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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 176, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salinity is a major threat to the agriculture industry due to the negative impact of salinity stress on crop productivity. In the present study, we isolated rhizobacteria and evaluated their capacities to promote crop growth under salt stress conditions. RESULTS: We isolated rhizospheric bacteria from sand dune flora of Pohang beach, Korea, and screened them for plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Among 55 bacterial isolates, 14 produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 10 produced siderophores, and 12 produced extracellular polymeric and phosphate solubilization. Based on these PGP traits, we selected 11 isolates to assess for salinity tolerance. Among them, ALT29 and ALT43 showed the highest tolerance to salinity stress. Next, we tested the culture filtrate of isolates ALT29 and ALT43 for IAA and organic acids to confirm the presence of these PGP products. To investigate the effects of ALT29 and ALT43 on salt tolerance in soybean, we grew seedlings in 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl treatments, inoculating half with the bacterial isolates. Inoculation with ALT29 and ALT43 significantly increased shoot length (13%), root length (21%), shoot fresh and dry weight (44 and 35%), root fresh and dry weight (9%), chlorophyll content (16-24%), Chl a (8-43%), Chl b (13-46%), and carotenoid (14-39%) content of soybean grown under salt stress. Inoculation with ALT29 and ALT43 also significantly decreased endogenous ABA levels (0.77-fold) and increased endogenous SA contents (6-16%), increased total protein (10-20%) and glutathione contents, and reduced lipid peroxidation (0.8-5-fold), superoxide anion (21-68%), peroxidase (12.14-17.97%), and polyphenol oxidase (11.76-27.06%) contents in soybean under salinity stress. In addition, soybean treated with ALT29 and ALT43 exhibited higher K+ uptake (9.34-67.03%) and reduced Na+ content (2-4.5-fold). Genes involved in salt tolerance, GmFLD19 and GmNARK, were upregulated under NaCl stress; however, significant decreases in GmFLD19 (3-12-fold) and GmNARK (1.8-3.7-fold) expression were observed in bacterial inoculated plants. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, bacterial isolates ALT29 and ALT43 can mitigate salinity stress and increase plant growth, providing an eco-friendly approach for addressing saline conditions in agricultural production systems.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809928

RESUMO

Based on their nutrient composition, soybeans and related foods have been considered to be nutritious and healthy for humans. Particularly, the biological activity and subsequent benefits of soy products may be associated with the presence of isoflavone in soybeans. As an alternative treatment for menopause-related symptoms, isoflavone has gained much popularity for postmenopausal women who have concerns related to undergoing hormone replacement therapy. However, current research has still not reached a consensus on the effects of isoflavone on humans. This overview is a summary of the current literature about the processing of soybeans and isoflavone types (daidzein, genistein, and S-equol) and supplements and their extraction and analysis as well as information about the utilization of isoflavones in soybeans. The processes of preparation (cleaning, drying, crushing and dehulling) and extraction of soybeans are implemented to produce refined soy oil, soy lecithin, free fatty acids, glycerol and soybean meal. The remaining components consist of inorganic constituents (minerals) and the minor components of biologically interesting small molecules. Regarding the preventive effects on diseases or cancers, a higher intake of isoflavones is associated with a moderately lower risk of developing coronary heart disease. It may also reduce the risks of breast and colorectal cancer as well as the incidence of breast cancer recurrence. Consumption of isoflavones or soy foods is associated with reduced risks of endometrial and bladder cancer. Regarding the therapeutic effects on menopausal syndrome or other diseases, isoflavones have been found to alleviate vasomotor syndromes even after considering placebo effects, reduce bone loss in the spine and ameliorate hypertension and in vitro glycemic control. They may also alleviate depressive symptoms during pregnancy. On the other hand, isoflavones have not shown definitive effects regarding improving cognition and urogenital symptoms. Because of lacking standardization in the study designs, such as the ingredients and doses of isoflavones and the durations and outcomes of trials, it currently remains difficult to draw overall conclusions for all aspects of isoflavones. These limitations warrant further investigations of isoflavone use for women's health.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Soja/química , Animais , Fracionamento Químico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fitoestrógenos/química , Fitoestrógenos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Soja/metabolismo , Análise Espectral , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Síndrome
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1952, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782393

