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1.
Zootaxa ; 4869(3): zootaxa.4869.3.2, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311349

RESUMO

Paratropis elicioi was described in 2015 from specimens collected in Ecuador. Both sexes were described, scientific illustrations of all relevant morphological characters were provided. Perafán et al. (2019) claimed to redescribe Paratropis elicioi from specimens collected in Colombia, without examining the holotype or paratype. Evidence that the description published by Perafán et al. 2019 is not Paratropis elicioi is presented. Two new sympatric species are described: P. otonga sp. n. and P. pristirana sp. n.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Simpatria , Animais , Equador , Feminino , Masculino
2.
Zootaxa ; 4868(4): zootaxa.4868.4.3, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311380

RESUMO

Okanagana boweni sp. n. is described from the western margin of the Great Basin of North America. The new species is diagnosed from allopatric O. simulata Davis and sympatric O. utahensis Davis using morphological, bioacoustical, and molecular characters. The distribution of this new species coincides with the Walker Lane region that lies along the border of California and Nevada, USA. Based on geography, bioacoustics, morphology, and molecular phylogenetics, we hypothesize that O. boweni sp. n. is the allopatric sister species of O. simulata.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , California , Geografia , Nevada , Simpatria
3.
Zootaxa ; 4810(2): zootaxa.4810.2.3, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055896

RESUMO

Crickets of the genus Endecous (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae) are frequently found in caves, in some cases presenting strictly subterranean lifestyle. In addition to the morphological diagnostic characters of the group, bioacoustic and karyotype, also help on delimiting species. Here, we describe two new sympatric species of this genus, which occur in the largest cave of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, using the morphology of phallic complex, the courtship song and karyotype. Moreover, we discuss the criteria used, the troglomorphisms for this genus, as well as hypothesis on the speciation process involving these species.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Gryllidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Simpatria
4.
Zootaxa ; 4778(2): zootaxa.4778.2.2, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055820

RESUMO

The generic classification of the Palaearctic tribe Leptoiulini is revised, with 11 genera being recognized. The main differences between the genera, all presented in a tabular form, lie in the structure of the 2nd and 7th leg-pairs of the male, coupled with gonopodal conformations: the presence/absence and the degree of development of flagella on the promeres, and of the phylacum and velum on the opisthomeres. Based on abundant new material, only three genera and seven species of Leptoiulini, all keyed, mapped and properly illustrated, are shown to occur in the Caucasus: Chatoleptophyllum flexum Golovatch, 1979, Kubaniulus gracilis Lohmander, 1936, K. lativelatus sp. nov., Leptoiulus hastatus Lohmander, 1932 (= L. disparatus Lohmander, 1936, syn. n.), L. tanymorphus (Attems, 1901), L. meskhii sp. nov., and L. gonopodialis sp. nov. All species are endemic or subendemic to the region, while Kubaniulus Lohmander, 1936 represents the only genus in the tribe which is restricted to the Caucasus, in particular, the western and central parts of the Caucasus Major. The distributions are mainly allopatric, but a few pairs of species are para- or even sympatric.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Masculino , Simpatria
5.
Zootaxa ; 4858(4): zootaxa.4858.4.5, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056214

RESUMO

We describe two new sympatric species of Stenocercus from the seasonally dry forest of the inter-Andean valley of the Mantaro River (Huancavelica department) in the Central Andes of central-southern Peru, at elevations of 1,693 to 2,920 m asl. Stenocercus diploauris sp. nov. is similar to S. formosus and S. ochoai, but differs in having a longitudinal neck fold and C-shaped nuchal mite pocket around the oblique fold and posteriorly limited by the antehumeral fold. Stenocercus nigrobarbatus sp. nov. is similar to S. frittsi and S. variabilis, however it can be distinguished by having a postfemoral mite pocket with one or more vertical folds or ridges and by the presence, in adult males, of a continuous black patch covering the infralabials, throat, chest, ventral surfaces of forelimbs, belly (as a midventral line), ventral surfaces of hind limbs, and pelvic region.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Florestas , Masculino , Peru , Simpatria
6.
Zootaxa ; 4852(5): zootaxa.4852.5.10, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056402

