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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17383, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770092

RESUMO

Background: We studied the occurrence of two sympatric wallabies, the red-necked pademelon (Thylogale thetis) and the red-legged pademelon (T. stigmatica) in northeastern New South Wales, Australia in relation to structural habitat attributes. At our study site, both species inhabit closed forest environments and have overlapping distributions, but T. thetis leaves the forest at night to graze adjacent grassy forest edges whereas T. stigmatica remains within the forest and browses forest vegetation. The objectives of the study were to investigate how structural attributes of two forest types, wet sclerophyll forest and rainforest, relate to the fine-scale occurrence of these two wallaby species within the forested environment. Methods: We gathered occurrence data from 48 camera trap stations divided equally between rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest. At each camera point, we also measured a range of structural habitat attributes to determine habitat affiliations for the two Thylogale species. Principal component analyses were used to describe major trends in habitat, and generalised linear models were used to describe the efficacy of the variables in predicting habitat occurrence of each species. Results: The number of occurrences of Thylogale thetis was significantly greater than occurrences of T. stigmatica, which was driven by significantly greater occurrences of T. thetis in wet sclerophyll forest. There was both spatial and temporal partitioning between the two species; there was a significant difference in the occurrences of the two species at individual cameras and T. stigmatica had a different activity schedule than T. thetis in wet sclerophyll forest, where the latter reached its greatest rate of occurrence. At a finer (camera station) scale, occurrences of T. thetis increased with proximity to roads and grassy edges and at sites that were less rocky and less steep. T. stigmatica occurrence increased in the presence of rainforest elements like vines, palms and ferns, more ground-level cover and tree-fall gaps and at sites with fewer emergent eucalypts. Conclusion: Our findings have implications for managing these pademelons and their habitats. T. thetis is a common species that was encountered more often than T. stigmatica, and it responded positively to human disturbance like roadsides and grassy edges, presumably because these areas provided good grazing opportunities. By comparison, T. stigmatica is a threatened species, and it responded to natural disturbance like tree-fall gaps where lateral cover was greater, and where rainforest food plants may be more abundant. Our results suggest, therefore, that conservation of the threatened T. stigmatica requires the preservation of intact rainforest.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Macropodidae , Macropodidae/fisiologia , Animais , New South Wales , Simpatria , Floresta Úmida
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300359, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771821

RESUMO

The diversity of functional feeding anatomy is particularly impressive in fishes and correlates with various interspecific ecological specializations. Intraspecific polymorphism can manifest in divergent feeding morphology and ecology, often along a benthic-pelagic axis. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a freshwater salmonid known for morphological variation and sympatric polymorphism and in Lake Þingvallavatn, Iceland, four morphs of charr coexist that differ in preferred prey, behaviour, habitat use, and external feeding morphology. We studied variation in six upper and lower jaw bones in adults of these four morphs using geometric morphometrics and univariate statistics. We tested for allometric differences in bone size and shape among morphs, morph effects on bone size and shape, and divergence along the benthic-pelagic axis. We also examined the degree of integration between bone pairs. We found differences in bone size between pelagic and benthic morphs for two bones (dentary and premaxilla). There was clear bone shape divergence along a benthic-pelagic axis in four bones (dentary, articular-angular, premaxilla and maxilla), as well as allometric shape differences between morphs in the dentary. Notably for the dentary, morph explained more shape variation than bone size. Comparatively, benthic morphs possess a compact and taller dentary, with shorter dentary palate, consistent with visible (but less prominent) differences in external morphology. As these morphs emerged in the last 10,000 years, these results indicate rapid functional evolution of specific feeding structures in arctic charr. This sets the stage for studies of the genetics and development of rapid and parallel craniofacial evolution.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Simpatria , Truta , Animais , Truta/anatomia & histologia , Truta/fisiologia , Truta/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Islândia , Lagos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10570, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719931

