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3.
Planta ; 254(4): 68, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498163

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In this review, we have focused on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for improving the agronomic traits in plants through point mutations, knockout, and single base editing, and we highlighted the recent progress in plant metabolic engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has immense power to reproduce plants with desired characters and revolutionizing the field of genome engineering by erasing the barriers in targeted genome editing. Agriculture fields are using this advance genome editing tool to get the desired traits in the crops plants such as increase yield, improve product quality attributes, and enhance resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses by identifying and editing genes of interest. This review focuses on CRISPR/Cas-based gene knockout for trait improvement and single base editing to boost yield, quality, stress tolerance, and disease resistance traits in crops. Use of CRISPR/Cas9 system to facilitate crop domestication and hybrid breeding are also touched. We summarize recent developments and up-gradation of delivery mechanism (nanotechnology and virus particle-based delivery system) and progress in multiplex gene editing. We also shed lights in advances and challenges of engineering the important metabolic pathways that contain a variety of dietary metabolites and phytochemicals. In addition, we endorsed substantial technical hurdles and possible ways to overcome the unpredictability of CRISPR/Cas technology for broader application across various crop species. We speculated that by making a strong interconnection among all genomic fields will give a gigantic bunt of knowledge to develop crop expressing desired traits.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Agricultura , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tecnologia
4.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 637-649, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472225

RESUMO

The insect brain is the central part of the neurosecretory system, which controls morphology, physiology, and behavior during the insect's lifecycle. Lepidoptera are holometabolous insects, and their brains develop during the larval period and metamorphosis into the adult form. As the only fully domesticated insect, the Lepidoptera silkworm Bombyx mori experienced changes in larval brain morphology and certain behaviors during the domestication process. Hormonal regulation in insects is a key factor in multiple processes. However, how juvenile hormone (JH) signals regulate brain development in Lepidoptera species, especially in the larval stage, remains elusive. We recently identified the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant 1 ( Met1) as a putative domestication gene. How artificial selection on Met1 impacts brain and behavioral domestication is another important issue addressing Darwin's theory on domestication. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Bombyx Met1 caused developmental retardation in the brain, unlike precocious pupation of the cuticle. At the whole transcriptome level, the ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling and downstream pathways were overactivated in the mutant cuticle but not in the brain. Pathways related to cell proliferation and specialization processes, such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and tyrosine metabolism pathways, were suppressed in the brain. Molecular evolutionary analysis and in vitro assay identified an amino acid replacement located in a novel motif under positive selection in B. mori, which decreased transcriptional binding activity. The B. mori MET1 protein showed a changed structure and dynamic features, as well as a weakened co-expression gene network, compared with B. mandarina. Based on comparative transcriptomic analyses, we proposed a pathway downstream of JH signaling (i.e., tyrosine metabolism pathway) that likely contributed to silkworm larval brain development and domestication and highlighted the importance of the biogenic amine system in larval evolution during silkworm domestication.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5206, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471126

RESUMO

CRISPR base editing is a powerful method to engineer bacterial genomes. However, it restricts editing to single-nucleotide substitutions. Here, to address this challenge, we adapt a CRISPR-Prime Editing-based, DSB-free, versatile, and single-nucleotide resolution genetic manipulation toolkit for prokaryotes. It can introduce substitutions, deletions, insertions, and the combination thereof, both in plasmids and the chromosome of E. coli with high fidelity. Notably, under optimal conditions, the efficiency of 1-bp deletions reach up to 40%. Moreover, deletions of up to 97 bp and insertions up to 33 bp were successful with the toolkit in E. coli, however, efficiencies dropped sharply with increased fragment sizes. With a second guide RNA, our toolkit can achieve multiplexed editing albeit with low efficiency. Here we report not only a useful addition to the genome engineering arsenal for E. coli, but also a potential basis for the development of similar toolkits for other bacteria.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Escherichia coli/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , DNA Bacteriano , Genoma Bacteriano , Plasmídeos , RNA Guia/genética
6.
Curr Protoc ; 1(9): e246, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529358

