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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 347, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cottonseed meal (CSM), a relatively rich source of protein and amino acids, is used as an inexpensive alternative to soybean meal (SBM) in poultry diets. However, the toxicity of free gossypol in CSM has been a primary concern. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of CSM on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and liver redox status in goslings at 1 to 28 days of age. Three hundred 1-day-old male goslings were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 goslings/pen, 6 replicate pens/group) and subjected to a 28-day experiment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated such that 0% (control), 25% (CSM25), 50% (CSM50), 75% (CSM75), and 100% (CSM100) of protein from SBM was replaced by protein from CSM. The free gossypol contents in the five diets were 0, 56, 109, 166, and 222 mg/kg, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that dietary CSM was associated with linear decreases in body weight, average daily feed intake and average daily gain and linear increases in the feed-to-gain ratio from 1 to 28 days of age (P < 0.001). As the dietary CSM concentration increased, a numerical increase was found in the mortality of goslings. According to a single-slope broken-line model, the breakpoints for the average daily gain of dietary free gossypol concentration on days 1 to 14, 15 to 28, and 1 to 28 occurred at 23.63, 14.78, and 18.53 mg/kg, respectively. As the dietary CSM concentration increased, serum albumin (P < 0.001) concentrations decreased linearly and serum uric acid (P = 0.011) increased linearly. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (P = 0.002) and catalase (P < 0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.001) activities of the liver decreased linearly with increasing dietary CSM. However, dietary CSM did not affect the concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, or protein carbonyl in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing dietary CSM increased the concentration of free gossypol and altered the composition of some amino acids in the diet. A high concentration of CSM reduced the growth performance of goslings aged 1 to 28 days by decreasing feed intake, liver metabolism, and antioxidant capacity. From the primary concern of free gossypol in CSM, the tolerance of goslings to free gossypol from CSM is low, and the toxicity of free gossypol has a cumulative effect over time.


Assuntos
Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Gossipol , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/análise , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/metabolismo , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/farmacologia , Gansos/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase , Gossipol/análise , Gossipol/metabolismo , Gossipol/farmacologia , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Radical Hidroxila/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273916, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048798

RESUMO

The purpose of this field study was to compare the effects of top-dressing tropical lactating cows with soybean meal (SBM) or citric waste fermented yeast waste (CWYW) on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, purine derivatives, milk production, and economic return. Sixteen mid-lactation Thai crossbreeds, Holstein Friesian (16.7 ± 0.30 kg/day milk yield and 490 ± 40.0 kg of initial body weight) were randomly allocated to two treatments in a completed randomized design: SBM as control (n = 8) or CWYW (n = 8). The feeding trial lasted for 60 days plus 21 days for treatment adaptation. The results showed that total dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and digestibility did not (p>0.05) differ between SBM and CWYW top-dressing. Ruminal pH and the protozoal population did not (p>0.05) differ between SBM and CWYW top-dressing. After 4 hours of feeding, CWYW top-dressing showed greater ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and bacterial population compared with the top-dressing of SBM. Volatile fatty acids and purine derivatives were not different (p>0.05) between SBM and CWYW top-dressing. For milk urea nitrogen, there was a greater (p<0.05) and somatic cell count was lower (p<0.05) for cows fed the CWYW top-dress compared to cows fed the SBM top-dress. The cost of the top-dress and total feed cost were less (p<0.05) for CWYW compared to SBM top-dressing, at 0.59 vs 1.16 US dollars/cow/day and 4.14 vs 4.75 US dollars/cow/day, respectively. In conclusion, CWYW could be used as an alternative protein source to SBM without having a negative impact on tropical lactating cows.


