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1.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101058, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462933

RESUMO

This article explores the interactions between social constructions and cultural representations of rural ageing masculinities in Ireland. Constructions of Irish masculinities have historically been linked to rural, farming identities emphasising physicality, self-reliance, patrilineal inheritance and traditional (Catholic) family values. Central to such constructions in many classic works of Irish literature, drama and film has been the powerful role of the father and the imperative of the land. While there is a burgeoning literature on masculinities in Irish literary, cultural and sociological studies, there are however few studies on the intersection of age and masculinities, or across disciplines. This article seeks to address this critical gap in relation to rural masculinities through close readings of significant texts from Irish literature and film, as well as through focus group discussions of men aged 65+ living in Ireland about their views on such images. Taking an intersectional and interdisciplinary approach, it thus offers an overview of cultural constructions of ageing rural masculinities and explores how such representations inform models of ageing in contemporary Ireland.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Masculinidade , Masculino , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Sociologia , Grupos Focais
2.
Theor Biol Forum ; 115(1-2): 13-28, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325929

RESUMO

We may induce from a longue durée examination of Anglo-American History of Biology that the impulse to reject reduc - tionism persists and will continue to percolate cyclically. This impulse I deem "bioexceptionalism": an intuition, stance, attitude, or activating metaphor that the study of living beings requires explanations in addition to exclusively bottom-up causal explanations and the research programs constructed upon that bottom-up philosophical foundation by non-organismal biologists, biochemists, and biophysicists - the explanations, in other words, that Wadding - ton (1977) humorously termed the "Conventional Wisdom of the Dominant Group, or cowdung." Bioexceptionalism might indicate an ontological assertion, like vitalism. Yet most often in the last century, it has been defined by a variety of methodological or even sociological positions. On three occasions in the interval from the late nineteenth century to the present, a small but significant group of practicing biologists and allies in other research disciplines in the UK and US adopted a species of bioexceptionalism, rejecting the dominant explanatory philosophy of reductionistic mechanism. Yet they also rejected the vitalist alternative. We can refer to their subset of bioexceptionalism as a "Third-Way" approach, though participants at the time called it by a variety of names, including "organicism." Today's appeals to a Third-Way are but the latest eruption of this older dissensus and retain at least heuristic value apart from any explanatory success.


Assuntos
Biologia , Vitalismo , Humanos , Biologia/história , Vitalismo/história , Filosofia/história , Sociologia , Metáfora
4.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102784, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334929

RESUMO

The emergence of big data and computational tools has introduced new possibilities for using large-scale textual sources in sociological research. Recent work in sociology of culture, science, and economic sociology has shown how computational text analysis can be used in theory building and testing. This review starts with an introduction of the history of computer-assisted text analysis in sociology and then proceeds to discuss five families of computational methods used in contemporary research. Using exemplary studies, it shows how dictionary methods, semantic and network analysis tools, language models, unsupervised, and supervised machine learning can assist sociologists with different analytical tasks. After presenting recent methodological developments, this review summarizes several important implications of using large datasets and computational methods to infer complex meaning in texts. Finally, it calls researchers from different methodological traditions to adopt text mining tools while remaining mindful of lessons learned from working with conventional data and methods.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Idioma , Humanos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Ciências Sociais , Sociologia
5.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 38(10): 816-820, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219083

RESUMO

The sociology of transidentities allows us to shift the medical gaze on trans people and identities. Beyond the psychiatric or surgical issues, we are able to analyze the shift in representations and social consideration about transidentities in France, through a social history of transgender health, a sociology of transphobic experiences or the transformations of trans claims. Beyond its historical perspective, this article is based on recent work on the sociology of transidentities in France and presents various data from statistical surveys.


Title: Sociologie des transidentités. Abstract: La sociologie des transidentités permet de déplacer le regard médical sur les parcours et les identités trans. Au-delà des enjeux psychiatriques ou chirurgicaux, il s'agira d'analyser le glissement des représentations et des prises en compte sociales des transidentités en France, à travers une histoire sociale de la santé transgenre, une sociologie des expériences discriminatoires transphobes ou bien encore les transformations majeures des revendications trans actuellement en cours.


Assuntos
Sociologia , França , Humanos , Sociologia/história
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 443-450, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073424

RESUMO

The Italian museum system made significant progress in terms of accessibility. Despite the considerable increase in the number of people with functional limitations who visit museums, the percentage of those who do not visit museums is still very high, whatever the presence of limitations. Based on this empirical evidence, a new approach to the problem of accessibility becomes necessary. The paper argues in favor of a performative conception of accessibility. More specifically, it will be shown how the approach of relational sociology and the philosophy of gesture allow for elaborating a broader notion of accessibility than the prescriptive one that currently inspires most interventions. By redefining accessibility in terms of a social relationship that combines the adaptive dimension with the transmission of meanings, new possibilities emerge to make a museum visit an attractive and engaging experience. This guiding idea started to be implemented through the experimental project Smart Cultural Heritage 4 All realized at the Museo Sannitico of Campobasso (Italy).