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are potent innate immune cells that provide the surveillance and elimination of infected, stressed, and malignant cells. The unique immune recognition mechanisms and functions of NK cells make them an attractive cell type for immunology research and adoptive immunotherapy. However, primary NK cells are challenging to culture ex vivo and lack efficient genetic tools, hindering the research of NK cells and the development of NK cell therapeutics. Here we describe methods for the freeze-thaw process, feeder-free ex vivo expansion, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, and functional characterizations of primary human NK cells. Our protocol enables ∼30-fold and ∼2000-fold average expansion rates from 1 × 107 cryopreserved NK cells in 14 and 28 days, respectively. We also detail methods for CRISPR gene knockout and knockin by nucleofection of Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and DNA repair templates. Gene knockout by Cas9 RNP nucleofection can be multiplexed to simultaneously target three genes. The CRISPR-edited cells can be cryopreserved and rethawed with high viability for future studies. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Thawing of natural killer cells Basic Protocol 2: Ex vivo expansion of natural killer cells Basic Protocol 3: Cryopreservation of expanded natural killer cells Basic Protocol 4: Characterization of natural killer cells: Flow cytometry and surface marker analysis Basic Protocol 5: Cytotoxicity and degranulation assays Basic Protocol 6: Preparation of homology-directed repair templates Basic Protocol 7: Nucleofection of CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins Basic Protocol 8: Genotyping of gene-edited natural killer cells Basic Protocol 9: Phenotyping of gene-edited natural killer cells.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Células Matadoras Naturais
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 616-617, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475598

RESUMO

Gary Humphreys talks to Kazuto Kato about the ethical and societal challenges posed by biotechnologies that allow for the editing of the human genome.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Biotecnologia/ética , Ética Médica , Edição de Genes/ética , Temas Bioéticos/história , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Teoria Ética , Ética Médica/história , Edição de Genes/história , História do Século XXI , Características Humanas , Humanos
8.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 273, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496881

RESUMO

The control of contagious or refractory diseases requires early, rapid diagnostic assays that are simple, fast, and easy-to-use. Here, easy-to-implement CRISPR/Cas12a-based diagnostic platform through Raman transducer generated by Raman enhancement effect, term as SERS-CRISPR (S-CRISPR), are described. The S-CRISPR uses high-activity noble metallic nanoscopic materials to increase the sensitivity in the detection of nucleic acids, without amplification. This amplification-free platform, which can be performed within 30-40 min of incubation time, is then used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 derived nucleic acids in RNA extracts obtained from nasopharyngeal swab specimens (n = 112). Compared with the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the sensitivity and specificity of S-CRISPR reaches 87.50% and 100%, respectively. In general, the S-CRISPR can rapidly identify the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 RNA without amplification and is a potential strategy for nucleic acid point of care test (POCT).


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espectral Raman , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Humanos , RNA Viral/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 419, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key issue for implementation of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for plant trait improvement and gene function analysis is to efficiently deliver the components, including guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9, into plants. Plant virus-based gRNA delivery strategy has proven to be an important tool for genome editing. However, its application in soybean which is an important crop has not been reported yet. ALSV (apple latent spherical virus) is highly infectious virus and could be explored for delivering elements for genome editing. RESULTS: To develop a ALSV-based gRNA delivery system, the Cas9-based Csy4-processed ALSV Carry (CCAC) system was developed. In this system, we engineered the soybean-infecting ALSV to carry and deliver gRNA(s). The endoribonuclease Csy4 effectively releases gRNAs that function efficiently in Cas9-mediated genome editing. Genome editing of endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) loci and exogenous 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) sequence in Nicotiana. benthamiana (N. benthamiana) through CCAC was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, CCAC-induced mutagenesis in two soybean endogenous GW2 paralogs was detected. CONCLUSIONS: With the aid of the CCAC system, the target-specific gRNA(s) can be easily manipulated and efficiently delivered into soybean plant cells by viral infection. This is the first virus-based gRNA delivery system for soybean for genome editing and can be used for gene function study and trait improvement.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/virologia , Viroses/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Mutagênese , RNA Guia , RNA de Plantas , RNA Viral
10.
Analyst ; 146(17): 5271-5279, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355716