RESUMO

The non-protein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been proposed to be an ancient messenger for cellular communication conserved across biological kingdoms. GABA has well-defined signalling roles in animals; however, whilst GABA accumulates in plants under stress it has not been determined if, how, where and when GABA acts as an endogenous plant signalling molecule. Here, we establish endogenous GABA as a bona fide plant signal, acting via a mechanism not found in animals. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show guard cell GABA production is necessary and sufficient to reduce stomatal opening and transpirational water loss, which improves water use efficiency and drought tolerance, via negative regulation of a stomatal guard cell tonoplast-localised anion transporter. We find GABA modulation of stomata occurs in multiple plants, including dicot and monocot crops. This study highlights a role for GABA metabolism in fine tuning physiology and opens alternative avenues for improving plant stress resilience.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal/genética , Água/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Transpiração Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/metabolismo
4.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110855, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775362

RESUMO

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant that leads to significant global yield loss in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. To ensure soybean productivity in areas of rising O3, it is important to identify tolerant genotypes. This work describes the response of the high-yielding soybean cultivar 'Jake' to elevated O3 concentrations. 'Jake' was treated with either low O3 [charcoal-filtered (CF) air, 12 h mean: 20 ppb] or with O3-enriched air (12 h mean: 87 ppb) over the course of the entire growing season. In contrast to the absence of O3-induced leaf injury under low O3, elevated O3 caused severe leaf injury and decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Although elevated O3 reduced total leaf area, leaf number, and plant height at different developmental stages, above-ground and root biomass remained unchanged. Analyzing carbon and nitrogen content, we found that elevated O3 altered allocation of both elements, which ultimately led to a 15 % yield loss by decreasing seed size but not seed number. We concluded that cultivar 'Jake' possesses developmental strength to tolerate chronic O3 conditions, attributes that make it suitable breeding material for the generation of new O3 tolerant lines.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ozônio/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , North Carolina
5.
Food Chem ; 352: 129299, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690076

RESUMO

The consumption of soy milk is increasing worldwide for its nutritional value and health benefits, however, its protein composition after commercialization is not well known. Technological and thermal treatments to which soy milk is subjected could affect the protein composition of the commercial products. This study compared the protein profile of 15 different commercial soy milks using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. Proteins related to nutrient reservoir activity, endopeptidase inhibitor activity, lipid binding, and seed maturation contribute the most in terms of percentage mass. Their associated Gene Ontology terms are also enriched. Samples clustered into three groups based on their protein composition, with glycinins and beta-conglycinins being the most influential for determining the clustering. Amino acid composition estimated from the proteomics data also reflects the clustering of samples. Twenty allergenic proteins varying in abundance were identified, with Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 being the predominantly abundant allergens.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Leite de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais
6.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672673

RESUMO

In this study, the changes in free amino acids of soybean leaves after ethylene application were characterized based on quantitative and metabolomic analyses. All essential and nonessential amino acids in soybean leaves were enhanced by fivefold (250 to 1284 mg/100 g) and sixfold (544 to 3478 mg/100 g), respectively, via ethylene application. In particular, it was found that asparagine is the main component, comprising approximately 41% of the total amino acids with a twenty-five fold increase (78 to 1971 mg/100 g). Moreover, arginine and branched chain amino acids (Val, Leu, and Ile) increased by about 14 and 2-5 times, respectively. The increase in free amino acid in stem was also similar to the leaves. The metabolites in treated and untreated soybean leaves were systematically identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and partial variance discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores and heat map analysis were given to understand the changes of each metabolite. The application of ethylene may provide good nutrient potential for soybean leaves.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Soja/química , Aminoácidos/química , Análise Discriminante , Etilenos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112112, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714140