RESUMO

The genus Hylodes Fitzinger currently comprises 26 species of Torrent frogs, organized into four morphological taxonomic groups (Heyer 1982; Frost 2020): Hylodes glaber, H. lateristrigatus, H. mertensi, and H. nasus groups. Hylodes lateristrigatus is the most speciose group, comprising today 20 known species (Frost 2020). Nested in this group, a clade has been recovered based on molecular evidence, gathering the only four Hylodes species that are known to have males with nuptial thumb tubercles (de Sá et al. 2015; Malagoli et al. 2017). This well-supported clade includes H. phyllodes Heyer Cocroft, Hylodes fredi Canedo Pombal, H. pipilans Canedo Pombal, and H. caete Malagoli, de Sá, Canedo Haddad. Among these four Torrent frogs, tadpoles are unknown only for the most recently described H. caete (see tadpole descriptions in Heyer et al. 1990; Laia et al. 2010; Nogueira-Costa et al. 2019). With important taxonomic and conservation implications for the family Hylodidae (Laia Rocha 2012), we describe here the tadpole of Hylodes caete, a species endemic to the crests and slopes of Serra do Mar, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil (Malagoli et al. 2017). The present description is particularly important because, in its type-locality, H. caete occurs in sympatry and syntopy with H. phyllodes (Malagoli et al. 2017).


Assuntos
Anuros , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Brasil , Larva , Masculino , Simpatria
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4970, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009414

RESUMO

Communicating species identity is a key component of many animal signals. However, whether selection for species recognition systematically increases signal diversity during clade radiation remains debated. Here we show that in woodpecker drumming, a rhythmic signal used during mating and territorial defense, the amount of species identity information encoded remained stable during woodpeckers' radiation. Acoustic analyses and evolutionary reconstructions show interchange among six main drumming types despite strong phylogenetic contingencies, suggesting evolutionary tinkering of drumming structure within a constrained acoustic space. Playback experiments and quantification of species discriminability demonstrate sufficient signal differentiation to support species recognition in local communities. Finally, we only find character displacement in the rare cases where sympatric species are also closely related. Overall, our results illustrate how historical contingencies and ecological interactions can promote conservatism in signals during a clade radiation without impairing the effectiveness of information transfer relevant to inter-specific discrimination.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Evolução Biológica , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Acústica , Animais , Ecossistema , Teoria da Informação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4763, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958765

RESUMO

Many animal species remain separate not because their individuals fail to produce viable hybrids but because they "choose" not to mate. However, we still know very little of the genetic mechanisms underlying changes in these mate preference behaviours. Heliconius butterflies display bright warning patterns, which they also use to recognize conspecifics. Here, we couple QTL for divergence in visual preference behaviours with population genomic and gene expression analyses of neural tissue (central brain, optic lobes and ommatidia) across development in two sympatric Heliconius species. Within a region containing 200 genes, we identify five genes that are strongly associated with divergent visual preferences. Three of these have previously been implicated in key components of neural signalling (specifically an ionotropic glutamate receptor and two regucalcins), and overall our candidates suggest shifts in behaviour involve changes in visual integration or processing. This would allow preference evolution without altering perception of the wider environment.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos , Especiação Genética , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Percepção Visual/genética , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fluxo Gênico , Genes de Insetos/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria , Asas de Animais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960914

RESUMO

Environmental temperatures are a major constraint on ectotherm abundance, influencing their distribution and natural history. Comparing thermal tolerances with environmental temperatures is a simple way to estimate thermal constraints on species distributions. We investigate the potential effects of behavioral thermal tolerance (i. e. Voluntary Thermal Maximum, VTMax) on anuran local (habitat) and regional distribution patterns and associated behavioral responses. We tested for differences in Voluntary Thermal Maximum (VTMax) of two sympatric frog species of the genus Physalaemus in the Cerrado. We mapped the difference between VTMax and maximum daily temperature (VTMax-ETMax) and compared the abundance in open and non-open habitats for both species. Physalaemus nattereri had a significantly higher VTMax than P. cuvieri. For P. nattereri, the model including only period of day was chosen as the best to explain variation in the VTMax while for P. cuvieri, the null model was the best model. At the regional scale, VTMax-ETMax values were significantly different between species, with P. nattereri mostly found in localities with maximum temperatures below its VTMax and P. cuvieri showing the reverse pattern. Regarding habitat use, P. cuvieri was in general more abundant in open than in non-open habitats, whereas P. nattereri was similarly abundant in these habitats. This difference seems to reflect their distribution patterns: P. cuvieri is more abundant in open and warmer habitats and occurs mostly in warmer areas in relation to its VTMax, whereas P. nattereri tends to be abundant in both open and non-open (and cooler) areas and occurs mostly in cooler areas regarding its VTMax. Our study indicates that differences in behavioral thermal tolerance may be important in shaping local and regional distribution patterns. Furthermore, small-scale habitat use might reveal a link between behavioral thermal tolerance and natural history strategies.


