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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 453-458, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185054

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted nematodiasis was once widely prevalent in Jiangsu Province, which seriously threatened human health and hindered socioeconomic development. The control efforts over decades resulted in a remarkable decline in the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode human infections in Jiangsu Province, with a reduction from 59.32% in 1989 to 0.12% in 2019, and the human prevalence remains at < 0.5% since 2013. Since 1987, an integrated strategy has been adopted for the control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in Jiangsu Province; however, the core interventions varies at different stages, which mainly include deworming, water and sanitation service improvement, health education, and monitoring and assessment. The criteria of effective soil-transmitted nematodiasis control had been achieved in all epidemic counties (districts) of Jiangsu Province by 2019. Further actions to strengthen health education and monitoring and implement precision control measures are required to consolidate the achievements of soil-transmitted nematodiasis control and eliminate the harm of soil-transmitted nematodiasis to humans. This review summarizes the epidemiology, control progress and evolution of control strategy of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in Jiangsu Province.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Infecções por Nematoides , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/normas , Educação em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Saneamento/normas , Saneamento/tendências , Solo/parasitologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 803, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths are more prevalent in tropics and sub-tropics including Ethiopia. Despite their high prevalence, direct saline microscopy with its low sensitivity has been used as a diagnostic method in almost all health facilities in Ethiopia. Alternative diagnostic methods which have higher sensitivity are not yet implemented. Therefore, this study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of diagnostic methods for soil transmitted helminths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 520 school children was conducted from October to December, 2019 in Amhara National Regional State. The study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Stool samples were processed via formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz, spontaneous tube sedimentation and agar plate culture techniques. Data was entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were calculated against the combined result. Strength of agreement of the diagnostic methods was determined by Kappa value. RESULTS: The Overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminths was 40.8% using combination of methods. The prevalence 24.4, 22.5, and 32.4%, respectively was recorded by using formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz and spontaneous tube sedimentation. The highest prevalence of hookworm (29.2%) was detected by the agar plate culture. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of formol ether concentration were 57.9 and 78.4%, for Kato-Katz thick smear 55.2 and 76.4%, for spontaneous tube sedimentation were 79.2 and 87.5% to soil transmitted helminths detection, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of agar plate culture to hookworm detection were 86.4 and 93.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous tube sedimentation shows higher sensitivity in the detection of soil transmitted helminth infections. Agar plate culture method also indicated better performance for hookworm detection than other methods. Therefore, the employment of spontaneous tube sedimentation technique for routine laboratory and agar plate culture for research purposes will significantly aid in accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Infecções por Uncinaria/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Formaldeído , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia/métodos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1418-e1426, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have been done of patterns of treatment during mass drug administration (MDA) to control neglected tropical diseases. We used routinely collected individual-level treatment records that had been collated for the Tuangamize Minyoo Kenya Imarisha Afya (Swahili for Eradicate Worms in Kenya for Better Health [TUMIKIA]) trial, done in coastal Kenya from 2015 to 2017. In this analysis we estimate the extent of and factors associated with the same individuals not being treated over multiple rounds of MDA, which we term systematic non-treatment. METHODS: We linked the baseline population of the TUMIKIA trial randomly assigned to receive biannual community-wide MDA for soil-transmitted helminthiasis to longitudinal records on receipt of treatment in any of the four treatment rounds of the study. We fitted logistic regression models to estimate the association of non-treatment in a given round with non-treatment in the previous round, controlling for identified predictors of non-treatment. We also used multinomial logistic regression to identify factors associated with part or no treatment versus complete treatment. FINDINGS: 36 327 participants were included in our analysis: 16 236 children aged 2-14 years and 20 091 adults aged 15 years or older. The odds of having no treatment recorded was higher if a participant was not treated during the previous round of MDA (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3·60, 95% CI 3·08-4·20 for children and 5·58, 5·01-6·21 for adults). For children, school attendance and rural residence reduced the odds of receiving part or no treatment, whereas odds were increased by least poor socioeconomic status and living in an urban or periurban household. Women had higher odds than men of receiving part or no treatment. However, when those with pregnancy or childbirth in the previous 2 weeks were excluded, women became more likely to receive complete treatment. Adults aged 20-25 years were the age group with the highest odds of receiving part (OR 1·41, 95% CI 1·22-1·63) or no treatment (OR 1·81, 95% CI 1·53-2·14). INTERPRETATION: Non-treatment was associated with specific sociodemographic groups and characteristics and did not occcur at random. This finding has important implications for MDA programme effectiveness, the relevance of which will intensify as disease prevalence decreases and infections become increasingly clustered. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust, Children's Investment Fund Foundation, and London Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMO

