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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 356, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724950

RESUMO

The use of saline water under drought conditions is critical for sustainable agricultural development in arid regions. Biochar is used as a soil amendment to enhance soil properties such as water-holding capacity and the source of nutrition elements of plants. Thus, the research was carried out to assess the impact of biochar treatment on the morphological and physiological characteristics and production of Solanum lycopersicum in greenhouses exposed to drought and saline stresses. The study was structured as a three-factorial in split-split-plot design. There were 16 treatments across three variables: (i) water quality, with freshwater and saline water, with electrical conductivities of 0.9 and 2.4 dS m- 1, respectively; (ii) irrigation level, with 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of total evapotranspiration (ETC); (iii) and biochar application, with the addition of biochar at a 3% dosage by (w/w) (BC3%), and a control (BC0%). The findings demonstrated that salt and water deficiency hurt physiological, morphological, and yield characteristics. Conversely, the biochar addition enhanced all characteristics. Growth-related parameters, such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and dry and wet weight, and leaf gas exchange attributes, such rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, conductivity, as well as leaf relative water content were decreased by drought and salt stresses, especially when the irrigation was 60% ETc or 40% ETc. The biochar addition resulted in a substantial enhancement in vegetative growth-related parameters, physiological characteristics, efficiency of water use, yield, as well as reduced proline levels. Tomato yield enhanced by 4%, 16%, 8%, and 3% when irrigation with freshwater at different levels of water deficit (100% ETc, 80% ETc, 60% ETc, and 40% ETc) than control (BC0%). Overall, the use of biochar (3%) combined with freshwater shows the potential to enhance morpho-physiological characteristics, support the development of tomato plants, and improve yield with higher WUE in semi-arid and arid areas.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Secas , Estresse Salino , Solanum lycopersicum , Água , Solanum lycopersicum/fisiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Água/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731974

RESUMO

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeding for improved fruit quality emphasizes selecting for desirable taste and characteristics, as well as enhancing disease resistance and yield. Seed germination is the initial step in the plant life cycle and directly affects crop productivity and yield. ERECTA (ER) is a receptor-like kinase (RLK) family protein known for its involvement in diverse developmental processes. We characterized a Micro-Tom EMS mutant designated as a knock-out mutant of sler. Our research reveals that SlER plays a central role in controlling critical traits such as inflorescence development, seed number, and seed germination. The elevation in auxin levels and alterations in the expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABI5 in sler seeds compared to the WT indicate that SlER modulates seed germination via auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Additionally, we detected an increase in auxin content in the sler ovary and changes in the expression of auxin synthesis genes YUCCA flavin monooxygenases 1 (YUC1), YUC4, YUC5, and YUC6 as well as auxin response genes AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 5 (ARF5) and ARF7, suggesting that SlER regulates fruit development via auxin signaling.


Assuntos
Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Proteínas de Plantas , Sementes , Transdução de Sinais , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo
3.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114340, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729695

RESUMO

Fruits are essential sources of nutrients in our daily diet; however, their spoilage is often intensified by mechanical damage and the ethylene phytohormone, resulting in significant economic losses and exacerbating hunger issues. To address these challenges, this study presented a straightforward in situ synthesis protocol for producing Z/SOPPU foam, a 3D porous-structured fruit packaging. This innovative packaging material offered advanced ethylene-adsorbing and cushioning capabilities achieved through stirring, heating, and standing treatments. The results demonstrated that the Z/SOPPU foam, with its porous structure, served as an excellent packaging material for fruits, maintaining the intact appearance of tomatoes even after being thrown 72 times from a height of 1.5 m. Additionally, it exhibited desirable hydrophobicity (contact angle of 114.31 ± 0.82°), degradability (2.73 ± 0.88 % per 4 weeks), and efficient ethylene adsorption (adsorption rate of 13.2 ± 1.7 mg/m3/h). These remarkable characteristics could be attributed to the unique 3D micron-porous configuration, consisting of soybean oil polyol polyurethane foam for mechanical strain cushioning and zein for enhanced ethylene adsorption efficiency. Overall, this research offers an effective and original approach to the rational design and fabrication of advanced bio-based fruit packaging.


