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1.
Parasite ; 28: 74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723788

RESUMO

Echinococcus multilocularis eggs are deposited on the ground with the faeces of the carnivore definitive hosts. A reliable assessment of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis eggs in environments used by humans is crucial for the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). This study was conducted in 192 rural and 71 urban vegetable gardens in AE endemic areas of north-eastern France. Its objective was to explore the relationship between the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis estimated from the collection and molecular analysis of two types of samples: faeces and soil. A total of 1024 carnivore faeces and 463 soil samples were collected and analysed by real-time PCR. No fox droppings and no positive soil samples were collected from the urban gardens. Positive soil samples, positive carnivore faeces, or both, were found in 42%, 24% and 6% of the sampled rural gardens, respectively. No significant association was found between the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples collected from 50 gardens during a single sampling session and the extent and frequency of deposits of fox and cat faeces collected during repeated sampling sessions conducted in the previous months. In 19/50 gardens, E. multilocularis was detected in the soil while no positive faeces had been collected in the previous 12 months. Conversely, in 8/50 gardens, no soil samples were positive although positive faeces had been collected in the previous months. Collecting and analysing faeces provide information on soil contamination at a given time, while analysing soil samples provides an overview of long-term contamination.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Fezes/parasitologia , Solo , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas , Jardins , Solo/parasitologia , Verduras
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009807, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guinea reported its first case of COVID-19 on March 12, 2020. Soon thereafter, a national state of emergency was declared, all land borders were closed, schools were shut down, and public gatherings were limited. Many health activities, including field-based activities targeting neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), were paused. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued updated guidance on the resumption of NTD field-based activities on July 27, 2020. In response, the Guinea Ministry of Health (MoH) and its partners planned and resumed mass drug administration (MDA) in mid-August to September 2020 in 19 health districts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A risk-benefit assessment was conducted to identify potential risks associated with the MDA in the COVID-19 context. Following this assessment, a risk mitigation plan with barrier measures was developed to guide MDA implementation. These measures included COVID-19 testing for all national staff leaving Conakry, mask wearing, social distancing of two meters, and hand washing/sanitizing. A checklist was developed and used to monitor compliance to risk mitigation measures. Data on adherence to risk mitigation measures were collected electronically during the MDA. A total of 120 checklists, representing 120 community drug distributor (CDD) teams (two CDDs per team) and 120 households, were completed. Results indicated that washing or disinfecting hands was practiced by 68.3% of CDD teams, compared to 45.0% among households. Face masks to cover the mouth and nose were worn by 79.2% of CDD teams, while this was low among households (23.3%). In 87.5% of households, participants did not touch the dose pole and in 88.3% of CDD teams, CDDs did not touch the hands of the participants while giving the drugs. A large majority of CDD teams (94.2%) and household members (94.2%) were willing to participate in the MDA despite the pandemic. The epidemiological coverage was ≥65% for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminths in 10 out of 19 HDs and ≥75% for schistosomiasis for school-aged children in 7 out of 11 HDs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Guinea was one of the first countries in Africa to resume MDA activities during the COVID-19 pandemic without causing an observed increase of transmission. The development of a risk mitigation plan and a method to monitor adherence to barrier measures was critical to this unprecedented effort. The rapid incorporation of COVID-19 barrier measures and their acceptance by CDDs and household members demonstrated both the adaptability of the National NTD Program to respond to emerging issues and the commitment of the MoH to implement NTD programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Programas Governamentais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guiné , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 116, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections still present a global health problem. Mass drug administration (MDA) is a widely applied strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by STH. Yet, this approach has some shortcomings. In this study, we analyzed the impact of a multi-intervention integrated deworming approach including MDA, health education (HE), and environmental sanitation improvements (ESI) for sustained STH control in Jiangsu Province of China that was applied from 1989 to 2019. METHODS: Data, including infection rate of STH, medications used, coverage of the medication, non-hazardous lavatory rate, and household piped-water access rate in rural areas, and actions related to HE and ESI were collected (from archives) and analyzed in this retrospective descriptive study. Pearson's correlation analysis was applied to test correlations. RESULTS: There was a dramatic decline in the infection rate of STH from 1989 (59.32%) to 2019 (0.12%). From 1995 to 1999, MDA and HE were recommended in rural areas. A negative correlation was observed between infection rate and medication from 1994 to 1998 (r = - 0.882, P = 0.048). From 2000 to 2005, targeted MDA was given to high-risk populations with HE continuously promoting good sanitation behaviors. From 2006 to 2014, targeted MDA + HE and ESI were used to consolidate the control effect. ESI was strengthened from 2006, and a negative correlation was observed between the coverage rate of the non-hazardous lavatory and the infection rate from 2006 to 2019 (r = - 0.95, P < 0.001). The targeted MDA was interrupted in 2015, while continuous efforts like HE and ESI contributed in sustaining STH control. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-intervention integrated deworming strategy contributes to the reduction of STH infections. This approach is a valuable example of how different interventions can be integrated to promote durable STH control.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Saneamento/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/classificação , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0253115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that whereas repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) programs have reduced schistosomiasis prevalence to appreciable levels in some communities referred to here as responding villages (R). However, prevalence has remained high or less than anticipated in other areas referred to here as persistent hotspot villages (PHS). Using a cross-sectional quantitative approach, this study investigated the factors associated with sustained high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in some villages despite repeated high annual treatment coverage in western Kenya. METHOD: Water contact sites selected based on observation of points where people consistently go to collect water, wash clothes, bathe, swim or play (young children), wash cars and harvest sand were mapped using hand-held smart phones on the Commcare platform. Quantitative cross-sectional surveys on behavioral characteristics were conducted using interviewer-based semi-structured questionnaires administered to assess water usage/contact patterns and open defecation. Questionnaires were administered to 15 households per village, 50 pupils per school and 1 head teacher per school. One stool and urine sample was collected from 50 school children aged 9-12 year old and 50 adults from both responding (R) and persistent hotspot (PHS) villages. Stool was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for eggs of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. Urine samples were tested using the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for detection of S. mansoni antigen. RESULTS: There was higher latrine coverage in R (n = 6) relative to PHS villages (n = 6) with only 33% of schools in the PHS villages meeting the WHO threshold for boy: latrine coverage ratio versus 83.3% in R, while no villages met the girl: latrine ratio requirement. A higher proportion of individuals accessed unprotected water sources for both bathing and drinking (68.5% for children and 89% for adults) in PHS relative to R villages. In addition, frequency of accessing water sources was higher in PHS villages, with swimming being the most frequent activity. As expected based upon selection criteria, both prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni were higher in the PHS relative to R villages (prevalence: 43.7% vs 20.2%; P < 0.001; intensity: 73.8 ± 200.6 vs 22.2 ± 96.0, P < 0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Unprotected water sources and low latrine coverage are contributing factors to PHS for schistosomiasis in western Kenya. Efforts to increase provision of potable water and improvement in latrine infrastructure is recommended to augment control efforts in the PHS areas.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural , Esquistossomose/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urina/parasitologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0242645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398898

