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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 744, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus is one of the major global health challenges of the twenty-first century. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 among people living with HIV is a well-founded concern. A thorough understanding of HIV/TB and COVID-19 pandemics is important as the three diseases interact. This may clarify HIV/TB/COVID-19 as a newly related field. However, several gaps remain in the knowledge of the burden of COVID-19 on patients with TB and HIV. This study was conducted to review different studies on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or COVID-19 associated with HIV/TB co-infection or only TB, to understand the interactions between HIV, TB and COVID-19 and its implications on the burden of the COVID-19 among HIV/TB co-infected or TB patients, screening algorithm and clinical management. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of potentially eligible studies published in English in the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PubMed, Medrxiv, Google scholar and Clinical Trials Registry databases. We included case studies, case series and observational studies published between January, 2002 and July, 2020 in which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19 co-infected to HIV/TB or TB in adults. We screened titles, abstracts and full articles for eligibility. Descriptive and meta-analysis were done and results have been presented in graphs and tables. RESULTS: After removing 95 duplicates, 58 out of 437 articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 14 studies were included for descriptive analysis and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to the descriptive analysis, the meta-analysis showed strong evidence that current TB exposure was high-risk COVID-19 group (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.65, P = 0.03). The pooled of COVID-19/TB severity rate increased from OR 4.50 (95% CI 1.12-18.10, P = 0.03), the recovery rate was high among COVID-19 compared to COVID-19/TB irrespective of HIV status (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.83-2.74, P < 0.001) and the mortality was reduced among non-TB group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In summary, TB was a risk factor for COVID-19 both in terms of severity and mortality irrespective of HIV status. Structured diagnostic algorithms and clinical management are suggested to improve COVID-19/HIV/TB or COVID-19/TB co-infections outcomes.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
2.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1419-1428, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048155