RESUMO

Sole biochar addition or microbial inoculation as a soil amendment helps to reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in polluted agricultural soils. Yet the synergistic effects of microorganisms and biochar application on Cd absorption and plant productivity remain unclear. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effect of microorganisms (Trichoderma harzianum L. and Bacillus subtilis L.), biochar (maize straw, cow manure, and poultry manure), and Cd (0, 10, and 30 ppm) on plant physiology and growth to test how biochar influences microbial growth and plant nutrient uptake, and how biochar ameliorates under Cd-stressed soil. Results showed that in comparison to non-Cd polluted soil, the highest reduction in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and intercellular CO2 were observed in Cd2 (30 ppm), which were 9.34%, 22.95%, 40.45%, 29.07%, 20.67%, and 22.55% respectively less than the control Cd0 (0 ppm). Among sole inoculation of microorganisms, highest stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and intercellular CO2 were recorded with combined inoculation of both microorganisms (M3), which were 5.92%, 7.65%, and 7.28% respectively higher than the control, and reduced the Cd concentration in soil, root, and shoot by 21.34%, 28.36%, and 20.95%, respectively, compared to the control. Similarly, co-application of microorganisms and biochar ameliorated the adverse effect of Cd in soybean as well as significantly improved plant biomass, photosynthetic activity, nutrient contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities, and minimized the production of reactive oxygen species and Cd content in plants. Soil amended with poultry manure biochar had significantly improved the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and available potassium by 43.53%, 36.97%, 22.28%, and 4.24%, respectively, and decreased the concentration of Cd in plant root and shoot by 34.68% and 47.96%, respectively, compared to the control. These findings indicate that the combined use of microorganisms and biochar as an amendment have important synergistic effects not only on the absorption of nutrients but also on the reduction of soybean Cd intake, and improve plant physiology of soybean cultivated in Cd-polluted soils as compared to sole application of microorganisms or biochar.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Hypocreales , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Esterco , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zea mays
8.
Animal ; 15(3): 100004, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526406

RESUMO

Pumpkin seed cake (PSC), a byproduct of pumpkin seed oil processing, is used in ruminant feed as a beneficial protein source. Experiments were conducted to evaluate PSC as a substitute for soybean meal in the diets of lactating cows based on performance, rumen fermentation, antioxidant function and nitrogen partitioning. Six multiparous lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment with 27-day periods. The cows were randomly divided into three treatment groups: group (1) was fed a diet containing no PSC (0PSC), and groups (2) and (3) were fed diets in which soybean meal was replaced with PSC and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) at levels of 50% (50PSC) and 100% (100PSC), respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous and contained identical roughage but different proportions of PSC and DDGS. Replacement of soybean meal with PSC and DDGS did not influence rumen degradation, milk performance, rumen fermentation, DM intake or apparent total tract digestibility, and nitrogen partitioning between milk, feces and urine did not differ in the animals fed the three diets. However, compared with a diet containing no PSC, the total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and antioxidant enzymes (total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activities (P < 0.05) were increased in the animals that received the 50PSC and 100PSC diets. In contrast, addition of PSC significantly reduced concentrations of aspartate transaminase (P < 0.05), alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (P < 0.05) in the plasma. These results demonstrate that PSC can be completely substituted for soybean meal in the diet of dairy cows without any negative impact on milk performance, rumen fermentation or apparent digestibility and that this dietary change improves antioxidant functions and blood parameters in dairy cows, indicating that PSC has the potential for use as a feed source for dairy cows.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112033, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582415