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been successfully applied as biological control agents against above ground and soil stages of insect pests. However, for commercial application, it is crucial to mass culture these nematodes using in vitro liquid culture technology, as it is not attainable when using susceptible insects as hosts. Lobesia vanillana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is regarded a sporadic pest of wine grapes in South Africa. The in vivo- and in vitro-cultured South African EPNs, Steinernema yirgalemense and Steinernema jeffreyense (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), were evaluated against larvae and pupae of L. vanillana in laboratory bioassays. For larvae, high mortality was observed for all treatments: In vitro-cultured S. yirgalemense (98%) performed better than S. jeffreyense (73%), while within in vivo cultures, there was no difference between nematode species (both 83%). No significant difference was detected between in vivo- and in vitro cultures of the same nematode species. The LD50 of the in vitro-cultured S. yirgalemense, was 7.33 nematodes per larva. Mortality by infection was established by dissecting L. vanillana cadavers and confirming the presence of nematodes, which was > 90% for all treatments. Within in vitro cultures, both S. yirgalemense and S. jeffreyense were able to produce a new cohort of infective juveniles from L. vanillana larvae. Pupae, however, were found to be considerably less susceptible to EPN infection. This is the first study on the use of EPNs to control L. vanillana. The relative success of in vitro-cultured EPN species in laboratory assays, without any loss in pathogenicity, is encouraging for further research and development of this technology.


