Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.342
Filtrar
1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1283054, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577281

RESUMO

Background: According to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 report, up to 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are lost due to soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), and 5.9 million people are at risk of acquiring STHs. Regions with the highest prevalence of STH infections include Sub-Saharan Africa, China, South America, and Asia. While there are numerous fragmented studies on STH, comprehensive information on the prevalence and geographic distribution of different species, as well as their regional variations in the context of STHs is limited. The present systematic review and meta-analysis study attempts to provide a summary of the prevalence, geographical variation, and determinants of STHs among schoolchildren aged 5 to 18 years. Methods: An extensive literature search was carried out using PubMed, Embase, Cinhal, and Psychinfo for studies published between 1999 and 2022 that reported the rate of STH infection in school-going children aged 5-18 years. A random effects model was employed in this meta-analysis due to expected heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was carried out based on sex and STH species because of expected geographical variation. Results: A total of 19,725 of the 49,630 children examined were infected with STH, yielding an overall pooled prevalence of 37.16% (95% CI: 29.74-44.89). The prevalence was highest in the Western Pacific region at 50.41% (95% CI: 33.74-67.04) followed by Europe at 39.74% (95% CI: 20.40-61.0) and Africa at 37.10% (95% CI: 26.84-47.95). Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be the most prevalent helminth with a prevalence of 24.07% (95% CI: 17.07-31.83). Conclusion: The Western Pacific region is classified as a High-risk Zone (HRZ), while Southeast Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Eastern Mediterranean are classified as moderate-risk zones (MRZs). We found a 12% reduction in the pooled prevalence of STH infection from 1999 to 2012. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant species among schoolchildren. Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of Albendazole tablets and improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are effective in controlling and preventing STH. Ensuring their implementation and access is crucial to addressing the problem. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/#loginpage, CRD42022333341.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Ascaris lumbricoides , Países em Desenvolvimento , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012049, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization emphasizes the importance of integrated monitoring and evaluation in neglected tropical disease (NTD) control programs. Serological assays offer a potential solution for integrated diagnosis of NTDs, particularly for those requiring mass drug administration (MDA) as primary control and elimination strategy. This scoping review aims (i) to provide an overview of assays using serum or plasma to detect infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in both humans and animals, (ii) to examine the methodologies used in this research field and (iii) to discuss advancements in serological diagnosis of STHs to guide prevention and control programs in veterinary and human medicine. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic search in the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, supplemented by a Google search using predefined keywords to identify commercially available serological assays. Additionally, we performed a patent search through Espacenet. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 85 relevant literature records spanning over 50 years, with a notable increased interest in serological assay development in recent years. Most of the research efforts concentrated on diagnosing Ascaris infections in both humans and pigs, primarily using ELISA and western blot technologies. Almost all records targeted antibodies as analytes, employing proteins and peptides as analyte detection agents. Approximately 60% of sample sets described pertained to human samples. No commercially available tests for Trichuris or hookworms were identified, while for Ascaris, there are at least seven different ELISAs on the market. CONCLUSIONS: While a substantial number of assays are employed in epidemiological research, the current state of serological diagnosis for guiding STH prevention and control programs is limited. Only two assays designed for pigs are used to inform efficient deworming practices in pig populations. Regarding human diagnosis, none of the existing assays has undergone extensive large-scale validation or integration into routine diagnostics for MDA programs.