Assuntos
Lactação , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Purinas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Tailândia , Ureia/metabolismo
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1004765, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118025

RESUMO

Soybean isoflavones (SIs) are widely found in food and herbal medicines. Although the pharmacological activities of SIs have been widely reported, their effects on the intestinal microecology of normal hosts have received little attention. Five-week-old Kunming (KM) mice were administered SIs (10 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Food intake, body weight, and digestive enzyme activity were measured. Small intestine microbiota, including lumen-associated bacteria (LAB) and mucosa-associated bacteria (MAB), were analyzed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the mice that consuming SIs showed a higher food intake but a lower body weight gain rate than that of normal mice. Sucrase, cellulase, and amylase activities reduced, while protease activity increased after SIs intervention. Moreover, SIs increased the intestinal bacterial diversity in both LAB and MAB of normal mice. The composition of LAB was more sensitive to SIs than those of MAB. Lactobacillus, Adlercreutzia, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Butyricicoccus, and Desulfovibrio were the differential bacteria among the LAB of mice treated with SIs. In addition, acetic acid, valeric acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, and caproic acid decreased, while butyric acid and propionic acid increased in the mice treated with SIs. Taken together, SIs are beneficial for weight control, even in short-term interventions. The specific mechanism is related to regulating the gut microbiota, changing digestive enzyme activities, and further affecting carbohydrate absorption and metabolism.


Assuntos
Celulases , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Isoflavonas , Amilases/metabolismo , Amilases/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias , Peso Corporal , Caproatos/metabolismo , Caproatos/farmacologia , Carboidratos , Celulases/metabolismo , Celulases/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Isobutiratos/metabolismo , Isobutiratos/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Propionatos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Sacarase/metabolismo , Sacarase/farmacologia
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 187: 105188, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127063

RESUMO

Pest management is challenged with resistant herbivores and problems regarding human health and environmental issues. Indeed, the greatest challenge to modern agriculture is to protect crops from pests and still maintain environmental quality. This study aimed to analyze by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches to the feasibility of using the inhibitory protein extracted from mammals - Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI) as a potential inhibitor of digestive trypsins from the pest Anticarsia gemmatalis and comparing the results with the host-plant inhibitor - Soybean Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (SKTI). BPTI and SKTI interacts with A. gemmatalis trypsin-like enzyme competitively, through hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds. A. gemmatalis larvae exposed to BPTI did not show two common adaptative mechanisms i.e., proteolytic degradation and overproduction of proteases, presenting highly reduced trypsin-like activity. On the other hand, SKTI-fed larvae did not show reduced trypsin-like activity, presenting overproduction of proteases and SKTI digestion. In addition, the larval survival was reduced by BPTI similarly to SKTI, and additionally caused a decrease in pupal weight. The non-plant protease inhibitor BPTI presents intriguing element to compose biopesticide formulations to help decrease the use of conventional refractory pesticides into integrated pest management programs.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Mariposas , Praguicidas , Animais , Aprotinina/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Bovinos , Humanos , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Larva , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Soja/metabolismo , Tripsina , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 431, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the root nodules formation is regulated by specific and complex interactions of legume and rhizobial genes, there are still too many questions to be answered about the role of the genes involved in the regulation of the nodulation signaling pathway. RESULTS: The genetic and biological roles of the isoflavone-7-O-beta-glucoside 6″-O-malonyltransferase gene GsIMaT2 from wild soybean (Glycine soja) in the regulation of nodule and root growth in soybean (Glycine max) were examined in this work. The effect of overexpressing GsIMaT2 from G. soja on the soybean nodulation signaling system and strigolactone production was investigated. We discovered that the GsIMaT2 increased nodule numbers, fresh nodule weight, root weight, and root length by boosting strigolactone formation. Furthermore, we examined the isoflavone concentration of transgenic G. max hairy roots 10 and 20 days after rhizobial inoculation. Malonyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, and glycitein levels were considerably higher in GsMaT2-OE hairy roots after 10- and 20-days of Bradyrhizobium japonicum infection compared to the control. These findings suggest that isoflavones and their biosynthetic genes play unique functions in the nodulation signaling system in G. max. CONCLUSIONS: Finally, our results indicate the potential effects of the GsIMaT2 gene on soybean root growth and nodulation. This study provides novel insights for understanding the epistatic relationship between isoflavones, root development, and nodulation in soybean. HIGHLIGHTS: * Cloning and Characterization of 7-O-beta-glucoside 6″-O-malonyltransferase (GsIMaT2) gene from wild soybean (G. soja). * The role of GsIMaT2 gene in the regulation of root nodule development. *Overexpression of GsMaT2 gene increases the accumulation of isoflavonoid in transgenic soybean hairy roots. * This gene could be used for metabolic engineering of useful isoflavonoid production.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Rhizobium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Nodulação/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Simbiose
6.
Planta ; 256(4): 83, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112244