Assuntos
Insetos/parasitologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Rabditídios/patogenicidade , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico/administração & dosagem , Laboratórios , Larva/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Pupa/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , África do Sul
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16214, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376745

RESUMO

Despite enormous diversity, abundance and their role in ecosystem processes, little is known about how community structures of soil-inhabiting nematodes differ across elevation gradient. For this, soil nematode communities were investigated along an elevation gradient of 1000-2500 masl across a temperate vegetation in Banihal-Pass of Pir-Panjal mountain range. We aimed to determine how the elevation gradient affect the nematode community structure, diversity and contribution to belowground carbon assimilation in the form of metabolic footprint. Our results showed that total nematode abundance and the abundance of different trophic groups (fungivores, herbivores and omnivores) declined with the increase of elevation. Shannon index, generic richness and evenness index indicated that nematode communities were more diverse at lower elevations and declined significantly with increase in elevation. Nematode community showed a pattern of decline in overall metabolic footprint with the increase of elevation. Nematode abundance and diversity proved to be more sensitive to elevation induced changes as more abundant and diverse nematode assemblage are supported at lower elevations. Overall it appears nematode abundance, diversity and contribution to belowground carbon cycling is stronger at lower elevations and gradually keep declining towards higher elevations under temperate vegetation cover in Banihal-pass of Pir-Panjal mountain range.


Assuntos
Altitude , Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Nematoides/metabolismo , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Carbono/análise
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009625, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339450