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Ancylostomatoidea , Trichuris , Ascaris , Solo/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012041, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and result in a major disease burden in low- and middle-income countries, especially in school-aged children. Improved diagnostic methods, especially for light intensity infections, are needed for efficient, control and elimination of STHs as a public health problem, as well as STH management. Image-based artificial intelligence (AI) has shown promise for STH detection in digitized stool samples. However, the diagnostic accuracy of AI-based analysis of entire microscope slides, so called whole-slide images (WSI), has previously not been evaluated on a sample-level in primary healthcare settings in STH endemic countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples (n = 1,335) were collected during 2020 from children attending primary schools in Kwale County, Kenya, prepared according to the Kato-Katz method at a local primary healthcare laboratory and digitized with a portable whole-slide microscopy scanner and uploaded via mobile networks to a cloud environment. The digital samples of adequate quality (n = 1,180) were split into a training (n = 388) and test set (n = 792) and a deep-learning system (DLS) developed for detection of STHs. The DLS findings were compared with expert manual microscopy and additional visual assessment of the digital samples in slides with discordant results between the methods. Manual microscopy detected 15 (1.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides, 172 (21.7%) Tricuris trichiura and 140 (17.7%) hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) infections in the test set. Importantly, more than 90% of all STH positive cases represented light intensity infections. With manual microscopy as the reference standard, the sensitivity of the DLS as the index test for detection of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm was 80%, 92% and 76%, respectively. The corresponding specificity was 98%, 90% and 95%. Notably, in 79 samples (10%) classified as negative by manual microscopy for a specific species, STH eggs were detected by the DLS and confirmed correct by visual inspection of the digital samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of digitally scanned stool samples with the DLS provided high diagnostic accuracy for detection of STHs. Importantly, a substantial number of light intensity infections were missed by manual microscopy but detected by the DLS. Thus, analysis of WSIs with image-based AI may provide a future tool for improved detection of STHs in a primary healthcare setting, which in turn could facilitate monitoring and evaluation of control programs.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Solo/parasitologia , Microscopia , Região de Recursos Limitados , Fezes/parasitologia , Trichuris , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ancylostomatoidea , Prevalência
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 130, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and health education on large-scale deworming programs aimed at controlling soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and schistosome (SCH) infections has not been well studied. We assessed the additional impact of improved WASH infrastructure and health education at schools on STH and SCH infections in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used a quasi-experimental design under which 30 schools were assigned to either an intervention (15 schools) or control (15 schools) arm. Both arms received a standard deworming treatment and lunch. In the intervention arm, improved WASH and health education were provided. At three consecutive time points (baseline in 2013, 2014 and 2015), the prevalence and intensity of STH and SCH infections and the nutritional status [hemoglobin concentrations and physical growth (height and weight)] were determined. To verify whether interventions were successfully implemented, the WASH status at school and the student knowledge, attitudes and practices related to WASH (WASH-KAP) were recorded. Differences in metrics between arms at baseline (2013) and follow-up (2015) were assessed both within and between the arms. RESULTS: A significant increase in scores for both the school WASH and student KAP was found in the intervention arm, indicating successful implementation of the intervention. The prevalence of any STH infection was significantly reduced in the intervention arm but not in the control arm (F = 4.486, p = 0.034). There was a significantly greater reduction in the intensity of infection of hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides compared to baseline in both arms. The intervention did not affect school children's height-for-age z-score (intervention arm * time coef = 0.12, p = 0.400) and body mass index-for-age z-scores (intervention * time coef = - 0.06, p = 0.526). Hemoglobin concentrations increased significantly more in the control than the intervention arm (coef = - 0.16, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Although the intervention did increase school WASH and student WASH-KAP, our study found poor evidence of the additional benefit of improved WASH and health education to deworming and school food programs on parasite re-infection and the health outcomes of children.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Saneamento , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Solo/parasitologia , Estado Nutricional , Água/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Higiene , Schistosoma , Hemoglobinas
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(4): 681-686, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471161

