasing in all walks of life, inevitably resulting in a high risk of ENMs entering the natural environment. Recent studies have demonstrated that phytoaccumulation of ENMs in the environment may be detrimental to plants to varying degrees. However, plants primarily assimilate ENMs through the roots, which are inevitably affected by rhizomicroorganisms. In this review, we focus on a group of common rhizomicroorganisms-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi contribute to ENMs immobilization and inhibition of phytoaccumulation, improvement of host plant growth and activation of systematic protection in response to excess ENMs stress. In present review, we summarize the biological responses of plants to ENMs and the modulatory mechanisms of AMF on the immobilization of ENMs in substrate-plant interfaces, and indirectly regulatory mechanisms of AMF on the deleterious effects of ENMs on host plants. In addition, the information of feedback of ENMs on mycorrhizal symbiosis and the prospects of future research on the fate and mechanism of phyto-toxicity of ENMs mediated by AMF in the environment are also addressed. In view of above, synergistic reaction of plants and AMF may prove to be a cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to bio-control potential ENMs contamination on a sustainable basis.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Nanopartículas , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Simbiose
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150082, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525774

RESUMO

The microalgal-bacterial symbiotic (MBS) system shows great advantages in the synchronous implementation of wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. To enhance the understanding of different MBS systems, this review summarizes reported MBS systems and proposes three patterns according to the living state of microalgae and bacteria. They are free microalgal-bacterial (FMB) system, attached microalgal-bacterial (AMB) system and bioflocculated microalgal-bacterial (BMB) system. Compared with the other two patterns, BMB system shows the advantages of microalgal biomass harvesting and application. To further understand the microalgal-bacterial partnerships in the bioflocculation of BMB system, this review discusses bioflocs characteristics, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties and production, and the effect of microalgae/bacteria ratio and microalgal strains on the formation of bioflocculation. Microalgal biomass production and application are important for BMB system development in the future. Food processing wastewater characterized by high biodegradability and low toxicity should be conducive for microalgal cultivation. In addition, exogenous addition of functional bacteria for nutrient removal and bioflocculation formation would be a crucial research direction to facilitate the large-scale application of BMB system.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Bactérias , Biomassa , Simbiose , Águas Residuárias
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150054, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509839

RESUMO

The deep-sea mussel Gigantidas platifrons is a representative species that relies on nutrition provided by chemoautotrophic endosymbiotic bacteria to survive in both hydrothermal vent and methane seep environments. However, vent and seep habitats have distinct geochemical features, with vents being more harsh than seeps because of abundant toxic chemical substances, particularly hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Until now, the adaptive strategies of G. platifrons in a heterogeneous environment and their sulfide detoxification mechanisms are still unclear. Herein, we conducted 16S rDNA sequencing and metatranscriptome sequencing of G. platifrons collected from a methane seep at Formosa Ridge in the South China Sea and a hydrothermal vent at Iheya North Knoll in the Mid-Okinawa Trough to provide a model for understanding environmental adaption and sulfide detoxification mechanisms, and a three-day laboratory controlled Na2S stress experiment to test the transcriptomic responses under sulfide stress. The results revealed the active detoxification of sulfide in G. platifrons gills. First, epibiotic Campylobacterota bacteria were more abundant in vent mussels and contributed to environmental adaptation by active oxidation of extracellular H2S. Notably, a key sulfide-oxidizing gene, sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (sqr), derived from the methanotrophic endosymbiont, was significantly upregulated in vent mussels, indicating the oxidization of intracellular sulfide by the endosymbiont. In addition, transcriptomic comparison further suggested that genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial sulfide oxidization pathway played important roles in the sulfide tolerance of the host mussels. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of Na2S stressed mussels confirmed the upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and sulfide oxidization genes in response to sulfide exposure. Overall, this study provided a systematic transcriptional analysis of both the active bacterial community members and the host mussels, suggesting that the epibionts, endosymbionts, and mussel host collaborated on sulfide detoxification from extracellular to intracellular space to adapt to harsh H2S-rich environments.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Fontes Hidrotermais , Mytilidae , Animais , Bactérias , Simbiose
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13173-13189, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723522