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The overexpression of the GmGlb1-1 gene reduces plant susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita. Non-symbiotic globin class #1 (Glb1) genes are expressed in different plant organs, have a high affinity for oxygen, and are related to nitric oxide (NO) turnover. Previous studies showed that soybean Glb1 genes are upregulated in soybean plants under flooding conditions. Herein, the GmGlb1-1 gene was identified in soybean as being upregulated in the nematode-resistant genotype PI595099 compared to the nematode-susceptible cultivar BRS133 during plant parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita. The Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic lines overexpressing the GmGlb1-1 gene showed reduced susceptibility to M. incognita. Consistently, gall morphology data indicated that pJ2 nematodes that infected the transgenic lines showed developmental alterations and delayed parasitism progress. Although no significant changes in biomass and seed yield were detected, the transgenic lines showed an elongated, etiolation-like growth under well-irrigation, and also developed more axillary roots under flooding conditions. In addition, transgenic lines showed upregulation of some important genes involved in plant defense response to oxidative stress. In agreement, higher hydrogen peroxide accumulation and reduced activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification enzymes were also observed in these transgenic lines. Thus, based on our data and previous studies, it was hypothesized that constitutive overexpression of the GmGlb1-1 gene can interfere in the dynamics of ROS production and NO scavenging, enhancing the acquired systemic acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improving the cellular homeostasis. Therefore, these collective data suggest that ectopic or nematode-induced overexpression, or enhanced expression of the GmGlb1-1 gene using CRISPR/dCas9 offers great potential for application in commercial soybean cultivars aiming to reduce plant susceptibility to M. incognita.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Globinas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Tylenchoidea/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14944, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056125

RESUMO

Phytotoxicity is caused by the interaction between plants and a chemical substance, which can cause critical damage to plants. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying plant-chemical interactions is important for managing pests in crop fields and avoiding plant phytotoxicity by insecticides. The genomic region responsible for sensitivity to phytotoxicity of etofenprox (PE), controlled by a single dominant gene, was detected by constructing high density genetic map using recombination inbred lines (RILs) in soybean. The genomic region of ~ 80 kbp containing nine genes was identified on chromosome 16 using a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping system using two different RIL populations. Through resequencing data of 31 genotypes, nonsynonymous SNPs were identified in Glyma.16g181900, Glyma.16g182200, and Glyma.16g182300. The genetic variation in Glyma.16g182200, encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP), caused a critical structure disruption on the active site of the protein. This structural variation of GPI-AP may change various properties of the ion channels which are the targets of pyrethroid insecticide including etofenprox. This is the first study that identifies the candidate gene and develops SNP markers associated with PE. This study would provide genomic information to understand the mechanism of phytotoxicity in soybean and functionally characterize the responsive gene.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Soja , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076946

RESUMO

Cancer has become one of the main public health problems worldwide, demanding the development of new therapeutic agents that can help reduce mortality. Lunasin is a soybean peptide that has emerged as an attractive option because its preventive and therapeutic actions against cancer. In this review, we evaluated available research on lunasin's structure and mechanism of action, which should be useful for the development of lunasin-based therapeutic products. We described data on its primary, secondary, tertiary, and possible quaternary structure, susceptibility to post-translational modifications, and structural stability. These characteristics are important for understanding drug activity and characterizing lunasin products. We also provided an overview of research on lunasin pharmacokinetics and safety. Studies examining lunasin's mechanisms of action against cancer were reviewed, highlighting reported activities, and known molecular partners. Finally, we briefly discussed commercially available lunasin products and potential combination therapeutics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Proteínas de Soja , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Proteínas de Soja/uso terapêutico , Soja/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077363

