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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 73-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576541

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the roles of alcohol (ethanol) and related compounds in promoting cancer and inflammatory injury in many tissues. Long-term chronic heavy alcohol exposure is known to increase the chances of inflammation, oxidative DNA damage, and cancer development in many organs. The rates of alcohol-mediated organ damage and cancer risks are significantly elevated in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as poor nutrition, unhealthy diets, smoking, infection with bacteria or viruses, and exposure to pro-carcinogens. Chronic ingestion of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may initiate and/or promote the development of cancer in the liver, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, prostate, and female breast. In this chapter, we summarize the important roles of ethanol/acetaldehyde in promoting inflammatory injury and carcinogenesis in several tissues. We also review the updated roles of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) and other cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of various potentially toxic substrates, and consequent toxicities, including carcinogenesis in different tissues. We also briefly describe the potential implications of endogenous ethanol produced by gut bacteria, as frequently observed in the experimental models and patients of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, in promoting DNA mutation and cancer development in the liver and other tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Carcinogênese , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Etanol , Acetaldeído/toxicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/fisiopatologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas
2.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(10): 831-847, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526279

RESUMO

Introduction: Nowadays, the first-line medications in depression include SSRIs, SNRIs, NDRIs, NaSSAs, SMSs, or a melatonin (M1/M2) receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. These drugs have quite similar antidepressant efficacy and safety profiles, but they differ in chemical structure, receptor affinity, and pharmacokinetics. Areas covered: Pharmacokinetic properties of first-line antidepressant drugs and factors influencing their pharmacokinetic processes are presented. Alterations in pharmacokinetics of newer antidepressants in special populations are summarized. In addition, the significance of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and pharmacogenetic testing in dose optimization for the treatment of depressive disorders using newer antidepressants is discussed. Expert opinion: Due to the fact that 30-40% of depressive patients do not respond to the therapy and that the incidence of depression is constantly growing, the search for new more effective and safer antidepressant therapies is becoming an urgent need. More well-designed clinical studies under naturalistic conditions are needed to establish/refine therapeutic ranges for older and current state-of-the-art antidepressant drugs. The pharmacogenetic testing with concomitant application of TDM seems to be the best way for implementing personalized dosing of current state-of-the-art antidepressants metabolized by polymorphic CYPs, especially when co-administered with strong inhibitors or other substrates of CYP2D6 or CYP2C19.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacocinética , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Farmacogenética
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 115-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562626

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. It is important to discover novel cellular targets which are crucial in the pathogenesis of CRC, which could facilitate development of mechanism-based strategies to reduce the risks of CRC. Emerging studies support that the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway and their eicosanoid metabolites play critical roles in colonic inflammation and CRC, and could be therapeutically explored for treating or preventing CRC. Here in this review, we discuss recent studies about the roles of the CYP/sEH eicosanoid pathway in the pathogenesis of colonic inflammation and CRC.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Eicosanoides , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 181-186, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404594

RESUMO

The cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) family includes key enzymes for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Several animal models have been used to determine the metabolite profile of specific drugs. Among these are porcine microsomes prepared from Göttingen minipigs. However, CYP expression profile in microsomes from this pig breed is unknown. In the present study, we determined the mRNA and protein profiles of a comprehensive selection of CYPs in microsomes prepared from male and female Göttingen minipigs. Using RT-PCR, western blotting and mass spectroscopy, we found that the expression levels of CYP1A, CYP2A and CYP2E1 were significantly higher in females than males. Moreover, some of the transcription factors controlling CYP transcription also showed a sex-dependent expression pattern. Conversely, expression of CYP2B, CYP2D and CYP3A was comparable between sexes. The overall CYP expression distribution showed high similarity with what previously been reported in humans. In conclusion, our results suggest that Göttingen minipigs are a reliable model for studying CYPs.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Isoenzimas , Masculino , Microssomos/enzimologia , Modelos Animais , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade por Substrato , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9468-9476, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379158

RESUMO

The aroma quality of citrus fruit is determined by volatiles that are present at extremely low levels in the citrus fruit juice sacs; it can be greatly improved by increasing volatiles. In this study, we showed that the contents of cis- and trans-linalool oxides were significantly increased in the juice sacs of three pummelos artificially pollinated with the Citrus mangshanensis (MS) pollen. A novel cytochrome P450 78A7 gene (CitLO1) was significantly upregulated in the juice sacs of Huanong Red pummelo pollinated with MS pollen in comparison to that with open pollination. Compared to wild-type tobacco Bright-Yellow2 cells, transgenic cells overexpressing CitLO1 promoted a 3- to 4-fold more conversion of (-)-linalool to cis- and trans-linalool oxides. Overall, our results suggest that MS pollen has a xenia effect on pummelo fruit aroma quality, and CitLO1 is a linalool oxide synthase gene that played an important role in the xenia effect.


