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1.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 186-193, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730413

RESUMO

Surveys of major rice growing districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh in Northern India were conducted for 3 consecutive years during 2013 to 2015 under a government-funded major research project to determine the frequency of occurrence and disease incidence of the rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, in rice paddy fields. More than 800 paddy fields from 88 Tehsils (divisions within a district) in 18 major rice growing districts in Uttar Pradesh were surveyed, where M. graminicola was associated with root-knot disease in rice paddy fields based on morphological and molecular characterization of juveniles and adults. The highest frequency of disease in rice fields was observed in Aligarh (44.6%), followed by Muzaffarnagar, Shahjahanpur, and Kheri Lakhimpur (29.3, 28.0, and 27.4%, respectively). Maximum disease incidence was also recorded in Aligarh (44.6%), followed by Sultanpur, Mainpuri, and Muzaffarnagar (5.7, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively). Gall index and egg mass index values (on a 0 to 10 scale) were highest in Aligarh (3.5 and 2.1, respectively), followed by Muzaffarnagar (2.6 and 2.0) and Mainpuri (2.3 and 1.8). The average soil population of M. graminicola was highest in Aligarh (3,851 ± 297 second-stage juveniles [J2]/kg of soil), followed by Muzaffarnagar (2,855 ± 602 J2/kg of soil), whereas the lowest population was recorded in Barabanki (695 ± 400 J2/kg of soil) at the time of harvesting. Relative yield losses were also determined, and the highest yield loss attributed to M. graminicola infestation was recorded in Aligarh (47%). The yield loss was linearly correlated with the soil population density of M. graminicola and disease incidence.


Assuntos
Oryza , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Índia , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(10): 879-887, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686336

RESUMO

Many species of morning glories (Convolvulaceae) form symbioses with seed-transmitted Periglandula fungal endosymbionts, which produce ergot alkaloids and may contribute to defensive mutualism. Allocation of seed-borne ergot alkaloids to various tissues of several Ipomoea species has been demonstrated, including roots of I. tricolor. The goal of this study was to determine if infection of I. tricolor by the Periglandula sp. endosymbiont affects Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) gall formation and host plant biomass. We hypothesized that I. tricolor plants infected by Periglandula (E+) would develop fewer nematode-induced galls compared to non-symbiotic plants (E-). E+ or E- status of plant lines was confirmed by testing methanol extracts from individual seeds for endosymbiont-produced ergot alkaloids. To test the effects of Periglandula on nematode colonization, E+ and E- I. tricolor seedlings were grown in soil infested with high densities of M. incognita nematodes (N+) or no nematodes (N-) for four weeks in the greenhouse before harvesting. After harvest, nematode colonization of roots was visualized microscopically, and total gall number and plant biomass were quantified. Four ergot alkaloids were detected in roots of E+ plants, but no alkaloids were found in E- plants. Gall formation was reduced by 50% in E+ plants compared to E- plants, independent of root biomass. Both N+ plants and E+ plants had significantly reduced biomass compared to N- and E- plants, respectively. These results demonstrate Periglandula's defensive role against biotic enemies, albeit with a potential trade-off with host plant growth.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Claviceps/química , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Ipomoea/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Animais , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Alcaloides de Claviceps/análise , Ipomoea/química , Ipomoea/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Solo/parasitologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Simbiose
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 525-528, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the related factors of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Chongqing City, so as to provide the basis for scientific prevention and treatment of the infections. METHODS: From 2011 to 2015, the stool samples of residents of the surveillance sites in Chongqing City were collected every year, and the soil-transmitted nematode eggs were examined by the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method (three smears for a single stool sample). The respondents were surveyed by questionnaires, and the factors affecting soil-transmitted nematode infections were identified. RESULTS: The prevalence of human soil-transmitted nematode infections were 6.44%, 7.30%, 6.85%, 6.93% and 5.56% in Chongqing City from 2011 to 2015, respectively. The more unclean drinking water and the lower frequency of washing hands after using the toilet were the risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infection. The more harmless toilets, the higher level of fertilizer application, the lower frequency of drinking raw water, and the lower frequency of food without washing were the protective factors for A. lumbricoides infection. CONCLUSIONS: The local soil-transmitted nematode infections are at a low epidemic level in Chongqing City, and it is necessary to ad-here to the classified guidance, comprehensive prevention and further monitoring on the basis of health education, water and toilet improvement, and environmental sanitation improvement in order to consolidate the prevention and control achievements.