RESUMO

Importance: Coagulopathy may deter physicians from performing a lumbar puncture. Objective: To determine the risk of spinal hematoma after lumbar puncture in patients with and without coagulopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study using medical registries to identify persons who underwent lumbar puncture and had cerebrospinal fluid analysis (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2018; followed up through October 30, 2019). Coagulopathy was defined as platelets lower than 150 × 109/L, international normalized ratio (INR) greater than 1.4, or activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) longer than 39 seconds. Exposures: Coagulopathy at the time of lumbar puncture. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-day risk of spinal hematoma. Risks were provided as numbers and percentages with 95% CIs. Secondary analyses included risks of traumatic lumbar puncture (>300 × 106 erythrocytes/L after excluding patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage). Adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRs) were computed using Cox regression models. Results: A total of 83 711 individual lumbar punctures were identified among 64 730 persons (51% female; median age, 43 years [interquartile range, 22-62 years]) at the time of the procedure. Thrombocytopenia was present in 7875 patients (9%), high INR levels in 1393 (2%), and prolonged APTT in 2604 (3%). Follow-up was complete for more than 99% of the study participants. Overall, spinal hematoma occurred within 30 days for 99 of 49 526 patients (0.20%; 95% CI, 0.16%-0.24%) without coagulopathy vs 24 of 10 371 patients (0.23%; 95% CI, 0.15%-0.34%) with coagulopathy. Independent risk factors for spinal hematoma were male sex (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.15-2.56), those aged 41 through 60 years (adjusted HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01-3.81) and those aged 61 through 80 years (adjusted HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.12-4.33). Risks did not increase significantly according to overall severity of coagulopathy, in subgroup analyses of severity of coagulopathy by pediatric specialty or medical indication (infection, neurological condition, and hematological malignancy), nor by cumulative number of procedures. Traumatic lumbar punctures occurred more frequently among patients with INR levels of 1.5 to 2.0 (36.8%; 95% CI, 33.3%-40.4%), 2.1 to 2.5 (43.7%; 95% CI, 35.8%-51.8%), and 2.6 to 3.0 (41.9% 95% CI 30.5-53.9) vs those with normal INR (28.2%; 95% CI, 27.7%-28.75%). Traumatic spinal tap occurred more often in patients with an APTT of 40 to 60 seconds (26.3%; 95% CI, 24.2%-28.5%) vs those with normal APTT (21.3%; 95% CI, 20.6%-21.9%) yielding a risk difference of 5.1% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this Danish cohort study, risk of spinal hematoma following lumbar puncture was 0.20% among patients without coagulopathy and 0.23% among those with coagulopathy. Although these findings may inform decision-making about lumbar puncture by describing rates in this sample, the observed rates may reflect bias due to physicians selecting relatively low-risk patients for lumbar puncture.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Hematoma/etiologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Punção Espinal/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/química , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Punção Espinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 208, 2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyse the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic and the lockdown measures on the follow-up and control of chronic diseases in primary care. METHODS: Retrospective study in 288 primary care practices (PCP) of the Catalan Institute of Health. We analysed the results of 34 indicators of the Healthcare quality standard (EQA), comprising different types: treatment (4), follow-up (5), control (10), screening (7), vaccinations (4) and quaternary prevention (4). For each PCP, we calculated each indicator's percentage of change in February, March and April 2020 respective to the results of the previous month; and used the T-Student test for paired data to compare them with the percentage of change in the same month of the previous year. We defined indicators with a negative effect those with a greater negative change or a lesser positive change in 2020 in comparison to 2019; and indicators with a positive effect those with a greater positive change or a lesser negative change. RESULTS: We observed a negative effect on 85% of the EQA indicators in March and 68% in April. 90% of the control indicators had a negative effect, highlighting the control of LDL cholesterol with a reduction of - 2.69% (95%CI - 3.17% to - 2.23%) in March and - 3.41% (95%CI - 3.82% to - 3.01%) in April; and the control of blood pressure with a reduction of - 2.13% (95%CI - 2.34% to - 1.9%) and - 2.59% (95%CI - 2.8% to - 2.37%). The indicators with the greatest negative effect were those of screening, such as the indicator of diabetic foot screening with a negative effect of - 2.86% (95%CI - 3.33% to - 2.39%) and - 4.13% (95%CI - 4.55% to - 3.71%) in March and April, respectively. Only one vaccination indicator, adult Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine, had a negative effect in both months. Finally, among the indicators of quaternary prevention, we observed negative effects in March and April although in that case a lower inadequacy that means better clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemic and the lockdown measures have significantly reduced the results of the follow-up, control, screening and vaccination indicators for patients in primary care. On the other hand, the indicators for quaternary prevention have been strengthened and their results have improved.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1557, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious diseases that seriously endanger people's health. In Shandong province, the relationship between the level of economic development and TB incidence has not been studied. This study aims to provide more research basis for the government to prevent and control TB by exploring the impact of different economic factors on TB incidence. METHODS: By constructing threshold regression model (TRM), we described the extent to which different economic factors contribute to TB registered incidence and differences in TB registered incidence among seventeen cities with different levels of economic development in Shandong province, China, during 2006-2017. Data were retrieved from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: Per capita medical expenditure (regression coefficient, -0.0314462; SD, 0.0079305; P > |t|, 0.000) and per capita savings (regression coefficient, 0.0001924; SD, 0.0000566; P > |t|, 0.001) passed the significance test at the level of 1%.They are the two economic indicators that have the greatest impact on TB registered incidence. Through the threshold test, we selected the per capita savings as the threshold variable. In the three stages of per capita savings (<9772.8086 China Yuan(CNY); 9772.8086-33,835.5391 CNY; >33,835.5391 CNY), rural per capita income always has a significant negative impact on the TB registered incidence (The regression coefficients are - 0.0015682, - 0.0028132 and - 0.0022253 respectively. P is 0.007,0.000 and 0.000 respectively.).In cities with good economies, TB registered incidence was 38.30% in 2006 and dropped to 25.10% by 2017. In cities with moderate economies, TB registered incidence peaked in 2008 at 43.10% and dropped to 27.1% by 2017.In poorer cities, TB registered incidence peaked in 2008 at 56.30% and dropped to 28.9% in 2017. CONCLUSION: We found that per capita savings and per capita medical expenditure are most closely related to the TB incidence. Therefore, relevant departments should formulate a more complete medical system and medical insurance policy to effectively solve the problem of "difficult and expensive medical treatment". In order to further reduce the TB incidence, in addition to timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment, it is more important for governments to increase investment in medicine and health care.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Sistema de Registros
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 117-122, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087600