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remain one of the most common causes of morbidity among children in Ethiopia. Assessment of the magnitude of STH and its association with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and identify barriers for school-level prevention assist public health planners to prioritize promotion strategies and is a basic step for intervention. However, there is a lack of evidence on the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and barriers for school-level prevention among schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and identify barriers for school level prevention in technology village of Hawassa University; 2019. METHODS: An institution-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1080 schoolchildren from September 5 to October 15, 2019. A two-stage cluster and purposive sampling technique were used to draw the study participants. A pretested, structured questionnaire, observation checklist, and in-depth interview were used to collect the data. Two grams of stool samples were collected from each study participant and examined using direct wet mount and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Both bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis method by Atlas-Ti software and presented in narratives. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of STHs was 23.1% (95% CI = 21.4, 27.6). The identified predictors of STHs were large family size (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.53-3.99), absence of separate toilet room for male and female (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.91-5.79), toilet not easy to clean (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.44-3.33), inadequate knowledge about STHs (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.07-3.44) and children who had travelled greater than 100 meters to access toilet (AOR = 3.45; 95% CI = 2.24-8.92). These results were supported by the individual, institutional, socio-economic and cultural qualitative results. CONCLUSION: The STHs was moderate public health concerns. Reinforcing the existing fragile water, sanitation and hygiene programs and regular deworming of schoolchildren may support to reduce the burden of STHs. Also, increasing modern family planning methods utilization to decrease family size is recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Saneamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008625, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have intensified over the past decade. Field-survey data on STH prevalence, infection intensity and drug efficacy is necessary to guide the implementation of control programs and should be of the best possible quality. METHODOLOGY: During four clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against STHs in Brazil, Ethiopia, Lao PDR and Tanzania, quality control (QC) was performed on the duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the data entry. We analyzed datasets following QC on both fecal egg counts (FECs) and data entry, and compared the prevalence of any STH infection and moderate-to-heavy intensity (MHI) infections and the drug efficacy against STH infections. RESULTS: Across the four study sites, a total of 450 out of 4,830 (9.3%) Kato-Katz thick smears were re-examined. Discrepancies in FECs varied from ~3% (hookworms) to ~6.5% (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). The difference in STH prevalence and prevalence of MHI infections using the datasets with and without QC of the FECs did not exceed 0.3%, except for hookworm infections in Tanzania, where we noted a 2.2 percentage point increase in MHI infections (pre-QC: 1.6% vs. post-QC: 3.8%). There was a 100% agreement in the classification of drug efficacy of albendazole against STH between the two datasets. In total, 201 of the 28,980 (0.65%) data entries that were made to digitize the FECs were different between both data-entry clerks. Nevertheless, the overall prevalence of STH, the prevalence of MHI infections and the classification of drug efficacy remained largely unaffected. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In these trials, where staff was informed that QC would take place, minimal changes in study outcomes were reported following QC on FECs or data entry. Nevertheless, imposing QC did reduce the number of errors. Therefore, application of QC together with proper training of the personnel and the availability of clear standard operating procedures is expected to support higher data quality.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Qualidade , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Ascaris , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Guias como Assunto , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trichuris
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3415-3431, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783072