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has recommended the application of mass drug administration (MDA) in treating high prevalence neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma. MDA-which is safe, effective and inexpensive-has been widely applied to eliminate or interrupt the transmission of STHs in particular and has been offered to people in endemic regions without requiring individual diagnosis. We propose two mathematical models to investigate the impact of MDA on the mean number of worms in both treated and untreated human subpopulations. By varying the efficay of drugs, initial conditions of the models, coverage and frequency of MDA (both annual and biannual), we examine the dynamic behaviour of both models and the possibility of interruption of transmission. Both models predict that the interruption of transmission is possible if the drug efficacy is sufficiently high, but STH infection remains endemic if the drug efficacy is sufficiently low. In between these two critical values, the two models produce different predictions. By applying an additional round of biannual and annual MDA, we find that interruption of transmission is likely to happen in both cases with lower drug efficacy. In order to interrupt the transmission of STH or eliminate the infection efficiently and effectively, it is crucial to identify the appropriate efficacy of drug, coverage, frequency, timing and number of rounds of MDA.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Quênia , Modelos Teóricos , Solo/parasitologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009646, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite several years of school-based MDA implementation, STH infections remain an important public health problem in Benin, with a country-wide prevalence of 20% in 2015. The DeWorm3 study is designed to assess the feasibility of using community-based MDA with albendazole to interrupt the transmission of STH, through a series of cluster-randomized trials in Benin, India and Malawi. We used the pre-treatment baseline survey data to describe and analyze the factors associated with STH infection in Comé, the study site of the DeWorm3 project in Benin. These data will improve understanding of the challenges that need to be addressed in order to eliminate STH as a public health problem in Benin. METHODS: Between March and April 2018, the prevalence of STH (hookworm spp., Ascaris and Trichuris trichiura) was assessed by Kato-Katz in stool samples collected from 6,153 residents in the community of Comé, Benin using a stratified random sampling procedure. A standardized survey questionnaire was used to collect information from individual households concerning factors potentially associated with the presence and intensity of STH infections in pre-school (PSAC, aged 1-4), school-aged children (SAC, aged 5-14) and adults (aged 15 and above). Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to assess associations between these factors and STH infection. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of STH infection was 5.3%; 3.2% hookworm spp., 2.1% Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.1% Trichuris. Hookworm spp. were more prevalent in adults than in SAC (4.4% versus 2.0%, respectively; p = 0.0001) and PSAC (4.4% versus 1.0%, respectively; p<0.0001), whilst Ascaris lumbricoides was more prevalent in SAC than in adults (3.0% versus 1.7%, respectively; p = 0.004). Being PSAC (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 0.2, p< 0.001; adjusted Infection Intensity Ratio (aIIR) = 0.1, p<0.001) or SAC (aOR = 0.5, p = 0.008; aIIR = 0.3, p = 0.01), being a female (aOR = 0.6, p = 0.004; aIIR = 0.3, p = 0.001), and having received deworming treatment the previous year (aOR = 0.4, p< 0.002; aIIR = 0.2, p<0.001) were associated with a lower prevalence and intensity of hookworm infection. Lower income (lowest quintile: aOR = 5.0, p<0.001, 2nd quintile aOR = 3.6, p = 0.001 and 3rd quintile aOR = 2.5, p = 0.02), being a farmer (aOR = 1.8, p = 0.02), medium population density (aOR = 2.6, p = 0.01), and open defecation (aOR = 0.5, p = 0.04) were associated with a higher prevalence of hookworm infection. Lower education-no education, primary or secondary school- (aIIR = 40.1, p = 0.01; aIIR = 30.9, p = 0.02; aIIR = 19.3, p = 0.04, respectively), farming (aIIR = 3.9, p = 0.002), natural flooring (aIIR = 0.2, p = 0.06), peri-urban settings (aIIR = 6.2, 95%CI 1.82-20.90, p = 0.003), and unimproved water source more than 30 minutes from the household (aIIR = 13.5, p = 0.02) were associated with a higher intensity of hookworm infection. Improved and unshared toilet was associated with lower intensity of hookworm infections (aIIR = 0.2, p = 0.01). SAC had a higher odds of Ascaris lumbricoides infection than adults (aOR = 2.0, p = 0.01) and females had a lower odds of infection (aOR = 0.5, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Hookworm spp. are the most prevalent STH in Comé, with a persistent reservoir in adults that is not addressed by current control measures based on school MDA. Expanding MDA to target adults and PSAC is necessary to substantially impact population prevalence, particularly for hookworm. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03014167.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Saneamento , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Benin/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009462, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A national mapping survey of schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) was conducted in The Gambia in May, 2015. The survey aimed at establishing endemicity of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases to inform decisions on program planning and implementation of mass drug administration (MDA). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-section of 10,434 eligible school aged children (SAC), aged 7 to 14 years old were enrolled in the survey. The participants were randomly sampled from 209 schools countrywide using N/50, where N = total eligible children per school. Stool, and urine samples were provided by each child and examined for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthic infections using double Kato-Katz, urine filtration, dipstick techniques and CCA rapid test kits. Data were managed using online LINKS system enabling real-time data availability and access. Epi Info version 3.5.3 and health mapper version 4.3.2 were used to generate outputs of endemicity and distribution. Descriptions of mapped districts for MDA eligibility and frequency were done with reference to WHO PC strategy recommendations. Mapping results indicated that nationally, the prevalence of schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) was 4.3% and 2.5% respectively. In terms of distribution STH are more common in Western Region One (WR1) at 4.1% prevalence, then Lower River Region (LRR) 3.6%, and Western Region Two (WR2) 3.0%. In contrast, SCH indicated much higher prevalence in Central River Region (CRR) at a rate of 14.2%. This is within medium prevalence range, and is followed by Upper River Region (URR) at 9.4%, which is within low prevalence range. At the district level, schistosomiasis prevalence seems to be highest in Niani district (22%) in CRR. Banjul island, the capital city, seems to have the highest prevalence of STH (up to 55%), followed by Kombo South with 22% prevalence. Schistosoma haematobium characterised by haematuria, was the most dominant infection of schistosomiasis discovered followed by Schistosoma mansoni which reported in 0.1% of infections. Out of 42 districts mapped 14, or 38%, of them are co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiases (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hook-worm infections) and schistosomiasis (S. haematobium and S. mansoni). CONCLUSIONS: We identified that 24/42(57%) districts mapped in The Gambia are endemic for schistosomiasis expressing the need for preventive chemotherapy. Twenty (47%) of the districts mapped are endemic for STH. However, only two STH endemic districts namely Banjul (55%) and Kombo South (22%) were within rates eligible for mass drug administration.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009597, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310596