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The electronically submitted data from midwives and hospitals to the Netherlands perinatal registry vary significantly in their data definitions, and electronic message versions. The purpose of this article is to describe the semantic cross-mapping tool and execution procedure to prepare the data for statistical analysis. METHODS: requirements analysis, design, development and testing. RESULTS: The tool for governance of versions of datasets, CIMs, data, and value sets is designed, developed, and tested. The test is based on the data-mart of version PRN 1.3 based data from 2019. Data are semantically cross mapped to current version perinatology data 2.2. CONCLUSION: The cross-mapping of PRN 1.3 data to perinatology 2.2 data are defined in the tool, testing revealed this mapping is successful.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Semântica , Feminino , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Parto , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros
6.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 419, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare systems globally. Preliminary reports suggest a high incidence of infection and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The aims of this study are to report characteristics, rates and outcomes of all patients affected by infection with SARS-CoV-2 undergoing KRT in Scotland. METHODS: Study design was an observational cohort study. Data were linked between the Scottish Renal Registry, Health Protection Scotland and the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group national data sets using a unique patient identifier (Community Health Index (CHI)) for each individual by the Public Health and Intelligence unit of Public Health, Scotland. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: During the period 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020, 110 patients receiving KRT tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 amounting to 2% of the prevalent KRT population. Of those affected, 86 were receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and 24 had a renal transplant. Patients who tested positive were older and more likely to reside in more deprived postcodes. Mortality was high at 26.7% in the dialysis patients and 29.2% in the transplant patients. CONCLUSION: The rate of detected SARS-CoV-2 in people receiving KRT in Scotland was relatively low but with a high mortality for those demonstrating infection. Although impossible to confirm, it appears that the measures taken within dialysis units coupled with the national shielding policy, have been effective in protecting this population from infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus , Falência Renal Crônica , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Escócia/epidemiologia
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e044566, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse enrolment to interventional trials during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England and describe the barriers to successful recruitment in the circumstance of a further wave or future pandemics. DESIGN: We analysed registered interventional COVID-19 trial data and concurrently did a prospective observational study of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who were being assessed for eligibility to one of the RECOVERY, C19-ACS or SIMPLE trials. SETTING: Interventional COVID-19 trial data were analysed from the clinicaltrials.gov and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number databases on 12 July 2020. The patient cohort was taken from five centres in a respiratory National Institute for Health Research network. Population and modelling data were taken from published reports from the UK government and Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit. PARTICIPANTS: 2082 consecutive admitted patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 27 March 2020 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions enrolled, and reasons for exclusion from the aforementioned trials. Comparisons of trial recruitment targets with estimated feasible recruitment numbers. RESULTS: Analysis of trial registration data for COVID-19 treatment studies enrolling in England showed that by 12 July 2020, 29 142 participants were needed. In the observational study, 430 (20.7%) proceeded to randomisation. 82 (3.9%) declined participation, 699 (33.6%) were excluded on clinical grounds, 363 (17.4%) were medically fit for discharge and 153 (7.3%) were receiving palliative care. With 111 037 people hospitalised with COVID-19 in England by 12 July 2020, we determine that 22 985 people were potentially suitable for trial enrolment. We estimate a UK hospitalisation rate of 2.38%, and that another 1.25 million infections would be required to meet recruitment targets of ongoing trials. CONCLUSIONS: Feasible recruitment rates, study design and proliferation of trials can limit the number, and size, that will successfully complete recruitment. We consider that fewer, more appropriately designed trials, prioritising cooperation between centres would maximise productivity in a further wave.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Definição da Elegibilidade , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
8.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(9): 593-602, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041285