RESUMO

The coexistence of sympatric species with similar ecological niches has been a central issue in ecology. Clarifying the daily activity patterns of sympatric wild ungulates can help understand their temporal niche differentiation and the mechanisms of coexistence, providing information for their conservation. The Baotianman National Nature Reserve in northern China is rich in wild ungulates, but little is known about the daily activity patterns of wild ungulates in the area, making it difficult to develop effective conservation strategies. We studied five representative wild ungulates (i.e. forest musk deer, Chinese goral, Reeve's muntjac, Siberian roe deer, and wild boar) of the region using camera-trapping data, focusing on the seasonal daily activity patterns and effects of seasonal grazing of domestic sheep, to reveal their coexistence based on temporal ecological niche differentiation. Comparative analyses of the seasonal daily activity showed that forest musk deer exhibited a single-peak activity in the warm season. Other ungulates exhibited multipeak activity. All five ungulates differed significantly in daily activity patterns. Notably, wild boar and Reeve's muntjac showed high overlap coefficients between the cold and warm seasons. In both cold and warm seasons, the five wild ungulates and domestic sheep displayed low overlap in their daily activity rhythms potentially indicating temporal ecological niche differentiation. The results suggest that temporal isolation might be a strategy for wild ungulates to avoid domestic sheep and reduce interspecific competition, and that temporal ecological niche differentiation potentially promoted the coexistence among the studied sympatric ungulates. This understanding may provide new insights for the development of targeted conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Cervos , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Simpatria , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , China , Ovinos/fisiologia
4.
Parasitol Int ; 101: 102900, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701942

RESUMO

This study reports the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of juvenile Critically Endangered green sawfish, Pristis zijsron, and sympatric elasmobranchs in Western Australia. Five parasite taxa were found on 76 screened P. zijsron: Caligus furcisetifer (Copepoda: Caligidae), Dermopristis pterophila (Monogenea: Microbothriidae), Branchellion plicobranchus and Stibarobdella macrothela (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae), and praniza larvae of an unidentified gnathiid isopod. Only C. furcisetifer and D. pterophila were common, exhibiting discrepant site-specificity, with C. furcisetifer occurring mostly on the head and rostrum, and D. pterophila around the pectoral and pelvic fins. Intensity of infection for C. furcisetifer and D. pterophila increased with host total length and was influenced by host sex, but in opposite directions; intensity of C. furcisetifer was greater on female P. zijsron, whereas intensity of D. pterophila was greater on males. In the Ashburton River, likelihood of infection for C. furcisetifer and D. pterophila on P. zijsron increased with time since substantial freshwater discharge events, suggesting decreased salinity impacts both taxa. In addition to P. zijsron, five other sympatric elasmobranch species were opportunistically screened for ectoparasites in the study area: the giant shovelnose ray, Glaucostegus typus, the eyebrow wedgefish, Rhynchobatus palpebratus, the nervous shark, Carcharhinus cautus, the lemon shark, Negaprion acutidens, and the graceful shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides. Caligus furcisetifer was found on R. palpebratus; no other parasites of P. zijsron were found on other sympatric elasmobranch species. Conversely, Perissopus dentatus (Copepoda: Pandaridae) was found on all three carcharhinids but not on batoid rays (P. zijsron, G. typus or R. palpebratus).


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Austrália Ocidental , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Elasmobrânquios/parasitologia , Copépodes/classificação , Isópodes/classificação , Simpatria
5.
Biol Lett ; 20(5): 20230448, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716586