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to understand the perspective of adolescents in endemic communities of India regarding soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and community-wide mass drug administration (cMDA). A multicountry community-based cluster-randomized trial, the Deworm3 trial, tested the feasibility of interrupting STH transmission with cMDA, where all individuals aged 1-99 are treated empirically with albendazole. Using a guideline based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, eight focus group discussions were conducted among 57 adolescents from the trial site in India and analyzed on ATLAS.ti 8.0 software using an a priori thematic codebook. Adolescents believed that adults could be a source of STH infection because they were not routinely dewormed like the children through the national deworming program. Perceived benefits of cMDA for all were better health and increased work efficiency. Perceived barriers to adults' participation in cMDA was their mistrust about the program, fear of side effects, perceived low risk of infection, and absence during drug distribution. To encourage adult participation in cMDAs, adolescents suggested community outreach activities, engaging village influencers and health workers, and tailoring drug distribution to when adults would be available. Adolescents were confident in their ability to be change agents within their households for treatment compliance. Adolescents provided insights into potential barriers and solutions to improve adult participation in cMDA, identified best practices of cMDA delivery, and suggested that they have unique roles as change agents to increase their household participation in cMDA.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Glutamatos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada , Adulto , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Adolescente , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Índia/epidemiologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011819, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) are associated with substantial morbidity in low-and-middle-income countries, accounting for 2.7 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend controlling STH-associated morbidity through periodic deworming of at-risk populations, including children and women of reproductive age (15-49 years). However, there is increasing interest in community-wide mass drug administration (cMDA) which includes deworming adults who serve as infection reservoirs as a method to improve coverage and possibly to interrupt STH transmission. We investigated determinants of cMDA coverage by comparing high-coverage clusters (HCCs) and low-coverage clusters (LCCs) receiving STH cMDA in three countries. METHODS: A convergent mixed-methods design was used to analyze data from HCCs and LCCs in DeWorm3 trial sites in Benin, India, and Malawi following three rounds of cMDA. Qualitative data were collected via 48 community-level focus group discussions. Quantitative data were collected via routine activities nested within the DeWorm3 trial, including annual censuses and coverage surveys. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) guided coding, theme development and a rating process to determine the influence of each CFIR construct on cMDA coverage. RESULTS: Of 23 CFIR constructs evaluated, we identified 11 constructs that differentiated between HCCs and LCCs, indicating they are potential drivers of coverage. Determinants differentiating HCC and LCC include participant experiences with previous community-wide programs, communities' perceptions of directly observed therapy (DOT), perceptions about the treatment uptake behaviors of neighbors, and women's agency to make household-level treatment decisions. CONCLUSION: The convergent mixed-methods study identified barriers and facilitators that may be useful to NTD programs to improve cMDA implementation for STH, increase treatment coverage, and contribute to the successful control or elimination of STH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The parent trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03014167).