RESUMO

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of age, period, birth cohort, and regional differences in the detection of breast cancer using screening data.Method Data from the Japan Cancer Society's breast cancer screening program, collected from 21 prefectural branches between 2004 to 2015, were used to generate age-specific estimates of cancer detection for women aged between 40 to 79 years. We used Bayesian age-period-cohort (APC) analyses based on the cohort table to describe the simultaneous effects of age, period, and cohort on breast cancer detection rates to understand the population dynamics underlying the detection patterns. We also incorporated region as a random effect to examine regional characteristics.Results The age effect showed bimodality in the late 40s and late 50s. The period effect decreased from 2004 to 2007 and remained constant thereafter. The cohort effect showed that the detection rate for women born between 1943 and 1958 was high. Furthermore, we found regional differences in the breast cancer detection rate: Miyazaki, Fukui, Tochigi, and Hokkaido prefectures showed higher detection rates, while Kagoshima and Chiba prefecture had lower rates.Conclusion Age effect has the strongest influence on the secular trend of breast cancer detection, and there is a regional difference in the detection rate. The present study that used screening data presented similar results to those of previous studies. The National Cancer Registry, based on the Cancer Registry Act of 2016, reports accurate national data. Similar to the National Cancer Registry data, analysis using screening data has immediacy and could be used for disease prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores Etários , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Japão/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22447, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019430

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between textbook outcome and survival in patients with surgically treated colon cancer. A total of 804 surgical cases were enrolled between June 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Textbook outcome was defined as patients who had colon cancer surgery and met the six healthcare parameters of surgery within 6 weeks, radical resection, lymph node (LN) yield ≥12, no ostomy, no adverse outcome and colonoscopy before/after surgery within 6 months. The effect of textbook outcome on 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression model was used to find significant independent variables and stratified analysis used to determine whether text-book outcome had a survival benefit. A textbook outcome was achieved in 59.5% of patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. Important obstacles to achieving textbook outcome were no stomy, no adverse outcome and LN yield ≥12. Patients with text-book outcome had statistically significant better 5-year DSS compared to those with-out (80.1% vs. 58.3%). Multivariate analyses indicated that colon cancer patients with textbook outcome had better 5-year DSS after adjusting for various confounders ([aHR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.34-0.57). Thus, besides being an index of short-term quality of care, textbook outcomes could be used as a prognosticator of long-term outcomes, such as 5-year survival rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22465, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019438

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the predictive value of free fatty acid (FFA) in embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) according to the presence of potential embolic sources (PES) after extensive etiologic evaluation.This was a retrospective observational study based on a single-center registry from January 2011 to July 2017. Stroke subtypes were determined through laboratory findings, brain, and angiographic imaging, carotid ultrasonography, transthoracic echocardiography, and 24-hour Holter monitoring. If ESUS was suspected, transesophageal echocardiography was additionally performed. Patients were classified into ESUS with PES and ESUS without PES. PES included mitral annular calcification, mitral valve prolapse, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, spontaneous echo contrast, ventricular aneurysm, and high-risk plaques of aortic arch, or carotid bulb. We compared clinical and laboratory findings between the two groups.Of a total of 110 ESUS patients, 61 patients (55.5%) had no PES. Patients with ESUS without PES had higher levels of serum FFA, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and left atrial (LA) enlargement compared with those of ESUS with PES. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the FFA level, DBP, and LA volume index were associated with ESUS without PES [odds ratio (OR) 1.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.019-1.058 for FFA/10 µEq/L, OR 1.414, 95% CI 1.037-1.928 for DBP/10 mm Hg, and OR 1.073, 95% CI 1.009-1.141 for LA volume index].Higher levels of FFA, DBP, and LA volume index are associated with ESUS without PES, highlighting the need to identify the role of these markers in ESUS through further large-scale, multi-center and prospective studies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Embolia Intracraniana/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22366, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031272