RESUMO

Recent molecular taxonomic advancements have expanded our understanding of crocodylian diversity, revealing the existence of previously overlooked species, including the Congo dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus osborni) in the central Congo Basin rainforests. This study explores the genomic divergence between O. osborni and its better-known relative, the true dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis), shedding light on their evolutionary history. Field research conducted in the northwestern Republic of the Congo uncovered a locality where both species coexist in sympatry/syntopy. Genomic analysis of sympatric individuals reveals a level of divergence comparable to that between ecologically similar South American dwarf caimans (Paleosuchus palpebrosus and Paleosuchus trigonatus), suggesting parallel speciation in the Afrotropics and Neotropics during the Middle to Late Miocene, 10-12 Ma. Comparison of the sympatric and allopatric dwarf crocodiles indicates no gene flow between the analysed sympatric individuals of O. osborni and O. tetraspis. However, a larger sample will be required to answer the question of whether or to what extent these species hybridize. This study emphasizes the need for further research on the biology and conservation status of the Congo dwarf crocodile, highlighting its significance in the unique biodiversity of the Congolian rainforests and thus its potential as a flagship species.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Animais , Jacarés e Crocodilos/genética , Jacarés e Crocodilos/anatomia & histologia , Jacarés e Crocodilos/classificação , Congo , Simpatria , América do Sul , Filogenia , Especiação Genética
6.
Science ; 384(6699): 1030-1036, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815013

RESUMO

Coevolution between interacting species is thought to increase biodiversity, but evidence linking microevolutionary processes to macroevolutionary patterns is scarce. We leveraged two decades of behavioral research coupled with historical DNA analysis to reveal that coevolution with hosts underpins speciation in brood-parasitic bronze-cuckoos. At a macroevolutionary scale, we show that highly virulent brood-parasitic taxa have higher speciation rates and are more likely to speciate in sympatry than less-virulent and nonparasitic relatives. We reveal the microevolutionary process underlying speciation: Hosts reject cuckoo nestlings, which selects for mimetic cuckoo nestling morphology. Where cuckoos exploit multiple hosts, selection for mimicry drives genetic and phenotypic divergence corresponding to host preference, even in sympatry. Our work elucidates perhaps the most common, but poorly characterized, evolutionary process driving biological diversification.


Assuntos
Coevolução Biológica , Mimetismo Biológico , Aves , Especiação Genética , Comportamento de Nidação , Simpatria , Animais , Biodiversidade
7.
Am J Bot ; 111(4): e16309, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584339

RESUMO

PREMISE: Barriers at different reproductive stages contribute to reproductive isolation. Self-incompatibility (SI) systems that prevent self-pollination could also act to control interspecific pollination and contribute to reproductive isolation, preventing hybridization. Here we evaluated whether SI contributes to reproductive isolation among four co-occurring Opuntia species that flower at similar times and may hybridize with each other. METHODS: We assessed whether Opuntia cantabrigiensis, O. robusta, O. streptacantha, and O. tomentosa, were self-compatible and formed hybrid seeds in five manipulation treatments to achieve self-pollination, intraspecific cross-pollination, open pollination (control), interspecific crosses or apomixis, then recorded flowering phenology and synchrony. RESULTS: All species flowered in the spring with a degree of synchrony, so that two pairs of species were predisposed to interspecific pollination (O. cantabrigiensis with O. robusta, O. streptacantha with O. tomentosa). All species had distinct reproductive systems: Opuntia cantabrigiensis is self-incompatible and did not produce hybrid seeds as an interspecific pollen recipient; O. robusta is a dioecious species, which formed a low proportion of hybrid seeds; O. streptacantha and O. tomentosa are self-compatible and produced hybrid seeds. CONCLUSIONS: Opuntia cantabrigiensis had a strong pollen-pistil barrier, likely due to its self-incompatibility. Opuntia robusta, the dioecious species, is an obligate outcrosser and probably partially lost its ability to prevent interspecific pollen germination. Given that the self-compatible species can set hybrid seeds, we conclude that pollen-pistil interaction and high flowering synchrony represent weak barriers; whether reproductive isolation occurs later in their life cycle (e.g., germination or seedling survival) needs to be determined.