Assuntos
Etilenos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Frutas , Poliuretanos , Óleo de Soja , Zeína , Etilenos/química , Poliuretanos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Porosidade , Frutas/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Zeína/química , Adsorção , Polímeros/química , Solanum lycopersicum/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
4.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 564, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740889

RESUMO

Plant-associated microbial communities are key to shaping many aspects of plant biology. In this study, we tested whether soil microbial communities and herbivory influence the bacterial community of tomato plants and whether their influence in different plant compartments is driven by microbial spillover between compartments or whether plants are involved in mediating this effect. We grew our plants in soils hosting three different microbial communities and covered (or not) the soil surface to prevent (or allow) passive microbial spillover between compartments, and we exposed them (or not) to herbivory by Manduca sexta. Here we show that the soil-driven effect on aboveground compartments is consistently detected regardless of soil coverage, whereas soil cover influences the herbivore-driven effect on belowground microbiota. Together, our results suggest that the soil microbiota influences aboveground plant and insect microbial communities via changes in plant metabolism and physiology or by sharing microorganisms via xylem sap. In contrast, herbivores influence the belowground plant microbiota via a combination of microbial spillover and changes in plant metabolism. These results demonstrate the important role of plants in linking aboveground and belowground microbiota, and can foster further research on soil microbiota manipulation for sustainable pest management.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Manduca , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Animais , Manduca/fisiologia , Manduca/microbiologia , Solo/química , Bactérias/classificação
5.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14332, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710502

RESUMO

Plant cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, the largest enzyme metabolism family, has been identified in many species and plays a vital role in plant development and stress response via secondary metabolite biosynthesis. A comprehensive identification and functional investigation of CYPs in tomato plants would contribute to deeper understanding of their biological significance. In this study, 268 tomato CYP genes were identified and found to be unevenly located on 12 chromosomes. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, these 268 SlCYPs were classed into two distinct clades (A-type and non-A-type) and nine clans, including 48 families. Moreover, 67 tandem and 22 WGD (whole genome duplication)/segmental duplication events were detected, of which 12 SlCYP genes experienced both WGD/segmental and tandem duplication events, indicating that tandem duplication plays a major role in the expansion of the SlCYP family. Besides, 48 pairs containing 41 SlCYP and 44 AtCYP genes were orthologous, while 216 orthologous pairs were obtained between tomato and potato. The expression level of all SlCYP genes in tomato tissues at different development stages was analyzed, and most expressed SlCYPs showed a tissue-specific pattern. Meanwhile, 143 differentially expressed SlCYPs were identified under cold stress. Furthermore, the RT-qPCR results indicated that SlCYPs may be involved in fruit ripening and cold tolerance in tomato seedlings. These findings provide valuable insights into the evolutionary relationships and functional characteristics of SlCYPs, which can be utilized for further investigation of fruit metabolic pathways and cold tolerance in tomato.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/fisiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Temperatura Baixa
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692851

RESUMO

AIMS: Clonostachys rosea is a well-known mycoparasite that has recently been investigated as a bio-based alternative to chemical nematicides for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes. In the search for a promising biocontrol agent, the ability of the C. rosea strain PHP1701 to control the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was tested. METHODS AND RESULTS: Control of M. incognita in vitro and in soil by C. rosea strain PHP1701 was significant and concentration dependent. Small pot greenhouse trials confirmed a significant reduction in tomato root galling compared to the untreated control. In a large greenhouse trial, the control effect was confirmed in early and mid-season. Tomato yield was higher when the strain PHP1701 was applied compared to the untreated M. incognita-infected control. However, the yield of non-M. incognita-infected tomato plants was not reached. A similar reduction in root galling was also observed in a field trial. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the potential of this fungal strain as a promising biocontrol agent for root-knot nematode control in greenhouses, especially as part of an integrated pest management approach. We recommend the use of C. rosea strain PHP1701 for short-season crops and/or to reduce M. incognita populations on fallow land before planting the next crop.