Assuntos
Citrus/metabolismo , Cicloexanóis/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Compostos de Tritil/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Citrus/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 118-126, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400773

RESUMO

In the plant-insect arms race, plants synthesize toxic compounds to defend against herbivorous insects, whereas insects employ cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) to detoxify these phytotoxins. As ubiquitous environmental contaminants, heavy metals can be easily absorbed by plants and further accumulated in herbivorous insects through the food chains, resulting in tangible consequences for plant-insect interactions. However, whether heavy metals can influence P450 activities and thereby cause further effects on larval tolerance to phytotoxins remains unknown. In this study, we shown that prior exposure to copper (Cu) enhanced larval tolerance to xanthotoxin in Spodoptera litura, a major polyphagous pest of agriculture. P450 activities were induced in larvae exposed to Cu or xanthotoxin, and a midgut specific expressed P450 gene, CYP6B50 was cross-induced after exposure to these two toxic xenobiotics. Knocking down CYP6B50 by RNA interference (RNAi) rendered the larvae more sensitive to xanthotoxin. As defense against oxidative stress following metal exposure has been demonstrated to affect insecticide resistance, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed. Cu exposure caused the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in larval midgut. In addition, two antioxidant response elements (AREs) were identified from the CYP6B50 promoter, indicating that Cu-induced CYP6B50 expression may be related to the ROS burst. Application of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively suppressed CYP6B50 expression, inhibited P450 activities and impaired larval tolerance to xanthotoxin that had been induced by Cu. These results indicate that the increase in CYP6B50 expression regulated by Cu-induced H2O2 generation contributed to the enhancement of larval tolerance to xanthotoxin in S. litura. Ingestion of heavy metals from their host plants can inadvertently boost the counter-defense system of herbivorous insects to protect themselves against plant defensive toxins.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metoxaleno/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/genética , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 136-143, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400775

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450s are part of a super-gene family that has undergone gene duplication, divergence, over-expression and, in some cases, loss of function. One such case is the 91-R and 91-C strains of common origin, in Drosophila melanogaster, whereby 91-R (DDT resistant strain) overexpresses Cyp4p1 and Cyp4p2 and both genes are lost in 91-C (DDT susceptible strain). In this study, we used a comparative approach to demonstrate that transcription of Cyp4p1 and Cyp4p2 were constitutively up-regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster strain 91-R as compared to another DDT susceptible strain Canton-S which does not have a loss of function of these genes. Furthermore, significantly increased expression of Cyp4p1 and Cyp4p2 was induced in 91-R in response to sublethal DDT exposure, however, such induction did not occur in the DDT treated Canton-S. Additionally, fixed nucleotide variation within putative transcription factor binding sites of Cyp4p1 and Cyp4p2 promoters were observed between 91-R and Canton-S, however, their impact on transcription remains to be determined. Two GAL4/UAS transgenic strains with integrated heat shock-inducible Cyp4p1- or Cyp4p2-RNAi constructs within wild-type genetic backgrounds were developed. Following heat shock induction of Cyp4p1 and Cyp4p2 knockdown, these transgenic lines showed increased DDT mortality as compared to their corresponding non-heat shock controls. These results provide a functional link of Cyp4p1 and Cyp4p2 in conferring tolerance to DDT exposure.