RESUMO

Pseudo-response regulator (PRR) family members serve as key components of the core clock of the circadian clock, and play important roles in photoperiodic flowering, stress tolerance, growth, and the development of plants. In this study, 14 soybean PRR genes were identified, and classified into three groups according to phylogenetic analysis and structural characteristics. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that 13 GmPRRs exhibited obvious rhythmic expression under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, and the expression of 12 GmPRRs was higher under LD in leaves. To evaluate the effects of natural variations in GmPRR alleles on soybean adaptation, we examined the sequences of GmPRRs among 207 varieties collected across China and the US, investigated the flowering phenotypes in six environments, and analyzed the geographical distributions of the major haplotypes. The results showed that a majority of non-synonymous mutations in the coding region were associated with flowering time, and we found that the nonsense mutations resulting in deletion of the CCT domain were related to early flowering. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the haplotypes associated with early flowering were mostly distributed in Northeast China, while the haplotypes associated with late flowering were mostly cultivated in the lower latitudes of China. Our study of PRR family genes in soybean provides not only an important guide for characterizing the circadian clock-controlled flowering pathway but also a theoretical basis and opportunities to breed varieties with adaptation to specific regions and farming systems.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Soja , Flores , Genômica , Fotoperíodo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
10.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078031

RESUMO

Root nodule formation in many leguminous plants is known to be affected by endogen ous and exogenous factors that affect formation, development, and longevity of nodules in roots. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of the genes which are involved in the regulation of the nodulation signaling pathway. This study aimed to investigate the effect of terpenoids and terpene biosynthesis genes on root nodule formation in Glycine max. The study aimed to clarify not only the impact of over-expressing five terpene synthesis genes isolated from G. max and Salvia guaranitica on soybean nodulation signaling pathway, but also on the strigolactones pathway. The obtained results revealed that the over expression of GmFDPS, GmGGPPS, SgGPS, SgFPPS, and SgLINS genes enhanced the root nodule numbers, fresh weight of nodules, root, and root length. Moreover, the terpene content in the transgenic G. max hairy roots was estimated. The results explored that the monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes were significantly increased in transgenic soybean hairy roots in comparison with the control. Our results indicate the potential effects of terpenoids and terpene synthesis genes on soybean root growth and nodulation. The study provides novel insights for understanding the epistatic relationship between terpenoids, root development, and nodulation in soybean.


Assuntos
Nodulação , Soja , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Nodulação/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
11.
Curr Biol ; 32(17): R902-R904, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099890

RESUMO

Chao Fang and Fanjiang Kong introduce the polyploid staple crop, soybean - a major source of dietary protein and oil and model species for root nodulation and plant-developmental studies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Soja , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
12.
Cells ; 11(16)2022 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36010682

RESUMO

The root extracellular trap (RET) has emerged as a specialized compartment consisting of root AC-DC and mucilage. However, the RET's contribution to plant defense is still poorly understood. While the roles of polysaccharides and glycoproteins secreted by root AC-DC have started to be elucidated, how the low-molecular-weight exudates of the RET contribute to root defense is poorly known. In order to better understand the RET and its defense response, the transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes of roots, root AC-DC and mucilage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr, var. Castetis) upon elicitation with the peptide PEP-13 were investigated. This peptide is derived from the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora sojae. In this study, the root and the RET responses to elicitation were dissected and sequenced using transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The major finding is increased synthesis and secretion of specialized metabolites upon induced defense activation following PEP-13 peptide elicitation. This study provides novel findings related to the pivotal role of the root extracellular trap in root defense.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Soja/metabolismo
13.
Science ; 377(6608): 851-854, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981033

RESUMO

Crop leaves in full sunlight dissipate damaging excess absorbed light energy as heat. This protective dissipation continues after the leaf transitions to shade, reducing crop photosynthesis. A bioengineered acceleration of this adjustment increased photosynthetic efficiency and biomass in tobacco in the field. But could that also translate to increased yield in a food crop? Here we bioengineered the same change into soybean. In replicated field trials, photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light was higher and seed yield in five independent transformation events increased by up to 33%. Despite increased seed quantity, seed protein and oil content were unaltered. This validates increasing photosynthetic efficiency as a much needed strategy toward sustainably increasing crop yield in support of future global food security.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Fotossíntese , Soja , Bioengenharia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Tabaco/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955768