RESUMO

To investigate the prognoses associated with different locations of medulloblastoma (MB) in terms of survival through a case-control study and evaluate the prognostic factors for MB.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify MB patients diagnosed from 1975 to 2016. Each brainstem MB (bMB) patient was matched to a cerebellum MB (cMB) patient by propensity score matching based on age, sex, tumor size, extent of metastasis, extent of surgical resection, radiotherapy status and chemotherapy status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of prognostic factors on overall survival. Ethical approval was not necessary as this study is based on a public database.A total of 172 bMB patients and 1417 cMB patients were included in the study. A total of 144 pairs of patients were matched to constitute the matched cohort. Within the matched cohort, the median survival times were 213 months and 96 months for cMB and bMB, respectively. Within the unmatched cohort, the median survival times were 111 months and 97 months for cMB and bMB, respectively. Brainstem location detrimentally affected the survival time of MB patients in both the matched cohort (hazard ratios =8.14, 95% confidence interval =5.98-11.08) and the unmatched cohort (hazard ratios =1.44, 95% confidence interval =1.20-1.74). Age <5 years and receipt of radiotherapy were favorable prognostic factors, whereas gross total resection, brainstem location and receipt of chemotherapy were unfavorable prognostic factors. Radiotherapy alone was associated with superior outcomes concerning adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy.This study uncovers a survival advantage for cMB patients versus bMB patients. Additionally, prognostic factors include age, extent of surgical resection, and receipt of radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Radiotherapy after surgery and rational use of chemotherapy drugs are crucial for treatment of MB patients. Further studies of these prognostic factors are required to improve the survival time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/mortalidade , Meduloblastoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Cerebelares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22523, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031294

RESUMO

There is scarce evidence that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) could efficiently improve the prediction accuracy of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score in cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).A cohort of 1094 STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention was retrospectively recruited. Patients were categorized based on the ESR values. Final endpoints included cardiovascular death and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) occurrence. The predictive value of combined models with the GRACE score and ESR was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement.During the mean follow-up of 23 months, 34 patients died and 190 experienced MACEs, of which 23 patients died in the first year; both endpoints were more frequent in the higher group. The ESR and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were independent risk factors of 1-year cardiovascular death, together with the GRACE score (ESR: hazard ratio = 1.03, P = .006 hs-CRP: hazard ratio = 1.00, P = .001; GRACE: 1.03, P = .012). Although no statistical improvement in the area under the ROC curve was observed in either the GRACE/ESR or the GRACE/hs-CRP model (GRACE/ESR models: 0. 8073 vs GRACE: 0.7714, P = .22; GRACE/ESR models: 0. 7815 vs GRACE: 0.7714, P = .61), the GRACE score and ESR together significantly improved the NRI (0.633; P< .001) compared with the GRACE alone. Regarding the mid-term mortality, adding the ESR to the GRACE score not only improved the NRI (0.8433; P < .001), but also increased the integrated discrimination improvement (0.0509; P = .04).The ESR is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular death and MACE in STEMI patients receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The ESR comparatively enhanced the predictive values of the prognostic model, including the GRACE risk score.


Assuntos
Sedimentação Sanguínea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
15.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 851-859, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150×10³/µL) is associated with poor outcomes in various critical illness settings. However, the prognostic value of platelet count in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 1202 patients between January 2014 and December 2018 from a multicenter retrospective-prospective cohort registry of CS. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between the patients with and without thrombocytopenia. RESULTS: At presentation with CS, 244 (20.3%) patients had thrombocytopenia. The patients with thrombocytopenia had lower blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and worse liver and renal functions compared to the patients without. During hospitalization, the patients with thrombocytopenia had more frequent gastrointestinal bleeding (10.5% vs. 3.8%, p=0.009), sepsis (8.3% vs. 2.6%, p=0.013), requirement of renal replacement therapy (36.5% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001), requirement of mechanical ventilation (65.2% vs. 54.4%, p=0.003), longer intensive care unit stay (8 days vs. 4 days, p<0.001), and thirty-day mortality (40.2% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001) compared to those without. In addition, the platelet count was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (per 103/µL decrease; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.002, 95% confidence interval: 1.000-1.003, p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Thrombocytopenia at CS presentation was associated with worse clinical findings, higher frequencies of complications, and longer stay at the intensive care unit. Also, thrombocytopenia was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality. (Clinical trial registration No. NCT02985008).


