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1.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 271-285, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528484

RESUMO

At the center of the COVID-19 pandemic lies a ubiquitous feature of medicine. Medicine is permeated with ignorance. Seizing this moment to assess the current state of medical sociology, this article articulates a sociology of medical ignorance. We join insights from earlier medical sociological scholarship on uncertainty with emerging research in the sociology of ignorance to help make sense of the omnipresent but sometimes invisible dynamics related to the unknowns in medicine. Then we examine two streams of inquiry with a focus on uncertainty and ignorance-(1) research on the interconnections between technology, medical authority, and ignorance and (2) research on lay expertise within the context of ever-present uncertainties. For decades, and to good effect, medical sociologists have asked, "What does medicine know, and what are the consequences of such knowing?" Going forward, we encourage medical sociologists to examine the unknown in medicine and the consequences of not knowing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Movimento contra Vacinação , Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sociologia , Tecnologia , Incerteza , Recusa de Vacinação
2.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 255-270, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528486

RESUMO

From 1940 to 1980, studies of medical education were foundational to sociology, but attention shifted away from medical training in the late 1980s. Recently, there has been a marked return to this once pivotal topic, reflecting new questions and stakes. This article traces this resurgence by reviewing recent substantive research trends and setting the agenda for future research. We summarize four current research foci that reflect and critically map onto earlier projects in this subfield while driving theoretical development elsewhere in the larger discipline: (1) professional socialization, (2) knowledge regimes, (3) stratification within the profession, and (4) sociology of the field of medical education. We then offer six potential future directions where more research is needed: (1) inequalities in medical education, (2) socialization across the life course and new institutional forms of gatekeeping, (3) provider well-being, (4) globalization, (5) medical education as knowledge-based work, and (6) effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Sociologia , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Profissionalismo , Racismo , Sexismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sociologia/história , Sociologia/métodos , Sociologia/tendências
3.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(1): 66-76, 10 set. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292983

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo interdisciplinar foi usar curtas metragens produzidos por estudantes do ensino médio sobre temas da Química para o ensino de Sociologia. Neste sentido, foram produzidos mapas conceituais pelos estudantes, após a discussão dos curtas metragens, sob uma perspectiva sociológica. Nossos resultados mostram que os mapas conceituais podem atuar como instrumentos facilitadores para a aprendizagem, capazes de estimular a pesquisa e promover a autonomia dos estudantes durante o processo de construção do conhecimento.


The aimof this interdisciplinary study was useshort films produced by high school students about chemical themes to Sociology teaching. In this way, conceptual maps were constructedby students after short films discussion under a social perspective. Our results showed that conceptual maps could act as facilitating learning instrument, able to stimulate research and to promote student autonomy during the knowledge construction process.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Ensino , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Sociologia , Estudantes , Química
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(6): e20190827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the scientific productions about the history of graduate studies in Brazilian nursing in the light of Eliot Freidson's Sociology of the Professions. METHODS: an integrative review, carried out in the databases indexed in Virtual Health Library. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations were followed. Thematic content analysis and Eliot Freidson's concepts were adopted. RESULTS: two categories emerged: "Institutionalization of graduate courses in Brazilian nursing", highlighting the historical process of professionalization in nursing through transition from empirical to professional care, subsidized by the monopoly of the construction of one's own knowledge; "The scientific production of graduate nursing in Brazil", showing the strengthening of a new generation of nurse researchers, given the greater scientificity in teaching due to implementation of graduate studies. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the analyzes present the historicity of graduate studies' institutionalization, supporting the understanding of professionalization outlines of Brazilian nursing.


Assuntos
Sociologia , Brasil , Humanos
6.
J Aging Stud ; 57: 100926, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082996

RESUMO

Focusing on cultural narratives about men's midlife crises, this article explores the more subtle forms that medicalization takes by broadening and re-orientating the concept of successful ageing away from strictly political, medical or/and sociological discussions of health and ageing and towards cultural representations of masculinity, optimization and the handling of a personal crisis. Using two examples; the British comedy Swimming with Men (2018) and the novel Doppler (2014) by Erlend Loe the article discusses the entanglement of masculinity, crisis and ageing and in doing so argues that cultural narratives about men's midlife crises do more than merely comment on already existing understandings of ageing and should in fact be understood as important components in the ongoing medicalization of middle-aged masculinities.