Assuntos
Infecções por Nematoides , Solo , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/normas , Solo/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778390

RESUMO

Public parks are leisure environments widely used by both, adults and children, often accompained by their pets. Soil contamination of these environments by enteric viruses and intestinal parasites occurs through these animals feces. The aim of this work was to detect Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPV-1) and different species of Mastadenovirus in soils samples from a park located in a medium-sized city in Brazil and evaluate the presence of helminth eggs and larvae in 18 points of a public park soil samples, as well as feces found on this site during six months. Parasitological analyzes were conducted through flotation and sedimentation techniques, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for viral detection. Of the 216 soil and 16 feces samples, 49% (106/216) and 12% (2/16) were positivefor nematodes larvae, respectively, through sedimentation techniques. Toxocara spp eggs were found in one soil sample and one feces sample, Trichuris spp eggs were found in only one feces sample and Hookworms eggs were found in four soil samples. After reconstruction work in the streets near the park, 30% (64/216) of the samples were positive for Human Mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), 1.4% (3/216) for HAdV-E and 0.4% (1/216) for Canine Mastadenovirus A (CAdV-A). The parasitic forms found in this study have demonstrated that the contamination of the park's soil pose a threat to human and animal health. This was the first study to report the presence of HAdVs and CAdVs in soil samples.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Animais , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Mastadenovirus/classificação , Mastadenovirus/genética , Parques Recreativos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética
6.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3189-3198, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613190

RESUMO

Powdery scab on potato tubers is caused by the obligate soilborne biotroph Spongospora subterranea and is known to cause substantial losses in potato production. The pathogen also infects roots of susceptible hosts, forming galls which can negatively affect root function. S. subterranea is also the vector of Potato mop-top virus, which causes a tuber necrosis disease that can, depending on temperature and cultivar, render potato tubers unmarketable. In this study, we adapted a published protocol to develop a sensitive and robust quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using specific primers and probes for detecting and quantifying S. subterranea sporosori in soil types that differ in physical properties, including organic matter content and soil pH. For the first time, an external control was utilized and applied directly to the soil prior to DNA extraction, which facilitated normalization of S. subterranea sporosori soil levels from sample to sample. The duplex qPCR protocol was demonstrated to be highly sensitive, capable of detecting and quantifying as few as 1 sporosorus/g of soil, with consistently high qPCR efficiency and the coefficient of determination (R2) values ranging from 94 to 99% and 0.98 to 0.99, respectively. The protocol was successfully implemented in enumerating S. subterranea sporosori in naturally infested field soil collected from several states and in artificial potting mixes with high organic matter content ranging from 64 to 71%. The qPCR method developed can be useful for potato growers to avoid agricultural soils highly infested with S. subterranea and in the development of risk assessment models in the future that incorporate cultivar susceptibility to powdery scab and soil infestation levels.


Assuntos
Plasmodioforídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solanum tuberosum , Limite de Detecção , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Solo/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia
7.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3093-3100, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613191

RESUMO

In Nebraska, rotation of soybean (Glycine max) fields to corn (Zea mays) is a major practice to manage the soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines). However, factors associated with SCN population density decline during corn rotation are not clearly defined. This study addresses that question using a modeling approach. Seventy-nine fields were sampled in 2009, 2010, and 2011 to determine SCN population densities (eggs/100 cm3 of soil) before and after rotation. After rigorous field screening and model testing and validation, the regression model Log(Pf)^=-2.3360+0.8368LogPi+0.4333pH was developed, where Log Pf is the natural log of SCN eggs at the end of the rotation year, Pi is the population density before rotation, and pH is the soil pH. Model goodness-of-fit was assessed through residual analysis, information criteria, and other remedial measures. Model overdispersion was 1.04. Validation in a 50 and a 75% random sample from the original data set showed little change in model regression coefficients, standard errors, and associated significance, confirming model fit and performance. The model indicates that for one-unit increase in soil pH, SCN Pf is expected to increase by 53.7% at constant Pi, and correspondingly, a 10% change in Pi will result in about 8.3% change in Pf at constant soil pH. The model suggested that SCN population levels before corn rotation and soil pH are major determinants of observed SCN population density reduction after annual corn rotation in Nebraska. This model has potential for use in SCN risk analysis and in predicting SCN population decline after corn rotation in the state.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Nematoides , Solo , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Nebraska , Nematoides/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Densidade Demográfica , Análise de Regressão , Rotação , Solo/parasitologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
8.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3117-3128, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634034