Assuntos
Flores , Hibridização Genética , Opuntia , Polinização , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Sementes , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Simpatria , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Opuntia/fisiologia , Reprodução , Pólen/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Apomixia/fisiologia
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 575, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selection on or reticulate evolution of mtDNA is documented in various mammalian taxa and could lead to misleading phylogenetic conclusions if not recognized. We sequenced the MT-ND6 gene of four sympatric Mustelid species of the genus Mustela from some central European populations. We hypothesised positive selection on MT-ND6, given its functional importance and the different body sizes and life histories of the species, even though climatic differences may be unimportant for adaptation in sympatry. METHODS AND RESULTS: MT-ND6 genes were sequenced in 187 sympatric specimens of weasels, Mustela nivalis, stoats, M. erminea, polecats, M. putorius, and steppe polecats, M. eversmannii, from eastern Austria and of fourteen allopatric polecats from eastern-central Germany. Median joining networks, neighbour joining and maximum likelihood analyses as well as Bayesian inference grouped all species according to earlier published phylogenetic models. However, polecats and steppe polecats, two very closely related species, shared the same two haplotypes. We found only negative selection within the Mustela sequences, including 131 downloaded ones covering thirteen species. Positive selection was observed on three MT-ND6 codons of other mustelid genera retrieved from GenBank. CONCLUSIONS: Negative selection for MT-ND6 within the genus Mustela suggests absence of both environmental and species-specific effects of cellular energy metabolism despite large species-specific differences in body size. The presently found shared polymorphism in European polecats and steppe polecats may result from ancestral polymorphism before speciation and historical or recent introgressive hybridization; it may indicate mtDNA capture of steppe polecats by M. putorius in Europe.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Mustelidae , NADH Desidrogenase , Filogenia , Simpatria , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos/genética , Mustelidae/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Seleção Genética , Simpatria/genética
9.
Biosystems ; 239: 105198, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575052

RESUMO

The coexistence of cladogenesis, i.e., the branching of lineages along an evolutionary tree as observed in the fossil record, and anagenesis, which is the progressive evolution within populations, lacks a clear explanation. In this study, we examine a simple model that simulates the evolutionary changes occurring within populations inhabiting the same environment in sympatry, and driven by ecological competition. Our model characterizes populations through a set of evolving morphological traits represented by mathematical points within a two-dimensional morphospace. Such points may reproduce or die due to overcrowding, implying competition in morphospace as suggested by the ecological phenomenon of character displacement. By focusing on the morphospace rather than physical space, the model effectively captures the simultaneous evolution of coexisting populations. Central to the model is the delicate balance between the range of competition and the range of reproduction within the morphospace. Interesting patterns emerge when the ratio between the competition to reproducetion ranges, referred to as CR ratio, changes from values slightly smaller to significantly larger than unity. When competition acts over short distances relative to the reproduction range (low CR), the phylogenetic tree takes on a nearly uniform appearance, gradually transforming into a more bush-like structure for slightly higher CR values. With further increases in CR, evolutionary lineages become more discernible, and the morphogenetic pattern shifts from a bush-like shape to a more tree-like arrangement and few branches for very large CRs. At specific time sections, the synthetic phylogenetic tree appears as an assembly of clusters of individuals within the morphospace. These clusters, interpretable as simulated models of species, exhibit distinct separation within the morphospace and are subject to dynamic inter-cluster repulsion. Notably, clusters tend to be resistant to change. They maintain relatively constant abundances while gradually shifting their positions within the morphospace-a phase that aligns with the concept of phyletic gradualism. However, this predictable pattern is occasionally upset by the abrupt divisions into multiple groups, interpreted as cladogenesis events. The intricacies of the splitting process are explored, revealing that in scenarios with large CR values, the splitting can emerge much more rapidly than phyletic changes. This accelerated process of splitting is initiated by one or few individuals at the fringes of a cluster, where competition is minimal. The newly generated cluster then undergoes deformation, swiftly followed by divergence and splitting (seen as branching in the synthetic phylogenetic tree), as if an inherent "repulsion" triggered the division between species. The simple rules implied in the interacting-particle model may provide insight into the coexistence of gradualism and cladogenesis along lineages, illustrating the capacity for rapid shifts during cladogenesis and the more gradual process of anagenesis.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Simpatria , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Ecossistema
10.
Oecologia ; 204(4): 815-832, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568471