RESUMO

The ever-increasing ozone (O3) concentration has led to reduced production and altered quality of soybean. Abundant reports have explored the damage mechanisms of O3 on soybean. However, how the elevated O3 affects metabolite profiling of soybean remains to be poorly understood. Here, we compare the metabolic profile of soybean leaves under charcoal filtered air (CF, <20 ppb) and short-term elevated O3 concentration (EO, 100 ppb). High level of O3 affects metabolites for the tricarbonic acid (TCA) cycle, reactive oxygen species, cell wall composition and amino acids. Significantly, jasmonic acid-related metabolite promoting stomata closure is highly induced with 125-fold change. Furthermore, O3 fumigation alters the expression of genes contributing to the biosynthesis of certain metabolites in TCA cycle. Together, these findings identify a wide range of changed metabolites in response to O3 pollution. Our results pave the way for the genetic improvement of soybean to adapt to O3 pollution to maintain stable yields.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Soja/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Fabaceae , Ozônio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
10.
Phytochemistry ; 185: 112704, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640683

RESUMO

Biotic and abiotic environmental stresses have limited the increase in soybean productivity. Overexpression of the molecular chaperone BiP in transgenic plants has been associated with the response to osmotic stress and drought tolerance by maintaining cellular homeostasis and delaying hypersensitive cell death. Here, we evaluated the metabolic changes in response to the hypersensitivity response (HR) caused by the non-compatible bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in BiP-overexpressing plants. The HR-modified metabolic profiles in BiP-overexpressing plants were significantly distinct from the wild-type untransformed. The transgenic plants displayed a lower abundance of HR-responsive metabolites as amino acids, sugars, carboxylic acids and signal molecules, including p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and dihydrosphingosine (DHS), when compared to infected wild-type plants. In contrast, salicylic acid (SA) biosynthetic and signaling pathways were more stimulated in transgenic plants, and both pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and transcriptional factors controlling the SA pathway were more induced in the BiP-overexpressing lines. Furthermore, the long-chain bases (LCBs) and ceramide biosynthetic pathways showed alterations in gene expression and metabolite abundance. Thus, as a protective pathway against pathogens, HR regulation by sphingolipids and SA may account at least in part by the enhanced resistance of transgenic plants. GmNAC32 transcriptional factor was more induced in the transgenic plants and it has also been reported to regulate flavonoid synthesis in response to SA. In fact, the BiP-overexpressing plants showed an increase in flavonoids, mainly prenylated isoflavones, as precursors for phytoalexins. Our results indicate that the BiP-mediated acceleration in the hypersensitive response may be a target for metabolic engineering of plant resistance against pathogens.


Assuntos
Ácido Salicílico , Soja , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 172: 104757, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518050

RESUMO

Although phosphite (Phi)-based fertilizers are used in large quantities in agriculture, the use of Phi-based fungicides against soybean root rot caused by Phytophthora sojae are limited. While, their low toxicity are of high ecological and economic focus. Limited attention has been paid to Phi translocation efficiency in soybeans and the efficacy of Phi as a fungicide against P. sojae. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of Phi translocation in the Williams soybean cultivar by determining the Phi concentrations in roots, stems, and leaves using high-performance ion chromatography after the application of Phi to the roots. Phi was translocated from roots to leaves within 1 h and its concentration increased significantly in leaves within 36 h after Phi application. Results of an in vitro growth inhibition assay and an in vivo infection assay showed that Phi inhibited P. sojae. Additionally, we examined the activation of the salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) defense pathways by Phi. The expression of SA and ET pathway-related genes was upregulated in most soybean tissues after Phi application. Our results provide evidence that Phi translocation suppresses root rot caused by P. sojae in soybean.