RESUMO

Globodera pallida is a major nematode pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and is of great economic importance for the potato industry. Assessing potato yield loss caused by the Idaho G. pallida population under field conditions was not performed due to its quarantine status in Idaho, where it is prohibited by regulatory statutes to grow potato in any infested fields. The experimental data came from three trials that were conducted under greenhouse conditions. A predictive risk model analysis was performed to: (i) determine the effect of the Idaho population of G. pallida on potato yield; (ii) estimate reproduction rate from different initial nematode densities; and (iii) simulate potato yield losses in Idaho field conditions by integrating the coefficients of potato yield into the SUBSTOR-DSSAT crop simulation model. Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using five initial G. pallida soil infestation levels (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 eggs/g soil). The coefficients of potato yield achieved under each initial nematode density were integrated into the SUBSTOR-DSSAT potato growth simulation model. The model showed that tuber weight reached a maximum yield of 96 ton/ha in noninfested soil. Based on the greenhouse trials, the model predicted a minimum yield of 12 and 58 ton/ha in trial 1 and trial 2/3 respectively, when initial nematode density was 80 eggs/g soil. In trial 1, tuber weight was significantly reduced by 44% at 40 eggs/g soil and by 87% at 80 eggs/g soil, and 20% at 40 eggs/g soil and by 39% at 80 eggs/g soil in trial 2/3. The outputs of this study should facilitate common understanding between regulators, policymakers, and potato growers on the challenges and opportunities for controlling this economically important pest in Idaho.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Modelos Biológicos , Solo , Solanum tuberosum , Tylenchoidea , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Idaho , Solo/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1398, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of a 90% reduction in neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by 2030 requires innovative control strategies. This proof-of-concept study examined the effectiveness of integrating control programs for two NTDs: mass drug administration (MDA) for soil-transmitted helminths in humans and mass dog rabies vaccination (MDRV). METHODS: The study was carried out in 24 Tanzanian villages. The primary goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating community-wide MDA for STH and MDRV for rabies. The objectives were to investigate the popularity, participation and cost and time savings of integrated delivery, and to investigate the reach of the MDA with respect to primary school-aged children and other community members. To implement, we randomly allocated villages for delivery of MDA and MDRV (Arm A), MDA only (Arm B) or MDRV only (Arm C). RESULTS: Community support for the integrated delivery was strong (e.g. 85% of focus group discussions concluded that it would result in people getting "two for one" health treatments). A high proportion of households participated in the integrated Arm A events (81.7% MDA, 80.4% MDRV), and these proportions were similar to those in Arms B and C. These findings suggest that coverage might not be reduced when interventions are integrated. Moreover, in addition to time savings, integrated delivery resulted in a 33% lower cost per deworming dose and a 16% lower cost per rabies vaccination. The median percentage of enrolled primary school children treated by this study was 76%. However, because 37% of the primary school aged children that received deworming treatment were not enrolled in school, we hypothesize that the employed strategy could reach more school-aged children than would be reached through a solely school-based delivery strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated delivery platforms for health interventions can be feasible, popular, cost and time saving. The insights gained could be applicable in areas of sub-Saharan Africa that are remote or underserved by health services. These results indicate the utility of integrated One Health delivery platforms and suggest an important role in the global campaign to reduce the burden of NTDs, especially in hard-to-reach communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03667079 , retrospectively registered 11th September 2018.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Cães , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/economia , Vacinação em Massa/economia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antirrábicas/economia , População Rural , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
10.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3265-3273, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596692