Assuntos
Gestos , Filosofia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Museus , Sociologia
8.
Nature ; 608(7921): 37-38, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915246

Assuntos
Economia , Sociologia
9.
F1000Res ; 11: 891, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967974

RESUMO

In this editorial, we identify the key questions requiring further exploration in the sociology of vaccines. In doing so, we discuss the socio-structural forces shaping views towards knowledge about and access to vaccination, trust in vaccines and regulators/decision makers, the associated problem of financial interests in vaccine development and regulation, and global vaccine inequalities. Across the breadth of these issues, we additionally identify a range of theoretical perspectives and conceptual directions that sociologists might utilise when producing innovative empirical, methodological and theoretical research on vaccination relating to risk and uncertainty, conflicts of interest, power and inequality.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Sociologia , Vacinação
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2204967119, 2022 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914142

RESUMO

Networks are fundamental for our understanding of complex systems. The study of networks has uncovered common principles that underlie the behavior of vastly different fields of study, including physics, biology, sociology, and engineering. One of these common principles is the existence of network motifs-small recurrent patterns that can provide certain features that are important for the specific network. However, it remains unclear how network motifs are joined in real networks to make larger circuits and what properties emerge from interactions between network motifs. Here, we develop a framework to explore the mesoscale-level behavior of complex networks. Considering network motifs as hypernodes, we define the rules for their interaction at the network's next level of organization. We develop a method to infer the favorable arrangements of interactions between network motifs into hypermotifs from real evolved and designed network data. We mathematically explore the emergent properties of these higher-order circuits and their relations to the properties of the individual minimal circuit components they combine. We apply this framework to biological, neuronal, social, linguistic, and electronic networks and find that network motifs are not randomly distributed in real networks but are combined in a way that both maintains autonomy and generates emergent properties. This framework provides a basis for exploring the mesoscale structure and behavior of complex systems where it can be used to reveal intermediate patterns in complex networks and to identify specific nodes and links in the network that are the key drivers of the network's emergent properties.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Biologia , Engenharia , Retroalimentação , Linguística , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Física , Sociologia , Biologia de Sistemas
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e99, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796373

RESUMO

Folk-sociology is a set of intuitive assumptions that organize our spontaneous theories about society, including the notion that social groups are agent-like. Pietraszewski's model may explain this folk-sociological assumption in an elegant way. However, large-scale group dynamics include features that seem to escape agent-like descriptions. Therefore, one may want to find out whether the "event-grammar" proposed here can account for these features.


Assuntos
Sociologia , Humanos
12.
JAMA ; 328(4): 401, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881134
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3711900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832209

RESUMO

The evolution of media technology has not only changed readers' reading ways and reading habits but also tried to reshape their social behaviour. From the perspective of sociology of sustainable knowledge, this essay explores the impacts of technological change on reading through the framework of activity theory. It is found that digital reading is of increasing characteristics of "front stage" performance and reading anxiety in society, and sustainable knowledge anxiety began to spread. The research shows that the existing digital reading mode is actually the consumption of media, which is not conducive to the transmission and production of sustainable knowledge. Also, with the further development of technology, reading will open up a new chapter. The wisdom of human symbiosis will be infinitely stored and strive toward the era of global brain, which will help to better inherit sustainable knowledge and activate the vitality of sustainable knowledge production.


Assuntos
Leitura , Sociologia , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648160

RESUMO

In the context of health promotion in terms of the Ottawa Charter, a series of tasks and functions are attributed to schools, including the reduction of health and social inequalities. However, important theoretical considerations and empirical findings from the sociology of education, which analyzes school as a hierarchizing, segregating, inequality-producing, and reproducing institution, hardly find place in the public health debate on school health promotion. In this discussion article, some positions on schools from the sociology of education and the normative framework for health promotion in schools are presented. Furthermore, the contradictions between the goals of health promotion and the current conditions in schools, are discussed. In conclusion, some conceptual considerations are introduced from a perspective that rethinks education from the health promotion point of view and connects with inclusion, democracy education, and human rights.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Pública , Alemanha , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sociologia
16.
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 261-264, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680614

RESUMO

The Farm Hall Transcripts appeared to offer a unique opportunity for a study in the history and sociology of science. My request for access to the transcripts was initially denied, but later was allowed thanks to the intervention of British intellectuals. The recorded opinions of the interned German scientists indicate that initially they had attempted to produce a nuclear weapon, but later abandoned it. The record also traces their development of a view of history, by which the relative morality of the German scientists' work could be judged, versus that of the Allies.