Assuntos
Fosfitos , Phytophthora , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosfitos/farmacologia , Phytophthora/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466562

RESUMO

Given the pharmacological properti es and the potential role of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in human physiology and the pleiotropic activity of the neurohormone melatonin (MEL) involved in physiological and immunological functions and as regulator of antioxidant enzymes, this study aimed at evaluating the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 to release tryptophan derivatives (dTRPs) from the kynurenine (KYN) and melatonin pathways. The setting up of the spectroscopic and chromatographic conditions for the quantification of the dTRPs in LC-MS/MS system, the optimization of dTRPs' production in fermentative and whole-cell biotransformation approaches and the production of dTRPs in a soybean-based cultural medium naturally enriched in tryptophan, as a case of study, were included in the experimental plan. Variable amounts of dTRPs, with a prevalence of metabolites of the KYN pathway, were detected. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the compound synthesized at highest concentration is KYNA that reached 9.146 ± 0.585 mg/L in fermentation trials in a chemically defined medium at 400 mg/L TRP. Further experiments in a soybean-based medium confirm KYNA as the main dTRPs, whereas the other dTRPs reached very lower concentrations. While detectable quantities of melatonin were never observed, two MEL isomers were successfully measured in laboratory media.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fermentação/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
Planta ; 253(1): 15, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392793

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Soybean possesses 19 CMF genes which mainly arose from duplication events. Their features and motifs are highly conserved but transcriptional data indicated functional diversity in metabolism and stress responses. CCT [for CONSTANS, CONSTANS-like (CO-like), and timing of CAB expression1 (TOC1)] domain-containing genes play important roles in regulating flowering, plant growth, and grain yield and are also involved in stress responses. The CMF (CCT motif family) genes, included in the CCT family, contain a single CCT domain as the only identifiable domain in their predicted protein sequence and are interesting targets for breeding programs. In this study, we identified 19 putative GmCMF genes, based on the latest soybean (Glycine max) genome annotation. The predicted GmCMF proteins were characterized based on conserved structural features, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed including all CMF proteins from rice and Arabidopsis as representative examples of the monocotyledonous (monocot) and dicotyledonous (dicot) plants, respectively. High similarities in the conserved motifs of the protein sequences and the gene structures were found. In addition, by analyzing the CMF gene family in soybean, we identified seven pairs of genes that originated from segmental chromosomal duplication events attributable to the most recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event in the Glycine lineage. Expression analysis of GmCMF genes in various tissues and after specific treatments demonstrated tissue and stress-response specific differential expression. Gene expression analysis was complemented by the identification of putative cis-elements present in the promoter regions of the genes through a bioinformatics approach, using the existing soybean reference genome sequence and gene models. Co-functional networks inferred from distinct types of genomics data-including microarrays and RNA-seq samples from soybean-revealed that GmCMF genes might play crucial roles in metabolism and transport processes. The results of this study, the first systematic analysis of the soybean CCT gene family, can serve as a strong foundation for further elucidation of their physiological functions and biological roles.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas , Soja , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 347: 129052, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482484

RESUMO

Hyperoside (HYP) is an important natural product that is widely distributed in fruits and whole grasses of various plants. It is also used by consumers as a healthy ingredient. This work explored the interaction mechanisms between HYP and two main soy proteins, namely, ß-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S), using computational simulation and multi-spectroscopic technology. In this study, the docking and dynamic simulation showed that HYP was stable in the hydrophobic pockets of the proteins. The conformation and microenvironment of 7S/11S also changed after binding to HYP. The binding of HYP to 7S/11S was a state quenching with a good affinity at 4 °C. This result was determined from the binding constant values of (1.995 ± 0.170) × 107 M-1 and (2.951 ± 0.109) × 107 M-1, respectively. The 7S/11S-HYP complex delineated here will provide a novel idea to construct an embedding and delivery system in improving the benefits of HYP for the development of high value-added food products.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/metabolismo , Globulinas/química , Globulinas/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Antígenos de Plantas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Soja/química , Termodinâmica
15.
Food Chem ; 346: 128880, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418415