RESUMO

Factors relating to SYBR Green-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) quantification of stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus allius using soil DNA were evaluated in this study. Soils used were loamy sand from potato fields in North Dakota and Idaho. Results showed that the largest nematode individuals (body length >720 µm) produced significant lower Cq values than the smallest individuals (<359 µm), indicating more total DNA amount in the largest nematodes. Soil pre-treatments showed that autoclaved field soil had significantly reduced DNA amount and quality. The air- or oven-dried soil yielded a lower amount of DNA with similar purity, compared with natural field soil. PCR inhibitors were detected in soil DNA substrates targeting pBluescript II SK(+)-plasmid DNA. Al(NH4)(SO4)2 treatment during DNA preparation significantly reduced the inhibitors compared with post-treatment of soil DNA with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone column. The effect of PCR inhibitors on qPCR was suppressed by bovine serum albumin. Quantification results did not significantly change when increasing the number of DNA extractions from three to six per soil sample when soil grinding and grid sampling strategies were used. Two standard curves, generated from serial dilutions of plasmid DNA containing P. allius ITS1 rDNA and soil DNA containing known nematode numbers, produced similar correlations between Cq values and amount of targets. The targets in soil DNA quantified by qPCR using either standard curve correlated well with microscopic observations using both artificially and naturally infested field soils. This is the first study for assessing various factors that may affect qPCR quantification of stubby root nematodes. Results will be useful during the setup or optimization of qPCR-based quantification of plant-parasitic nematodes from soil DNA.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Solo , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , Idaho , Nematoides/genética , North Dakota , Solo/parasitologia
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 82, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) control programmes is to eliminate STH-associated morbidity in the target population by reducing the prevalence of moderate- and heavy-intensity infections and the overall STH infection prevalence mainly through preventive chemotherapy (PC) with either albendazole or mebendazole. Endemic countries should measure the success of their control programmes through regular epidemiological assessments. We evaluated changes in STH prevalence in countries that conducted effective PC coverage for STH to guide changes in the frequency of PC rounds and the number of tablets needed. METHODS: We selected countries from World Health Organization (WHO)'s Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission control (PCT) databank that conducted ≥5 years of PC with effective coverage for school-age children (SAC) and extracted STH baseline and impact assessment data using the WHO Epidemiological Data Reporting Form, Ministry of Health reports and/or peer-reviewed publications. We used pooled and weighted means to plot the prevalence of infection with any STH and with each STH species at baseline and after ≥5 years of PC with effective coverage. Finally, using the WHO STH decision tree, we estimated the reduction in the number of tablets needed. RESULTS: Fifteen countries in four WHO regions conducted annual or semi-annual rounds of PC for STH for 5 years or more and collected data before and after interventions. At baseline, the pooled prevalence was 48.9% (33.1-64.7%) for any STH, 23.2% (13.7-32.7%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.01% (9.7-32.3%) for Trichuris trichiura and 18.2% (10.9-25.5%) for hookworm infections, while after ≥5 years of PC for STH, the prevalence was 14.3% (7.3-21.3%) for any STH, 6.9% (1.3-12.5%) for A. lumbricoides, 5.3% (1.06-9.6%) for T. trichiura and 8.1% (4.0-12.2%) for hookworm infections. CONCLUSIONS: Countries endemic for STH have made tremendous progress in reducing STH-associated morbidity, but very few countries have data to demonstrate that progress. In this study, the data show that nine countries should adapt their PC strategies and the frequency of PC rounds to yield a 36% reduction in drug needs. The study also highlights the importance of impact assessment surveys to adapt control strategies according to STH prevalence.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/provisão & distribução , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/provisão & distribução , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaríase/prevenção & controle , Ascaris lumbricoides/fisiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Mebendazol/provisão & distribução , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Tricuríase/prevenção & controle , Trichuris/fisiologia
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108904, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557695

RESUMO

Documenting the extent of soil contamination by Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is a key issue to prevent the worldwide infection caused by this protozoan. Our aim was to improve the practicability and sensitivity of a low-cost method to detect T. gondii DNA in soil samples developed a few years ago. Various parameters of the reference protocol were modified to determine their effect on the detection of T. gondii DNA in soil samples ("natural soil" and "sand") spiked with oocysts. We tested i) filtration using stomacher bags, ii) Tween 80, Tween 20, SDS and Triton X100 as dispersion solutions, iii) sucrose solution, zinc chloride solution, Optiprep and Percoll as density gradients, iv) freeze/thaw versus mechanical grinding as lysis methods, and v) Qiagen versus Fastprep as extraction kits The optimized protocol is quicker and easier to use than the previous one, and includes the following items: 0.1% Tween80/PBS for dispersion, sucrose solution for flotation, mechanical grinding, and FastDNA spin kit for extraction. It accurately detects T. gondii DNA in both fresh and frozen soil samples and displays a detection limit below 1 oocyst/g of fresh soil.