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Glutamatos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada , Infecções por Trematódeos , Criança , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Benin , Malaui , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1099, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321011

RESUMO

Control of soil-transmitted helminths relies heavily on regular large-scale deworming of high-risk groups (e.g., children) with benzimidazole derivatives. Although drug resistance has not yet been documented in human soil-transmitted helminths, regular deworming of cattle and sheep has led to widespread benzimidazole resistance in veterinary helminths. Here we predict the population dynamics of human soil-transmitted helminth infections and drug resistance during 20 years of regular preventive chemotherapy, using an individual-based model. With the current preventive chemotherapy strategy of mainly targeting children in schools, drug resistance may evolve in soil-transmitted helminths within a decade. More intense preventive chemotherapy strategies increase the prospects of soil-transmitted helminths elimination, but also increase the speed at which drug efficacy declines, especially when implementing community-based preventive chemotherapy (population-wide deworming). If during the last decade, preventive chemotherapy against soil-transmitted helminths has led to resistance, we may not have detected it as drug efficacy has not been structurally monitored, or incorrectly so. These findings highlight the need to develop and implement strategies to monitor and mitigate the evolution of benzimidazole resistance.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(3): 457-459, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350146

RESUMO

The amounts of parasite DNA in soil samples from different playgrounds and other public areas can help identify areas of possible microbe transmission and give indications of the possible occurrence of parasite infection in nearby communities. We collected 207 soil samples from parks in Paiute indigenous tribal areas in southwestern Utah and from the higher income city of St. George, Utah, and tested them for 11 parasites that can cause human disease. Molecular tests revealed an elevated odds ratio (OR) of 3.072 (range, 1.114-8.065) for detecting the helminth Trichuris trichiura and an elevated OR of 3.036 (range, 1.101-7.966) for any protozoa (not including Acanthamoeba) in the tribal land playgrounds compared with St. George parks. These findings support previous studies showing that areas in lower socioeconomic communities, especially marginalized communities, tend to have more parasites in the soil, which may lead to higher disease prevalence rates.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Parasitos/genética , Solo/parasitologia , Prevalência , Meio Ambiente , Fezes/parasitologia
9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 16, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control guidelines endorse the use of albendazole or mebendazole for school-based targeted preventive chemotherapy (PC), yet their reduced efficacy against Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura presents significant limitations. Emerging evidence indicates that community-wide PC [or mass drug administration (MDA)] using ivermectin, commonly used in other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control programs, may play an important role in controlling these parasites. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of ivermectin PC in reducing STH prevalence in endemic populations. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and Web of Science on February 14, 2023, for studies that investigated the effectiveness of ivermectin PC, either alone or in combination with other anthelmintic drugs, on STH infections, and provided a measure of STH prevalence before and after PC. We calculated pooled prevalence reductions for each STH using random-effects meta-analyses. Our protocol is available on PROSPERO (registration number CRD42023401219). RESULTS: A total of 21 were eligible for the systematic review, of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. All studies delivered ivermectin through MDA. The pooled prevalence reduction of S. stercoralis following MDA with ivermectin alone was 84.49% (95% CI 54.96-94.66) across five studies and 81.37% (95% CI 61.62-90.96) across seven studies with or without albendazole. The prevalence reduction of T. trichiura was 49.93% (95% CI 18.23-69.34) across five studies with ivermectin alone, and 89.40% (95% CI 73.66-95.73) across three studies with the addition of albendazole. There was high heterogeneity for all syntheses (I2 > 65%). CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the key role of ivermectin-based MDA in addressing limitations in current global STH guidelines in terms of limited efficacy against S. stercoralis and T. trichiura. Based on these findings, revising international STH guidelines to include ivermectin is a promising option to progress the control and eventual elimination of STHs and other NTDs.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência
10.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 55, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections are estimated to impact 24% of the world's population and are responsible for chronic and debilitating morbidity. Disadvantaged communities are among the worst affected and are further marginalized as infection prevalence fuels the poverty cycle. Ambitious targets have been set to eliminate STH infections, but accurate epidemiological data will be required to inform appropriate interventions. This paper details the protocol for an analysis that aims to produce spatial prediction mapping of STH prevalence in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). METHODS: The protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. The study design will combine the principles of systematic review, meta-analysis, and geospatial analysis. Systematic searches will be undertaken in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Embase, and Web of Science for studies undertaken post 2000, to identify surveys that enable the prevalence of human STH infection within the WPR to be calculated. Covariate data for multivariable analysis will be obtained from publicly accessible sources. Survey data will be geolocated, and STH prevalence and covariates will be linked to produce a spatially referenced dataset for analysis. Bayesian model-based geostatistics will be used to generate spatially continuous estimates of STH prevalence mapped to a resolution of 1 km2. A separate geospatial model will be constructed for each STH species. Predictions of prevalence will be made for unsampled locations and maps will be overlaid for each STH species to obtain co-endemicity maps. DISCUSSION: This protocol facilitates study replication and may be applied to other infectious diseases or alternate geographies. Results of the subsequent analysis will identify geographies with high STH prevalence's and can be used to inform resource allocation in combating this neglected tropical disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework: osf.io/qmxcj.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Solo , Animais , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Metanálise como Assunto , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011947, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deworming programmes of soil-transmitted helminths are generally monitored and evaluated by aggregating drug coverage and infection levels at a district level. However, heterogeneity in drug coverage at finer spatial scales means indicators may remain above thresholds for elimination as a public health problem or of transmission in some areas. This paper aims to highlight the misleading information that aggregating data at larger spatial scales can have for programme decision making. METHODS: Drug coverage data from the Geshiyaro project were compared at two spatial scales with reference to the World Health Organisation's targets. District (woreda) and village (kebele) level were compared. The association between infection levels and drug coverage was analysed by fitting a weighted least-squares function to the mean intensity of infection (eggs per gram of faeces) against drug coverage. RESULTS: The data show clearly that when the evaluation of coverage is aggregated to the district level, information on heterogeneity at a finer spatial scale is lost. Infection intensity decreases significantly (p = 0.0023) with increasing drug coverage. CONCLUSION: Aggregating data at large spatial scales can result in prematurely ceasing deworming, prompting rapid infection bounce-back. There is a strong need to define context-specific spatial scales for monitoring and evaluating intervention programmes.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Prevalência
12.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 37(1): e0009823, 2024 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319102