RESUMO

The variations in flavor substances across the different stages of fermented soybean whey tofu (FSWT) production were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). The results revealed 24 representative flavor compounds in the samples across all production stages. After heating, the signal intensity of hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, heptanal, and (E)-2-hexenol, which are unpleasant flavor substances found in raw soymilk, weakened, whereas those of some aroma substances increased. Furthermore, fermented flavor compounds, namely, 2-heptanone, 2-pentylfuran, pentanal, and 2,3-butanedione, were produced after the addition of fermented soybean whey as a coagulant. A PCA based on the signal intensity of the detected volatile compounds revealed effective differentiation of samples from different stages into comparatively independent spaces. These results showed that the flavor fingerprints of the samples from different stages of FSWT production can be successfully built using HS-GC-IMS and PCA based on the detected volatile compounds.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Fermentação , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Análise de Componente Principal , Soja/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
16.
Nat Plants ; 7(1): 50-59, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452489

RESUMO

Long-distance RNA movement is important for plant growth and environmental responses; however, the extent to which RNAs move between distant tissues, their relative magnitude and functional importance remain to be elucidated on a genomic scale. Using a soybean (Glycine max)-common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grafting system, we identified 100 shoot-root mobile microRNAs and 32 shoot-root mobile phased secondary small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs), which were predominantly produced in shoots and transported to roots, and, in most cases, accumulated to a level similar to that observed in shoots. Many of these microRNAs or phasiRNAs enabled cleavage of their messenger RNA targets or phasiRNA precursors in roots. In contrast, most mobile-capable mRNAs were transcribed in both shoots and roots, with only small proportions transported to recipient tissues. These findings suggest that the regulatory mechanisms for small RNA movement are different from those for mRNA movement, and that the former is more strictly regulated and, probably, more functionally important than the latter.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Phaseolus/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 322-334, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421908

RESUMO

Excess moisture in the form of waterlogging or full submergence can cause severe conditions of hypoxia or anoxia compromising several physiological and biochemical processes. A decline in photosynthetic rate due to accumulation of ROS and damage of leaf tissue are the main consequences of excess moisture. These effects compromise crop yield and quality, especially in sensitive species, such as soybean (Glycine max.). Phytoglobins (Pgbs) are expressed during hypoxia and through their ability to scavenge nitric oxide participate in several stress-related responses. Soybean plants over-expressing or suppressing the Pgb1 gene GmPgb1 were generated and their ability to cope with waterlogging and full submergence conditions was assessed. Plants over-expressing GmPgb1 exhibited a higher retention of photosynthetic rate during waterlogging and survival rate during submergence relative to wild type plants. The same plants also had lower levels of ROS due to a reduction in expression of Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOH), components of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, and enhanced antioxidant system characterized by higher expression of catalases (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as elevated expression and activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Plants over-expressing GmPgb1 also exhibited an expression pattern of aquaporins typical of excess moisture resilience. This was in contrast to plants downregulating GmPgb1 which were characterized by the lowest photosynthetic rates, higher ROS signal, and reduced expression and activities of many antioxidant enzymes. Results from these studies suggest that GmPgb1 exercises a protective role during conditions of excess moisture with similar mechanisms operating during waterlogging and submergence.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Soja , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água/química
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111644, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396164

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) production is seriously threatened by ground-level ozone (O3) pollution. The goal of our study is to summarize the impacts of O3 on physiology, growth, yield, and quality of soybean, as well as root parameters. We performed meta-analysis on the collated 48 peer-reviewed papers published between 1980 and 2019 to quantitatively summarize the response of soybean to elevated O3 concentrations ([O3]). Relative to charcoal-filtered air (CF), elevated [O3] significantly accelerated chlorophyll degradation, enhanced foliar injury, and inhibited growth of soybean, evidenced by great reductions in leaf area (-20.8%), biomass of leaves (-13.8%), shoot (-22.8%), and root (-16.9%). Shoot of soybean was more sensitive to O3 than root in case of biomass. Chronic ozone exposure of about 75.5 ppb posed pronounced decrease in seed yield of soybean (-28.3%). In addition, root environment in pot contributes to higher reduction in shoot biomass and yield of soybean. Negative linear relationships were observed between yield loss and intensity of O3 treatment, AOT40. The larger loss in seed yield was significantly associated with higher reduction in shoot biomass and other yield component. This meta-analysis demonstrates the effects of elevated O3 on soybean were pronounced, suggesting that O3 pollution is still a soaring threat to the productivity of soybean in regions with high ozone levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Estruturas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515467