Assuntos
Anuros/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Simpatria/fisiologia , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Temperatura
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104983, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907721

RESUMO

Intertidal macrobenthic assemblages associated with monospecific areas of different sympatric though not syntopic seagrasses [Cymodocea, Halodule, Zostera and Halophila] were investigated in Moreton Bay across a continuous <0.12 ha seagrass area with minimal potentially-confounding environmental variables. Results indicated patterns of unchanging faunal metrics across seagrass types (abundance, richness, diversity, evenness, taxonomic distinctness, and patchiness) but variation in relative proportions of dominant taxa, particularly microgastropods (abundant in Zostera, insignificant in Cymodocea and Halodule). Although assemblage composition varied, faunal dissimilarities (except with Zostera) were very low and of similar magnitudes within and between different 'host' seagrasses. This suggests that such macroecological faunal characteristics are not consequent on the precise local ecosystem engineer but largely reflect those of a common pool of locally available species, so that the differences in animal abundance and biodiversity described in some studies relate not directly to features inherent in the different seagrasses, but to associated habitat variables.


Assuntos
Alismatales , Biodiversidade , Zosteraceae , Animais , Ecossistema , Simpatria
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20201459, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752983

RESUMO

Hybridization events are not uncommon in marine environments where physical barriers are attenuated. Studies of coral reef taxa have suggested that hybridization predominantly occurs between parapatric species distributed along biogeographic suture zones. By contrast, little is known about the extent of sympatric hybridization on coral reefs, despite the large amount of biogeographic overlap shared by many coral reef species. Here, we investigate if the propensity for hybridization along suture zones represents a general phenomenon among coral reef fishes, by focusing on the marine angelfishes (family Pomacanthidae). Although hybridization has been reported for this family, it has not been thoroughly surveyed, with more recent hybridization studies focusing instead on closely related species from a population genetics perspective. We provide a comprehensive survey of hybridization among the Pomacanthidae, characterize the upper limits of genetic divergences between hybridizing species and investigate the occurrence of sympatric hybridization within this group. We report the occurrence of hybridization involving 42 species (48% of the family) from all but one genus of the Pomacanthidae. Our results indicate that the marine angelfishes are among the groups of coral reef fishes with the highest incidences of hybridization, not only between sympatric species, but also between deeply divergent lineages.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Hibridização Genética , Simpatria , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701975

RESUMO

The number of reproductive partners per individual varies markedly across animal mating systems. This variation may be an important determinant of patterns of immunogenetic diversity, particularly at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and II loci. To compare immunogenetic variation in taxa with markedly different mating systems, we used RNAseq-generated data to quantify genotypic diversity in three species of Peromyscine rodents: the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) and the polygynandrous deer mouse (P. maniculatus) and brush mouse (P. boylii). By sampling populations of these species from multiple localities in California, we were able to conduct replicated analyses of the relationship between mating system and immunogenetic variation. Across the four localities sampled, diversity at MHC Class I and II genes was consistently higher in the two polygynandrous species. We found no evidence that sampling location (i.e., variation in habitat conditions) contributed to observed differences in MHC variation among populations or species. Collectively, our data indicate that immunogenetic variation in Peromyscine mice is associated with reproductive behavior, rather than geographic locality or habitat type. The consistently greater variability detected in the polygynandrous species examined suggests that balancing selection imposed by behaviorally-mediated pathogen exposure is important in maintaining variation at MHC genes in these animals.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Fenômenos Imunogenéticos , Peromyscus/genética , Peromyscus/imunologia , Simpatria , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111439, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692669

RESUMO

Metal pollution is currently a major issue in marine ecosystems, as organisms, and particularly seabirds, are exposed and accumulating increased levels from several anthropogenic sources. A set of 13 metals were quantified in two gull species breeding in sympatry, and in two distinct colonies separated by ca. 400 km. Oxidative stress was measured, and stable isotope analyses were used to link metal contamination and oxidative stress with the trophic ecology of each species/population. There was a clear segregation of metal contamination between the two species and to a much lesser extent between colonies. Overall, Audouin's gull was the most contaminated species for most metals, once this species relies mainly on fish and other marine resources. The Yellow-legged gull feeds regularly on terrestrial food sources besides fish, which may dilute contamination levels. Oxidative stress responses were related with birds' trophic ecology and foraging habitat, but apparently not with metal contamination.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Animais , Cruzamento , Ecossistema , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais , Estresse Oxidativo , Simpatria
14.
Mar Environ Res ; 159: 105015, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662442