RESUMO

Application of a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MSMRM method enabled the simultaneous quantitation of 23 sweet-, licorice-, and bitter-tasting saponins in Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., different licorice plants and root compartments, processed licorice, as well as different Glycyrrhiza spp. The combination of quantitative data with sweet, licorice, and bitter taste thresholds led to the determination of dose-over-threshold factors to elucidate the sweet, licorice, and bitter impact of the individual saponins with and without mycorrhiza symbiosis to evaluate the licorice root quality. Aside from glycyrrhizin (1), which is the predominant sweet- and licorice-tasting saponin in all licorice samples, 20 out of 22 quantitated saponins contributed to the taste profile of licorice roots. Next to sweet-/licorice-tasting glycyrrhizin (1), 24-hydroxy-glycyrrhizin (9), 30-hydroxy-glycyrrhizin (11), and 11-deoxo-24-hydroxy-glycyrrhizin (14) as well as licorice tasting saponins 20α-galacturonic acid glycyrrhizin (17), 24-hydroxy-20α-glycyrrhizin (21), and 11-deoxo-glycyrrhizin (12) were determined as key contributors to licorice root's unique taste profile. A quantitative comparison of 23 saponins as well as 28 polyphenols between licorice roots inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and controls showed that important taste-mediating saponins were increased in mycorrhizal roots, and these alterations depended on the growth substrate and the level of phosphate fertilization.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza , Micorrizas , Saponinas , Raízes de Plantas , Simbiose , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Paladar
6.
Science ; 374(6564): 216-224, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618582
7.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(11)2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610117

RESUMO

Legume root nodules harbor rhizobia and other non-nodulating endophytes known as nodule-associated bacteria (NAB) whose role in the legume symbiosis is still unknown. We analysed the genetic diversity of 34 NAB isolates obtained from the root nodules of faba bean grown under various soil conditions in Egypt using 16S rRNA and concatenated sequences of three housekeeping genes. All isolates were identified as members of the family Enterobacteriaceae belonging to the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Raoultella. We identified nine enterobacterial genospecies, most of which have not been previously reported as NAB. All isolated strains harbored nifH gene sequences and most of them possessed plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Upon co-inoculation with an N2 fixing rhizobium (Rlv NGB-FR128), two strains (Enterobacter sichanensis NGB-FR97 and Klebsiella variicola NGB-FR116) significantly increased nodulation, growth and N-uptake of faba bean plants over the single treatments or the uninoculated control. The presence of these enterobacteria in nodules was significantly affected by the host plant genotype, symbiotic rhizobium genotype and endophyte genotype, indicating that the nodule colonization process is regulated by plant-microbe-microbe interactions. This study emphasizes the importance of nodule-associated enterobacteria and suggests their potential role in improving the effectiveness of rhizobial inoculants.


Assuntos
Rhizobium , Vicia faba , Bactérias/genética , Klebsiella , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhizobium/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas , Simbiose
8.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(6): 637-653, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657204

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhiza, one of the oldest interactions on earth (~ 450 million years old) and a first-class partner for plants to colonize emerged land, is considered one of the most pervasive ecological relationships on the globe. Despite how important and old this interaction is, its discovery was very recent compared to the long story of land plant evolution. The story of the arbuscular mycorrhiza cannot be addressed apart from the history, controversies, and speculations about mycorrhiza in its broad sense. The chronicle of mycorrhizal research is marked by multiple key milestones such as the initial description of a "persistent epiderm and pellicular wall structure" by Hartig; the introduction of the "Symbiotismus" and "Mycorrhiza" concepts by Frank; the description of diverse root-fungal morphologies; the first description of arbuscules by Gallaud; Mosse's pivotal statement of the beneficial nature of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis; the impact of molecular tools on the taxonomy of mycorrhizal fungi as well as the development of in vitro root organ cultures for producing axenic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). An appreciation of the story - full of twists and turns - of the arbuscular mycorrhiza, going from the roots of mycorrhiza history, along with the discovery of different mycorrhiza types such as ectomycorrhiza, can improve research to help face our days' challenge of developing sustainable agriculture that integrates the arbuscular mycorrhiza and its ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Agricultura , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Simbiose
9.
Naturwissenschaften ; 108(6): 56, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665328

RESUMO

Ants in temperate grasslands are consumers and ecosystem engineers, influencing biodiversity and potentially grassland productivity. However, the effects of ant exclusion or suppression on resource removal and the biological community in temperate grasslands have yet to be fully explored. We conducted ant-suppression experiments and evaluated the effects of ants on ground-dwelling arthropod communities in the field by using pitfall and bait traps. In the laboratory, we evaluated the effects of ants on the ant-attended aphid Aphis rumicis, which is a honeydew resource for ants, and the slug (Deroceras laeve), an aphid predator. Aboveground arthropod communities were not affected by the ant-suppression treatment. However, slugs (D. laeve and Ambigolimax valentianus) visited bait resources more frequently in the ant-suppression treatment area. In the ant-absence condition in the laboratory experiment, there were fewer aphids on the plants compared to the ant-presence condition owing to predation by D. laeve. Our results suggest that ant abundance in temperate grasslands influences the predation activity of slugs toward honeydew sources such as aphids.