Assuntos
Hypocreales , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Solanum lycopersicum , Tylenchoidea , Solanum lycopersicum/parasitologia , Animais , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Solo/parasitologia
7.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14335, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705728

RESUMO

Sound vibrations (SV) are known to influence molecular and physiological processes that can improve crop performance and yield. In this study, the effects of three audible frequencies (100, 500 and 1000 Hz) at constant amplitude (90 dB) on tomato Micro-Tom physiological responses were evaluated 1 and 3 days post-treatment. Moreover, the potential use of SV treatment as priming agent for improved Micro-Tom resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was tested by microarray. Results showed that the SV-induced physiological changes were frequency- and time-dependent, with the largest changes registered at 1000 Hz at day 3. SV treatments tended to alter the foliar content of photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, sugars, phenolic composition, and the enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Microarray data revealed that 1000 Hz treatment is effective in eliciting transcriptional reprogramming in tomato plants grown under normal conditions, but particularly after the infection with Pst DC3000. Broadly, in plants challenged with Pst DC3000, the 1000 Hz pretreatment provoked the up-regulation of unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in cell wall reinforcement, phenylpropanoid pathway and defensive proteins. In addition, in those plants, DEGs associated with enhancing plant basal immunity, such as proteinase inhibitors, pathogenesis-related proteins, and carbonic anhydrase 3, were notably up-regulated in comparison with non-SV pretreated, infected plants. These findings provide new insights into the modulation of Pst DC3000-tomato interaction by sound and open up prospects for further development of strategies for plant disease management through the reinforcement of defense mechanisms in Micro-Tom plants.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Pseudomonas syringae , Solanum lycopersicum , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Som , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/genética
8.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14325, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715548

RESUMO

Boosting plant immunity by priming agents can lower agrochemical dependency in plant production. Levan and levan-derived oligosaccharides (LOS) act as priming agents against biotic stress in several crops. Additionally, beneficial microbes can promote plant growth and protect against fungal diseases. This study assessed possible synergistic effects caused by levan, LOS and five levan- and LOS-metabolizing Bacillaceae (Bacillus and Priestia) strains in tomato and wheat. Leaf and seed defense priming assays were conducted in non-soil (semi-sterile substrate) and soil-based systems, focusing on tomato-Botrytis cinerea and wheat-Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum (MoT) pathosystems. In the non-soil system, seed defense priming with levan, the strains (especially Bacillus velezensis GA1), or their combination significantly promoted tomato growth and protection against B. cinerea. While no growth stimulatory effects were observed for wheat, disease protective effects were also observed in the wheat-MoT pathosystem. When grown in soil and subjected to leaf defense priming, tomato plants co-applied with levan and the bacterial strains showed increased resistance to B. cinerea compared with plants treated with levan or single strains, and these effects were synergistic in some cases. For seed defense priming in soil, more synergistic effects on disease tolerance were observed in a non-fertilized soil as compared to a fertilized soil, suggesting that potential prebiotic effects of levan are more prominent in poor soils. The potential of using combinations of Bacilliaceae and levan in sustainable agriculture is discussed.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Frutanos , Doenças das Plantas , Solanum lycopersicum , Triticum , Frutanos/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/imunologia , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Bacillus/fisiologia , Botrytis , Imunidade Vegetal , Resistência à Doença , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/imunologia , Ascomicetos
9.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14323, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695188