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminths, such as roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.), are gastrointestinal parasites that occur predominantly in low- to middle-income countries worldwide and disproportionally impact children. Depending on the STH species, health status of the host and infection intensity, direct impacts of these parasites include malnutrition, anaemia, diarrhoea and physical and cognitive stunting. The indirect consequences of these infections are less well understood. Specifically, gastrointestinal infections may exert acute or chronic impacts on the natural gut microfauna, leading to increased risk of post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders, and reduced gut and overall health through immunomodulating mechanisms. To date a small number of preliminary studies have assessed the impact of helminths on the gut microbiome, but these studies are conflicting. Here, we assessed STH burden in 273 pre-school and school-aged children in Tha Song Yang district, Tak province, Thailand receiving annual oral mebendazole treatment. Ascaris lumbricoides (107/273) and Trichuris trichiura (100/273) were the most prevalent species and often occurred as co-infections (66/273). Ancylostoma ceylanicum was detected in a small number of children as well (n = 3). All of these infections were of low intensity (<4,999 or 999 eggs per gram for Ascaris and Trichuris respectively). Using this information, we characterised the baseline gut microbiome profile and investigated acute STH-induced alterations, comparing infected with uninfected children at the time of sampling. We found no difference between these groups in bacterial alpha-diversity, but did observe differences in beta-diversity and specific differentially abundant OTUs, including increased Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides coprophilus, and reduced Bifidobacterium adolescentis, each of which have been previously implicated in STH-associated changes in the gut microfauna.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Solo/parasitologia , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Tailândia/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0008815, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319986