RESUMO

The ability to visually detect low numbers of Salmonella in food samples is highly valuable but remains a challenge. Here we present a novel platform for ultrasensitive and visual detection of Salmonella Typhimurium by integrating the bio-barcode immunoassay (BCA), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), and CRISPR-Cas12a cleavage in a single reaction system (termed as BCA-RPA-Cas12a). In the system, the target bacteria were separated by immunomagnetic nanoparticles and labeled with numerous barcode AuNPs, which carry abundant bio-barcode DNA molecules to amplify the signal. Afterwards, the bio-barcode DNA molecules were amplified by RPA and subsequently triggered the cleavage activity of Cas12a to generate the fluorescence signal. Due to this triplex signal amplification, the BCA-RPA-Cas12a system can selectively detect Salmonella Typhimurium at the single-digit level with the naked eye under blue light within 60 min. Meanwhile, this novel platform was successfully applied to detect Salmonella Typhimurium in spiked milk samples with a similar sensitivity and satisfactory recovery, indicating its potential application in real samples. Furthermore, in virtue of the versatility of the antibody in the stage of BCA, the BCA-RPA-Cas12a system can be extended to further application in other bacteria detection and food safety monitoring.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Recombinases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ouro , Imunoensaio , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Recombinases/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445589

RESUMO

Crohn's Disease (CD) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) share some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor types 2 and 22 (PTPN2/22). Recently, we reported that clinical samples from CD and RA patients associated with PTPN2:rs478582 or PTPN22:rs2476601 genotypes were linked to overactive immune response and exacerbation of inflammation. Here, we investigated in vitro the effects of these SNPs in Jurkat T-cells using CRISPR-Cas9. All cells were evaluated for PTPN22/22 loss of function and effects on cell response. We measured gene expression via RT-qPCR and cytokines by ELISA. We also measured cell proliferation using a BrdU labeling proliferation ELISA, and T-cell activation using CD-25 fluorescent immunostaining. In PTPN2 SNP-edited cells, PTPN2 expression decreased by 3.2-fold, and proliferation increased by 10.2-fold compared to control. Likewise, expression of PTPN22 decreased by 2.4-fold and proliferation increased by 8.4-fold in PTPN22 SNP-edited cells. IFN-γ and TNF-α secretions increased in both edited cell lines. CD25 expression (cell activation) was 80.32% in PTPN2 SNP-edited cells and 85.82% in PTPN22 SNP-edited cells compared to 70.48% in unedited Jurkat T-cells. Treatment of PTPN2 and PTPN22-edited cells with a maximum 20 µM spermidine restored PTPN2/22 expression and cell response including cell proliferation, activation, and cytokines secretion. Most importantly, the effect of spermidine on edited cells restored normal expression and secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α. The data clearly demonstrated that edited SNPs in PTPN2 or PTPN22 were associated with reduced gene expression, which resulted in an increase in cell proliferation and activation and overactive immune response. The data validated our earlier observations in CD and RA clinical samples. Surprisingly, spermidine restored PTPN2/22 expression in edited Jurkat T-cells and the consequent beneficial effect on cell response and inflammation. The study supports the use of polyamines dietary supplements for management of CD and in RA patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia de Células T/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 2/genética , Espermidina/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Leucemia de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia de Células T/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/metabolismo
12.
Mol Cell ; 81(17): 3650-3658.e5, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390675

RESUMO

CRISPR-inspired systems have been extensively developed for applications in genome editing and nucleic acid detection. Here, we introduce a CRISPR-based peptide display technology to facilitate customized, high-throughput in vitro protein interaction studies. We show that bespoke peptide libraries fused to catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and barcoded with unique single guide RNA (sgRNA) molecules self-assemble from a single mixed pool to programmable positions on a DNA microarray surface for rapid, multiplexed binding assays. We develop dCas9-displayed saturation mutagenesis libraries to characterize antibody-epitope binding for a commercial anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody and human serum antibodies. We also show that our platform can be used for viral epitope mapping and exhibits promise as a multiplexed diagnostics tool. Our CRISPR-based peptide display platform and the principles of complex library self-assembly using dCas9 could be adapted for rapid interrogation of varied customized protein libraries or biological materials assembly using DNA scaffolding.