RESUMO

The freshwater snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos serves as the first intermediate host of liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a foodborne parasite, of which human infection has persisted in Southeast Asia for decades. The snail Filopaludina martensi martensi has been proposed as a biological control agent against B.s. goniomphalos, but knowledge on the snail ecology and population dynamics between the two species remains rudimentary. This study investigated selected abiotic and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of B.s. goniomphalos and F.m. martensi. Water quality, soils, and snails were collected from 34 localities in Northeast Thailand. Soil properties and snail soft tissue elemental concentrations were analyzed. Experiments were performed to examine interspecific competition. Statistical analysis was conducted to explore the associations between water and soil properties and soft tissue elemental concentrations. The results showed that B.s. goniomphalos had the highest mean dominance in streams and red-yellow podzolic soils, while F.m. martensi snails preferred ponds and latosol soils. Negative correlation in species abundances was found between the two species. Interspecific competition was detected, with B.s. goniomphalos growth rates hampered by the presence of F.m. martensi. Despite the possibility of using F.m. martensi to control B.s. goniomphalos, B.s. goniomphalos exhibited a greater adaptability to different water and soil properties, suggesting that the species could colonize a wide range of environmental conditions. This study provides further insights into the ecology of the two snail species, underscoring the importance of considering abiotic factors when assessing the possible biological control agent to control O. viverrini transmission.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Opistorquíase/prevenção & controle , Opistorquíase/transmissão , Opisthorchis/fisiologia , Caramujos/fisiologia , Animais , Água Doce/parasitologia , Humanos , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Caramujos/classificação , Caramujos/parasitologia , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3870, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747621

RESUMO

Soils harbor a substantial fraction of the world's biodiversity, contributing to many crucial ecosystem functions. It is thus essential to identify general macroecological patterns related to the distribution and functioning of soil organisms to support their conservation and consideration by governance. These macroecological analyses need to represent the diversity of environmental conditions that can be found worldwide. Here we identify and characterize existing environmental gaps in soil taxa and ecosystem functioning data across soil macroecological studies and 17,186 sampling sites across the globe. These data gaps include important spatial, environmental, taxonomic, and functional gaps, and an almost complete absence of temporally explicit data. We also identify the limitations of soil macroecological studies to explore general patterns in soil biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, with only 0.3% of all sampling sites having both information about biodiversity and function, although with different taxonomic groups and functions at each site. Based on this information, we provide clear priorities to support and expand soil macroecological research.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clima , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/classificação , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Temperatura
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008505, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776942

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are the most widespread of the neglected tropical diseases, primarily affecting marginalized populations in low- and middle-income countries. More than one billion people are currently infected with STHs. For the control of these infections, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an integrated approach, which includes access to appropriate sanitation, hygiene education, and preventive chemotherapy (i.e., large-scale, periodic distribution of anthelmintic drugs). Since 2010, WHO has coordinated two large donations of benzimidazoles to endemic countries. Thus far, more than 3.3 billion benzimidazole tablets have been distributed in schools for the control of STH infections, resulting in an important reduction in STH-attributable morbidity in children, while additional tablets have been distributed for the control of lymphatic filariasis. This paper (i) summarizes the progress of global STH control between 2008 to 2018 (based on over 690 reports submitted by endemic countries to WHO); (ii) provides regional and country details on preventive chemotherapy coverage; and (iii) indicates the targets identified by WHO for the next decade and the tools that should be developed to attain these targets. The main message is that STH-attributable morbidity can be averted with evidence-informed program planning, implementation, and monitoring. Caution will still need to be exercised in stopping control programs to avoid any rebound of prevalence and loss of accrued morbidity gains. Over the next decade, with increased country leadership and multi-sector engagement, the goal of eliminating STH infections as a public health problem can be achieved.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Saúde Global/tendências , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3181-3201, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803334