RESUMO

Improved sanitation has been hypothesized to reduce soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections by reducing the prevalence and concentration of STH eggs/larvae in soil. We evaluated the effect of a randomized sanitation program (providing households with an improved dual-pit latrine, tools for child/animal feces management, and behavioral messaging) on reducing the prevalence and concentration of STH eggs in soil from household courtyards. We collected soil samples from 1405 households enrolled in the sanitation intervention (n = 419) and control (n = 914) groups of a cluster-randomized controlled trial (WASH Benefits) in rural Bangladesh approximately 2 years after the initiation of the interventions. We analyzed samples for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm eggs by microscopy. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and egg count ratio (ECR) to compare the prevalence of STH eggs and arithmetic and geometric mean egg counts for STH eggs per gram of soil in the sanitation and control arms. Among intervention households, latrines achieved high and sustained user uptake by adults while child open defecation remained common and most households did not dispose of child feces hygienically. In courtyard soil from control households, the prevalence of any STH eggs was 75.7% and the prevalence of any larvated STH eggs was 67.3%. A. lumbricoides was detected in 63.0% of control samples and T. trichiura in 55.7% of control samples; hookworm was not detected in any sample. In the control arm, the arithmetic mean egg count for any STH was 3.96 eggs/dry gram, while the geometric mean was 1.58 eggs/dry gram. There was no difference between the intervention and control groups in the prevalence of any STH eggs (PR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.05)) or mean egg counts (ECR = 0.08 (95% CI: -0.10, 0.26) for geometric mean and 0.07 (95% CI: -0.22, 0.37) for arithmetic mean). Adjusted models gave similar results. A compound-level sanitation intervention that provided improved latrines and tools for disposal of child and animal feces did not have an impact on STH eggs in soil. In order to effectively reduce the prevalence and concentration of STH eggs in the environment, sustained, widespread use of sanitation strategies to isolate and hygienically dispose of child and animal feces may need to complement traditional strategies for containment of adult human feces. Trial Registration: NCT01590095.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/fisiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 354, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases are a serious threat to both public health and animal conservation. Most non-human primates (NHP) are facing the threat of forest loss and fragmentation and are increasingly living in closer spatial proximity to humans. Humans are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) at a high prevalence, and bidirectional infection with NHP has been observed. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, distribution and presence of co-infections of STH in free-ranging gorillas, chimpanzees and other NHP species, and to determine the potential role of these NHP as reservoir hosts contributing to the environmental sustenance of zoonotic nematode infections in forested areas of Cameroon and Gabon. METHODS: A total of 315 faecal samples from six species of NHPs were analysed. We performed PCR amplification, sequencing and maximum likelihood analysis of DNA fragments of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA to detect the presence and determine the genetic diversity of Oesophagostomum spp., Necator spp. and Trichuris spp., and of targeted DNA fragments of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) to detect the presence of Ascaris spp. RESULTS: Necator spp. infections were most common in gorillas (35 of 65 individuals), but also present in chimpanzees (100 of 222 individuals) and in one of four samples from greater spot-nosed monkeys. These clustered with previously described type II and III Necator spp. Gorillas were also the most infected NHP with Oesophagostomum (51/65 individuals), followed by chimpanzees (157/222 individuals), mandrills (8/12 samples) and mangabeys (7/12 samples), with O. stephanostomum being the most prevalent species. Oesophagostomum bifurcum was detected in chimpanzees and a red-capped mangabey, and a non-classified Oesophagostomum species was detected in a mandrill and a red-capped mangabey. In addition, Ternidens deminutus was detected in samples from one chimpanzee and three greater spot-nosed monkeys. A significant relative overabundance of co-infections with Necator and Oesophagostomum was observed in chimpanzees and gorillas. Trichuris sp. was detected at low prevalence in a gorilla, a chimpanzee and a greater spot-nosed monkey. No Ascaris was observed in any of the samples analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results on STH prevalence and genetic diversity in NHP from Cameroon and Gabon corroborate those obtained from other wild NHP populations in other African countries. Future research should focus on better identifying, at a molecular level, the species of Necator and Oesophagostomum infecting NHP and determining how human populations may be affected by increased proximity resulting from encroachment into sylvatic STH reservoir habitats.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/transmissão , Helmintos/genética , Primatas/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Primatas/classificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6682418, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327236

RESUMO

Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma mansoni are the main causes of morbidity among schoolchildren in the tropics. A school-based deworming program was launched to control and eliminate the infection in endemic countries including Ethiopia. Although periodic deworming is conducted in endemic areas, the prevalence of the infection is high in the country. In addition, periodic evaluation of the efficacy of the anthelminthic drug is limited. Objective: This study is aimed at checking the efficacy of mebendazole and praziquantel with the respective STHs and Schistosoma mansoni parasites. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from February to March 2018 among 422 schoolchildren. Stool samples were collected at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks posttreatment and were processed using the Kato-Katz technique. Schoolchildren positive for STHs were treated with mebendazole and those positive for Schistosoma mansoni with praziquantel. After two weeks, a second round of stool was collected and examined, and then, single-dose redosing was given to each positive child. Lastly, the third stool sample was collected two weeks after the initiation of the redosing and checked for STHs and S. mansoni parasites. A close follow-up of students who were treated was done. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics was used to compute the cure rate and egg reduction rate of mebendazole and praziquantel. Results: Among 422 participants, the prevalence of STHs, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and S. mansoni was 44.7%, 35.1%, 21.1%, and 13.9%, respectively. The cure rate of mebendazole against A. lumbricoides increased from 60% in the single dose to 100% in redosing after two weeks. The cure rate of mebendazole against hookworm also increased from 32.4% in the single dose to 91.0% in the redosing. The cure rate of praziquantel against S. mansoni-infected children was 91.5% in the first round and 100% in the redosing phase. There was a 98.6-100% egg reduction rate in the redosing regimen of both drugs. Conclusion: The cure and egg reduction rates of single-dose mebendazole in the treatment of hookworm and A. lumbricoides are lower at week two than at redosing, while cure and egg reduction rates of single-dose praziquantel are satisfactory to treat S. mansoni. Therefore, single-dose praziquantel to S. mansoni and redosing of single-dose mebendazole to A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections can be used for treatment purposes.