Assuntos
Epitopos/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , RNA Guia/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Mutagênese/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , RNA Guia/imunologia
13.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3046-3047, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358458

RESUMO

Xu et al. (2021) describe a novel two-pronged CRISPR screen, termed BARBEKO, by coupling cytosine base editors and internally barcoded sgRNAs to eliminate double-stranded break-induced toxicity, enable high multiplicities of infection, and ensure experimental reproducibility.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Edição de Genes , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Citosina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5090, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429421

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing offers unprecedented opportunities for treating human diseases. There are several reports that demonstrate pre-existing immune responses to Cas9 which may have implications for clinical development of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene therapy. Here we use 209 overlapping peptides that span the entire sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a cohort of donors with a distribution of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) alleles comparable to that in the North American (NA) population to identify the immunodominant regions of the SaCas9 protein. We also use an MHC Associated Peptide Proteomics (MAPPs) assay to identify SaCas9 peptides presented by MHC Class II (MHC-II) proteins on dendritic cells. Using these two data sets we identify 22 SaCas9 peptides that are both presented by MHC-II proteins and stimulate CD4+ T-cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Citocinas , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia
15.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1177-1186, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341563

RESUMO

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) ameliorates ß-hemoglobinopathies by inhibiting the developmental switch from γ-globin (HBG1/HBG2) to ß-globin (HBB) gene expression. Some forms of HPFH are associated with γ-globin promoter variants that either disrupt binding motifs for transcriptional repressors or create new motifs for transcriptional activators. How these variants sustain γ-globin gene expression postnatally remains undefined. We mapped γ-globin promoter sequences functionally in erythroid cells harboring different HPFH variants. Those that disrupt a BCL11A repressor binding element induce γ-globin expression by facilitating the recruitment of nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) to a nearby proximal CCAAT box and GATA1 to an upstream motif. The proximal CCAAT element becomes dispensable for HPFH variants that generate new binding motifs for activators NF-Y or KLF1, but GATA1 recruitment remains essential. Our findings define distinct mechanisms through which transcription factors and their cis-regulatory elements activate γ-globin expression in different forms of HPFH, some of which are being recreated by therapeutic genome editing.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/genética , gama-Globinas/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células COS , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Eritroides , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(15): 8732-8742, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365511

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9 generates double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) to activate cellular DNA repair pathways for genome editing. The repair of DSBs leads to small insertions or deletions (indels) and other complex byproducts, including large deletions and chromosomal translocations. Indels are well understood to disrupt target genes, while the other deleterious byproducts remain elusive. We developed a new in silico analysis pipeline for the previously described primer-extension-mediated sequencing assay to comprehensively characterize CRISPR-Cas9-induced DSB repair outcomes in human or mouse cells. We identified tremendous deleterious DSB repair byproducts of CRISPR-Cas9 editing, including large deletions, vector integrations, and chromosomal translocations. We further elucidated the important roles of microhomology, chromosomal interaction, recurrent DSBs, and DSB repair pathways in the generation of these byproducts. Our findings provide an extra dimension for genome editing safety besides off-targets. And caution should be exercised to avoid not only off-target damages but also deleterious DSB repair byproducts during genome editing.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Reparo do DNA , Edição de Genes , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Camundongos , Plasmídeos/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Translocação Genética
17.
Anal Chem ; 93(34): 11816-11825, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461727