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Choque Cardiogênico , Trombocitopenia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/epidemiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
N Engl J Med ; 383(14): 1340-1348, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in preventing high-grade cervical lesions have been shown. However, data to inform the relationship between quadrivalent HPV vaccination and the subsequent risk of invasive cervical cancer are lacking. METHODS: We used nationwide Swedish demographic and health registers to follow an open population of 1,672,983 girls and women who were 10 to 30 years of age from 2006 through 2017. We assessed the association between HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer, controlling for age at follow-up, calendar year, county of residence, and parental characteristics, including education, household income, mother's country of birth, and maternal disease history. RESULTS: During the study period, we evaluated girls and women for cervical cancer until their 31st birthday. Cervical cancer was diagnosed in 19 women who had received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and in 538 women who had not received the vaccine. The cumulative incidence of cervical cancer was 47 cases per 100,000 persons among women who had been vaccinated and 94 cases per 100,000 persons among those who had not been vaccinated. After adjustment for age at follow-up, the incidence rate ratio for the comparison of the vaccinated population with the unvaccinated population was 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.82). After additional adjustment for other covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.57). After adjustment for all covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.12 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.34) among women who had been vaccinated before the age of 17 years and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) among women who had been vaccinated at the age of 17 to 30 years. CONCLUSIONS: Among Swedish girls and women 10 to 30 years old, quadrivalent HPV vaccination was associated with a substantially reduced risk of invasive cervical cancer at the population level. (Funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and others.).