Assuntos
DDT/farmacologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 154-162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400777

RESUMO

The migratory locust, Locusta migartoria, is a major agricultural insect pest and its resistance to insecticides is becoming more prevalent. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) are important enzymes for biotransformations of various endogenous and xenobiotic substances. These enzymes play a major role in developing insecticide resistance in many insect species. In this study, we heterologously co-expressed a CYP enzyme (CYP6FD1) and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) from L. migartoria in Sf9 insect cells. The recombinant enzymes were assayed for metabolic activity towards six selected model substrates (luciferin-H, luciferin-Me, luciferin-Be, luciferin-PFBE, luciferin-CEE and 7-ethoxycoumarin), and four selected insecticides (deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, carbaryl and methoprene). Recombinant CYP6FD1 showed activity towards 7-ethoxycoumarin and luciferin-Me, but no detectable activity towards the other luciferin derivatives. Furthermore, the enzyme efficiently oxidized deltamethrin to hydroxydeltamethrin through an aromatic hydroxylation in a time-dependent manner. However, the enzyme did not show any detectable activity towards the other three insecticides. Our results provide direct evidence that CYP6FD1 is capable of metabolizing deltamethrin. This work is a step towards a more complete characterization of the catalytic capabilities of CYP6FD1 and other xenobiotic metabolizing CYP enzymes in L. migratoria.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Família 6 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Locusta migratoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Locusta migratoria/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Família 6 do Citocromo P450/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 112-120, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378345

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450s (P450s) confer resistance against herbicides, and this is increasingly becoming a concern for weed control. As a widespread Gramineae weed in paddy fields, Echinocloa glabrescens has become resistant to the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting triazolopyrimidine herbicide penoxsulam. In this study, we found that the GR50 of the resistant population (SHQP-R) decreased substantially from 25.6 to 5.0 and 6.2 g a.i. ha-1 after treatment with the P450 inhibitors piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and malathion, respectively. However, P450 inhibitors almost had no effects on the susceptibility of the sensitive population (JYJD-S) to penoxsulam. To investigate the mechanisms of metabolic resistance, transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed to find candidate genes that may confer resistance to penoxsulam in E. glabrescens. A total of 233 P450 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by transcriptome sequencing. We found that the metabolic process and metabolic pathways were the most highly enriched in DEGs. Further, twenty-seven candidate P450 DEGs were selected for qPCR validation analyses. After penoxsulam treatment, the relative expression levels were significantly higher in SHQP-R than in JYJD-S. Among these, the relative expression of twenty-three P450 DEGs (eighteen from the CYP72A-71C-74A-96A-734A subfamily; five from CYP81E1-94C1-94B3-714C1-714C2) were upregulated and four P450 DEGs (from CYP724B1-711A1-707A7-97B2) were downregulated. Changes in the expression of these candidate P450 genes in E. glabrescens were in response to penoxsulam, which provides preliminary evidence for the role of P450s in herbicide metabolism in E. glabrescens. However, further functional studies on metabolic resistance to penoxsulam in a resistant E. glabrescens population are required.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinochloa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Uridina/análogos & derivados , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Echinochloa/genética , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Malation/farmacologia , Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia , Uridina/farmacologia
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 47-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378360

RESUMO

Buprofezin is a chitin synthesis inhibitor that is very effective against Homopteran pests, such as the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), S. furcifera (Horvath). In the present study, resistance selection, cross-resistance and mechanisms of buprofezin resistance were investigated in this planthopper species. However, the mechanism associated with resistance to growth regulator insecticides (IGRs) remains largely unknown. A resistant strain (Bup-R) with a resistance level (22-fold) to buprofezin was developed through continuous selection for 47 generations from a laboratory susceptible strain (Bup-S). The results showed that the Bup-R exhibited no cross-resistance to other tested insecticides. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (SR = 3.9-fold) and diethyl maleate (DEM) (SR = 1.8-fold) had synergistic effects on buprofezin toxicity in the resistant strain (F47). Enzyme activity results revealed an approximate 5.7-fold difference in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and a 2-fold difference in glutathione S-transferase (GST) between the resistant and susceptible strains, suggesting that the increased activity of these two enzymes is likely the main detoxification mechanism involved in resistance to buprofezin in this species. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and GST genes by quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that sixteen P450 and one GST gene were significantly overexpressed in the Bup-R strain, among which thirteen P450 genes and one GST gene were >2-fold higher than in the Bup-S strain. The present study increases our knowledge of the buprofezin resistance mechanism in S. furcifera and provides a useful reference for integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Tiadiazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Maleatos/metabolismo , Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 486(1): 192-196, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367819

RESUMO

A novel CYP74 clan gene CYP443С1 of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Cnidaria) has been cloned, and the properties of the corresponding recombinant protein have been studied. Depending on the substrate, CYP443С1 exhibited double function hydroperoxide lyase/epoxyalcohol synthase activity.