Assuntos
Homens , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Sociologia
7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(2): e20200656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to understand access in a day in the life Primary Health Care as a fundamental right to health, from users' perspective. METHODS: a holistic-qualitative multiple case study based on Comprehensive Sociology of Everyday Life. 77 Unified Health System (SUS) users participated in the study. RESULTS: according to users' voice, the right to health is still a matter of struggle, in more than 30 years of SUS. SUS is considered as the place where they have to appeal. The experiences are diverse, from the ease to the difficulty of access, neglecting users' needs, but despite the inequality in relation to the offer of services, the solution always arrives. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: to overcome this historical obstacle of comprehensive access to health, as a fundamental human right, it is necessary to overcome political and administrative decisions that hinder the construction of legitimate SUS, in a truly democratic participation of all social actors.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sociologia
8.
Nature ; 593(7859): 347-349, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911242
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(13)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723010

RESUMO

Flooding risk results from complex interactions between hydrological hazards (e.g., riverine inundation during periods of heavy rainfall), exposure, vulnerability (e.g., the potential for structural damage or loss of life), and resilience (how well we recover, learn from, and adapt to past floods). Building on recent coupled conceptualizations of these complex interactions, we characterize human-flood interactions (collective memory and risk-enduring attitude) at a more comprehensive scale than has been attempted to date across 50 US metropolitan statistical areas with a sociohydrologic (SH) model calibrated with accessible local data (historical records of annual peak streamflow, flood insurance loss claims, active insurance policy records, and population density). A cluster analysis on calibrated SH model parameter sets for metropolitan areas identified two dominant behaviors: 1) "risk-enduring" cities with lower flooding defenses and longer memory of past flood loss events and 2) "risk-averse" cities with higher flooding defenses and reduced memory of past flooding. These divergent behaviors correlated with differences in local stream flashiness indices (i.e., the frequency and rapidity of daily changes in streamflow), maximum dam heights, and the proportion of White to non-White residents in US metropolitan areas. Risk-averse cities tended to exist within regions characterized by flashier streamflow conditions, larger dams, and larger proportions of White residents. Our research supports the development of SH models in urban metropolitan areas and the design of risk management strategies that consider both demographically heterogeneous populations, changing flood defenses, and temporal changes in community risk perceptions and tolerance.


Assuntos
Inundações , Assunção de Riscos , Rios , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidrologia , Memória , Sociologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
11.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 23, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587187

RESUMO

This paper critically supports the modern evolutionary explanation of religion popularised by David Sloan Wilson, by comparing it with those of his predecessors, namely Emile Durkheim and Thomas Hobbes, and to some biological examples which seem analogous to religions as kinds of superorganisms in their own right. The aim of the paper is to draw out a theoretical pedigree in philosophy and sociology that is reflected down the lines of various other evolutionarily minded contributors on the subject of religion. The general theme is of evolved large-scale cooperative structures. A scholarly concern is as follows: Wilson (Darwin's Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, And The Nature Of Society, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2002) draws on Durkheim, (The elementary forms of religious life. Free Press, New york, 1912) using Calvinism as an example without mentioning Hobbes (Leviathan, Edited by E. Curley, Cambridge, Hackett, 1651), but it was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) who used Calvinism as an example of a leviathanesque religious structure-which is not acknowledged by either Wilson or Durkheim. If there are even any similarities between these authors, there appears to be an omission somewhere which should rightly be accounted for by giving credit to Hobbes where it is due. I issue on conclusion, what it is that makes Wilson's approach radically different to that it skates on. I also issue it with a cautionary word.


Assuntos
Filosofia/história , Religião/história , Sociologia/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women live longer than men, even though many of the recognised social determinants of health are worse for women than men. No existing explanations account fully for these differences in life expectancy, although they do highlight the complexity and interaction of biological, social and health service factors. METHODS: this paper is an exploratory explanation of gendered life expectancy difference (GLED) using a novel combination of epidemiological and sociological methods. We present the global picture of GLED. We then utilise a secondary data comparative case analysis offering explanations for GLED in Australia and Ethiopia. We combine a social determinant of health lens with Bourdieu's concepts of capitals (economic, cultural, symbolic and social). RESULTS: we confirmed continuing GLED in all countries ranging from less than a year to over 11 years. The Australian and Ethiopian cases demonstrated the complex factors underpinning this difference, highlighting similarities and differences in socioeconomic and cultural factors and how they are gendered within and between the countries. Bourdieu's capitals enabled us to partially explain GLED and to develop a conceptual model of causal pathways. CONCLUSION: we demonstrate the value of combing a SDH and Bourdieu's capital lens to investigate GLED. We proposed a theoretical framework to guide future research.