Assuntos
Helmintos/fisiologia , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo/parasitologia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Etiópia , Feminino , Geografia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Mebendazol/farmacologia , Óvulo/citologia , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009466, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157019

RESUMO

Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH) are highly prevalent Neglected Tropical Disease in Ethiopia, an estimated 26 million are infected. Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies assist data mapping and analysis, and the prediction of the spatial distribution of infection in relation to environmental variables. The influence of socioeconomic, environmental and soil characteristics on hookworm infection at the individual and household level is explored in order to identify spatial patterns of infection in rural villages from Zenzelema (Amhara region). Inhabitants greater than 5 years old were recruited in order to assess the presence of STH. Socioeconomic and hookworm infection variables at the household level and environmental variables and soil characteristics using RS were obtained. The dominant STH found was hookworm. Individuals which practiced open defecation and those without electricity had a significant higher number of hookworm eggs in their stool. Additionally, adults showed statistically higher hookworm egg counts than children. Nonetheless, the probability of hookworm infection was not determined by socioeconomic conditions but by environmental characteristics surrounding the households, including a combination of vigorous vegetation and bare soil, high temperatures, and compacted soils (high bulk density) with more acidic pH, given a pH of 6.0 is optimal for hatching of hookworm eggs. The identification of high-risk environmental areas provides a useful tool for planning, targeting and monitoring of control measures, including not only children but also adults when hookworm is concerned.


Assuntos
Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Ancylostomatoidea/fisiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/economia , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Habitação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia , Temperatura
16.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103798, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119093

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in toxoplasmosis and potential psychological effects. Research commonly focuses on infection through contact with cat fecal matter or consumption of contaminated meat. However, T. gondii oocysts can persist in the environment for years and may be present in soils and on soil-grown produce. Rates of oocyst DNA recovery from produce were high, with 18% of vegetable samples testing positive for T. gondii via PCR test and melt curve analysis. Radishes had significantly higher oocyst counts than arugula, collard greens, kale, lettuce, and spinach. There were no significant differences in oocyst detection rates between samples taken from organic farmer's markets and conventional grocery stores. This study demonstrates that these oocysts can transfer to produce grown both conventionally and using organic techniques.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Alimentos Orgânicos/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070906

RESUMO

A rapid and accurate PCR-based method was developed in this study for detecting and identifying a new species of root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus dakotaensis) recently discovered in a soybean field in North Dakota, USA. Species-specific primers, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, were designed to be used in both conventional and quantitative real-time PCR assays for identification of P.dakotaensis. The specificity of the primers was evaluated in silico analysis and laboratory PCR experiments. Results showed that only P.dakotaensis DNA was exclusively amplified in conventional and real-time PCR assays but none of the DNA from other control species were amplified. Detection sensitivity analysis revealed that the conventional PCR was able to detect an equivalent to 1/8 of the DNA of a single nematode whereas real-time PCR detected an equivalent to 1/32 of the DNA of a single nematode. According to the generated standard curve the amplification efficiency of the primers in real-time PCR was 94% with a R2 value of 0.95 between quantification cycle number and log number of P.dakotaensis. To validate the assays to distinguish P.dakotaensis from other Pratylenchus spp. commonly detected in North Dakota soybean fields, 20 soil samples collected from seven counties were tested. The PCR assays amplified the DNA of P.dakotaensis and discriminated it from other Pratylenchus spp. present in North Dakota soybean fields. This is the first report of a species-specific and rapid PCR detection method suitable for use in diagnostic and research laboratories for the detection of P.dakotaensis.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/genética , Animais , Primers do DNA/síntese química , Primers do DNA/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , North Dakota , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tylenchoidea/classificação , Tylenchoidea/isolamento & purificação
18.
Eur J Protistol ; 80: 125807, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091379