Assuntos
Formigas , Afídeos , Animais , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Plantas , Simbiose
10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(10): 3604-3621, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708614

RESUMO

The remediation of heavy-metal (HM) contaminated soil using hyperaccumulators is one of the important solutions to address the inorganic contamination widely occurred worldwide. Hyperaccumulators are able to hyperaccumulate HMs, but their planting, growth, and extraction capacities are greatly affected by HM stress. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the function of hyperaccumulators by combining the functional advantages of both, improving the efficiency of remediation, shortening the remediation cycle, and maintaining the stability and persistence of the remediation. Thus, the combined use of AMF with hyperaccumulators has broad prospects for application in the management of increasingly complex and severe HM pollution. This review starts by defining the concept of hyperaccumulators, followed by describing the typical hyperaccumulators that were firstly reported in China as well as those known to form symbioses with AMF. This review provides a systematic and in-depth discussion of the effects of AMF on the growth of hyperaccumulators, as well as the absorption and accumulation of HMs, the effects and mechanism on the hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis to absorb and accumulate HMs. AMF enhances the function of hyperaccumulators on the absorption and accumulation of HMs by regulating the physicochemical and biological conditions in the plant rhizosphere, the situation of elements homeostasis, the physiological metabolism and gene expression. Moreover, the symbiotic systems established by hyperaccumulators plus AMF have the potential to combine their abilities to remediate HMs-contaminated habitat. Finally, challenges for the combined use of remediation technologies for hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis and future directions were prospected.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Micorrizas , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Micorrizas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Simbiose
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639007

RESUMO

Among several mechanisms involved in the plant stress response, synthesis of guanosine tetra and pentaphosphates (alarmones), homologous to the bacterial stringent response, is of crucial importance. Plant alarmones affect, among others, photosynthetic activity, metabolite accumulation, and nutrient remobilization, and thus regulate plant growth and development. The plant RSH (RelA/SpoT homolog) genes, that encode synthetases and/or hydrolases of alarmones, have been characterized in a limited number of plant species, e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Ipomoea nil. Here, we used dry-to-wet laboratory research approaches to characterize RSH family genes in the polyploid plant Brassica napus. There are 12 RSH genes in the genome of rapeseed that belong to four types of RSH genes: 6 RSH1, 2 RSH2, 3 RSH3, and 1 CRSH. BnRSH genes contain 13-24 introns in RSH1, 2-6 introns in RSH2, 1-6 introns in RSH3, and 2-3 introns in the CRSH genes. In the promoter regions of the RSH genes, we showed the presence of regulatory elements of the response to light, plant hormones, plant development, and abiotic and biotic stresses. The wet-lab analysis showed that expression of BnRSH genes is generally not significantly affected by salt stress, but that the presence of PGPR bacteria, mostly of Serratia sp., increased the expression of BnRSH significantly. The obtained results show that BnRSH genes are differently affected by biotic and abiotic factors, which indicates their different functions in plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salinidade , Simbiose , Brassica napus/classificação , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639021

RESUMO

An ABA-deficient barley mutant (Az34) and its parental cultivar (Steptoe) were compared. Plants of salt-stressed Az34 (100 mmol m-3 NaCl for 10 days) grown in sand were 40% smaller than those of "Steptoe", exhibited a lower leaf relative water content and lower ABA concentrations. Rhizosphere inoculation with IB22 increased plant growth of both genotypes. IB22 inoculation raised ABA in roots of salt-stressed plants by supplying ABA exogenously and by up-regulating ABA synthesis gene HvNCED2 and down-regulating ABA catabolic gene HvCYP707A1. Inoculation partially compensated for the inherent ABA deficiency of the mutant. Transcript abundance of HvNCED2 and related HvNCED1 in the absence of inoculation was 10 times higher in roots than in shoots of both mutant and parent, indicating that ABA was mainly synthesized in roots. Under salt stress, accumulation of ABA in the roots of bacteria-treated plants was accompanied by a decline in shoot ABA suggesting bacterial inhibition of ABA transport from roots to shoots. ABA accumulation in the roots of bacteria-treated Az34 was accompanied by increased leaf hydration, the probable outcome of increased root hydraulic conductance. Thereby, we tested the hypothesis that the ability of rhizobacterium (Bacillus subtilis IB22) to modify responses of plants to salt stress depends on abscisic acid (ABA) accumulating in roots.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Rizosfera , Simbiose
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5731, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593802