Assuntos
Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Limite de Detecção , Oocistos/classificação , Fatores de Tempo , Toxoplasma
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD000371, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. Global advocacy organizations claim routine deworming has substantive health and societal effects beyond the removal of worms. In this update of the 2015 edition we included six new trials, additional data from included trials, and addressed comments and criticisms. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the effects of public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs on child growth, haemoglobin, cognition, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); reference lists; and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 19 September 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, height, haemoglobin, and formal tests of cognition. We also sought data on other measures of growth, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We stratified the analysis based on the background burden of STH infection. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 51 trials, including 10 cluster-RCTs, that met the inclusion criteria. One trial evaluating mortality included over one million children, and the remaining 50 trials included a total of 84,336 participants. Twenty-four trials were in populations categorized as high burden, including nine trials in children selected because they were helminth-stool positive; 18 with intermediate burden; and nine as low burden.First or single dose of deworming drugsFourteen trials reported on weight after a single dose of deworming drugs (4970 participants, 14 RCTs). The effects were variable. There was little or no effect in studies conducted in low and intermediate worm burden groups. In the high-burden group, there was little or no effect in most studies, except for a large effect detected from one study area in Kenya reported in two trials carried out over 30 years ago. These trials result in qualitative heterogeneity and uncertainty in the meta-analysis across all studies (I2 statistic = 90%), with GRADE assessment assessed as very low-certainty, which means we do not know if a first dose or single dose of deworming impacts on weight.For height, most studies showed little or no effect after a single dose, with one of the two trials in Kenya from 30 years ago showing a large average difference (2621 participants, 10 trials, low-certainty evidence). Single dose probably had no effect on average haemoglobin (MD 0.10 g/dL, 95% CI 0.03 lower to 0.22 higher; 1252 participants, five trials, moderate-certainty evidence), or on average cognition (1596 participants, five trials, low-certainty evidence). The data are insufficient to know if there is an effect on school attendance and performance (304 participants, one trial, low-certainty evidence), or on physical fitness (280 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on mortality.Multiple doses of deworming drugsThe effect of regularly treating children with deworming drugs given every three to six months on weight was reported in 18 trials, with follow-up times of between six months and three years; there was little or no effect on average weight in all but two trials, irrespective of worm prevalence-intensity. The two trials with large average weight gain included one in the high burden area in Kenya carried out over 30 years ago, and one study from India in a low prevalence area where subsequent studies in the same area did not show an effect. This heterogeneity causes uncertainty in any meta-analysis (I2 = 78%). Post-hoc analysis excluding trials published prior to 2000 gave an estimate of average difference in weight gain of 0.02 kg (95%CI from 0.04 kg loss to 0.08 gain, I2 = 0%). Thus we conclude that we do not know if repeated doses of deworming drugs impact on average weight, with a fewer older studies showing large gains, and studies since 2000 showing little or no average gain.Regular treatment probably had little or no effect on the following parameters: average height (MD 0.02 cm higher, 95% CI 0.09 lower to 0.13 cm higher; 13,700 participants, 13 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); average haemoglobin (MD 0.01 g/dL lower; 95% CI 0.05 g/dL lower to 0.07 g/dL higher; 5498 participants, nine trials, moderate-certainty evidence); formal tests of cognition (35,394 participants, 8 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); school performance (34,967 participants, four trials, moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence assessing an effect on school attendance is inconsistent, and at risk of bias (mean attendance 2% higher, 95% CI 5% lower to 8% higher; 20,650 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on physical fitness. No effect was shown on mortality (1,005,135 participants, three trials, low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs do not appear to improve height, haemoglobin, cognition, school performance, or mortality. We do not know if there is an effect on school attendance, since the evidence is inconsistent and at risk of bias, and there is insufficient data on physical fitness. Studies conducted in two settings over 20 years ago showed large effects on weight gain, but this is not a finding in more recent, larger studies. We would caution against selecting only the evidence from these older studies as a rationale for contemporary mass treatment programmes as this ignores the recent studies that have not shown benefit.The conclusions of the 2015 edition have not changed in this update.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Estado Nutricional , Solo/parasitologia , Ganho de Peso , Peso Corporal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Pública , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3161-3165, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545697