RESUMO

Tomatoes are frequently challenged by various pathogens, among which Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a destructive soil-borne pathogen that seriously threatens the safe production of tomatoes. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) positively induced plant resistance against multiple pathogens. However, little is known about the role and regulatory mechanism of PGPR in tomato resistance to P. capsici. Here, we identified a new strain Serratia plymuthica (S. plymuthica), HK9-3, which has a significant antibacterial effect on P. capsici infection. Meanwhile, stable colonization in roots by HK9-3, even under P. capsici infection, improved tomato growth parameters, root system architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and boosted biomass. Importantly, HK9-3 colonization significantly alleviated the damage caused by P. capsici infection through enhancing ROS scavenger ability and inducing antioxidant defense system and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in leaves, as evidenced by elevating the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and chitinase, ß-1,3-glucanase, and increasing the transcripts of POD, SOD, CAT, APX1, PAL1, PAL2, PAL5, PPO2, CHI17 and ß-1,3-glucanase genes. Notably, HK9-3 colonization not only effectively improved soil microecology and soil fertility, but also significantly enhanced fruit yield by 44.6% and improved quality. Our study presents HK9-3 as a promising and effective solution for controlling P. capsici infection in tomato cultivation while simultaneously promoting plant growth and increasing yield, which may have implications for P. capsici control in vegetable production.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Phytophthora , Doenças das Plantas , Rizosfera , Serratia , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/fisiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Serratia/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302149, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691526

RESUMO

Future colonists on Mars will need to produce fresh food locally to acquire key nutrients lost in food dehydration, the primary technique for sending food to space. In this study we aimed to test the viability and prospect of applying an intercropping system as a method for soil-based food production in Martian colonies. This novel approach to Martian agriculture adds valuable insight into how we can optimise resource use and enhance colony self-sustainability, since Martian colonies will operate under very limited space, energy, and Earth supplies. A likely early Martian agricultural setting was simulated using small pots, a controlled greenhouse environment, and species compliant with space mission requirements. Pea (Pisum sativum), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were grown in three soil types ("MMS-1" Mars regolith simulant, potting soil and sand), planted either mixed (intercropping) or separate (monocropping). Rhizobia bacteria (Rhizobium leguminosarum) were added as the pea symbiont for Nitrogen-fixing. Plant performance was measured as above-ground biomass (g), yield (g), harvest index (%), and Nitrogen/Phosphorus/Potassium content in yield (g/kg). The overall intercropping system performance was calculated as total relative yield (RYT). Intercropping had clear effects on plant performance in Mars regolith, being beneficial for tomato but mostly detrimental for pea and carrot, ultimately giving an overall yield disadvantage compared to monocropping (RYT = 0.93). This effect likely resulted from the observed absence of Rhizobia nodulation in Mars regolith, negating Nitrogen-fixation and preventing intercropped plants from leveraging their complementarity. Adverse regolith conditions-high pH, elevated compactness and nutrient deficiencies-presumably restricted Rhizobia survival/nodulation. In sand, where more favourable soil conditions promoted effective nodulation, intercropping significantly outperformed monocropping (RYT = 1.32). Given this, we suggest that with simple regolith improvements, enhancing conditions for nodulation, intercropping shows promise as a method for optimising food production in Martian colonies. Specific regolith ameliorations are proposed for future research.


Assuntos
Marte , Solo , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Daucus carota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Pisum sativum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Voo Espacial
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(19): e2316371121, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701118

RESUMO

Strigolactones are a class of phytohormones with various functions in plant development, stress responses, and in the interaction with (micro)organisms in the rhizosphere. While their effects on vegetative development are well studied, little is known about their role in reproduction. We investigated the effects of genetic and chemical modification of strigolactone levels on the timing and intensity of flowering in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. Results showed that strigolactone levels in the shoot, whether endogenous or exogenous, correlate inversely with the time of anthesis and directly with the number of flowers and the transcript levels of the florigen-encoding gene SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) in the leaves. Transcript quantifications coupled with metabolite analyses demonstrated that strigolactones promote flowering in tomato by inducing the activation of the microRNA319-LANCEOLATE module in leaves. This, in turn, decreases gibberellin content and increases the transcription of SFT. Several other floral markers and morpho-anatomical features of developmental progression are induced in the apical meristems upon treatment with strigolactones, affecting floral transition and, more markedly, flower development. Thus, strigolactones promote meristem maturation and flower development via the induction of SFT both before and after floral transition, and their effects are blocked in plants expressing a miR319-resistant version of LANCEOLATE. Our study positions strigolactones in the context of the flowering regulation network in a model crop species.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lactonas , MicroRNAs , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia
12.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14338, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740528