Assuntos
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Sociologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 33: e234810, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1279595

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo busca indicar o que se supõe configurar três contradições lógicas no ensaio "Sobre a relação entre sociologia e psicologia" e no "Pós-escrito" - escritos de Theodor Adorno. Essas contradições, não dialéticas, referem-se: à aceitação do conceito de "psicologia social", às implicações da psicoterapia e à divisão do trabalho acadêmico entre sociologia e psicologia. Para tanto, analisaram-se argumentos que revelam a necessidade de uma "psicologia social analiticamente orientada" diante da relação antagônica entre indivíduo e sociedade; refletiu-se acerca dos limites da psicologia do indivíduo considerado como uma mônada; e, por fim, perguntou-se pela distinção do objeto de estudo no âmbito da sociologia e da psicologia e pela objetividade da separação entre sociedade e indivíduo no capitalismo tardio determinante das contradições entre essas ciências.


Resumen Este artículo busca indicar lo que se supone configura tres contradicciones lógicas en el ensayo "Sobre la relación entre sociología y psicología" y en "Posdata" - escritos de Theodor Adorno. Estas contradicciones no dialécticas se refieren a: la aceptación del concepto de "psicología social", las implicaciones de la psicoterapia y la división del trabajo académico entre sociología y psicología. Para tanto, se analizaron argumentos que revelan la necesidad de una "psicología social de orientación analítica" ante la relación antagónica entre individuo y sociedad; se llevó a cabo reflexión sobre los límites de la psicología del individuo considerado como mónada; y, finalmente, se preguntó sobre la distinción del objeto de estudio en el ámbito de la sociología y la psicología y la objetividad de la separación entre sociedad e individuo en el capitalismo tardío que determina las contradicciones entre estas ciencias.


Abstract This article aims to investigate three possible logical contradictions in the essay "Sociology and Psychology" and in its "Postscript" - writings by Theodor Adorno. These contradictions, not dialectical, refer to the acceptance of the concept of "social psychology" by the author, to the implications of psychotherapy and to the division of academic work between sociology and psychology. Therefore, arguments that reveal the need for an "analytically oriented social psychology" in the face of the antagonistic relationship between individual and society were analyzed; the limits of the psychology of the individual as a monad were discussed; and, finally, we questioned the distinction between sociology's and psychology's object of study, as well as the objectivity of the separation between society and individual in the late capitalism that determinates the contradictions between these sciences.


Assuntos
Psicologia Social , Sociologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Psicanálise , Psicologia , Psicoterapia
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 420 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291425

RESUMO

Introdução ­ Um vírus recém-chegado ao Brasil, o Zika, é tido como causa do aumento de más-formações congênitas em 2016 com evidências consideradas frágeis (correlação temporal, análises laboratoriais e estudos de caso). Objetivo ­ Analisa-se dissensos e consensos em torno da causalidade Zika-microcefalia entre 2015 e 2017 no Brasil, com o intuito de entender o porquê das disputas, reconstruir a narrativa a partir de atores diversos e investigar seu impacto. Métodos ­ Com metodologia inspirada na Teoria Ator-Rede e no mapeamento de controvérsias ­ em que se seguem conexões diversas a partir do entendimento de que evidências científicas são coproduzidas por ciência e sociedade, humanos e não humanos ­ foram feitas 50 entrevistas e uma roda de conversa com 13 mães em 8 estados brasileiros: Bahia (Salvador), Brasília (Distrito Federal), Pará (Ananindeua e Belém), Paraíba (Campina Grande), Pernambuco (Recife), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Rio Grande do Norte (Natal) e São Paulo (Jundiaí, São Paulo e Campinas), além de visitas a instituições como a Fiocruz e universidades. Resultados ­ Como contribuição principal, a análise propõe que a explicação para as más-formações foi apresentada à narrativa pública com uma perspectiva unicausal atrelada ao Zika vírus ­ como uma hipótese-fato e não uma hipótese-pergunta ­ apesar de evidências multicausais e de cofatores associados ao desfecho. O trabalho denomina a narrativa da causalidade das anomalias observadas entre 2015 e 2017 como uma causa constrita de efeito cosmológico, em que a relação "A (Zika), logo B (Microcefalia)" é transladada como um problema central no fenômeno, sobrepondo-se a outras hipóteses multicausais e necessidades de estudos científicos para outros objetos ­ como intervenções em crianças e determinantes sociais. A análise destaca que, embora evidências epidemiológicas apontem para diferenças de risco no território brasileiro, a pergunta sobre a possibilidade de cofatores não deflagrou a mesma mobilização que a procura do agente etiológico. Atravessada por discussões globais e um modelo padrão de governança de risco, a controvérsia foi estabilizada por uma aliança cientistasimprensa- gestores, com a mobilização de uma ontologia única e purificada de não humanos ­ e não porque acabaram-se as perguntas ­, o que invisibilizou dinâmicas locais. Nota-se que a opção pela simplicidade do discurso teve por base um modelo deficitário e pouco participativo de divulgação pública, que reforça a unicausalidade e atrela o Zika à ontologia da dengue, com consequências para a prevenção e para a própria ciência, que experimenta os efeitos recursivos da narrativa proposta. Apontase que cientistas têm preocupações sociais, mas pouca reflexividade sobre sua agência para além da produção de evidências. Conclusões ­ Considera-se a necessidade de discursos multicausais de epidemias na narrativa pública brasileira, vindos de cientistas e de instituições de pesquisa centrais, de modo a conferir variadas vias de ação de enfrentamento, bem como a formulação de perguntas científicas reflexivas e dinâmicas com capacidade de refazer hipóteses a partir da produção de novas evidências ao longo do tempo.