Assuntos
Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18 , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Invasividade Neoplásica , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003306, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The higher mortality rates in people with severe mental illness (SMI) may be partly due to inadequate integration of physical and mental healthcare. Accurate recording of SMI during hospital admissions has the potential to facilitate integrated care including tailoring of treatment to account for comorbidities. We therefore aimed to investigate the sensitivity of SMI recording within general hospitals, changes in diagnostic accuracy over time, and factors associated with accurate recording. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a cohort study of 13,786 adults with SMI diagnosed during 2006-2017, using data from a large secondary mental healthcare database as reference standard, linked to English national records for 45,706 emergency hospital admissions. We examined general hospital record sensitivity across patients' subsequent hospital records, for each subsequent emergency admission, and at different levels of diagnostic precision. We analyzed time trends during the study period and used logistic regression to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with psychiatric recording accuracy, with multiple imputation for missing data. Sensitivity for recording of SMI as any mental health diagnosis was 76.7% (95% CI 76.0-77.4). Category-level sensitivity (e.g., proportion of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-29) who received any F20-29 diagnosis in hospital records) was 56.4% (95% CI 55.4-57.4) for schizophrenia spectrum disorder and 49.7% (95% CI 48.1-51.3) for bipolar affective disorder. Sensitivity for SMI recording in emergency admissions increased from 47.8% (95% CI 43.1-52.5) in 2006 to 75.4% (95% CI 68.3-81.4) in 2017 (ptrend < 0.001). Minority ethnicity, being married, and having better mental and physical health were associated with less accurate diagnostic recording. The main limitation of our study is the potential for misclassification of diagnosis in the reference-standard mental healthcare data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there have been improvements in recording of SMI diagnoses, but concerning under-recording, especially in minority ethnic groups, persists. Training in culturally sensitive diagnosis, expansion of liaison psychiatry input in general hospitals, and improved data sharing between physical and mental health services may be required to reduce inequalities in diagnostic practice.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003356, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following a reduction in global child mortality due to communicable diseases, the relative contribution of congenital anomalies to child mortality is increasing. Although infant survival of children born with congenital anomalies has improved for many anomaly types in recent decades, there is less evidence on survival beyond infancy. We aimed to systematically review, summarise, and quantify the existing population-based data on long-term survival of individuals born with specific major congenital anomalies and examine the factors associated with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seven electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest Natural, and Biological Science Collections), reference lists, and citations of the included articles for studies published 1 January 1995 to 30 April 2020 were searched. Screening for eligibility, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed in duplicate. We included original population-based studies that reported long-term survival (beyond 1 year of life) of children born with a major congenital anomaly with the follow-up starting from birth that were published in the English language as peer-reviewed papers. Studies on congenital heart defects (CHDs) were excluded because of a recent systematic review of population-based studies of CHD survival. Meta-analysis was performed to pool survival estimates, accounting for trends over time. Of 10,888 identified articles, 55 (n = 367,801 live births) met the inclusion criteria and were summarised narratively, 41 studies (n = 54,676) investigating eight congenital anomaly types (spina bifida [n = 7,422], encephalocele [n = 1,562], oesophageal atresia [n = 6,303], biliary atresia [n = 3,877], diaphragmatic hernia [n = 6,176], gastroschisis [n = 4,845], Down syndrome by presence of CHD [n = 22,317], and trisomy 18 [n = 2,174]) were included in the meta-analysis. These studies covered birth years from 1970 to 2015. Survival for children with spina bifida, oesophageal atresia, biliary atresia, diaphragmatic hernia, gastroschisis, and Down syndrome with an associated CHD has significantly improved over time, with the pooled odds ratios (ORs) of surviving per 10-year increase in birth year being OR = 1.34 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.24-1.46), OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.38-1.62), OR = 1.62 (95% CI 1.28-2.05), OR = 1.57 (95% CI 1.37-1.81), OR = 1.24 (95% CI 1.02-1.5), and OR = 1.99 (95% CI 1.67-2.37), respectively (p < 0.001 for all, except for gastroschisis [p = 0.029]). There was no observed improvement for children with encephalocele (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01, p = 0.19) and children with biliary atresia surviving with native liver (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.03, p = 0.26). The presence of additional structural anomalies, low birth weight, and earlier year of birth were the most commonly reported predictors of reduced survival for any congenital anomaly type. The main limitation of the meta-analysis was the small number of studies and the small size of the cohorts, which limited the predictive capabilities of the models resulting in wide confidence intervals. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis summarises estimates of long-term survival associated with major congenital anomalies. We report a significant improvement in survival of children with specific congenital anomalies over the last few decades and predict survival estimates up to 20 years of age for those born in 2020. This information is important for the planning and delivery of specialised medical, social, and education services and for counselling affected families. This trial was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42017074675).


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Nascimento Vivo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1283-1287, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941412

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most cervical cancers and some cancers of the penis, vulva, vagina, oropharynx, and anus. Cervical precancers can be detected through screening. HPV vaccination with the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) can prevent approximately 92% of HPV-attributable cancers (1).* Previous studies have shown lower incidence of HPV-associated cancers in non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations compared with other racial subgroups (2); however, these rates might have been underestimated as a result of racial misclassification. Previous studies have shown that cancer registry data corrected for racial misclassification resulted in more accurate cancer incidence estimates for AI/AN populations (3,4). In addition, regional variations in cancer incidence among AI/AN populations suggest that nationally aggregated data might not adequately describe cancer outcomes within these populations (5). These variations might, in part, result from geographic disparities in the use of health services, such as cancer screening or vaccination (6). CDC analyzed data for 2013-2017 from central cancer registries linked with the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to assess the incidence of HPV-associated cancers and to estimate the number of cancers caused by HPV among AI/AN populations overall and by region. During 2013-2017, an estimated 1,030 HPV-associated cancers were reported in AI/AN populations. Of these cancers, 740 (72%) were determined to be attributable to HPV types targeted by 9vHPV; the majority were cervical cancers in females and oropharyngeal cancers in males. These data can help identify regions where AI/AN populations have disproportionately high rates of HPV-associated cancers and inform targeted regional vaccination and screening programs in AI/AN communities.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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