RESUMO

Bacteria can be applied as biofertilizers to improve crop growth in phosphorus (P)-limited conditions. However, their mode of action in a soil environment is still elusive. We used the strain ALC_02 as a case study to elucidate how Bacillus subtilis affects dwarf tomato cultivated in soil-filled rhizoboxes over time. ALC_02 improved plant P acquisition by increasing the size and P content of P-limited plants. We assessed three possible mechanisms, namely root growth stimulation, root hair elongation, and solubilization of soil P. ALC_02 produced auxin, and inoculation with ALC_02 promoted root growth. ALC_02 promoted root hair elongation as the earliest observed response and colonized root hairs specifically. Root and root hair growth stimulation was associated with a subsequent increase in plant P content, indicating that a better soil exploration by the root system improved plant P acquisition. Furthermore, ALC_02 affected the plant-available P content in sterilized soil differently over time and released P from native P pools in the soil. Collectively, ALC_02 exhibited all three mechanisms in a soil environment. To our knowledge, bacterial P biofertilizers have not been reported to colonize and elongate root hairs in the soil so far, and we propose that these traits contribute to the overall effect of ALC_02. The knowledge gained in this research can be applied in the future quest for bacterial P biofertilizers, where we recommend assessing all three parameters, not only root growth and P solubilization, but also root hair elongation. This will ultimately support the development of sustainable agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Fósforo , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Solanum lycopersicum , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Solo/química , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solubilidade , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Fertilizantes
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108607, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593486

RESUMO

Grafting in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has mainly been used to prevent damage by soil-borne pathogens and the negative effects of abiotic stresses, although productivity and fruit quality can also be enhanced using high vigor rootstocks. In the context of a low nutrients input agriculture, the grafting of elite cultivars onto rootstocks displaying higher Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) supports a direct strategy for yield maximization. In this study we assessed the use of plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis (AtCDF3) or tomato (SlCDF3) CDF3 genes, previously reported to increase NUE in tomato, as rootstocks to improve yield in the grafted scion under low N inputs. We found that the AtCDF3 gene induced greater production of sugars and amino acids, which allowed for greater biomass and fruit yield under both sufficient and limiting N supplies. Conversely, no positive impact was found with the SlCDF3 gene. Hormone analyses suggest that gibberellins (GA4), auxin and cytokinins (tZ) might be involved in the AtCDF3 responses to N. The differential responses triggered by the two genes could be related, at least in part, to the mobility of the AtCDF3 transcript through the phloem to the shoot. Consistently, a higher expression of the target genes of the transcription factor, such as glutamine synthase 2 (SlGS2) and GA oxidase 3 (SlGA3ox), involved in amino acid and gibberellin biosynthesis, respectively, was observed in the leaves of this graft combination. Altogether, our results provided further insights into the mode of action of CDF3 genes and their biotechnology potential for transgrafting approaches.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Solanum lycopersicum , Fatores de Transcrição , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108609, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615442

