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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22862, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126330

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the levels of self-perceived burden (SPB) and self-management behavior in elderly stroke survivors during the first 3 months after acute stroke, and to explore the correlation between them.A total of 203 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients diagnosed with stroke were recruited. Self-perceived Burden Scale and Stroke Self-management Scale in 1 month (T1) and 3 months (T2) post-stroke were assessed and compared.The score of SPB in elderly stroke survivors was 28.96 ±â€Š5.50 and 27.25 ±â€Š6.17 at T1 and T2, respectively. Stroke self-management scale scored 165.93 ±â€Š9.82 at T1 and 167.29 ±â€Š10.60 at T2. In the first 3 months post-stroke, the physical burden was dominant (T1 14.73 ±â€Š3.07, T2 14.40 ±â€Š3.13), and the behavior of stroke symptoms and signs monitoring (T1 27.58 ±â€Š6.56, T2 28.64 ±â€Š6.43) and rehabilitation exercise management (T1 21.40 ±â€Š3.28, T2 20.74 ±â€Š3.15) was the worst. SPB was negatively correlated with self-management behavior (T1 r = -.202, T2 r = -.511).Elderly stroke survivors experienced a medium level of SPB and self-management behavior in the first 3 months post-stroke. There is a positive relationship between reduced SPB and improved self-management behavior. Addressing the characteristics and correlations as well as development of targeted interventions for SPB decreasing is beneficial to improving self-management behavior for elderly survivors.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Autoimagem , Autogestão/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer can generate many challenges which impact on adjustment, so understanding the psychosocial factors which contribute to individual vulnerability to poor adaptation warrants further investigation. This study investigates stress and masculine identity threat as predictors of quality of life and emotional adjustment in men with localized prostate cancer and the role of resilience as a potential protective psychological factor. METHODS: Participants were invited to complete a survey study via online prostate cancer forums. Participants were 204 men ranging in age from 44-88 years (M = 65.24±7.51) and who were diagnosed with early localized prostate cancer within the previous five years. Measures used included the Perceived Stress Scale, Cancer-Related Masculine Threat Scale and the Conor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Using a cross-sectional online survey design, the extent to which perceived stress, masculine threat and psychological resilience are associated with quality of life, positive and negative affect and distress was assessed. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that perceived stress accounted for 26%-44% of variance on quality of life and adjustment indices, with high stress associated with low mood and poor quality of life. Low masculine threat and high resilience predicted better quality of life and emotional adjustment accounting for between 1-7% of the variance. Resilience moderated the relationship between stress and distress and mediated the association between masculine threat and distress and negative affect. CONCLUSION: Perceived stress was the most powerful predictor in the model and findings suggest it contributes significantly to functional and affective status in survivors of prostate cancer. Psychological resilience is a protective factor which buffers the negative effect of stress and masculine identity threat on emotional adjustment. Findings indicate that men should be screened as part of the diagnostic and treatment process for high perceived stress and low resilience to identify those at risk for poor adjustment during survivorship.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Proteção , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934150

RESUMO

The following is the winning submission from the Fourth Annual Section on Pediatric Trainees Essay Competition. This year's competition was informed by the 2019-2020 Section on Pediatric Trainees Advocacy Campaign: Protect Kids - Trainees for Firearm Safety. We asked writers to share their experiences as pediatric trainee advocates for gun violence prevention and were impressed by the breadth of entries we received from around the country. The winning essay by Dr Kamaal Jones was focused on amplifying the voice of gun violence survivors. Dr Jones eloquently implores us to offer gun violence survivors "A Seat at the Table," so that our policies may be shaped by survivors' lived experiences and calls for change. This inspiring piece reminds us that listening to the community is a critical first step in our advocacy efforts and that doing so can empower us to make the greatest impact. Names and minor identifying details have been altered to protect the privacy of group members.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo , Pediatras , Papel do Médico , Apoio Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Humanos
7.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7-8): 1498-1514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847484

RESUMO

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 infection and its oft-associated illness COVID-19 may lead to neuropsychological deficits, either through direct mechanisms (i.e., neurovirulance) or indirect mechanisms, most notably complications caused by the virus (e.g., stroke) or medical procedures (e.g., intubation). The history of past human coronavirus outbreaks resulting in similar health emergencies suggests there will be a substantial prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among COVID-19 survivors. To prepare neuropsychologists for the difficult task of differentiating PTSD-related from neuropathology-related deficits in the oncoming wave of COVID-19 survivors, we integrate research across a spectrum of related areas.Methods: Several areas of literature were reviewed: psychiatric, neurologic, and neuropathological outcomes of SARS and MERS patients; neurological outcomes in COVID-19 survivors; PTSD associated with procedures common to COVID-19 patients; and differentiating neuropsychological deficits due to PTSD from those due to acquired brain injuries in other patient groups.Conclusions: Heightened risk of PTSD occurred in MERS and SARS survivors. While data concerning COVID-19 is lacking, PTSD is known to occur in patient groups who undergo similar hospital courses, including ICU survivors, patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated, and those that experience delirium. Research with patients who develop PTSD in the context of mild traumatic brain injury further suggests that PTSD may account for some or all of a patient's subjective cognitive complaints and neuropsychological test performance. Recommendations are provided for assessing PTSD in the context of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839245