RESUMO

Giardia is a parasite distributed worldwide and one of the most prevalent intestinal protozoa in Argentina. We analysed all the national information regarding the prevalence of Giardia infections in humans, animals and environmental surveys over the last 40 years. In this work, we used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines and the period between 1980 and 2019 was defined as time lapse for inclusion of the studies. The analysis was conducted using the LILACS, PubMed, Scopus and Argentina SciELO databases employing as keywords 'Giardia' AND 'Argentina'. We also carried out a manual review of papers. Of 304 articles, 92 fitted the eligibility criteria. Giardia was reported in 15 of the 23 Argentine provinces; human prevalence was between 3.4 and 64.8%. Indigenous children and residents in peri-urban areas had the higher infection rates. In animals, Giardia was identified mainly in dogs with a prevalence of 8.9 ± 7.0%, and studies of wild animals and cattle were notably scarce. Environmental studies showed that Giardia was detected in the soil and water which may act as reservoirs for this parasite revealing the need to modify the national water treatment legislation. The identification of Giardia genetic assemblages in the studies analysed was limited and showed that genotypes AII and B were found in humans while assemblage B was mainly detected in animals. This report provides useful information on epidemiological aspects of giardiasis in Argentina that may help to define future research priorities and provides useful tools for professionals regarding actual information on the prevalence of this infection.


Assuntos
Água Potável/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Purificação da Água
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were used to determine STH infection status and intensity (n = 620 participants; 308 females, 312 males, aged 6 months-86 years); Ascaris lumbricoides (ascarid) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were the primary infection types detected. Structured interviews assessing lifestyle patterns (e.g., measures of household infrastructure) measured participant MI. Multilevel regression analyses and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models tested associations between MI measures and STH infection status or intensity, controlling for individual and community characteristics. RESULTS: Participants residing in more market-integrated households exhibited lower infection rates and intensities than those in less market integrated households. Parasite infection status and T. trichiura infection intensity were lower among participants living in houses with wood floors than those with dirt floors, while individuals using well or piped water from a spring exhibited lower A. lumbricoides infection intensities compared to those using river or stream water. Unexpectedly, latrine type was not significantly related to STH infection status or intensity. These results suggest that sources of exposure differ between the two helminth species. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents associations between household measures and STH infection among an Indigenous population undergoing rapid MI. These findings can help healthcare programs better target interventions and reduce STH exposure among at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of nutritional supplements on the re-infection rate of species-specific soil-transmitted helminth infections in school-aged children remains complex and available evidence on the subject matter has not been synthesized. METHODS: The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs investigating food supplements on school-aged children between the age of 4-17 years. A search for RCTs was conducted on eight databases from inception to 12th June 2019. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias in all included studies. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis were conducted to describe and analyze the results of the review. Outcomes were summarized using the mean difference or standardized mean difference where appropriate. RESULTS: The search produced 1,816 records. Six studies met the inclusion criteria (five individually RCTs and one cluster RCT). Four studies reported data on all three STH species, while one study only reported data on Ascaris lumbricoides infections and the last study reported data on only hookworm infections. Overall, the risk of bias in four individual studies was low across most domains. Nutritional supplementation failed to statistically reduce the re-infection rates of the three STH species. The effect of nutritional supplements on measures of physical wellbeing in school-aged children could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this systematic review suggest that nutritional supplements for treatment of STH in children should not be encouraged unless better evidence emerges. Conclusion of earlier reviews on general populations may not necessarily apply to children since children possibly have a higher re-infection rate.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Tricuríase/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Criança , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785247