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the helminth Schistosoma spp. and has the second highest global impact of all parasites. Schistosoma are transmitted through contact with contaminated fresh water predominantly in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and South America. Due to the widespread prevalence of Schistosoma, co-infection with other infectious agents is common but often poorly described. Herein, we review recent literature describing the impact of Schistosoma co-infection between species and Schistosoma co-infection with blood-borne protozoa, soil-transmitted helminths, various intestinal protozoa, Mycobacterium, Salmonella, various urinary tract infection-causing agents, and viral pathogens. In each case, disease severity and, of particular interest, the immune landscape, are altered as a consequence of co-infection. Understanding the impact of schistosomiasis co-infections will be important when considering treatment strategies and vaccine development moving forward.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Helmintíase , Esquistossomose , Humanos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , África , Solo/parasitologia , Prevalência , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011772, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The control of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is achieved through mass drug administration (MDA) with deworming medications targeting children and other high-risk groups. Recent evidence suggests that it may be possible to interrupt STH transmission by deworming individuals of all ages via community-wide MDA (cMDA). However, a change in delivery platforms will require altering implementation processes. METHODS: We used process mapping, an operational research methodology, to describe the activities required for effective implementation of school-based and cMDA in 18 heterogenous areas and over three years in Benin, India, and Malawi. Planned activities were identified during workshops prior to initiation of a large cMDA trial (the DeWorm3 trial). The process maps were updated annually post-implementation, including adding or removing activities (e.g., adaptations) and determining whether activities occurred according to plan. Descriptive analyses were performed to quantify differences and similarities at baseline and over three implementation years. Comparative analyses were also conducted between study sites and areas implementing school-based vs. cMDA. Digitized process maps were developed to provide a visualization of MDA processes and inspected to identify implementation bottlenecks and inefficient activity flows. RESULTS: Across three years and all clusters, implementation of cMDA required an average of 13 additional distinct activities and was adapted more often (5.2 adaptations per year) than school-based MDA. An average of 41% of activities across both MDA platforms did not occur according to planned timelines; however, deviations were often purposeful to improve implementation efficiency or effectiveness. Visualized process maps demonstrated that receipt of drugs at the local level may be an implementation bottleneck. Many activities rely on the effective setting of MDA dates and estimating quantity of drugs, suggesting that the timing of these activities is important to meet planned programmatic outcomes. CONCLUSION: Implementation processes were heterogenous across settings, suggesting that MDA is highly context and resource dependent and that there are many viable ways to implement MDA. Process mapping could be deployed to support a transition from a school-based control program to community-wide STH transmission interruption program and potentially to enable integration with other community-based campaigns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03014167.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Glutamatos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Solo/parasitologia
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e16820, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288465

RESUMO

Background: Diversity in clinical signs and symptoms are associated with soil transmitted diseases (STD), which are spread to humans by intestinal worms and transmitted in a variety of ways. There is a need for the present study, which aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and to compare between the common detection techniques for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among newly arrived expatriate labors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 188 stool samples were analyzed by macroscopic examination, and microscopic examination using direct iodine smear and the formal ether sedimentation technique. Trichrome and modified Kinyoun's stains were used to confirm the morphology of any detected protozoa stages and oocyst of Cryptosporidium, respectively. A chromatographic immunoassay kit was used for Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium. In addition, real-time PCR was employed only to identify various STHs. Results: Out of 188, several types of parasites were detected in 35 samples (18.62%), of which some with multiple infections. Nine samples (4.79%) were positive for Entamoeba coli, seven samples (3.72%) for Trichuris trichiura, six samples (3.19%) for Necator americanus, four samples (2.13%) for Strongyloides stercoralis, four samples (2.13%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, four samples (2.13%) for E. histolytica, three samples (1.60%) for Blastocystis hominis and two samples (1.06%) for Ancylostoma duodenale. In comparison between laboratory techniques for STHs, real-time PCR was able to detect the DNA of 19 samples (10.1%) followed by Ritchie sedimentation technique (18, 9.6%), and direct smear (7, 3.7%) (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The high rate of newly arrived foreign workers infected with intestinal parasites could lead to a risk to society. Continuous and regular surveys are needed to deal with the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections including STHs. To improve the identification of these infections, we recommend a supporting infrastructure for the application of concentration methods and molecular assays.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Helmintos , Parasitos , Humanos , Animais , Parasitos/genética , Solo/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
15.
Acta Trop ; 251: 107119, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195005