RESUMO

Children and adolescents should be included in exercises and drills to the extent that their involvement advances readiness to meet their unique needs in the event of a crisis and/or furthers their own preparedness or resiliency. However, there is also a need to be cautious about the potential psychological risks and other unintended consequences of directly involving children in live exercises and drills. These risks and consequences are especially a concern when children are deceived and led to believe there is an actual attack and not a drill and/or for high-intensity active shooter drills. High-intensity active shooter drills may involve the use of real weapons, gunfire or blanks, theatrical makeup to give a realistic image of blood or gunshot wounds, predatory and aggressive acting by the individual posing to be the shooter, or other means to simulate an actual attack, even when participants are aware that it is a drill. This policy statement outlines some of the considerations regarding the prevalent practice of live active shooter drills in schools, including the recommendations to eliminate children's involvement in high-intensity drills and exercises (with the possible exception of adolescent volunteers), prohibit deception in drills and exercises, and ensure appropriate accommodations during drills and exercises based on children's unique vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Decepção , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Abrigo de Emergência , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pediatria , Treinamento por Simulação , Sociedades Médicas , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(10): 1030-1039, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychological distress and the associated predictor factors of the 2019 corona-virus disease (COVID-19) on survivors in the early convalescence in Shenzhen. METHOD: A survey questionnaire consisting of post-traumatic stress disorder self-rating scale (PTSD-SS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) was presented to COVID-19 survivors still in quarantine. Scores of each scale and subscale were dependent variables in the Mann-Whitney test and stepwise regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 126 subjects were included in the study, the mean scores of PTSD-SS, SDS, and SAS were 45.5 ± 18.9, 47.3 ± 13.1, and 43.2 ± 10.2, respectively, meanwhile, 9 (31.0%), 28 (22.2%), and 48 (38.1%) of the survivors met the cut-score for clinical significant symptoms of stress response, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Infected family members, and postinfection physical discomforts were significantly associated with scores on all three scales. Social support, retirement, and being female had significant associations with the PTSD-SS score. The survivors aged 60 or above experienced less severe stress response symptoms, fewer emotional symptoms of depression, and fewer anxiety symptoms than younger survivors. CONCLUSION: The occurrence rate of psychological distress among the COVID-19 survivors in early convalescence was high, highlighting the need for all COVID-19 survivors to be screened for psychological distress regularly for timely intervention. The predictors indicated by the current study may help to identify those at high-risk. Besides, the results indicated the older survivors suffered less emotional reactivity and fewer stress response symptoms from infectious diseases than the younger ones.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Proteção , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678797