RESUMO

In this study the near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra signals (750-2,500 nm) of soil samples was compared with the NIR signals of the biogenic aggregates produced in the lab by three earthworm species, i.e., Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny 1826), Lumbricus friendi Cognetti, 1904 and Prosellodrilus pyrenaicus (Cognetti, 1904) from subalpine meadows in the Central Pyrenees. NIR spectral signatures of biogenic aggregates, root-aggregates, and non-aggregated soil were obtained together with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] determinations. The concentrations of C, N and C:N ratio in the three types of soil aggregates identified were not statistically significant (ANOVA, p>0.05) although non-macroaggregated soil had slightly higher C concentrations (66.3 g kg-1 dry soil) than biogenic aggregates (earthworm- and root-aggregates, 64.9 and 63.5 g kg-1 dry soil, respectively), while concentrations of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were highest in the root-attached aggregates (3.3 and 0.31 mg kg dry soil-1). Total earthworm density and biomass in the sampled area was 137.6 ind. m-2, and 55.2 g fresh weight m-2, respectively. The biomass of aggregates attached to roots and non-macroaggregated soil was 122.3 and 134.8 g m-2, respectively, while biomass of free (particulate) organic matter and invertebrate biogenic aggregates was 62.9 and 41.7 g m-2, respectively. Multivariate analysis of NIR spectra signals of field aggregates separated root aggregates with high concentrations of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (41.5% of explained variance, axis I) from those biogenic aggregates, including root aggregates, with large concentrations of C and high C:N ratio (21.6% of total variability, axis II). Partial Least Square (PLS) regressions were used to compare NIR spectral signals of samples (casts and soil) and develop calibration equations relating these spectral data to those data obtained for chemical variables in the lab. After a derivatization process, the NIR spectra of field aggregates were projected onto the PLS factorial plane of the NIR spectra from the lab incubation. The projection of the NIR spectral signals onto the PLSR models for C, N, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] from casts produced and incubated in the lab allowed us to identify the species and the age of the field biogenic aggregates. Our hypothesis was to test whether field aggregates would match or be in the vicinity of the NIR signals that corresponded to a certain species and the age of the depositions produced in the lab. A NIRS biogenic background noise (BBN) is present in the soil as a result of earthworm activity. This study provides insights on how to analyse the role of these organisms in important ecological processes of soil macro-aggregation and associated organic matter dynamics by means of analyzing the BBN in the soil matrix.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Solo/química , Altitude , Amônia/análise , Animais , Carbono/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107959, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795471

RESUMO

Helminths are parasitic worms that constitute a major public health problem. Conventional analytical techniques to evaluate helminth eggs in environmental samples rely on different steps, namely sedimentation, filtration, centrifugation, and flotation, to separate the eggs from a variety of particles and concentrate them in a pellet for direct observation under an optical microscope. To improve this process, a new approach was implemented in which various image processing algorithms were developed and implemented by a Helminth Egg Automatic Detector (HEAD). This allowed identification and quantification of pathogenic helminth eggs of global medical importance and it was found to be useful for relatively clean wastewater samples. After the initial version, two improvements were developed: first, a texture verification process that reduced the number of false positive results; and second, the establishment of the optimal thresholds (morphology and texture) for each helminth egg species. This second implementation, which was found to improve on the results of the former, was developed with the objective of using free software as a platform for the system. This does not require the purchase of a license, unlike the previous version that required a Mathworks® license to run. After an internal statistical verification of the system was carried out, trials in internationally recognized microbiology laboratories were performed with the aim of reinforcing software training and developing a web-based system able to receive images and perform the analysis throughout a web service. Once completed, these improvements represented a useful and cheap tool that could be used by environmental monitoring facilities and laboratories throughout the world; this tool is capable of identifying and quantifying different species of helminth eggs in otherwise difficult environmental samples: wastewater, soil, biosolids, excreta, and sludge, with a sensitivity and specificity for the TensorFlow (TF) model in the web service values of 96.82% and 97.96% respectively. Additionally, in the case of Ascaris, it may even differentiate between fertile and non-fertile eggs.


Assuntos
Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Animais , Anisotropia , Biossólidos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Distribuição Normal , Óvulo/classificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Esgotos/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008600, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853225

RESUMO

Helminth infections are among the World Health Organization's top neglected diseases with significant impact in many Less Economically Developed Countries. Despite no longer being endemic in Europe, the widespread presence of helminth eggs in archaeological deposits indicates that helminths represented a considerable burden in past European populations. Prevalence of infection is a key epidemiological feature that would influence the elimination of endemic intestinal helminths, for example, low prevalence rates may have made it easier to eliminate these infections in Europe without the use of modern anthelminthic drugs. To determine historical prevalence rates we analysed 589 grave samples from 7 European sites dated between 680 and 1700 CE, identifying two soil transmitted nematodes (Ascaris spp. and Trichuris trichiura) at all locations, and two food derived cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum and Taenia spp.) at 4 sites. The rates of nematode infection in the medieval populations (1.5 to 25.6% for T. trichiura; 9.3-42.9% for Ascaris spp.) were comparable to those reported within modern endemically infected populations. There was some evidence of higher levels of nematode infection in younger individuals but not at all sites. The genetic diversity of T. trichiura ITS-1 in single graves was variable but much lower than with communal medieval latrine deposits. The prevalence of food derived cestodes was much lower (1.0-9.9%) than the prevalence of nematodes. Interestingly, sites that contained Taenia spp. eggs also contained D. latum which may reflect local culinary practices. These data demonstrate the importance of helminth infections in Medieval Europe and provide a baseline for studies on the epidemiology of infection in historical and modern contexts. Since the prevalence of medieval STH infections mirror those in modern endemic countries the factors affecting STH decline in Europe may also inform modern intervention campaigns.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Nematoides , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Toaletes , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845917