RESUMO

Temperature plays a major role in controlling species' distributions, and small-scale variation in the thermal environment are potentially an important factor that governs distributions on a local scale. For untangling the roles of behavioral and physiological adaptations on species' distribution at a small-scale level, we carried out a comparative study of two mudflat snails (genus Cerithidea) by determining these congeners' burying behavior, lethal temperature, cardiac performance and heat-shock protein (hsp70) gene expression. These two sympatric snails occupy different microhabitats on the upper intertidal mudflat. During periods of emersion, C. cingulata inhabits the open mudflat and C. largillierti usually aggregates around small rocks on the upper intertidal mudflat. Our results indicate that the two Cerithidea congeners show different behavioral and physiological responses to high temperature. Compared to C. largillierti, C. cingulata prefers to bury into the mud, has a higher thermal limit and a higher level of inducible expression of hsp70 mRNA, implying important roles of behavioral and physiological adaptations to the harsh thermal environment on the open mudflat. Furthermore, results of generalized additive modelling (GAM) analysis of cardiac performance and coefficient of variation (CV) of hsp70 mRNA expression showed high inter-individual variation in C. cingulata. These results highlight the importance of behavioral and physiological adaptions in sympatric species' distributions on the mudflat and help to shed light on the mechanisms of how small-scale differences in the thermal environment shape sympatric species' distributions.


Assuntos
Caramujos , Simpatria , Animais , Ecossistema , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70 , Temperatura Alta , Caramujos/metabolismo , Temperatura
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497053

RESUMO

Despite appreciable advances in carnivore ecology, studies on small cats remain limited with carnivore research in India being skewed towards large cats. Small cats are more specialized than their larger cousins in terms of resource selection. Studies on small cat population and habitat preference are critical to evaluate their status to ensure better management and conservation. We estimated abundance of two widespread small cats, the jungle cat, and the rusty-spotted cat, and investigated their habitat associations based on camera trap captures from a central Indian tiger reserve. We predicted fine-scale habitat segregation between these sympatric species as a driver of coexistence. We used an extension of the spatial count model in a Bayesian framework approach to estimate the population density of jungle cat and rusty-spotted cat and used generalized linear models to explore their habitat associations. Densities of rusty-spotted cat and jungle cat were estimated as 6.67 (95% CI 4.07-10.74) and 4.01 (95% CI 2.65-6.12) individuals/100 km2 respectively. Forest cover and evapotranspiration were positively associated with rusty-spotted cat occurrence whereas both factors had a significant negative relation with jungle cat occurrence. The results directed habitat segregation between these small cats with affinities of rusty-spotted cat and jungle cat towards well-forested and open scrubland areas respectively. Our estimates highlight the widespread applicability of this model for density estimation of species with no individual identification. Moreover, the study outcomes can aid in targeted management decisions and serve as the baseline for species conservation as these models allow robust population estimation of elusive species along with predicting their habitat preferences.


Assuntos
Felidae/fisiologia , Florestas , Simpatria/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Gatos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia/métodos , Índia , Modelos Lineares , Movimento/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525959

RESUMO

Feeding strategies of sympatric squid species help to understand their role in marine ecosystems. Four loliginid squids, Uroteuthis duvaucelii, Uroteuthis edulis, Uroteuthis chinensis, and Loliolus uyii are the major cephalopod species in the coastal waters of the northern South China Sea, where they occur together. We investigated their feeding strategies in terms of foraging behavior and habitat use by comparing fatty acid profiles and spatial distributions. There were no significant differences in the proportions of saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids among species. Similar findings were obtained for most individual fatty acids that made up of an average of more than 84% of total fatty acid content for each species. Substantial overlap and high similarity in the fatty acid composition were observed. However, there were no significant effects of individual size or sampling station on the fatty acid compositions. The spatial overlap analysis demonstrated that there was clear spatial segregation and habitat use among the species. Cumulatively, our results suggest that the four squids are opportunistic carnivores, unselectively foraging on similar prey items, while spatial segregation is likely a major mechanism leading to their coexistence in the northern South China Sea.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/genética , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Simpatria , Animais , China , Dieta , Ecossistema , Oceano Pacífico
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8199, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424226