RESUMO

The southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is particularly difficult to manage because of high susceptibility of all commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivars to this nematode. Growers have conventionally relied on nematicide applications to control RKN. Two microplot experiments were conducted in which four nonfumigant nematicides, oxamyl, fluopyram, fluensulfone, and fluazaindolizine, were examined for their efficacy in reducing gall severity and postharvest soil nematode numbers in microplots inoculated with increasing inoculation densities (1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 nematodes/microplot), and improving growth and yield of cucumber. Nematicides were applied 1 day prior to transplanting cucumber seedlings, except fluensulfone, which was applied 7 days before transplanting. At harvest, root gall indices differed significantly (P < 0.0001) among nematode inoculation densities and nematicides. All four nematicides were effective in reducing the root gall index when compared with the untreated control on a consistent basis at all M. incognita inoculation densities. At the lowest inoculation density, no significant difference in gall index or final population density was observed among nematicides; however, gall index increased with increasing nematode inoculation densities in nematicide-treated microplots. Correlations between gall index and inoculation density clearly showed that soil treatment with fluensulfone, fluazaindolizine, or fluopyram was more effective in reducing gall severity than treatment with oxamyl. Regression analysis also indicated no significant effect of nematode inoculation densities on yield of cucumber treated with these nematicides. Results of this study will provide guidance for improving nematicide efficiencies in soil with varying inoculation densities of RKN.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos , Cucumis sativus , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Cucumis sativus/parasitologia , Densidade Demográfica , Solo/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 329-339, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533400

RESUMO

Indonesia and South Korea have become inseparable in various respects since the 2 countries established diplomatic relation in 1973. Indonesia is a tropical region that stretches across the equator, comprised of 5 main islands (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua) and 4 archipelagoes (Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku). As most population of Eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua and Nusa Tenggara & Maluku) live in poor areas, it is expected that there will be many parasites. Nevertheless, little is known about the status of parasites in Indonesia. This study examines the prevalences of malaria and lymphatic filaria, which are prevalent in Indonesia, as well as those of soil-transmitted-helminths (STH). As a result, the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax case loads are almost equal. The current prevalence of P. vivax is uniformly low (<5%) in all age groups and annual parasite incidence (API) showed decreasing tendency as 0.84 per 1,000 population in 2016. However, more than 65 million people still live in malaria epidemic regions. Lymphatic filariasis remains an important public health problem and 236 cities were classified as endemic areas in 514 cities/districts in 2017. It is difficult to ascertain the current prevalence rate of STH in Indonesia, although West Sumba and Southwest Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara reported prevalence rate of more than 20%. The study also considers the (sero) prevalences of other parasites identified in Indonesia. This report should be useful not only to parasitologists but also to travelers and people with business in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
16.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 341-357, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533401