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal protist (GP) and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections cause significant morbidity among children in poor-resource settings of tropical and sub-tropical countries including Colombia. Few prospective transversal studies investigating how GP and STH infections affect growth development and nutritional status during childhood have been conducted in this country, none of them in the Antioquia Department. This microscopy-based study estimated the prevalence of GP and helminth (including STH) infections in faecal samples from schoolchildren (n = 384) collected during April-May 2019 in three municipalities of the Antioquia Department. Demographic, epidemiological, and household data were elicited through face-to-face interviews. Parasite detection was carried out by direct microscopic examination of both fresh smears and concentrated faecal material. Children (aged 6-15 years) also had their haemoglobin (Hb) levels, height and weight data collected, and BMI estimated. Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Overall, 60.7 % (233/384) of schoolchildren were infected by at least one intestinal parasitic species. Among GPs, Blastocystis sp. was the most common species found (47.7 %, 95 % CI: 42.6-52.8), followed by G. duodenalis (15.9 %, 95 % CI: 12.4-19.9). Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis were sporadically identified (0.3 %, 95 % CI: 0.1-1.4 each). Among helminths, the most prevalent species found were Trichuris trichiura (6.0 %, 95 % CI: 3.8-8.9) and Enterobius vermicularis (1.0 %, 95 % CI: 0.3-2.6). Hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis were found at prevalence rates <1 %. Underweight, overweigh, or obese schoolchildren had 1.2 times greater chance of being infected with intestinal parasites than their counterparts with a healthy weight (P-value: 0.015). Variables significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being infected by intestinal parasites include living in a household with unfinished flouring, not wearing shoes, being in close proximity to rodents, and having improper waste disposal. Relatively simple interventional measures directed towards the improvement of household conditions, access to sanitary toilets, and promoting shoe wearing can significantly reduce childhood infections by GP and helminths in the Antioquia Department.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Humanos , Criança , Animais , Estado Nutricional , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(2): 263-269, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190744

RESUMO

More than 1.5 billion people are infected by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) worldwide, comprising one of the world's most serious public health problems. School-age children are the most affected as a result of precarious hygienic habits, especially in economically poor areas that lack appropriate sanitation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate a didactic method via a health education approach as a complement to the school curriculum of the sixth-grade students of public schools, distributed among six cities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. For this, a didactic booklet was elaborated with educational explanatory activities about worms, their life cycle, and how to avoid infections. The intervention was measured by the change caused by knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), in students before and after using the notebook, through a questionnaire with high validity and internal consistency. Schools were assigned randomly into intervention and control groups, receiving both the didactic material and the questionnaires, versus the questionnaires only, respectively. The results were submitted to an analysis of covariance that revealed a significant difference pre- and postintervention for knowledge (P < 0.001), with greater means (0.54) compared with the control group (0.44); attitude (P < 0.005), with respective means of 0.56 versus 0.48; and practice (P < 0.001), with means of 0.75 versus 0.57. These findings set the didactic material as a potential tool to complement the school curriculum through KAP without disrupting the teaching system, in addition to assisting teachers in health education at schools aiming to prevent children's infections by STHs.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Solo , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Brasil , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo/parasitologia
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 11, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration is one of the key interventions recommended by WHO to control certain NTDs. With most support from donors, health workers distribute antihelminthic drugs annually in Malawi. Mean community coverage of MDA from 2018 to 2020 was high at 87% for praziquantel and 82% for albendazole. However, once donor support diminishes sustaining these levels will be challenging. This study intended to compare the use of the community-directed intervention approach with the standard practice of using health workers in delivery of MDA campaigns. METHODS: This was a controlled implementation study carried out in three districts, where four health centres and 16 villages in each district were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms which implemented MDA campaigns using the CDI approach and the standard practice, respectively. Cross-sectional and mixed methods approach to data collection was used focusing on quantitative data for coverage and knowledge levels and qualitative data to assess perceptions of health providers and beneficiaries at baseline and follow-up assessments. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 26 and NVivo 12 for Windows, respectively. RESULTS: At follow-up, knowledge levels increased, majority of the respondents were more knowledgeable about what schistosomiasis was (41%-44%), its causes (41%-44%) and what STH were (48%-64%), while knowledge on intermediate host for schistosomiasis (19%-22%), its types (9%-13%) and what causes STH (15%-16%) were less known both in intervention and control arm communities. High coverage rates for praziquantel were registered in intervention (83%-89%) and control (86%-89%) communities, intervention (59%-79) and control (53%-86%) schools. Costs for implementation of the study indicated that the intervention arm used more resources than the control arm. Health workers and community members perceived the use of the CDI approach as a good initiative and more favorable over the standard practice. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the CDI in delivery of MDA campaigns against schistosomiasis and STH appears feasible, retains high coverages and is acceptable in intervention communities. Despite the initial high costs incurred, embedding into community delivery platforms could be considered as a possible way forward addressing the sustainability concern when current donor support wanes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR202102477794401, date: 25/02/2021.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Esquistossomose , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Malaui/epidemiologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia
18.
Parasite Immunol ; 46(1): e13015, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37846743