RESUMO

Ecological theory predicts niche partitioning between high-level predators living in sympatry as a mechanism to minimise the selective pressure of competition. Accordingly, male Australian fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus and New Zealand fur seals A. forsteri that live in sympatry should exhibit partitioning in their broad niches (in habitat and trophic dimensions) in order to coexist. However, at the northern end of their distributions in Australia, both are recolonising their historic range after a long absence due to over-exploitation, and their small population sizes suggest competition should be weak and may allow overlap in niche space. We found some niche overlap, yet clear partitioning in diet trophic level (δ15N values from vibrissae), spatial niche space (horizontal and vertical telemetry data) and circadian activity patterns (timing of dives) between males of each species, suggesting competition may remain an active driver of niche partitioning amongst individuals even in small, peripheral populations. Consistent with individual specialisation theory, broad niches of populations were associated with high levels of individual specialisation for both species, despite putative low competition. Specialists in isotopic space were not necessarily specialists in spatial niche space, further emphasising their diverse individual strategies for niche partitioning. Males of each species displayed distinct foraging modes, with Australian fur seals primarily benthic and New Zealand fur seals primarily epipelagic, though unexpectedly high individual specialisation for New Zealand fur seals might suggest marginal populations provide exceptions to the pattern generally observed amongst other fur seals.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Otárias , Animais , Otárias/fisiologia , Masculino , Simpatria , Austrália , Nova Zelândia , Dieta , Ritmo Circadiano , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300915, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687731

RESUMO

Mosquitoes harbor a large diversity of eukaryotic viruses. Those viromes probably influence mosquito physiology and the transmission of human pathogens. Nevertheless, their ecology remains largely unstudied. Here, we address two key questions in virome ecology. First, we assessed the influence of mosquito species on virome taxonomic diversity and relative abundance. Contrary to most previous studies, the potential effect of the habitat was explicitly included. Thousands of individuals of Culex poicilipes and Culex tritaeniorhynchus, two vectors of viral diseases, were concomitantly sampled in three habitats over two years. A total of 95 viral taxa from 25 families were identified with meta-transcriptomics, with 75% of taxa shared by both mosquitoes. Viromes significantly differed by mosquito species but not by habitat. Differences were largely due to changes in relative abundance of shared taxa. Then, we studied the diversity of viruses with a broad host range. We searched for viral taxa shared by the two Culex species and Aedes vexans, another disease vector, present in one of the habitats. Twenty-six out of the 163 viral taxa were found in the three mosquitoes. These taxa encompassed 14 families. A database analysis supported broad host ranges for many of those viruses, as well as a widespread geographical distribution. Thus, the viromes of mosquitoes from the same genera mainly differed in the relative abundance of shared taxa, whereas differences in viral diversity dominated between mosquito genera. Whether this new model of virome diversity and structure applies to other mosquito communities remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Culex , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mosquitos Vetores , Viroma , Animais , Viroma/genética , Culex/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Aedes/virologia , Culicidae/virologia , Ecossistema , Simpatria , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
12.
PeerJ ; 12: e17244, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590704

RESUMO

Nocturnal activity of tropical otters is rarely reported. To date no studies have documented den use by sympatric giant (Pteronura brasiliensis) and neotropical otters (Lontra longicaudis). We used camera-traps to monitor den use by sympatric otters along an equatorial Amazonian river. Camera-traps provided evidence that giant otters were more nocturnal around dens than sympatric neotropical otters. Nocturnal activity was recorded in 11% of giant otter photos (n = 14 of 125 photos), but was recorded only once for neotropical otters. Den use by giant and neotropical otters overlapped spatially and temporally but not concurrently. We hypothesize that previously reported nocturnal activity in neotropical otters is facilitated by the absence or low density of giant otters. Our results also underscore the need to use complementary techniques together with den counts for monitoring otters as sympatric species can use the same dens.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Lontras , Animais , Simpatria , Rios
13.
Nature ; 628(8009): 811-817, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632397