RESUMO

Arthropods are a major soil fauna group, and have the potential to substantially influence the spatial and temporal variability of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks and sources. The overall effect of soil-inhabiting arthropods on soil GHG fluxes still remains poorly quantified since the majority of the available data comes from laboratory experiments, is often controversial, and has been limited to a few species. The main objective of this study was to provide first insights into field-level carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) release of soil-inhabiting larvae of the Scarabaeidae family. Larvae of the genus Melolontha were excavated at various sites in west-central and southern Germany, covering a wide range of different larval developmental stages, larval activity levels, and vegetation types. Excavated larvae were immediately incubated in the field to measure their GHG production. Gaseous carbon release of individual larvae showed a large inter- and intra-site variability which was strongly correlated to larval biomass. This correlation persisted when upscaling individual CO2 and CH4 production to the plot scale. Field release estimates for Melolontha spp. were subsequently upscaled to the European level to derive the first regional GHG release estimates for members of the Scarabaeidae family. Estimates ranged between 10.42 and 409.53 kt CO2 yr-1, and 0.01 and 1.36 kt CH4 yr-1. Larval N2O release was only sporadically observed and not upscaled. For one site, a comparison of field- and laboratory-based GHG production measurements was conducted to assess potential biases introduced by transferring Scarabaeidae larvae to artificial environments. Release strength and variability of captive larvae decreased significantly within two weeks and the correlation between larval biomass and gaseous carbon production disappeared, highlighting the importance of field measurements. Overall, our data show that Scarabaeidae larvae can be significant soil GHG sources and should not be neglected in soil GHG flux research.


Assuntos
Besouros/metabolismo , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Animais , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Besouros/química , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Larva/química , Larva/metabolismo , Metano/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Óxido Nitroso/metabolismo , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia
17.
Protist ; 171(4): 125752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814281

RESUMO

The genus Psilotricha was established by Stein in 1859, with P. acuminata as the type species within the family Oxytrichidae. This species lacked a full description until it was re-discovered in 2001, showing that its morphological and morphogenetic characters confirmed the inclusion in the family Oxytrichidae. Since then, the genus Psilotricha has had a convoluted taxonomy despite the morphological evidence available. In this paper, we describe a new Psilotricha species, Psilotricha silvicola n. sp., from woodland soils in Southern England (United Kingdom). The morphology was investigated in live and protargol-impregnated specimens. Our findings show that P. silvicola n. sp. shares morphological characteristics with P. acuminata, including the distinctive cell shape and the long and sparse cirri. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene places this new species within the family Oxytrichidae, nested apart from the family Psilotrichidae (which includes the genera Urospinula, Psilotrichides and Hemiholosticha), in a clade containing species of the family Oxytrichidae. Furthermore, the morphology of another Psilotricha species, P. viridis, found in a freshwater pond in the same woodland area, is also here described, bringing additional insight into the taxonomy of the genus. Our findings provide further evidence for inclusion of the genus Psilotricha within the oxytrichids.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Solo/parasitologia , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Florestas , Água Doce , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Reino Unido
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008296, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614828