RESUMO

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Apoio Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1051, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against children is a pervasive public health issue, with limited data available across multiple contexts. This study explores the rarely studied prevalence and dynamics around disclosure, reporting and help-seeking behaviours of children who ever experienced physical and/or sexual violence. METHODS: Using nationally-representative Violence Against Children Surveys in six countries: Cambodia, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria and Tanzania, we present descriptive statistics for prevalence of four outcomes among children aged 13-17 years: informal disclosure, knowledge of where to seek formal help, formal disclosure/help seeking and receipt of formal help. We ran country-specific multivariate logistic regressions predicting outcomes on factors at the individual, household and community levels. RESULTS: The prevalence of help-seeking behaviours ranged from 23 to 54% for informal disclosure, 16 to 28% for knowledge of where to seek formal help, under 1 to 25% for formal disclosure or help seeking, and 1 to 11% for receipt of formal help. Factors consistently correlated with promoting help-seeking behaviours included household number of adult females and absence of biological father, while those correlated with reduced help-seeking behaviours included being male and living in a female-headed household. Primary reasons for not seeking help varied by country, including self-blame, apathy and not needing or wanting services. CONCLUSIONS: Across countries examined, help-seeking and receipt of formal services is low for children experiencing physical and/or sexual violence, with few consistent factors identified which facilitated help-seeking. Further understanding of help seeking, alongside improved data quality and availability will aid prevention responses, including the ability to assist child survivors in a timely manner.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Malaui , Masculino , Prevalência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Violência/prevenção & controle
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 239, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burden of stroke is rising due to the demographic and epidemiological transitions in Sri Lanka. Assessment of success of stroke-management requires tools to assess the quality of life (QOL) of stroke survivors. Most of currently used QOL tools are developed in high-income countries and may not reflect characteristics relevant to resource-constrained countries. The aim was to develop and validate a new QOL tool for stroke survivors in Sri Lanka. METHODS: The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was referred. A conceptual framework was prepared. Item generation was done reviewing the existing QOL tools, inputs from experts and from stroke survivors. Non-statistical item reduction was done for the 36 generated items with modified-Delphi technique. Retained 21 items were included in the draft tool. A cross sectional study was done with 180 stroke survivors. Exploratory Factor Analysis was done and identified factors were subjected to varimax rotation. Further construct validity was tested with 6 a-priori hypothesis using already validated tools (SF-36, EQ-5D-3 L) and a formed construct. Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach alpha. RESULTS: Four factors identified with principal-component-analysis explained 72.02% of the total variance. All 21 items loaded with a level > 0.4. The developed tool was named as the Post-stroke QOL Index (PQOLI). Four domains were named as "physical and social function", "environment", "financial-independence" and "pain and emotional-wellbeing". Four domain scores of PQOLI correlated as expected with the SF-36, EQ-5D Index and EQ-5D-VAS scores. Higher domain scores were obtained for ambulatory-group than the hospitalized-group. Higher scores for financial-independence domain were obtained for the group without financial-instability. Five a-priori hypothesis were completely proven to be true. Cronbach-alpha level ranged from 0.682 to 0.906 for the four domains. CONCLUSIONS: There is first evidence for sufficient construct validity of the PQOLI as a valid QOL tool for measuring the QOL of stroke survivors with satisfactory internal consistency reliability.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sri Lanka , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104875, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Facilitating stroke survivors and their caregivers to lead a fulfilling life after stroke requires service providers to think about their different needs. Poor post stroke care may lead to unmet needs in stroke survivors and stroke caregivers. This may compromise them in leading their lives optimally after stroke. OBJECTIVES & METHODOLOGY: This systematic narrative review examines articles published from 1990 to 2017, generated from Ovid, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed. The search was also supplemented by an examination of reference lists for related articles via Scopus. We included 105 articles. FINDINGS: We found that the type of unmet needs in stroke survivors and the contributing factors were substantially different from their caregivers. The unmet needs in stroke survivors ranged from health-related needs to re-integration into the community; while the unmet needs in stroke caregivers ranged from information needs to support in caring for the stroke survivors and caring for themselves. Additionally, the unmet needs in both groups were associated with different factors. CONCLUSION: More research is required to understand the unmet needs of stroke survivors and stroke caregivers to improve the overall post-stroke care services.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Assistência de Longa Duração , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Autocuidado , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 229, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in inpatients injured in the Ludian earthquake and examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following the earthquake. METHODS: Three assessments were performed during an 18-month follow-up period. In total, one-hundred forty-seven inpatients of one-hundred seventy-four inpatients (85% of the initial sample) underwent all the assessments. Injured inpatients admitted to the No. 1 People's Hospital of Zhaotong City after a severe earthquake (6.5 on the Richter scale) were enrolled in the study and assessed using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Scale. RESULTS: At the first, third and eighteenth months after the earthquake, the prevalence rates for PTSD were 23, 14, and 7%, respectively. In a regression model, bereavement, history of major diseases, and severe injury in the earthquake were associated with severe PTSD symptoms. HRQoL was negatively correlated with PTSD symptoms. Compared to that of Chinese norms, participants' HRQoL was significantly lower in all eight HRQoL domains of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Scale. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that a substantial proportion of inpatients injured in the earthquake experienced severe PTSD symptoms and poor HRQoL. Therefore, early preventive programs and interventions should be implemented following disasters, to reduce PTSD and improve HRQoL in injured individuals.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Terremotos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 861, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant long-term reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is often observed in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and return to work (RtW) is limited. There is a paucity of data regarding the relationship between the quality of care (QoC) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and both HRQoL and RtW in ARDS survivors. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate associations between indicators of QoC and HRQoL and RtW in a cohort of survivors of ARDS. METHODS: To determine the influence of QoC on HRQoL and RtW 1 year after ICU-discharge, ARDS patients were recruited into a prospective multi-centre patient cohort study and followed up regularly after discharge. Patients were asked to complete self-report questionnaires on HRQoL (Short Form 12 physical component scale (PCS) and mental component scale (MCS)) and RtW. Indicators of QoC pertaining to volume, structural and process quality, and general characteristics were recorded on ICU level. Associations between QoC indicators and HrQoL and RtW were investigated by multivariable linear and Cox regression modelling, respectively. B values and hazard ratios (HRs) are reported with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: 877 (of initially 1225 enrolled) people with ARDS formed the DACAPO survivor cohort, 396 were finally followed up to 1 year after discharge. The twelve-month survivors were characterized by a reduced HRQoL with a greater impairment in the physical component (Md 41.2 IQR [34-52]) compared to the mental component (Md 47.3 IQR [33-57]). Overall, 50% of the patients returned to work. The proportion of ventilated ICU patients showed significant negative associations with both 12 months PCS (B = - 11.22, CI -20.71; - 1,74) and RtW (HR = 0,18, CI 0,04;0,80). All other QoC indicators were not significantly related to outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between ICU QoC and long-term HrQoL and RtW were weak and largely non-significant. Residual confounding by case mix, treatment variables before or during ICU stay and variables pertaining to the post intensive care period (e.g. rehabilitation) cannot be ruled out. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.govNCT02637011. (December 22, 2015, retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/reabilitação , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 502-504, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538659