RESUMO

Energy values and amino acid (AA) digestibility of dried yeast (DY) and soybean meal (SBM) were determined in 2 experiments with growing pigs. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in DY and SBM. Thirty barrows with a mean initial body weight (BW) of 20.6 kg (SD = 1.04) were assigned to 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with period and BW as blocking factors. A reference diet was prepared with corn, canola meal, and soybean oil as energy-contributing ingredients. Four additional diets were prepared by adding 5% and 10% DY or SBM at the expense of energy-contributing ingredients in the reference diet. The ratio of corn, canola meal, and soybean oil was kept consistent across the experimental diets. Each experimental period consisted of 5-d adaptation and 5-d quantitative collection of feces and urine. Test ingredient-associated DE or ME intake (kcal/d) was regressed against test ingredient intake [kg dry matter (DM)/d] to estimate the DE or ME in test ingredients as the slope of linear regression model. The DE in DY was estimated at 3,933 kcal/kg DM, which was not different from the estimated DE in SBM at 4,020 kcal/kg DM. Similarly, there was no difference between DY and SBM in the estimated ME (3,431 and 3,756 kcal/kg DM, respectively). Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in DY and SBM. Twenty-one barrows with a mean initial BW of 20.0 kg (SD = 1.31) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to 3 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with BW as a blocking factor. Two semi-purified diets containing DY or SBM as the sole nitrogen source and one nitrogen-free diet (NFD) were prepared. The NFD was used to estimate the basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Pigs were fed the 3 diets for 5 d as adaptation, followed by 2 d of feeding with ileal digesta collection. The SID of AA, except Gly and Pro, in DY was less (P < 0.05) than in SBM. The SID of indispensable AA in DY ranged from 64.1% for Thr to 85.2% for Arg, and those in SBM ranged from 83.9% for Thr to 91.8% for Arg. In conclusion, energy values of DY are not different from those of SBM, whereas AA in DY is less digestible than in SBM. The estimated DE and ME as well as the SID of AA in DY and SBM can be used in diet formulation for growing pigs using these ingredients.


Assuntos
Soja , Fermento Seco , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Íleo/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Suínos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111914, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454593

RESUMO

Bioremediation of Cd contaminated environments can be assisted by plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) enabling plant growth in these sites. Here a gram-negative Burkholderia contaminans ZCC was isolated from mining soil at a copper-gold mine. When exposed to Cd(II), ZCC displayed high Cd resistance and the minimal inhibitory concentration was 7 mM in LB medium. Complete genome analysis uncovered B. contaminans ZCC contained 3 chromosomes and 2 plasmids. One of these plasmids was shown to contain a multitude of heavy metal resistance determinants including genes encoding a putative Cd-translocating PIB-type ATPase and an RND-type related to the Czc-system. These additional heavy metal resistance determinants are likely responsible for the increased resistance to Cd(II) and other heavy metals in comparison to other strains of B. contaminans. B. contaminans ZCC also displayed PGPB traits such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore production, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid production. Moreover, the properties and Cd(II) binding characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances was investigated. ZCC was able to induce extracellular polymeric substances production in response to Cd and was shown to be chemically coordinated to Cd(II). It could promote the growth of soybean in the presence of elevated concentrations of Cd(II). This work will help to better understand processes important in bioremediation of Cd-contaminated environment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Burkholderia/fisiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Soja/metabolismo
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