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba, one of free-living amoebae (FLA), remains a high risk of direct contact with this protozoan parasite which is ubiquitous in nature and man-made environment. This pathogenic FLA can cause sight-threatening amoebic keratitis (AK) and fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) though these cases may not commonly be reported in our clinical settings. Acanthamoeba has been detected from different environmental sources namely; soil, water, hot-spring, swimming pool, air-conditioner, or contact lens storage cases. The identification of Acanthamoeba is based on morphological appearance and molecular techniques using PCR and DNA sequencing for clinico-epidemiological purposes. Recent treatments have long been ineffective against Acanthamoeba cyst, novel anti-Acanthamoeba agents have therefore been extensively investigated. There are efforts to utilize synthetic chemicals, lead compounds from medicinal plant extracts, and animal products to combat Acanthamoeba infection. Applied nanotechnology, an advanced technology, has shown to enhance the anti-Acanthamoeba activity in the encapsulated nanoparticles leading to new therapeutic options. This review attempts to provide an overview of the available data and studies on the occurrence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members with the aim of identifying some potential contributing factors such as distribution, demographic profile of the patients, possible source of the parasite, mode of transmission and treatment. Further, this review attempts to provide future direction for prevention and control of the Acanthamoeba infection.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Acanthamoeba/classificação , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Acanthamoeba/fisiologia , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Amebíase/terapia , Amebíase/transmissão , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 822, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines and targets for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on school-based deworming for school-age children, given the high risk of associated morbidity in this age group. However, expanding deworming to all age groups may achieve improved STH control among both the community in general and school-age children, by reducing their risk of reinfection. This trial aims to compare school-based targeted deworming with community-wide mass deworming in terms of impact on STH infections among school-age children. METHODS: The CoDe-STH (Community Deworming against STH) trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 64 primary schools in Dak Lak province, Vietnam. The control arm will receive one round of school-based targeted deworming with albendazole, while in the intervention arm, community-wide mass deworming with albendazole will be implemented alongside school-based deworming. Prevalence of STH infections will be measured in school-age children at baseline and 12 months following deworming. The primary outcome is hookworm prevalence in school-age children at 12 months, by quantitative PCR. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with outcomes compared between study arms using generalised linear and non-linear mixed models. Additionally, cost-effectiveness of mass and targeted deworming will be calculated and compared, and focus group discussions and interviews will be used to assess acceptability and feasibility of deworming approaches. Individual based stochastic models will be used to predict the impact of mass and targeted deworming strategies beyond the RCT timeframe to assess the likelihood of parasite population 'bounce-back' if deworming is ceased due to low STH prevalence. DISCUSSION: The first large-scale trial comparing mass and targeted deworming for STH control in South East Asia will provide key information for policy makers regarding the optimal design of STH control programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12619000309189 .


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Helmintíase/economia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011055, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections represent a large disease burden worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. As the aetiological agents associated with diarrhoea and STHs are transmitted through faeces, the safe containment and management of human excreta has the potential to reduce exposure and disease. Child faeces may be an important source of exposure even among households with improved sanitation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the disposal of child faeces for preventing diarrhoea and STH infections. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and 10 other databases. We also searched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers, searched websites for organizations, and checked references from identified studies. The date of last search was 27 September 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled studies (NRS) that compared interventions aiming to improve the disposal of faeces of children aged below five years in order to decrease direct or indirect human contact with such faeces with no intervention or a different intervention in children and adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors selected eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect where appropriate, or described the study results narratively. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Sixty-three studies covering more than 222,800 participants met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies were cluster RCTs, four were controlled before-and-after studies (CBA), and 37 were NRS (27 case-control studies (one that included seven study sites), three controlled cohort studies, and seven controlled cross-sectional studies). Most study sites (56/69) were in low- or lower middle-income settings. Among studies using experimental study designs, most interventions included child faeces disposal messages along with other health education messages or other water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) hardware and software components. Among observational studies, the main risk factors relevant to this review were safe disposal of faeces in the latrine or defecation of children under five years of age in a latrine.Education and hygiene promotion interventions, including child faeces disposal messages (no hardware provision)Four RCTs found that diarrhoea incidence was lower, reducing the risk by an estimated 30% in children under six years old (rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.86; 2 trials, low-certainty evidence). Diarrhoea prevalence measured in two other RCTs in children under five years of age was lower, but evidence was low-certainty (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.04; low-certainty evidence).Two controlled cohort studies that evaluated such an intervention in Bangladesh did not detect a difference on diarrhoea prevalence (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.28; very low-certainty evidence). Two controlled cross-sectional studies that evaluated the Health Extension Package in Ethiopia were associated with a lower two-week diarrhoea prevalence in 'model' households than in 'non-model households' (odds ratio (OR) 0.26, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42; very low-certainty evidence).Programmes to end open defecation by all (termed community-led total sanitation (CLTS) interventions plus adaptations)Four RCTs measured diarrhoea prevalence and did not detect an effect in children under five years of age (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.07; moderate-certainty evidence). The analysis of two trials did not demonstrate an effect of the interventions on STH infection prevalence in children (pooled RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.65; low-certainty evidence).One controlled cross-sectional study compared the prevalence of STH infection in open defecation-free (ODF) villages that had received a CLTS intervention with control villages and reported a higher level of STH infection in the intervention villages (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.74 to 3.62; very low-certainty evidence).Sanitation hardware and behaviour change interventions, that included child faeces disposal hardware and messagingTwo RCTs had mixed results, with no overall effect on diarrhoea prevalence demonstrated in the pooled analysis (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.26; very low-certainty evidence).WASH hardware and education/behaviour change interventionsOne RCT did not demonstrate an effect on diarrhoea prevalence (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.41; very low-certainty evidence).Two CBAs reported that the intervention reduced diarrhoea incidence by about a quarter in children under five years of age, but evidence was very low-certainty (rate ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.84). Another CBA reported that the intervention reduced the prevalence of STH in an intervention village compared to a control village, again with GRADE assessed at very low-certainty (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.73).Case-control studiesPooled results from case-control studies that presented data for child faeces disposal indicated that disposal of faeces in the latrine was associated with lower odds of diarrhoea among all ages (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.85; 23 comparisons; very low-certainty evidence). Pooled results from case-control studies that presented data for children defecating in the latrine indicated that children using the latrine was associated with lower odds of diarrhoea in all ages (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.90; 7 studies; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that the safe disposal of child faeces may be effective in preventing diarrhoea. However, the evidence is limited and of low certainty. The limited research on STH infections provides only low and very-low certainty evidence around effects, which means there is currently no reliable evidence that interventions to improve safe disposal of child faeces are effective in preventing such STH infections.While child faeces may represent a source of exposure to young children, interventions generally only address it as part of a broader sanitation initiative. There is a need for RCTs and other rigorous studies to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of different hardware and software interventions to improve the safe disposal of faeces of children of different age groups.