RESUMO

The abnormal expression of microRNA (miRNA) can affect the RNA transcription and protein translation, leading to tumor progression and metastasis. Currently, the accurate detection of aberrant expression of miRNA, particularly using a portable detection system, remains a great challenge. Herein, a novel dual-mode biosensor with high sensitivity and robustness for miR-21 detection was developed based on the cis-cleavage and trans-cleavage activities of Cas12a. miRNA can be combined with hairpin DNA-horseradish peroxidase anchored on a CdS/g-C3N4/B-TiO2 photoelectrode, thus the nonenzymatic amplification was triggered to form numerous HRP-modified double-stranded DNA (HRP-dsDNA). Then, HRP-dsDNA can be specifically recognized and efficiently cis-cleaved by Cas12a nucleases to detach HRP from the substrate, while the remaining HRP on HRP-dsDNA can catalyze 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) to form biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) on the surface of the photoelectrode, and thus the photocurrent can be changed. Meanwhile, the trans-cleavage ability of Cas12a was activated, and nonspecifically degrade the FQ-reporter and a significant fluorescence signal can be generated. Such two different kinds of signals with independent transmission paths can mutually support to improve the performance of the detection platform. Besides, a portable device was constructed for the point-of-care (POC) detection of miR-21. Moreover, the dual-mode detection platform can be easily expanded for the specific detection of other types of biomarkers by changing the sequence of hairpin DNA, thereby promoting the establishment of POC detection for early cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , MicroRNAs , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , MicroRNAs/genética
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10321-10328, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436881

RESUMO

The halal food market is globally growing along with the increased risk of adulteration. We proposed an amplification-free and mix-to-read CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid analytical strategy allowing rapid identification and analysis of pork components, thus enriching the toolbox for ensuring halal food authenticity. We designed and optimized guide RNA (gRNA) targeting the pork cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. gRNA allowed specific identification of the target Cyt b gene from pork components followed by activation of Cas12 protein to abundantly cleave single-stranded DNA probes with terminally labeled fluorophore and quencher groups, thus turning on fluorescence. The presence of the pork Cyt b gene thus can be mix-and-read- and only-one-step-detected, which may indicate the risk of halal food adulteration. The method allowed specific discrimination of pork meat from beef, mutton, and chicken and yielded a detection limit of 2.7 ng/µL of total DNA from pork meat. The reliability of the method was tested using the following processed meat products: halal foods beef luncheon meat and spiced beef and non-halal foods sausage and dried pork slices. The CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid test strategy is promising for rapid food authentication.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104937, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446204

RESUMO

For a devastating agricultural pest, functional genomics promotes the finding of novel technology to control Spodoptera frugiperda, such as the genetics-based strategies. In the present study, 11 yellow genes were identified in Spodoptera frugiperda. The transcriptome analysis showed the tissue-specific expression of part yellow genes, which suggested the importance of yellow genes in some biological processes in S. frugiperda, such as pigmentation. Among these yellow genes, the expression profiles of yellow-y gene showed that it was expressed in all life stages. In order to realize the further study of yellow-y, we employed CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock out this gene. Following knock out, diverse phenotypes were observed, such as color changes in both larvae and adults. Different from the wild-type larvae and adults, G0 mutants were yellowed since hatching. However, no color difference was observed with the pupal cuticle between the wild-type and mutant pupae before the 8th day. On the basis of the single-pair strategy of G0 generation, the yellow-y gene was proved to be a recessive gene. The G1 yellowish larvae with biallelic mutations displayed a relatively longer development period than wild-type, and often generated abnormal pupae and moths. The deletion of yellow-y also resulted in a decline in the fecundity. The results revealed that yellow-y gene was important for S. frugiperda pigmentation, as well as in its development and reproduction. Besides, the present study set up a standard procedure to knock out genes in S. frugiperda, which could be helpful for our understanding some key molecular processes, such as functional roles of detoxification genes as insecticide resistance mechanisms or modes of action of insecticides to facilitate the management of this insect pest.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Mariposas , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/genética , Spodoptera/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445221

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a prevalent functional psychosis characterized by clinical behavioural symptoms and underlying abnormalities in brain function. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have revealed many loci that do not directly identify processes disturbed in the disease. For this reason, the development of cellular models containing SZ-associated variations has become a focus in the post-GWAS research era. The application of revolutionary clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing tools, along with recently developed technologies for cultivating brain organoids in vitro, have opened new perspectives for the construction of these models. In general, cellular models are intended to unravel particular biological phenomena. They can provide the missing link between schizophrenia-related phenotypic features (such as transcriptional dysregulation, oxidative stress and synaptic dysregulation) and data from pathomorphological, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. The objectives of this review are the systematization and classification of cellular models of schizophrenia, based on their complexity and validity for understanding schizophrenia-related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Neurológicos , Esquizofrenia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo
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