Introduction ­ A virus then newly arrived in Brazil, Zika, is believed to be the cause of an increase in congenital malformations in 2016 with evidence considered fragile for a causal relationship (temporal correlation, laboratory analyses and case studies). Purpose ­ This work analyzes dissents and consensuses around the causality link between Zika and microcephaly from 2015 to 2017 in Brazil, with the aim of understanding the reasons for the disputes, reconstructing the narrative through different actors and investigating its impact. Methods ­ With a methodology inspired by Actor-Network Theory and controversy mapping ­ in which the researcher follows connections based on the comprehension that scientific evidence is co-produced by science and society, human and non-human ­ data was collected through 50 interviews and a conversation circle (13 mothers), in 8 Brazilian states: Bahia (Salvador), Brasília (Distrito Federal), Pará (Ananindeua e Belém), Paraíba (Campina Grande), Pernambuco (Recife), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Rio Grande do Norte (Natal) and São Paulo (Jundiaí, São Paulo and Campinas), in addition to visits to institutions such as Fiocruz and universities. Results ­ As a main contribution, the analysis proposes the explanation for malformations was presented to the public narrative as an unicausal perspective linked to Zika virus ­ as a hypothesis-fact and not a hypothesis-question ­ despite multi-causal evidence and cofactors associated with the outcome. The work describes the causality narrative of anomalies observed between 2015 and 2017 as a constricted cause of cosmological effect, in which the relationship "A (Zika), then B (Microcephaly)" is translated as a central problem, surpassing other multicausal hypotheses and the needs for scientific studies for other objects, such as interventions in children and social determinants. The analysis highlights that although epidemiological evidence points to differences in risk across the Brazilian territory, the question about the possibility of cofactors did not trigger the same mobilization as the search for the etiological agent. Traversed by global discussions and a standard risk governance model, the controversy was stabilized by a scientists-press-managers alliance, with the mobilization of a single, purified ontology of non-humans ­ and not because the questions were over ­, which made local dynamics invisible. It is noted that the option for discourse simplicity was based on a deficient participatory model of public disclosure, which reinforces the unicausality and links Zika to the dengue ontology, with consequences for prevention and for science itself, which experiences the recursive effects of the proposed narrative. It is pointed out that scientists have social concerns, but little reflexivity concerning their agency beyond evidence production. Conclusions ­ The need for multi-causal epidemic discourses in the Brazilian public narrative is considered, coming from scientists and central research institutions, in order to allow for diverse coping strategies, as well as the formulation of reflexive and dynamic scientific questions with the capacity to remodel their hypotheses based on new evidence over time.


Assuntos
Sociologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Epidemias , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Zika virus , Microcefalia
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(12): 4669-4680, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295491

RESUMO

This paper aimed to analyze the contribution of Journal Ciência & Saúde Coletiva (C&SC) to the construction of the CH field, particularly in its relationships with the Health Policy, understood both as an academic discipline and as a scope of practice. We reviewed papers published between 1996 and 2019 in the C&SC. Titles and abstracts of the 397 documents on health policies were read to measure the magnitude and identify the main themes and theoretical-methodological approaches. Thirty-five documents were selected and read in full among the 142 revised ones to investigate the Journal's contribution to CH's construction. The analysis was based on Bourdieu's sociology. It revealed that C&SC was established as a space for the construction of CH in multiple dimensions, particularly concerning the reflexivity on the field. Specifically, concerning the Health Policy, despite the small percentage of documents on the issue (6.8%), it encompassed the different meanings of this subject for the field. The authors discuss the possible relationships between the characteristics identified and the historical process of incorporating this subject in the various areas of CH.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Sociologia , Humanos
17.
Textos contextos (Porto Alegre) ; 19(2): 37106, 23 dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179824