RESUMO

Plant microbial biostimulants application has become a promising and eco-friendly agricultural strategy to improve crop yields, reducing chemical inputs for more sustainable cropping systems. The soil dwelling bacterium Kocuria rhizophila was previously characterized as Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) for its multiple PGP traits, such as indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization capability and salt and drought stress tolerance. Here, we evaluated by a multi-omics approach, the PGP activity of K. rhizophila on tomato, revealing the molecular pathways by which it promotes plant growth. Transcriptomic analysis showed several up-regulated genes mainly related to amino acid metabolism, cell wall organization, lipid and secondary metabolism, together with a modulation in the DNA methylation profile, after PGPB inoculation. In agreement, proteins involved in photosynthesis, cell division, and plant growth were highly accumulated by K. rhizophila. Furthermore, "amino acid and peptides", "monosaccharides", and "TCA" classes of metabolites resulted the most affected by PGPB treatment, as well as dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter mediating plant growth through S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a gene enhancing the vegetative growth, up-regulated in tomato by K. rhizophila treatment. Interestingly, eight gene modules well correlated with differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) and metabolites (DAMs), among which two modules showed the highest correlation with nine proteins, including a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, as well as with several amino acids and metabolites involved in TCA cycle. Overall, our findings highlighted that sugars and amino acids, energy regulators, involved in tomato plant growth, were strongly modulated by the K. rhizophila-plant interaction.


Assuntos
Micrococcaceae , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micrococcaceae/metabolismo , Micrococcaceae/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108083, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615441

RESUMO

Tomato is an important horticultural cash crop, and low-temperature stress has seriously affected the yield and quality of tomato. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used in agriculture as an efficient and harmless growth regulator. It is currently unclear whether exogenous ALA can cope with low-temperature stress by regulating tomato starch content and phenylalanine metabolism. In this study, exogenous ALA remarkably improved the low-temperature tolerance of tomato seedlings. RNA-sequencing results showed that exogenous ALA affected starch metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism in tomato seedling leaves under low-temperature stress. Subsequently, we used histochemical staining, observation of chloroplast microstructure, substance content determination, and qRT-PCR analysis to demonstrate that exogenous ALA could improve the low-temperature tolerance of tomato seedlings by regulating starch content and phenylalanine metabolism (SlPAL, SlPOD1, and SlPOD2). Simultaneously, we found that exogenous ALA induced the expression of SlMYBs and SlWRKYs under low-temperature stress. In addition, dual luciferase, yeast one hybrid, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that SlMYB4 and SlMYB88 could regulate the expression of SlPOD2 in phenylalanine metabolism. We demonstrated that exogenous ALA could improve the low-temperature tolerance of tomato seedlings by regulating starch content and phenylalanine metabolism.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico , Fenilalanina , Plântula , Solanum lycopersicum , Amido , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/metabolismo , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108616, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615444

RESUMO

This study aims to examine the effect of foliar magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (IONP) application on the physiology, photosynthetic parameters, magnetic character, and mineral element distribution of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme). The IONP suspension (500 mg L-1) was sprayed once (S1), twice (S2), thrice (S3), and four times (S4) a week on seedlings. Upon 21 days of the treatments, photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll, carotenoids, photosynthetic yield, electron transport rate) were elucidated. Inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to determine the mineral elements and abundance of magnetic power in the seedlings. In addition, the RT-qPCR method was performed to quantify the expressions of photosystem-related (PsaC, PsbP6, and PsbQ) and ferritin-coding (Fer-1 and Fer-2) genes. Results revealed that the physiological and photosynthetic indices were improved upon S1 treatment. The optimal dosage of IONP spraying enhances chlorophyll, carotenoid, electron transport rate (ETR), and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Y(II)) but substantially diminishes non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). However, frequent IONP applications (S2, S3, and S4) caused growth retardation and suppressed the photosynthetic parameters, suggesting a toxic effect of IONP in recurrent treatments. Fer-1 and Fer-2 expressions were strikingly increased by IONP applications, suggesting an attempt to neutralize the excess amount of Fe ions by ferritin. Nevertheless, frequent IONP treatment fluctuated the mineral distribution and caused growth inhibition. Although low-repeat foliar applications of IONP (S1 in this study) may help improve plant growth, consecutive applications (S2, S3, and S4) should be avoided.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro , Clorofila/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos
17.
Food Funct ; 15(9): 4874-4886, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590277