RESUMO

As coral reefs struggle to survive under climate change, it is crucial to know whether they have the capacity to withstand changing conditions, particularly increasing seawater temperatures. Thermal tolerance requires the integrative response of the different components of the coral holobiont (coral host, algal photosymbiont, and associated microbiome). Here, using a controlled thermal stress experiment across three divergent Caribbean coral species, we attempt to dissect holobiont member metatranscriptome responses from coral taxa with different sensitivities to heat stress and use phylogenetic ANOVA to study the evolution of gene expression adaptation. We show that coral response to heat stress is a complex trait derived from multiple interactions among holobiont members. We identify host and photosymbiont genes that exhibit lineage-specific expression level adaptation and uncover potential roles for bacterial associates in supplementing the metabolic needs of the coral-photosymbiont duo during heat stress. Our results stress the importance of integrative and comparative approaches across a wide range of species to better understand coral survival under the predicted rise in sea surface temperatures.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Antozoários/microbiologia , Dinoflagelados/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Microbiota/genética , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3385-3396, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658226

RESUMO

Plant-plant interactions is one of the key field in ecology, which is important for the efficient nutrient utilization, productivity improvement, and plant community assembly. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important plant mutualistic microorganisms that connect plant roots to form common mycelial networks (CMNs), which play major roles in transferring nutrients and water and regu-lating plant community dynamics. Recent studies demonstrated that these CMNs could act as conduits for transmitting disease and aphid-induced signals among plants, and activating chemical defence in uninfested neighboring plants. In this review, we introduced recent research advances on the contribution of CMNs on plant interaction, the main factors that influences the functions of CMNs, and the role of CMNs transfer and redistribute nutrients and water among plant. In addition, the mechanism underlying underground chemical signal communication, seedling establishment and plants community assembly were summarized. Finally, we proposed challenges facing CMNs in plant-plant interactions and the practical problems. It would provide reference for further understanding the ecological functions of CMNs in plant-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Plântula , Simbiose
15.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(6): 655-669, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633544

RESUMO

Modern agriculture is currently undergoing rapid changes in the face of the continuing growth of world population and many ensuing environmental challenges. Crop quality is becoming as important as crop yield and can be characterised by several parameters. For fruits and vegetables, quality descriptors can concern production cycle (e.g. conventional or organic farming), organoleptic qualities (e.g. sweet taste, sugar content, acidity) and nutritional qualities (e.g. mineral content, vitamins). For other crops, however, the presence of secondary metabolites such as anthocyanins or certain terpenes in the targeted tissues is of interest as well, especially for their human health properties. All plants are constantly interacting with microorganisms. These microorganisms include arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as well as certain soil bacteria that provide ecosystem services related to plant growth, nutrition and quality parameters. This review is an update of current research on the single and combined (co-inoculation) use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in crop production, with a focus on their positive impacts on crop quality traits (e.g. nutritional value, organoleptic properties). We also highlight the need to dissect mechanisms regulating plant-symbionts and symbiont-symbiont interactions, to develop farming practices and to study a broad range of interactions to optimize the symbiotic potential of root-associated microorganisms.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Antocianinas , Bactérias , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas , Simbiose
16.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704919