Assuntos
Diarreia/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Saneamento , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Fezes , Helmintos , Humanos , Lactente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489072

RESUMO

Introduction: Soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) and schistosomiasis have serious consequences for the health, education and nutrition of children in developing countries. As Loum is known as a highly endemic commune for these infections, several deworming campaigns have been carried out in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine any changes that have occurred since then in the characteristics of these infections among schoolchildren in this site. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2016 on 289 schoolchildren. Stool and urine samples were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections. Results: The highest prevalence was noted for Schistosoma haematobium (34.2%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), S. mansoni (4.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.9%) in decreasing order. A prevalence of less than 2% was noted for each of the other two helminths. The highest mean intensity was found for S. haematobium (39.6 eggs/10 ml of urine), followed by A. lumbricoides (24.2 eggs per gram of faeces: epg), Strongyloides stercoralis (16.6 epg) and Schistosoma mansoni (12.3 epg). The prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly higher in boys and that of S. haematobium in children aged 10 years or older, while the differences between other values of prevalence or between egg burdens were not significant. Conclusion: Compared with values reported in 2003, the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiases and STH infections in Loum has sharply decreased in 2016. Confirmation of this decrease in the years to come allowed to space deworming campaigns among schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Plant Dis ; 103(11): 2764-2770, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490090

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici), root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) are among the most damaging soilborne pests for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in the southeastern United States. Allyl isothiocyanate (allyl ITC) was evaluated as a potential fumigant alternative for control of soilborne pathogens, nematodes, and weeds. Shank- or drip-injected allyl ITC at rates ranging from 221 to 367 kg ha-1 exhibited excellent performance, reducing the recovery of total F. oxysporum from treated soils. Shank- or drip-injected allyl ITC at 367 kg ha-1 provided equivalent control of C. rotundus compared with 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin and metam potassium, respectively. Totally impermeable film (TIF) did not further reduce the recovery of F. oxysporum and various nematodes from soil treated with allyl ITC compared with virtually impermeable film (VIF). However, TIF mulch significantly improved C. rotundus control versus shank- or drip-injected allyl ITC treatments under VIF mulch. Overall, allyl ITC is an effective methyl bromide alternative against F. oxysporum, C. rotundus, and plant-parasitic nematodes Criconemella spp. and Hoplolaimus spp. in plasticulture tomato production.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Lycopersicon esculentum , Controle de Pragas , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Cyperus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
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