Assuntos
Aldeído Liases/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Anêmonas-do-Mar/enzimologia , Aldeído Liases/química , Aldeído Liases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Anêmonas-do-Mar/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 9-13, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408697

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism is the rate-limiting step of elimination for many drugs. CYP3A4 is the most abundant hepatic isoform and CYP3A4/5 metabolize the largest fraction of drugs. Pharmacogenetic studies have not been able to characterize population variability in CYP3A4 activity because few variant alleles associated with aberrant enzyme activity have been found. Substrate probes such as midazolam and testosterone have been utilized in-vivo and in-vitro to determine catalytic activity of these enzymes, but they suffer from several limitations. Eplerenone, an aldosterone antagonist, is also metabolized by CYP3A enzymes, and it has the potential to be an excellent substrate probe for CYP3A4/5. Eplerenone's primary metabolite, 6 beta-hydroxyeplerenone is formed preferentially via CYP3A4, however, the relative contribution of CYP3A5 to the 21-hydroxyeplerenone metabolite formation is unknown. Through in-vitro microsomal incubations with recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes, we identified their relative contributions to 21-hydroxyeplerenone metabolism. The 21-hydroxy metabolite is formed preferentially via CYP3A5 Vmax/KM (3.3) versus CYP3A4 Vmax/KM (1.9). Based on these findings, eplerenone has the potential to serve as an in-vivo substrate probe for CYP3A4 by monitoring 6-beta-hydroxy metabolite formation as well as CYP3A4/5 by monitoring 21-hydroxy metabolite formation.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/metabolismo , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Eplerenona/metabolismo , Eplerenona/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Microssomos/metabolismo
13.
Gene ; 717: 144046, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434006

RESUMO

Flavonoids are major polyphenol compounds in plant secondary metabolism. The hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of flavonoids is determined by the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). In this paper, one CsF3'H and two CsF3'5'Hs (CsF3'5'Ha and CsF3'5'Hb) were isolated. The phylogenetic tree results showed that F3'H and F3'5'Hs belong to the CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively. The Expression pattern analysis showed that the expression of CsF3'5'Ha and CsF3'5'Hb in the bud and 1st leaf were higher than other tissues. However, the CsF3'H had the highest expression in the 4th and mature leaf. The correlation analysis showed that the expression of CsF3'5'Hs is positively associated with the concentration of B-trihydroxylated catechins, and the expression of CsF3'H is positively associated with the Q contentration. Heterologous expression of these genes in yeast showed that CsF3'H and CsF3'5'Ha can catalyze flavanones, flavonols and flavanonols to the corresponding 3', 4' or 3', 4', 5'-hydroxylated compounds, for which the optimum substrate is naringenin. The enzyme of CsF3'5'Hb can only catalyze flavonols (including K and Q) and flavanonols (DHK and DHQ), of which the highest activities in catalyzing are DHK. Interestingly, The experiment of site-directed mutagenesis suggested that two novel sites near the C-terminal were discovered impacting on the activity of the CsF3'5'H. These results provide a significantly molecular basis on the accumulation B-ring hydroxylation of flavonoids in tea plant.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroxilação , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
14.
Life Sci ; 234: 116755, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415769

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin D and its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR), have renoprotection effect against diabetic nephropathy (DN). But the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid, protecting against diabetes and DN. Herein, we hypothesized that activation of VDR attenuated high glucose-induced cellular injury in renal tubular epithelial cells partially through up-regulating CYP2J5 expression. MAIN METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) was injected to induce diabetic in wild type and Vdr-/- mice. The effects of VDR knockout and an activator of VDR, paricalcitol, on the renal injury were detected. In vitro, a murine kidney proximal tubule epithelial cell line BU.MPT induced by high glucose were treated with or without paricalcitol (30 mM) for 12 h or 24 h. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of CYP2J5 was significantly decreased both in wild type and Vdr-/- diabetic mice induced by STZ. The STZ-induced kidney architecture damage and apoptosis rate in Vdr-/- mice were more severe. In vitro, high glucose treatment strongly reduced the CYP2J5 expression and the synthesis of 14,15-EET in BU.MPT cells. Supplement of 14,15-EET significantly reduced the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by high glucose in BU.MPT cells. Furthermore, treatment with paricalcitol attenuated cellular injury and restored the expression of CYP2J5 reduced by high glucose in BU.MPT cells. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that activation of VDR attenuates high glucose-induced cellular injury partially dependent on CYP2J5 in murine renal tubule epithelial cells and paricalcitol may represent a potential therapy for DN.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Ergocalciferóis/farmacologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Calcitriol/agonistas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Ergocalciferóis/uso terapêutico , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo
15.
Life Sci ; 234: 116770, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421085