RESUMO

Este artigo advém de uma pesquisa de doutoramento e se propôs a problematizar acerca do conceito precariado diante das alterações no mundo do trabalho um contexto de crise estrutural do capital. Destaca-se que o precariado é um termo conjuntural, polissêmico e encontra-se em disputa. Utilizou-se como base autores que discutem em profundidade tal categoria: Guy Standing (2015), Ruy Braga (2013/2017) e Alves (2012/2015). A metodologia utilizada é de caráter qualitativo, a partir de análise documental e resultada de pesquisa empírica, com vistas a indicar a premência do precariado e a sua relação com a Educação. Logo, indagar o precariado é dar visibilidade e significado a essa nova camada proletária que emerge no mundo do trabalho e que se encontra em plena ebulição. Por fim, afirma-se que vivemos em tempos flexíveis de direitos e nessa fluidez emerge o conceito do precariado que se encontra em maturação e está inserido no olho do furacão, no qual se revela a crise estrutural do capital


This article comes from a PhD research and proposed to problematize about the precarious concept in the face of changes in the world of work in a context of structural crisis of capital. It is noteworthy that the precariat is a conjunctural, polysemic term and is in dispute. Based on authors that discuss this category in depth: Guy Standing (2015), Ruy Braga (2013/2017) and Alves (2012/2015) were used. The methodology used is of a qualitative character, based on documentary analysis and results of empirical research, with a view to indicating the urgency of the precariat and its relationship with education. Therefore, to inquire about the precariat is to give visibility and meaning to this new proletarian layer that emerges in the world of work and that is in full swing. Finally, it is affirmed that we live in flexible times of rights and in that fluidity the concept of precariousness that is maturing and inserted in the eye of the hurricane emerges, in which the structural crisis of capital is revealed


Assuntos
Sociologia , Antropologia Cultural , Economia , Educação , Mercado de Trabalho
18.
Sociol Health Illn ; 42(8): 1982-1995, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156551

RESUMO

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and mass lockdowns that continue to shake the world, sociologists of health and illness have been advised to undertake research only when the time feels right and to avoid premature evaluation. Such advice makes sense, especially amidst an epidemic of interpretation that has resulted in substandard work. However, this contribution argues that when trying to understand and perhaps analyse early societal responses to COVID-19, medical sociology comprises a toolbox of ideas that are 'good to think with' and should not be ignored. Indeed, our community is well placed to make its presence felt sooner rather than later as we collectively live through a deepening critical situation. Divided into two sections, this piece first offers a critical appreciation of Philip Strong's classic essay on 'epidemic psychology', noting some insights and posing research questions for pandemic times. Second, going from micro- to macro-sociological concerns, it builds on Graham Scambler's calls for not only critique but also foresight and action within a 'fractured society' comprising class-generated fissures and tensions. Early interventions from other leading medical sociologists and publicly engaged intellectuals are also cited when asking 'what sort of society are we heading towards and what sort of world do we want to share?'


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Psicologia Social , Sociologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e242, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023703

RESUMO

The current pandemic is defined by the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that can lead to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). How is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted? In this review, we use a global lens to examine the sociological contexts that are potentially and systematically involved in high rates of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, including lack of personal protective equipment, population density and confinement. Altogether, this review provides an in-depth conspectus of the current literature regarding how SARS-CoV-2 disproportionately impacts many minority communities. By contextualising and disambiguating transmission risks that are particularly prominent for disadvantaged populations, this review can assist public health efforts throughout and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociologia
20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 571054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072708

RESUMO

The functionalisation of play basically stems from the diagnosis of a global childhood inactivity crisis, the so-called "children's obesity pandemic." Hence, in the context of the activity-related guidelines, children's play appears no longer to be unproductive and purpose-free. It is rather considered an anti-obesity tool that will help children to meet physical activity recommendations. It is questionable whether such a functionalised tool can also provide what has been called the salience of the pleasures of free-play for children. Furthermore, a "normalization" of functionalised practices of play, in turn, could stigmatize children who do not or cannot adhere to these practices. Based upon this background, this paper will take a critical sociology perspective to analyse the functionalisation and medicalisation of children's play in an individualized, mediatized, and pedagogised society. In this sense, the paper aims to pay attention to how the primary goal of play in the sense of "simply make children happy" has given way to the goal of making them healthy and functional.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Criança , Humanos , Motivação , Obesidade , Sociologia
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