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined moderate-to-heavy intensity (M&HI) infections with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) based on specific values of eggs per gram of stool, as measured by the Kato-Katz method. There are a variety of novel microscopy and DNA-based methods but it remains unclear whether applying current WHO thresholds on to these methods allows for a reliable classification of M&HI infections. We evaluated both WHO and method-specific thresholds for classifying the M&HI infections for novel microscopic (FECPAKG2, McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC) and DNA-based (qPCR) diagnostic methods. For this, we determined method-specific thresholds that best classified M&HI infections (defined by Kato-Katz and WHO thresholds; reference method) in two multi-country drug efficacy studies. Subsequently, we verified whether applying these method-specific thresholds improved the agreement in classifying M&HI infections compared to the reference method. When we applied the WHO thresholds, the new microscopic methods mainly misclassified M&HI as low intensity, and to a lesser extent low intensity infection as M&HI. For FECPAKG2, applying the method-specific thresholds significantly improved the agreement for Ascaris (moderate → substantial), Trichuris and hookworms (fair → moderate). For Mini-FLOTAC, a significantly improved agreement was observed for hookworms only (fair → moderate). For the other STHs, the agreement was almost perfect and remained unchanged. For McMaster, the method-specific thresholds revealed a fair to a substantial agreement but did not significantly improve the agreement. For qPCR, the method-specific thresholds based on genome equivalents per ml of DNA moderately agreed with the reference method for hookworm and Trichuris infections. For Ascaris, there was a substantial agreement. We defined method-specific thresholds that improved the classification of M&HI infections. Validation studies are required before they can be recommended for general use in assessing M&HI infections in programmatic settings.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/classificação , Microscopia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(3): 184-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687117

RESUMO

Background: The need to generate a robust epidemiological data on the neglected tropical diseases is imperative, in order to encourage access to formal care, drive public policies and ensure the allocation of resources by policy-makers. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and its association with nutritional variables among primary school pupils living in urban slums in a South-Eastern sub-Saharan African city of Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: The stool samples of school-aged children living in urban slums were analyzed for ova of the helminths using the Kato-Katz methods, whereas the nutritional assessment (weight and height) was obtained and analyzed to indicate acute or chronic malnutrition. Degrees of helminthic load were then classified. The socioeconomic status was determined while the prevalence of STH and the relationship between it and the nutritional stratus was assessed to ascertain any significance between being malnourished and having STH as this will inform policy decisions. Results: There were a total of 371 analyzed stool samples from 228 females (61.5%) and 143 males (38.5%), with 285 (76.8%) from the lowest socioeconomic class. The prevalence of STH was 18.1%, while that of acute and chronic malnutrition were 3.3% and 7.5%, respectively. The intensity of infestation was, however, light, with the highest mean egg intensity of 74.4 ± 32.8 documented for ascariasis. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of STH and various indices of acute and chronic malnutrition (P > 0.05). Conclusion: STHs prevalence is high among children living in urban slums. Nutritional status was, however, not adversely affected by helminthic infestation.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Classe Social , População Urbana
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007613, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to establish the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) intestinal infections, nutritional status, and anemia in school children aged 7 to 10 years old in the biogeographic provinces of Colombia in 2012-2013. STH prevalence in the country has not been described within the last 30 years and it is needed in order to establish policies its control in the country. METHODOLOGY: National Survey of STH in school-aged children with a multistage stratified probability sampling was conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of STH infection, as well as for each parasite, (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms) were calculated for the country and for each of the nine biogeographic provinces. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 6045 children in eight out of nine biogeographic provinces. The combined prevalence of STH in the country was 29.6%. T. trichiura was the most prevalent helminth (18.4%), followed by A. lumbricoides (11.3%), and hookworms (6.4%). For A. lumbricoides and hookworms, the highest prevalence values were found in the Amazonía province (58.0% and 35.7%, respectively). Regarding STH intensity, most cases showed moderate intensity (41.3%) for A. lumbricoides, and light intensity, for T. trichiura and hookworms. The national prevalence of anemia in school-aged children was 14.2%, lowest in the Nor-Andina province (3.5%), and highest in the Territorios Insulares oceánicos del Caribe province (45.1%). SIGNIFICANCE: Colombia has a moderate risk of STH infection in school-aged populations, with considerable variation in the prevalence values among the biogeographic provinces. Like any public health issue, this problem should be handled with a comprehensive approach that involves deworming programs and strategies for STH control according to the specific epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions and sanitation service coverage in each biogeographic province. The program should be further supported by intersectoral action to improve living conditions, particularly the excreta disposal, promoted at municipality levels.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
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