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has revealed that plant secretory peptides are involved in the long-distance signaling pathways that help to regulate plant development and signal stress responses. In this study, we purified small peptides from soybean (Glycine max) xylem sap via o-chlorophenol extraction and conducted an in-depth peptidomic analysis using a mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics approach. We successfully identified 14 post-translationally modified peptide groups belonging to the peptide families CEP (C-terminally encoded peptides), CLE (CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region-related), PSY (plant peptides containing tyrosine sulfation), and XAP (xylem sap-associated peptides). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed unique tissue expression patterns among the peptide-encoding genes. Further qPCR analysis of some of the peptide-encoding genes showed differential stress-response profiles toward various abiotic stress factors. Targeted MS-based quantification of the nitrogen deficiency-responsive peptides, GmXAP6a and GmCEP-XSP1, demonstrated upregulation of peptide translocation in xylem sap under nitrogen-deficiency stress. Quantitative proteomic analysis of GmCEP-XSP1 overexpression in hairy soybean roots revealed that GmCEP-XSP1 significantly impacts stress response-related proteins. This study provides new insights that root-to-shoot peptide signaling plays important roles in regulating plant stress-response mechanisms.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Soja , Humanos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955771

RESUMO

Soybean plant height and branching affect plant architecture and yield potential in soybean. In this study, the mutant dmbn was obtained by treating the cultivar Zhongpin 661 with ethylmethane sulfonate. The dmbn mutant plants were shorter and more branched than the wild type. The genetic analysis showed that the mutant trait was controlled by a semi-dominant gene. The candidate gene was fine-mapped to a 91 kb interval on Chromosome 9 by combining BSA-seq and linkage analysis. Sequence analysis revealed that Glyma.09g193000 encoding an Aux/IAA protein (GmIAA27) was mutated from C to T in the second exon of the coding region, resulting to amino acid substitution of proline to leucine. Overexpression of the mutant type of this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana inhibited apical dominance and promoted lateral branch development. Expression analysis of GmIAA27 and auxin response genes revealed that some GH3 genes were induced. GmIAA27 relies on auxin to interact with TIR1, whereas Gmiaa27 cannot interact with TIR1 owing to the mutation in the degron motif. Identification of this unique gene that controls soybean plant height and branch development provides a basis for investigating the mechanisms regulating soybean plant architecture development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
16.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956280

RESUMO

Many researchers have found that Pb exposure can cause oxidative stress damage to the body's tissue. Black soybean peptide (BSP) has a variety of physiological functions, especially in terms of oxidative stress. Nevertheless, the mitigation function of BSPs on Pb-induced oxidative stress damage in PC12 cells has not been clearly defined. In this study, cell viability was detected by CCK8. Oxidative stress indicators, such as ROS, GSH/GSSG, MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR, were tested with biochemical kit. Protein expression of Keap1, Nrf2, and TXNIP was measured by Western blot. Compared with the control group, Pb reduced the cell viability of PC12 cells. However, BSP treatment significantly increased the viability of PC12 cells induced by lead exposure (p < 0.05). Lead can enrich the contents of MDA and ROS, but decrease the amount of CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, and GSH/GSSG in PC12 cells, while BSP can alleviate it (p < 0.05). Lead can enhance the expression of Keap1 and TXNIP proteins, but reduce Nrf2 expression. In contrast, BSPs reversed this phenomenon (p < 0.05). BSPs can alleviate oxidative stress injury induced by lead in PC12 cells through the Keap1/Nrf2/TXNIP signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Soja , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Células PC12 , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Soja/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Food Funct ; 13(18): 9459-9469, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979800

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify and prepare peptides from selenium (Se)-enriched soybeans and determine whether dietary Se-enriched soybean peptides (Se-SPep) could inhibit lung injury in mice induced by fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5). BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups. The mice in the prevention groups were pretreated with 378 mg kg-1 of Se-SPep, soybean peptides (SPep), and Se-enriched soybean protein (Se-SPro), respectively, for four weeks. The mice in the PM2.5 exposure group received concentrated PM2.5 (15 µg per day mice) for 1 h daily from the third week for two weeks. The results showed that the leukocyte and cytokine (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α) levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the PM2.5 exposure group were higher than those in the control group. Se-SPep pretreatment decreased the IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels compared with the PM2.5 exposure group. Additionally, Se-SPep pretreatment inhibited TLR4/NF-κB/IκBα and NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 protein expression in the lungs. In conclusion, Se-SPep pretreatment may protect the lungs of the mice against PM2.5-induced inflammation, suggesting that Se-SPep represents a potential preventative agent to inhibit PM2.5-induced lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar , Selênio , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Selênio/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Biol ; 20(8): e3001739, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969610