RESUMO

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NCUH001046 (LP)-fermented tomatoes exhibited the potential to alleviate obesity in our previous study. This subsequent study further delves deeper into the effects of LP fermentation on the physicochemical properties, bioactivities, and hepatic lipid metabolism modulation of tomatoes, as well as the analysis of potential bioactive compounds exerting obesity-alleviating effects. Results showed that after LP fermentation, viable bacterial counts peaked at 9.11 log CFU mL-1 and sugar decreased, while organic acids, umami amino acids, total phenols, and total flavonoids increased. LP fermentation also improved the inhibition capacities of three digestive enzyme activities and Enterobacter cloacae growth, as well as antioxidant activities. Western blot results indicated that fermented tomatoes, especially live probiotic-fermented tomatoes (LFT), showed improved effects compared to unfermented tomatoes in reducing hepatic lipid accumulation by activating the AMPK signal pathway. UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based untargeted metabolomics analysis showed that chlorogenic acid, capsiate, tiliroside, irisflorentin, and homoeriodictyol levels increased after fermentation. Subsequent cell culture assays demonstrated that irisflorentin and homoeriodictyol reduced lipid accumulation via enhancing AMPK expression in oleic acid-induced hyperlipidemic HepG2 cells. Furthermore, Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that the five phenols were positively associated with hepatic AMPK pathway activation. Consequently, it could be inferred that the five phenols may be potential bioactive compounds in LFT to alleviate obesity and lipid metabolism disorders. In summary, these findings underscored the transformative potential of LP fermentation in enhancing the bioactive profile of tomatoes and augmenting its capacity to alleviate obesity and lipid metabolism disorders. This study furnished theoretical underpinnings for the functional investigation of probiotic-fermented plant-based foods.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Probióticos , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/química , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Animais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Camundongos
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 39, 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615069

RESUMO

Plants and microorganisms establish beneficial associations that can improve their development and growth. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bacteria isolated from the skin of amphibians can contribute to plant growth and defense. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect for the host are still unclear. In this work, we explored whether bacteria isolated from three tropical frogs species can contribute to plant growth. After a wide screening, we identified three bacterial strains with high biostimulant potential, capable of modifying the root structure of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. In addition, applying individual bacterial cultures to Solanum lycopersicum plants induced an increase in their growth. To understand the effect that these microorganisms have over the host plant, we analysed the transcriptomic profile of A. thaliana during the interaction with the C32I bacterium, demonstrating that the presence of the bacteria elicits a transcriptional response associated to plant hormone biosynthesis. Our results show that amphibian skin bacteria can function as biostimulants to improve agricultural crops growth and development by modifying the plant transcriptomic responses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Solanum lycopersicum , Animais , Transcriptoma , Arabidopsis/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Anfíbios , Bactérias , Hormônios
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2788: 39-48, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656507

RESUMO

Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that plants release as part of their natural biological processes. Various plant tissues produce VOCs, including leaves, stems, flowers, and roots. VOCs are essential in plant communication, defense against pests and pathogens, aroma and flavor, and attracting pollinators. The study of plant volatiles has become an increasingly important area of research in recent years, as scientists have recognized these compounds' important roles in plant physiology. As a result, there has been a growing interest in developing methods for collecting and analyzing plant VOCs. HS-SPME-GC-MS (headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) is commonly used for plant volatile analysis due to its high sensitivity and selectivity. This chapter describes an efficient method for extracting and identifying volatile compounds by HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS in tomato fruits.


Assuntos
Frutas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Solanum lycopersicum , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Solanum lycopersicum/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Frutas/química
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2788: 317-335, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656523

RESUMO

The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas 9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) is a robust DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated sequence-specific nuclease system widely used for genome editing of various plants. Although there are many reports on the assembly of gRNAs and plant transformation, there is no single resource for the complete gene editing methodology in tomato. This chapter provides a comprehensive protocol for designing gRNAs, their assembly into the vector, plant transformation, and final mutant analysis in tomato.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Genoma de Planta , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética
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