RESUMO

Hybridization allows adaptations to be shared among lineages and may trigger the evolution of new species1,2. However, convincing examples of homoploid hybrid speciation remain rare because it is challenging to demonstrate that hybridization was crucial in generating reproductive isolation3. Here we combine population genomic analysis with quantitative trait locus mapping of species-specific traits to examine a case of hybrid speciation in Heliconius butterflies. We show that Heliconius elevatus is a hybrid species that is sympatric with both parents and has persisted as an independently evolving lineage for at least 180,000 years. This is despite pervasive and ongoing gene flow with one parent, Heliconius pardalinus, which homogenizes 99% of their genomes. The remaining 1% introgressed from the other parent, Heliconius melpomene, and is scattered widely across the H. elevatus genome in islands of divergence from H. pardalinus. These islands contain multiple traits that are under disruptive selection, including colour pattern, wing shape, host plant preference, sex pheromones and mate choice. Collectively, these traits place H. elevatus on its own adaptive peak and permit coexistence with both parents. Our results show that speciation was driven by introgression of ecological traits, and that speciation with gene flow is possible with a multilocus genetic architecture.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Introgressão Genética , Especiação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Borboletas/classificação , Borboletas/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Introgressão Genética/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Seleção Genética/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria/genética , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
14.
Mol Ecol ; 33(11): e17347, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624248

RESUMO

Clownfish (subfamily Amphiprioninae) are an iconic group of coral reef fish that evolved a mutualistic interaction with sea anemones, which triggered the adaptive radiation of the clade. Within clownfishes, the "skunk complex" is particularly interesting. Besides ecological speciation, interspecific gene flow and hybrid speciation are thought to have shaped the evolution of the group. We investigated the mechanisms characterizing the diversification of this complex. By taking advantage of their disjunct geographical distribution, we obtained whole-genome data of sympatric and allopatric populations of the three main species of the complex (Amphiprion akallopisos, A. perideraion and A. sandaracinos). We examined population structure, genomic divergence and introgression signals and performed demographic modelling to identify the most realistic diversification scenario. We excluded scenarios of strict isolation or hybrid origin of A. sandaracinos. We discovered moderate gene flow from A. perideraion to the ancestor of A. akallopisos + A. sandaracinos and weak gene flow between the species in the Indo-Australian Archipelago throughout the diversification of the group. We identified introgressed regions in A. sandaracinos and detected in A. perideraion two large regions of high divergence from the two other species. While we found that gene flow has occurred throughout the species' diversification, we also observed that recent admixture was less pervasive than initially thought, suggesting a role of host repartition or behavioural barriers in maintaining the genetic identity of the species in sympatry.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Genética Populacional , Perciformes , Animais , Perciformes/genética , Simpatria , Austrália , Filogenia , Recifes de Corais , Simbiose/genética
15.
JASA Express Lett ; 4(3)2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467471