RESUMO

Winogradsky columns have been widely used to study soil microbial communities, but the vast majority of those investigations have focused on the ecology and diversity of bacteria. In contrast, microbial eukaryotes (ME) have been regularly overlooked in studies based on experimental soil columns. Despite the recognized ecological relevance of ME in soil communities, investigations focused on ME diversity and the abundance of certain groups of interest are still scarce. In the present study, we used DNA metabarcoding (high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA locus) to survey the ME diversity and abundance in an experimental Winogradsky soil column. Consistent with previous surveys in natural soils, our survey identified members of Cercozoa (Rhizaria; 31.2%), Apicomplexa and Ciliophora (Alveolata; 12.5%) as the predominant ME groups, but at particular depths we also detected the abundant presence of ME lineages that are typically rare in natural environments, such as members of the Vampyrellida (Rhizaria) and Breviatea (Amorphea). Our survey demonstrates that experimental soil columns are an efficient enrichment-culture approach that can enhance investigations about the diversity and ecology of ME in soils.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia/métodos , Eucariotos/classificação , Solo/parasitologia , Eucariotos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 310, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole (ALB; 400 mg) alone on lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections was assessed during two trials conducted from 2012 to 2018 in the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The collected data were analyzed to evaluate the effect of compliance with ALB treatment on STH infections. METHODS: STH infections were diagnosed with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the results are reported as eggs per gram of stool. All subjects with at least two STH infection assessments were included in the analyses. We used parametric survival models to assess the influence of compliance with ALB treatment on the probability of (i) achieving sustained clearance of an STH infection, and (ii) acquiring an STH infection during the follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 2658 subjects included in the trials, data on 202 participants (701 person-years; PY) with hookworm infection, 211 (651 PY) with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and 270 (1013 PY) with Trichuris trichiura infection were available to calculate the probability of achieving sustained clearance of infection. The effect of ALB was dose related for all three STH. For hookworm, the time required for sustained clearance was longer (4.3 years, P < 0.001) for participants who took zero doses per year and shorter (3.4 years, P = 0.112) for participants who took two doses per year compared to those who took one dose per year (3.7 years). For Ascaris, the time required to obtain sustained clearance followed the same pattern: 6.1 years (P < 0.001) and 3.2 years (P = 0.004) vs 3.6 years for, zero, two and one dose per year, respectively. For Trichuris, less time was required for sustained clearance (4.2 years, P < 0.001) for fully compliant participants, i.e. those who took two doses per year, than for those who only took one dose per year (5.0 years). ALB was more effective in achieving sustained clearance of STH infection in subjects with light baseline infection intensities compared to those with higher egg counts. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate the importance of MDA compliance at the level of the individual with respect to the STH benefit provided by semiannual ALB MDA, which is used for the elimination of LF in Central Africa.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9509, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947922

RESUMO

Felidae as definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii play a major role in transmission to all warm-blooded animals trough oocysts dissemination. Therefore the current comprehensive study was performed to determine the global status of T. gondii infection in domestic and wild felids aiming to provide comprehensive data of interest for further intervention approaching the One Health perspective. Different databases were searched by utilizing particular key words for publications related to T. gondii infecting domestic and wild feline host species, worldwide, from 1970 to 2020. The review of 337 reports showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii in domestic cats and wild felids was estimated in 37.5% (95% CI 34.7-40.3) (I2 = 98.3%, P < 0.001) and 64% (95% CI 60-67.9) (I2 = 88%, P < 0.0001), respectively. The global pooled prevalence of oocysts in the fecal examined specimens from domestic cats was estimated in 2.6% (95% CI 1.9-3.3) (I2 = 96.1%, P < 0.0001), and that in fecal samples from wild felids was estimated in 2.4% (95% CI 1.1-4.2) (I2 = 86.4%, P < 0.0001). In addition, from 13,252 examined soil samples in 14 reviewed studies, the pooled occurrence of T. gondii oocysts was determined in 16.2% (95% CI 7.66-27.03%). The observed high rates of anti-T. gondii antibodies seroprevalence levels and oocyst excretion frequency in the felids, along with soil (environmental) contamination with oocysts may constitute a potential threat to animal and public health, and data will result of interest in further prophylaxis programs.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Humanos , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Solo/parasitologia
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