RESUMO

The endosymbiont bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are associated with multiple mutualistic effects on insect biology, including nutritional and antiviral properties. Members of the genus Wolbachia naturally occur in fly species of the genus Drosophila, providing an operational model host for studying how virome composition may be affected by its presence. Drosophila simulans populations can carry a variety of strains of members of the genus Wolbachia, with the wAu strain associated with strong antiviral protection under experimental conditions. We used D. simulans sampled from the Perth Hills, Western Australia, to investigate the potential virus protective effect of the wAu strain of Wolbachia on individual wild-caught flies. Our data revealed no appreciable variation in virus composition and abundance between individuals infected or uninfected with Wolbachia associated with the presence or absence of wAu. However, it remains unclear whether wAu might affect viral infection and host survival by increasing tolerance rather than inducing complete resistance. These data also provide new insights into the natural virome diversity of D. simulans. Despite the small number of individuals sampled, we identified a repertoire of RNA viruses, including nora virus, galbut virus, thika virus and La Jolla virus, that have been identified in other species of the genus Drosophila. Chaq virus-like sequences associated with galbut virus were also detected. In addition, we identified five novel viruses from the families Reoviridae, Tombusviridae, Mitoviridae and Bunyaviridae. Overall, this study highlights the complex interaction between Wolbachia and RNA virus infections and provides a baseline description of the natural virome of D. simulans.


Assuntos
Drosophila simulans/microbiologia , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Viroma/fisiologia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila simulans/virologia , Feminino , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Simbiose , Viroma/genética , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação
17.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(4): e21847, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596262

RESUMO

Insects harbor numerous endosymbionts, including bacteria, fungi, yeast, and viruses, which could affect the ecology and behavior of their hosts. However, data regarding the effect of environmental factors on endosymbiotic bacteria of Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are quite rare. In this study, we assessed the diversity of endosymbiotic bacteria of L. invasa from 10 different geographic populations collected across China through the Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 547 OTUs were generated, which were annotated into 19 phyla, 33 classes, 75 orders, 137 families, and 274 genera. The dominant bacteria detected in L. invasa were Rickettsia, and Pantoea, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Bacillus were also annotated among each population. Nevertheless, the endosymbiotic bacterial abundance and diversity varied among different populations, which was related to the local climate (annual mean high temperature). The bacterial function prediction analysis showed that these endosymbiotic bacteria were concentrated in metabolism, such as carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism. Overall, the results provide a comprehensive description of the endosymbiotic bacteria in 10 different populations of an important eucalyptus pest L. invasa, and help to understand the endosymbiotic bacterial diversity and adaptation of various conditions.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Vespas/microbiologia , Aclimatação , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Simbiose
19.
Am J Bot ; 108(10): 1824-1837, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655479

RESUMO

Plant development and the timing of developmental events (phenology) are tightly coupled with plant fitness. A variety of internal and external factors determine the timing and fitness consequences of these life-history transitions. Microbes interact with plants throughout their life history and impact host phenology. This review summarizes current mechanistic and theoretical knowledge surrounding microbe-driven changes in plant phenology. Overall, there are examples of microbes impacting every phenological transition. While most studies have focused on flowering time, microbial effects remain important for host survival and fitness across all phenological phases. Microbe-mediated changes in nutrient acquisition and phytohormone signaling can release plants from stressful conditions and alter plant stress responses inducing shifts in developmental events. The frequency and direction of phenological effects appear to be partly determined by the lifestyle and the underlying nature of a plant-microbe interaction (i.e., mutualistic or pathogenic), in addition to the taxonomic group of the microbe (fungi vs. bacteria). Finally, we highlight biases, gaps in knowledge, and future directions. This biotic source of plasticity for plant adaptation will serve an important role in sustaining plant biodiversity and managing agriculture under the pressures of climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Plantas , Biodiversidade , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Simbiose
20.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(12): 4098-4102, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636935

RESUMO

Bacteria of genus Holospora (order Holosporales, class Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict host species and nuclear (macronucleus or micronucleus) specificity. However, three species under study Holospora undulata, Holospora elegans and 'Holospora recta' occupy the same ecological niche-micronucleus of Paramecium caudatum and demonstrate some differences in morphology of infectious form. The genetic diversity of holosporas by rrs and rpoB sequence analysis was determined. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analysis of Holospora spp., as well as some phenotypic features indicate that there is no distinctive difference supporting studied micronuclear endosymbionts as distinct species. Therefore, Holospora elegans and 'Holospora recta' should be considered subspecies of Holospora undulata (ex Haffkine 1890) Gromov and Ossipov 1981, which was described first. Thus, we confirmed the evolutionary aspects of the development of symbiotic relationships: holosporas have a strict specificity to the host species and the type of nucleus.


Assuntos
Holosporaceae , Paramecium caudatum , Holosporaceae/genética , Paramecium caudatum/genética , Filogenia , Simbiose
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