RESUMO

Invasive species present a major conservation threat globally and nowhere are their affects more pronounced than in island ecosystems. Determining how native island populations respond demographically to invasive species can provide information to mitigate the negative effects of invasive species. Using 20 years of mark-recapture data from three sympatric species of albatrosses (black-browed Thalassarche melanophris, grey-headed T. chrysostoma, and light-mantled albatrosses Phoebetria palpebrata), we quantified the influence of invasive European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus and extreme weather patterns on breeding probability and success. Temporal variability in rabbit density explained 33-76% of the variability in breeding probability for all three species, with severe decreases in breeding probability observed after a lag period following highest rabbit numbers. For black-browed albatrosses, the combination of extreme rainfall and high rabbit density explained 33% of total trait variability and dramatically reduced breeding success. We showed that invasive rabbits and extreme weather events reduce reproductive output in albatrosses and that eliminating rabbits had a positive effect on albatross reproduction. This illustrates how active animal management at a local breeding site can result in positive population outcomes even for wide ranging animals like albatrosses where influencing vital rates during their at-sea migrations is more challenging.


Assuntos
Aves/genética , Aves/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Simpatria , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Clima , Coelhos , Reprodução
18.
Am Nat ; 195(5): 772-787, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364790

RESUMO

Evolution is never truly predictable, in part because the process of selection is recursive: it operates on its own output to generate historical contingencies, so emergent traits can reshape how others evolve in the future. Studies rarely attempt to directly trace how recursion underlies present-day phenotypic pattern on a macroevolutionary basis. To address this gap, we examined how different selection regimes-each operating on a different timescale-guide the evolution of the woodpecker drum display. Approximately 200 species drum with distinctive speed and length, which are important for territorial competition. We discovered remarkable variation in drum rhythm, with some species drumming at constant rates and others changing speed along a range of mathematical functions. Rhythm undergoes divergent character displacement among sympatric sister species, a process that wanes as other reproductive boundaries emerge over time. Tracing the recursive effects of this process, we found that modifying rhythm may then potentiate or constrain speed/length elaboration. Additionally, increased sexual size dimorphism predicts the emergence of rhythms associated with constrained evolutionary rates of speed/length, implying that selection can also constrain itself. Altogether, our findings illustrate how recursion introduces contingencies that allow diverse phenotypes to arise from similar selection regimes.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Periodicidade , Simpatria/fisiologia
19.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 49, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sympatric sister species provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain species boundaries. The persistence of morphologically and genetically distinct populations in sympatry can only occur if some degree of reproductive isolation exists. A pair of sympatric sister species of Primulina (P. depressa and P. danxiaensis) was used to explore the genetic architecture of hybrid male sterility. RESULTS: We mapped one major- and seven minor-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie pollen fertility rate (PFR). These loci jointly explained 55.4% of the phenotypic variation in the F2 population. A Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model involving three loci was observed in this system. We found genotypic correlations between hybrid male sterility and flower morphology, consistent with the weak but significant phenotypic correlations between PFR and floral traits. CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid male sterility in Primulina is controlled by a polygenic genetic basis with a complex pattern. The genetic incompatibility involves a three-locus BDM model. Hybrid male sterility is genetically correlated with floral morphology and divergence hitchhiking may occur between them.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Lamiales/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Simpatria/genética , Análise de Variância , Epistasia Genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
20.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008769, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392206

RESUMO

Polyploidy has played an important role in evolution across the tree of life but it is still unclear how polyploid lineages may persist after their initial formation. While both common and well-studied in plants, polyploidy is rare in animals and generally less understood. The Australian burrowing frog genus Neobatrachus is comprised of six diploid and three polyploid species and offers a powerful animal polyploid model system. We generated exome-capture sequence data from 87 individuals representing all nine species of Neobatrachus to investigate species-level relationships, the origin and inheritance mode of polyploid species, and the population genomic effects of polyploidy on genus-wide demography. We describe rapid speciation of diploid Neobatrachus species and show that the three independently originated polyploid species have tetrasomic or mixed inheritance. We document higher genetic diversity in tetraploids, resulting from widespread gene flow between the tetraploids, asymmetric inter-ploidy gene flow directed from sympatric diploids to tetraploids, and isolation of diploid species from each other. We also constructed models of ecologically suitable areas for each species to investigate the impact of climate on differing ploidy levels. These models suggest substantial change in suitable areas compared to past climate, which correspond to population genomic estimates of demographic histories. We propose that Neobatrachus diploids may be suffering the early genomic impacts of climate-induced habitat loss, while tetraploids appear to be avoiding this fate, possibly due to widespread gene flow. Finally, we demonstrate that Neobatrachus is an attractive model to study the effects of ploidy on the evolution of adaptation in animals.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , Poliploidia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Animais , Austrália , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Simpatria
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