RESUMO

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) provides sufficient nitrogen (N) to meet most legume nutrition demands. In return, host plants feed symbionts carbohydrates produced in shoots. However, the molecular dialogue between shoots and symbionts remains largely mysterious. Here, we report the map-based cloning and characterization of a natural variation in GmNN1, the ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT2a) that simultaneously triggers nodulation in soybean and modulates leaf N nutrition. A 43-bp insertion in the promoter region of GmNN1/FT2a significantly decreased its transcription level and yielded N deficiency phenotypes. Manipulating GmNN1/GmFT2a significantly enhanced soybean nodulation, plant growth, and N nutrition. The near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying low mRNA abundance alleles of GmNN1/FT2a, along with stable transgenic soybeans with CRISPR/Cas9 knockouts of GmNN1/FT2a, had yellower leaves, lower N concentrations, and fewer nodules than wild-type control plants. Grafting together with split-root experiments demonstrated that only shoot GmNN1/FT2a was responsible for regulating nodulation and thereby N nutrition through shoot-to-root translocation, and this process depends on rhizobial infection. After translocating into roots, shoot-derived GmNN1/FT2a was found to interact with GmNFYA-C (nuclear factor-Y subunit A-C) to activate symbiotic signaling through the previously reported GmNFYA-C-ENOD40 module. In short, the description of the critical soybean nodulation regulatory pathway outlined herein sheds novel insights into the shoot-to-root signaling required for communications between host plants and root nodulating symbionts.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Soja , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Simbiose/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14421, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002532

RESUMO

The aim of the present research was to understand the impacts of foliar nitrogen and α-oxoglutarate on proline accumulation, photosynthesis, and ammonium assimilation of soybean seedlings subjected to drought stress. The data in the present study demonstrated that foliar α-oxoglutarate and nitrogen significantly enhanced leaf glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, glutamate content, proline content, relative water content (RWC) and photosynthesis of soybean seedlings exposed to drought stress at each stage. Accordingly, the ammonium content was significantly reduced by foliar α-oxoglutarate and nitrogen. These results suggested that a combination of foliar nitrogen plus α-oxoglutarate had an advantage over either foliar nitrogen or foliar α-oxoglutarate in increasing the proline accumulation under drought stress and a combination of foliar nitrogen plus α-oxoglutarate could better mitigate the adverse impacts of drought stress.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Secas , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/farmacologia , Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
20.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(8): 251, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant hormones auxin affects most aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin transport and signaling are regulated by different factors that modulate plant morphogenesis and respond to external environments. The modulation of gene expression by Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) and inhibiting Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are involved in auxin signaling pathways. These components are encoded by gene families with numerous members in most flowering plants. METHODS: However, there is no genome-wide analysis of the expression profile and the structural and functional properties of the ARF and Aux/IAA gene families in soybean. Using various online tools to acquire of genomic and expression data, and analyzing them to differentiate the selected gene family's expression, interaction, and responses in plant growth and development. RESULTS: Here, we discovered 63 GmIAAs and 51 GmARFs in a genome-wide search for soybean and analyzed the genomic, sequential and structural properties of GmARFs and GmIAAs. All of the GmARFs found have the signature B3 DNA-binding (B3) and ARF (Aux rep) domains, with only 23 possessing the C-terminal PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain (Aux/IAA), according to domain analysis. The number of exons in GmARFs and GmIAAs genes varies from two to sixteen, indicating that the gene structure of GmARFs and GmIAAs is highly variable. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the 51 GmARFs and 63 GmIAAs were classified into I-V and I-VII groups. The expression pattern of GmARFs and GmIAAs revealed that the GmARF expression is more specific to a particular part of the plant; for example, ARF 2, 7, and 11 are highly expressed in the root. In contrast, GmIAAs expression has occurred in various parts of the plants. The interaction of ARF with functional genes showed extensive interactions with genes involved in auxin transport which helps to control plant growth and development. Furthermore, we also elaborate on the DNA-protein interaction of ARFs by identifying the residues involved in DNA recognition. CONCLUSIONS: This study will improve our understanding of the auxin signaling system and its regulatory role in plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Soja , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
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