Assuntos
Atitude , Sociologia , Fazendas , Princípios Morais
17.
Sociol Health Illn ; 44(8): 1287-1304, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692110

RESUMO

Since the 1990s, the sociology of rationing has developed in explicit opposition to health economic and bioethical approaches to healthcare rationing. This implies a limited engagement with other disciplines and a limited impact on political debates. To bring the sociology of rationing into an interdisciplinary dialogue, it is important to understand the disciplines' analytical differences and similarities. Based on a critical interpretive literature synthesis, this article examines four disciplinary perspectives on healthcare rationing and priority setting: (1) Health economics, which seeks to develop decision models to provide for more rational resource allocation; (2) Bioethics, which seeks to develop normative principles and procedures to facilitate a just allocation of resources; (3) Health policy studies, which focus on issues of legitimacy and implementation of decision models; and lastly (4) Sociology, which analyses the uncertainty of rationing and the resulting value conflicts and negotiations. The article provides an analytical overview and suggestions on how to advance the impact of sociological arguments in future rationing debates: Firstly, we discuss how to develop the concepts and assumptions of the sociology of rationing. Secondly, we identify specific themes relevant for sociological inquiry, including the recurring problem of how to translate administrative priority setting decisions into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Sociologia , Incerteza
18.
Investig. desar ; 30(1): 313-331, ene.-jun. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1385969

RESUMO

RESUMEN Este artículo presenta una reflexión producida tras una serie de intervenciones realizadas en el sector conocido como "El Bronx" en la ciudad de Bogotá, financiadas por el Gobierno nacional y distrital para, por un lado, comprender el papel que algunas dinámicas territoriales tienen para prevenir el crimen y, por otro lado, diseñar e implementar una estrategia en los entornos escolares locales que ayudara a reducir la vulnerabilidad de los jóvenes del sector. Las propuestas de trabajo desarrollan lineamientos de las políticas sociales articulando elementos propios de la geografía humana, la sociología y la psicología alrededor de propuestas como las Zonas de Orientación Escolar. Entre las conclusiones pueden encontrarse indicios sobre la importancia de considerar el efecto que las dinámicas territoriales tienen para la efectividad del diseño e implementación de políticas sociales, así como también la dificultad que representa la definición de indicadores que permitan la comparabilidad con experiencias similares.


ABSTRACT This paper is a reflection produced after a series of interventions carried out at the sector known as "The Bronx", in the city of Bogotá, financed by the national and district governments. The main aim was, on one hand, to understand the role that some dynamics play in order to prevent crime, and, on the other hand, to design and implement a strategy in local schools that will help to reduce the individual vulnerability of young people in the sector. The work proposals develop social policy guidelines articulating elements of human geography, sociology, and psychology, around proposals such as the Zonas de Orientación Escolar (School Guiding Zones, Indications about the importance of considering the effect that territorial dynamics have on the effectiveness of the design and implementation of social policies, as well as the difficulty of defining indicators that allow comparability with similar experiences, can be found among the conclusions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Violência , Crime , Sociologia , Políticas
19.
Soc Stud Sci ; 52(4): 618-634, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635027

RESUMO

This article maps the rise and fall of the idea of a (social) group across medicine in the context of contemporary analyses in psychology and sociology. This history shows the early 20th century emergence and growth of group medicine, group therapy and group comparisons. In recent decades, however, the idea that groups constituted the basic units of society has been replaced with the emergence of populations and systems that offer a more virtual and abstract context for individual relationships. This has implications for explanation itself as the demise of groups has changed the epistemological ground-rules for understanding identity formation and social change.


Assuntos
Mudança Social , Sociologia , História do Século XX , Conhecimento
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115001, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617762

RESUMO

Diet is understood to be one of the most important influences on public health and chronic disease, and is particularly implicated in the so-called 'obesity epidemic'. Yet interventions aiming to improve the population's dietary habits have failed to translate into widespread health improvements. Simultaneously, the knowledge landscape has become increasingly contentious, with fat activism challenging dominant approaches to how obesity is framed and addressed. This paper is based on 24 ethnographic interviews, and explores the work of health practitioners promoting therapeutic carbohydrate restriction ('low-carb' diets) for people with metabolic health conditions. Drawing on Michel Callon's study of technological innovation, I show practitioners engaging in 'on-the-job sociology'-situated sociological work to justify, and forge a space for, innovative dietary intervention. These innovators employ physiological explanations of hormones, satiety (or hunger), and pleasure (or shame), supported with personal experience, to emphasise material connections between particular eating habits and the sustainability of dietary improvement in everyday life. They resist fat activist influence on healthcare practice (that has resulted in practitioners avoiding conversations about diet, fatness and health), as well as the more extensively critiqued practices of health promotion. Deflecting blame/shame from individuals, innovators spotlight the role of the food industry in undermining public understandings of food and physiology, and dietary improvement that is achievable and sustainable. Through on-the-job sociology, innovators forge a space to engage patients in collaborative dietary experimentation and improvement. This study highlights the importance of on-the-job sociology in the contemporary knowledge landscape, providing new insights about public health in the making.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Sociologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
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