RESUMO

The F-POD is designed for passive acoustic monitoring of odontocetes. The offline classifiers can identify and separate porpoise-like sounds from dolphin-like sounds. We show that these two classifiers are not working independently. Run together, virtually no detections of both species were reported within the same minute, whereas 10% of the detection positive minutes were reported positive for both species when the two classifiers were run sequentially. This has important implications for interpretation of data in areas containing both species groups, and we call for reporting all analysis details in such studies and for further description and analysis of the classifiers.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Toninhas , Animais , Simpatria , Som
16.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1413, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ectoparasites of dogs and cats are implicated to be responsible for life-threatening anaemia, allergic dermatitis and pruritic and non-pruritic skin disorders. In Ethiopia, few studies have been conducted on the arthropods of dogs and cats. OBJECTIVES: In order to shed light on some of these aspects, a survey was conducted to investigate the presence of ectoparasites in dogs and cats living in sympatry in the urban and rural areas of Gamo Zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 297 dogs and 110 cats were examined for ectoparasites, and questionnaires were employed to obtain information concerning owner's knowledge about arthropods and vector-borne diseases (VBDs). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of ticks, fleas and lice in dogs was 36.7%, 69.7% and 4.7%, respectively. Similarly, on cats, an overall prevalence of 2.7% ticks and 21.8% fleas was recorded. On dogs, fleas (Ctenocephalides felis 69.4%, Echidnophaga gallinacea 1.3%, Ctenocephalides canis 1.0% and Pulex irritans 0.3%), ticks (Amblyomma variegatum 22.9%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus 14.1%, Haemaphysalis leachi 8.8%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus 4.0% and Rhipicephalus pulchellus 3.4%) and lice (Heterodoxus spiniger 4.0% and Trichodectes canis 0.7%) were identified. Likewise, on cats, fleas (C. felis [15.5%] and E. gallinacea [7.3%]) and ticks (H. leachi [2.7%]) were identified. The abundance of C. felis was significantly higher (p < 0.001) on dogs, whereas in cats, the abundance of E. gallinacea was significantly higher (p = 0.002) than the other ectoparasites. On dogs, a significantly higher prevalence of Rh. sanguineus was recorded in urban areas (<0.001) and on dogs which live in indoor environments (p = 0.003) than on dogs which live in other environments. On the other hand, the prevalence of A. variegatum in rural areas and midland agroecology was significantly higher (p < 0.001). The prevalence of H. leachi was significantly higher in midland (p < 0.001) and on adult dogs (p = 0.001). Overall, fleas were more prevalent in rural (p = 0.029) than in urban areas, and female dogs were with higher infestation than the male (p = 0.047) dogs; C. felis was prevalent in female (p = 0.038) dogs than males. Overall, 88.3% owners in the study area had no knowledge about ectoparasites and VBDs of dogs and cats. Majority of the owners (64.8%) attest that they had never visited veterinary clinics. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the data presented in the present study provide additional knowledge on the importance of ectoparasites of dogs and cats and are believed to contribute in awareness creation and strengthening of veterinary services of dogs and cats of the study area.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Felis , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Carrapatos , Animais , Cães , Gatos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Simpatria , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Parasitol ; 54(7): 357-366, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460721

RESUMO

Parasites are a key driving force behind many ecological and evolutionary processes. Prevalence and diversity of parasites, as well as their effects on hosts, are not uniform across host species. As such, the potential parasite spillover between species can significantly influence outcomes of interspecific interactions. We screened two species of Luscinia nightingales for haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus) along an approximately 3000 km transect in Europe, incorporating areas of host distant allopatry, close allopatry and sympatry. We found significant differences in infection rates between the two host species, with common nightingales having much lower parasite prevalence than thrush nightingales (36.7% versus 83.8%). This disparity was mostly driven by Haemoproteus prevalence, which was significantly higher in thrush nightingales while common nightingales had a small, but significantly higher, Plasmodium prevalence. Furthermore, we found no effect of proximity to the contact zone on infection rate in either host species. Despite having lower infection prevalence, common nightingales were infected with a significantly higher diversity of parasite lineages than thrush nightingales, and lineage assemblages differed considerably between the two species, even in sympatry. This pattern was mostly driven by the large diversity of comparatively rare lineages, while the most abundant lineages were shared between the two host species. This suggests that, despite the close evolutionary relationships between the two nightingales, there are significant differences in parasite prevalence and diversity, regardless of the distance from the contact zone. This suggests that spillover of haemosporidian blood parasites is unlikely to contribute towards interspecific interactions in this system.