RESUMO

Aim Licoricidin has multiple pharmacological activities. The present study was designed to investigate the permeability and pharmacokinetic behavior of licoricidin using in vitro models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: First, human liver microsomes and recombinant human supersomes were used to investigate the interactions between metabolic enzymes and licoricidin. In addition, rat, minipig, rabbit, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes were used to determine metabolic differences among species. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was used to explore licoricidin permeability behavior. KEY FINDINGS: At 100 µM, licoricidin strongly inhibited CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17. Licoricidin metabolism exhibited considerable differences among species; dog, pig, and rat liver microsomes showed higher metabolic capacity than the other species. Seven licoricidin metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and hydration and hydroxylation were the major metabolic pathways. The PAMPA permeability of licoricidin was moderate at both pH 4.0 and 7.4. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study will support further pharmacological or toxicological research on licoricidin.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/farmacocinética , Animais , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacocinética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Cães , Glucuronosiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Coelhos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
16.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 889-898, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349198

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR), one of the most widely used pesticides in agricultural production, are gradually concerned due to potential ecosystem and health risks. Further, the induction of ATR nephrotoxicity and detoxification response is still unknown. To evaluate ATR-induced nephrotoxicity, quails were treated with 0, 50, 250 or 500 mg/kg ATR by gavage administration for 45 days. Histopathology indicated that ATR exposure caused renal tubular epithelial cell swelling and endoplasmic reticulum degeneration, suggesting that ATR exposure causes renal impairment even renal diseases. Notably, ATR interfered cytochrome P450 system (CYP450s) homeostasis by enhancing contents or activities of CYP450s (total CYP450, Cyt b5, AH, APND, NCR and ERND) and the expression of CYP450 isoforms (CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP2C and CYP3A). ATR triggered phase II detoxifying reaction, reflected by the elevated GSH level, GST activity and the up-regulation of GST isoforms (GSTa, GSTa3 and GSTt1) and GSH synthetase (GCLC). Moreover, ABC transporters were activated to expel ATR from the body by increasing expression of MRP1 and P-GP gene. Accompanying these alterations, the nuclear receptors (AHR, CAR and PXR) were activated by ATR in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis results of present study demonstrated that the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme system and ABC transporters could be modulated by nuclear receptors response and CYP450s disturbance in low-dose ATR-treated quail. In conclusion, all data suggested that nuclear receptors AHR-mediated detoxification pathway was involved in ATR-induced nephrotoxicity. These results provided new evidence about the nephrotoxic effects of ATR on the response of biotransformation and detoxification system.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Coturnix/fisiologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/toxicidade , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica , Codorniz , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105230, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306923

RESUMO

Brachionus spp. (Rotifera: Monogononta) are globally distributed in aquatic environments and play important roles in the aquatic ecosystem. The marine monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis is considered a suitable model organism for ecology, evolution, and ecotoxicology. In this study, we assembled and characterized the B. plicatilis genome. The total length of the assembled genome was 106.9 Mb and the number of final scaffolds was 716 with an N50 value of 1.15 Mb and a GC content of 26.75%. A total of 20,154 genes were annotated after manual curation. To demonstrate the use of whole genome data, we targeted one of the main detoxifying enzyme of phase I detoxification system and identified in a total of 28 cytochrome P450 s (CYPs). Based on the phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood, 28 B. plicatilis-CYPs were apparently separated into five different clans, namely, 2, 3, 4, mitochondrial (MT), and 46 clans. To better understand the CYPs-mediated xenobiotic detoxification, we measured the mRNA expression levels of 28 B. plicatilis CYPs in response to chlorpyrifos and 2-ethyl-phenanthrene. Most B. plicatilis CYPs were significantly modulated (P < 0.05) in response to chlorpyrifos and 2-ethyl-phenanthrene. In addition, xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor (XNR) response element sequences were identified in the 5 kb upstream of promoter regions of 28 CYPs from the genome of B. plicatilis, indicating that these XNR can be associated with detoxification of xenobiotics. Overall, the assembled B. plicatilis genome presented here will be a useful resource for a better understanding the molecular ecotoxicology in the view of molecular mechanisms underlying toxicological responses, particularly on xenobiotic detoxification in this species.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/enzimologia , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Genoma Helmíntico , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Rotíferos/enzimologia , Rotíferos/genética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Rotíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8243-8252, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271289