RESUMO

Holocaust survivors in Israel and abroad appear to be especially vulnerable to COVID-19 because of their early life history, advanced age, and associated health conditions. And although some survivors may experience retraumatization because of the pandemic, others appear to be especially resilient. We encourage a strength-based approach when working with survivors to foster resilience and effective coping in this uncertain time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Holocausto , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Resiliência Psicológica , Isolamento Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Humanos , Israel
17.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S100-S104, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584106

RESUMO

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed many individuals in need of critical care, with a high proportion of hospitalized patients being admitted to intensive care units (ICU) to treat acute outcomes of COVID-19 (e.g., respiratory failure via mechanical ventilation). The ICU is known to be a setting where individuals are at a high risk of experiencing significant psychological difficulties, and patients with COVID-19 are particularly susceptible to such experiences, which can impact their recovery process (e.g., postintensive care syndrome). This article seeks to highlight the intersection between critical care related to trauma and COVID-19 and point providers toward opportunities for anticipating and managing secondary effects in effort to promote psychological adaptation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica/reabilitação , Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Trauma Psicológico/reabilitação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/reabilitação
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Tokyo subway sarin attack in 1995 was an unprecedented act of terrorism that killed 13 people and sickened more than 6,000. The long-term somatic and psychological effects on its victims remain unknown. METHODS: We conducted analyses on the self-rating questionnaire collected annually by the Recovery Support Center (RSC) during the period from 2000 to 2009. The RSC is the only organization that has large-scale follow-up data about sarin attack victims. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms was calculated over 10 years. We also evaluated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress response (PTSR), defined as a score ≥ 25 on the Japanese-language version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The multivariate Poisson regression model was applied to estimate the risk ratios of age, gender, and year factor on the prevalence of PTSR. RESULTS: Subjects were 747 survivors (12% of the total) who responded to the annual questionnaire once or more during the study period. The prevalence of somatic symptoms, especially eye symptoms, was 60-80% and has not decreased. PTSR prevalence was 35.1%, and again there was no change with time. The multivariate Poisson regression model results revealed "old age" and "female" as independent risk factors, but the passage of time did not decrease the risk of PTSR. CONCLUSIONS: Although symptoms in most victims of the Tokyo subway sarin were transient, this large-scale follow-up data analysis revealed that survivors have been suffering from somatic and psychological long-term effects.


Assuntos
Terrorismo Químico , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Miose/epidemiologia , Sarina/envenenamento , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miose/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Ferrovias , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502207

RESUMO

Although survivors of sexual violence have shared their stories with the public on social media and mass media platforms in growing numbers, less is known about how general audiences perceive such trauma stories. These perceptions can have profound consequences for survivor mental health. In the present experimental, vignette-based studies, we anticipated that cultural stigma surrounding sexual violence and cultural preference for positive (redemptive) endings to adversity in the United States (U.S.) would shape perceptions. Four samples of U.S. adults (N = 1872) rated first-person narratives of 6 more stigmatizing (i.e., sexual violence) or less stigmatizing (e.g., natural disaster) traumatic events. Confirming pre-registered hypotheses, sexual violence trauma (versus other types of trauma) stories were perceived as more difficult to tell, and their storytellers less likeable, even when they had redemptive endings. Disconfirming other pre-registered hypotheses, redemptive (versus negative) story endings did not boost the perceived likelihood or obligation to share a sexual violence trauma story. Rather, redemptive (versus negative) story endings only boosted the perceived likelihood, obligation, and ease of telling other, less stigmatizing types of trauma stories. Findings suggest that sexual violence survivors do not benefit, to the same degree as other survivors, from telling their stories with the culturally valued narrative template of redemption. Clinical and societal implications of the less receptive climate for sexual violence stories are discussed.


Assuntos
Cultura , Narração , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
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