Assuntos
Haemosporida , Simpatria , Animais , Prevalência , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Int ; 101: 102885, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461933

RESUMO

Host phylogeny and ecological convergence are two factors thought to influence the structure of parasite communities. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity of metazoan parasites of 10 sympatric fish species of the family Carangidae from the southeastern Gulf of California, and to analyze their similarity at infracommunity and component community levels, in order to determine if the host species, particularly those congeneric with similar ecological characteristics, exhibit similar assemblages of parasites. In total, 874 fish specimens were examined and 40 parasite species were identified. The component community was composed by 21 parasite species in Caranx caninus, 20 in C. caballus, 11 in C. vinctus, five in Chloroscombrus orqueta, four in Carangoides otrynter, seven in Hemicaranx leucurus, eight in Selene brevoortii, 14 in S. peruviana, and 11 in Trachinotus rhodopus. The metazoan parasite communities of C. vinctus, Ch. orqueta, H. leucurus, and S. brevoortii are reported here for the first time. The parasite communities of the remaining six carangid species have been reported from regions other than the Gulf of California. All fish species differed significantly regarding the diversity of their parasite infracommunities. This possibly is due to different patterns of habitat use among fish species, and because of the differential host specificity among parasite taxa. Nonetheless, when the analysis was restricted to common parasite species, some fish showed similar parasite infracommunities, particularly congeners of the genus Selene as well as C. caballus and C. vinctus. The component communities of species of Selene were highly similar (>65%), but the three species of Caranx were not. This result supports the hypothesis that congeneric fish species with similar ecological filters harbor similar parasite communities. However, the difference observed between C. caninus and C. caballus suggests that these species, despite being evolutionary and ecologically related, have different physiological or immunological characteristics (compatibility filters) that may result in different parasite communities.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Simpatria , Filogenia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
19.
Am Nat ; 203(3): 432-443, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358810

RESUMO

AbstractRecent speciation rates and the degree of range-wide sympatry are usually higher farther from the equator. Is there also a higher degree of secondary syntopy (coexistence in local assemblages in sympatry) at higher latitudes and, subsequently, an increase in local species richness? We studied the evolution of syntopy in passerine birds using worldwide species distribution data. We chose recently diverged species pairs from subclades not older than 5 or 7 million years, range-wide degree of sympatry not lower than 5% or 25%, and three definitions of the breeding season. We related their syntopy to latitude, the degree of sympatry (breeding range overlap), range symmetry, and the age of split. Syntopy was positively related to latitude, but it did not differ between tropical and temperate regions, instead increasing from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere. Syntopy was also higher in species pairs with a higher degree of sympatry and more symmetric ranges, but it did not predict local species richness. Following speciation, species in the Northern Hemisphere presumably achieve positive local co-occurrence faster than elsewhere, which could facilitate their higher speciation rates. However, this does not seem to be linked to local species richness, which is probably governed by other processes.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Simpatria , Estações do Ano
20.
Am Nat ; 203(3): 335-346, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358816

RESUMO

AbstractInterference competition can drive species apart in habitat use through competitive displacement in ecological time and agonistic character displacement (ACD) over evolutionary time. As predicted by ACD theory, sympatric species of rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) that respond more aggressively to each other in staged encounters differ more in microhabitat use. However, the same pattern could arise from competitive displacement if dominant species actively exclude subordinate species from preferred microhabitats. The degree to which habitat partitioning is caused by competitive displacement can be assessed with removal experiments. We carried out removal experiments with three species pairs of rubyspot damselflies. With competitive displacement, removing dominant species should allow subordinate species to shift into the dominant species' microhabitat. Instead, we found that species-specific microhabitat use persisted after the experimental removals. Thus, the previously documented association between heterospecific aggression and microhabitat partitioning in this genus is most likely a product of divergence in habitat preferences caused by interference competition in the evolutionary past.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Odonatos , Animais , Agressão , Simpatria
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