RESUMO

Elemicin, an alkenylbenzene constituent of natural oils of several plant species, is widely distributed in food, dietary supplements, and medicinal plants. 1'-Hydroxylation is known to cause metabolic activation of alkenylbenzenes leading to their potential toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between elemicin metabolism and its toxicity through comparing the metabolic maps between elemicin and 1'-hydroxyelemicin. Elemicin was transformed into a reactive metabolite of 1'-hydroxyelemicin, which was subsequently conjugated with cysteine (Cys) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Administration of NAC could significantly ameliorate the elemicin- and 1'-hydroxyelemicin-induced cytotoxicity of HepG2 cells, while depletion of Cys with diethyl maleate (DEM) increased cytotoxicity. Recombinant human CYP screening and CYP inhibition experiments revealed that multiple CYPs, notably CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4, were responsible for the metabolic activation of elemicin. This study revealed that metabolic activation plays a critical role in elemicin cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Pirogalol/análogos & derivados , Ativação Metabólica , Biotransformação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Estrutura Molecular , Pirogalol/química , Pirogalol/metabolismo , Pirogalol/toxicidade
19.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 804-812, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200206

RESUMO

6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is currently used as an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and is widely detected in the environment. The uptake, translocation and biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) were investigated by hydroponic exposure for the first time. The root concentration factor (RCF) of 6:2 FTSA was 2.6-24.2 times as high as those of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) of the same or much shorter carbon chain length, demonstrating much higher bioaccumulative ability of 6:2 FTSA in pumpkin roots. The translocation capability of 6:2 FTSA from root to shoot depended on its hydrophobicity. Six terminal perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) metabolites, including perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropropionic acid (PFPrA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) were found in pumpkin roots and shoots. PFHpA was the primary metabolite in roots, while PFBA was the major product in shoots. 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a cytochromes P450 (CYPs) suicide inhibitor, could decrease the concentrations of PFCA products with dose-dependent relationships in pumpkin tissues, implying the role of CYP enzymes involved in plant biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA. This study indicated that the application of 6:2 FTSA can lead to the occurrence of PFCAs (C2-C7) in plants.


Assuntos
Alcanossulfonatos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Alcanossulfonatos/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Transporte Biológico , Biotransformação , Caproatos/análise , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Ácidos Heptanoicos/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hidroponia , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Triazóis/farmacologia , Ácido Trifluoracético/análise
20.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 856-862, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202138

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used throughout the world over the last two decades. In the present study, we investigated the degradation of neonicotinoid insecticides nitenpyram (NIT) and dinotefuran (DIN) by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. While NIT was completely degraded by P. sordida YK-624 under ligninolytic conditions, only a 20% decrease was observed under nonligninolytic conditions. On the other hand, P. sordida YK-624 degraded 31% of DIN under ligninolytic conditions after a 20-day incubation, while it did not degrade DIN under nonligninolytic conditions. We found that cytochromes P450 played a key role in the biotransformation of NIT and DIN by P. sordida YK-624. A novel NIT metabolite (E)-N-((6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl)-N-ethyl-N'-hydroxy acetimidamide (CPMHA) and a novel DIN metabolite N-((4aS,7aS,E)-1-methylhexahydrofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-ylidene)nitramide (PHPF) were identified in this study. In addition, to evaluate neurotoxicity, the effects of NIT, DIN and their metabolites on the viability of human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y were determined. PHPF showed higher neurological toxicity than DIN, whereas the metabolite of NIT, CPMHA, showed no toxic effect. Our results indicated that the neurological toxicity of NIT could be effectively removed by P. sordida YK-624.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Phanerochaete/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Humanos , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo
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