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) parasitic infection is known as one of the most common infections around the world affecting more than a quarter of the world's population. The relationship between STH infections and micronutrient deficiencies are closely related and often coexist among the affected population. The study, therefore, aimed to summarise the available literature focusing on the effect of zinc status/deficiency or supplementation on STH infection or reinfection in children. For this purpose, we adopted a systematic approach and searched the existing literature on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases. A search term was entered to retrieve the available data. A total of 12 articles were included in this review after applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Most of the included studies reported a lower zinc status in children affected with any parasitic infection. Regarding the effect of zinc status and supplementation on parasitic infection in children, we found only a few studies (n = 4) with inconsistent result findings. This review reported that children infected with STH have lower zinc levels; however, a limited number of studies showed the effect of zinc supplements on the risk of STH warrants the need for further studies in this regard.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Zinco , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Prevalência
19.
Trends Parasitol ; 40(1): 45-59, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38087679

RESUMO

The global effort over the past decade to control soil-transmitted helminths (STH) has resulted in communities with endemic infection reaching low prevalence levels suitable for the validation of elimination as a public health problem (EPHP), defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as <2% of infections classified as moderate or heavy intensity. The spatial scale in which this is validated is currently undefined. As the burden of STH infection decreases, the degree of aggregation of infection within individuals in a population increases. Identifying these remaining pockets of infection requires fine-scale monitoring and evaluation (M&E) programmes that are rarely implemented within current national neglected tropical disease (NTD) control. This review examines various heterogeneities that characterise the epidemiology of STH infections, and discusses their impact on control policy formulation.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Prevalência
20.
Parasitol Res ; 123(1): 62, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114766

RESUMO

The One-Health approach recognizes the intricate connection between human, animal, and environmental health, and that cooperative effort from various professionals provides comprehensive awareness and potential solutions for issues relating to the health of people, animals, and the environment. This approach has increasingly gained appeal as the standard strategy for tackling emerging infectious diseases, most of which are zoonoses. Treatment with anthelmintics (AHs) without a doubt minimizes the severe consequences of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs); however, evidence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) development to different helminths of practically every animal species and the distinct groups of AHs is overwhelming globally. In this regard, the correlation between the application of anthelmintic drugs in both human and animal populations and the consequent development of anthelmintic resistance in STHs within the context of a One-Health framework is explored. This review provides an overview of the major human and animal STHs, treatment of the STHs, AR development and drug-related factors contributing towards AR, One-Health and STHs, and an outline of some One-Health strategies that may be used in combating AR.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...