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Glob Health Res Policy ; 8(1): 1, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650592


Over the years, civil society organizations (CSOs) have made tremendous efforts to ensure that state policies, programmes, and actions facilitate equitable access to healthcare. While CSOs are key actors in the realization of the right to health, a systematic understanding of how CSOs achieve policy change is lacking. Implementation science, a discipline focused on the methods and strategies facilitating the uptake of evidence-based practice and research can bring relevant, untapped methodologies to understand how CSOs drive health reforms. This article argues for the use of evidence-based strategies to enhance civil society action. We hold that implementation science can offer an actionable frame to aid CSOs in deciphering the mechanisms and conditions in which to pursue rights-based actions most effectively. More empirical studies are needed to generate evidence and CSOs have already indicated the need for more data-driven solutions to empower activists to hold policymakers to account. Although implementation science may not resolve all the challenges CSOs face, its frameworks and approaches can provide an innovative way for organizations to chart out a course for reform.

Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Ciência da Implementação , Organizações , Sociedades , Atenção à Saúde
Br Dent J ; 234(1): 18, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639467
Health Phys ; 124(1): 73, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480590
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278547, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454993


Studies focused on jumping performance in humans have so far investigated either its biological or sociocultural significance, with very little attentions paid to the inseparable relations of these two aspects in daily life of people. Integrating both ethnographic and biomechanical methods, this research investigated the biosocial features of the jump performance of Maasai youth in its most well observed context, the wedding ceremony. Ethnographic data were used to explain the social status of participants, the physical movements and singing tempo of performers, and their interactions. Biomechanical methods were applied to assess the heights and frequencies of identified repetitive double-legged vertical jumps (n = 160, from 15 male youths). All youth performers followed a certain posture pattern, paying specific attention to their final landing. Large variations exist in their jumping heights [coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.237]; however, the frequency in jump repetitions were maintained with the least variations (CV = 0.084). Cheering interactions were confirmed, but with no significant difference in height between the cheered and non-cheered groups. These results indicate that the Maasai youths did not compete for jump height during local ceremonies. Rather, they emphasized the rhythmical retention of jumps, corresponding to other youth mates who were singing alongside. In the broader context of human behaviors, the analysis addresses the diverse meanings of motor performances in different daily contexts that reject the generalized sports regime of "higher/faster-the-better".

Estatura , Sociedades , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Salários e Benefícios , Antropologia Cultural , Correlação de Dados
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279545, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574418


The social organization of groups varies greatly across primate species, ranging from egalitarian to despotic. Moreover, the typical or average size of groups varies greatly across primate species. Yet we know little about how group size affects social organization across primate species. Here we used the hawk-dove game (HDG) to model the evolution of social organization as a function of maximum group size and used the evolved frequency of hawks as a measure of egalitarian/despotism in societies. That is, the lower the frequency of hawks, the more egalitarian a society is, and the higher the frequency of hawks, the more despotic it is. To do this, we built an agent-based model in which agents live in groups and play the HDG with fellow group members to obtain resources to reproduce offspring. Offspring inherit the strategy of their parent (hawk or dove) with a low mutation rate. When groups reach a specified maximum size, they are randomly divided into two groups. We show that the evolved frequency of hawks is dramatically lower for relatively small maximum group sizes than predicted analytically for the HDG. We discuss the relevance of group size for understanding and modeling primate social systems, including the transition from hunter-gather societies to agricultural societies of the Neolithic era. We conclude that group size should be included in our theoretical understanding of the organization of primate social systems.

Sociedades , Animais , Taxa de Mutação , Teoria do Jogo
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361123


The focus on mental health outcomes in sport, including the ways in which mental health can be protected and promoted, has become a major international priority for all sports, including the recreational sports system. The aim of this paper is to outline a systems theory of mental health care and promotion that is specific to needs of the recreational sport system so that context-specific, effective policies, interventions, and models of care can be articulated and tested. Based on general systems theory, we offer a preliminary theory and accompanying postulates that outline the general principles that explain mental health in recreational sports. Namely: one of the purposes of the recreational sport system is to protect and promote the mental health of all involved; the recreational sport system is comprised of components (individuals, groups, organisations, communities, society); the role and function of those components vary by context; the purpose of the system is achieved through coordinated and reciprocal relationships between its components; and, the system should be regulated from within to ensure that mental health is protected and promoted. We have also outlined the ways in which the subcomponents of the system interact, their potential influence on mental health in recreational sports, and the ways in which they may be regulated. This information provides a theoretical foundation upon which research, programming, and policy can be based to protect and promote the mental health of all involved in recreational sports.

Saúde Mental , Esportes , Humanos , Teoria de Sistemas , Esportes/psicologia , Sociedades
Schmerz ; 36(6): 458-460, 2022 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400859

Dor , Sociedades , Humanos
Schmerz ; 36(6): 462, 2022 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400861

Dor , Sociedades , Humanos , Áustria
Vet Rec ; 191 Suppl 1: 1-2, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330608


A decade after publishing their first feline-friendly handling guidelines, International Cat Care and the International Society of Feline Medicine are poised to launch new guidance to help every veterinary professional to 'think cat'.

Bem-Estar do Animal , Doenças do Gato , Gatos , Animais , Sociedades , Editoração , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle